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Sample records for high density surface

  1. High density interconnection technology - Surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, G.

    The design features of surface mount technology (SMT) circuits for data transmission, engineering and aerospace applications are examined. Details of pin out, dual face, and interconnection techniques employed for SMT circuits mounted on plastic or ceramic leadless chip carriers are explored. The industrial processes applied to obtain the SMT boards are discussed, along with methods for quality assurance, especially for the soldered connections. SMT installations in the form of 4 Mbit multilayer circuits for an ESA project and a 32-bit mainframe computer are described.

  2. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  3. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  4. Outlier detection in high-density surface electromyographic signals.

    PubMed

    Marateb, Hamid R; Rojas-Martínez, Monica; Mansourian, Marjan; Merletti, Roberto; Villanueva, Miguel A Mañanas

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed techniques allow the analysis of surface EMG in multiple locations over the skin surface (high-density surface electromyography, HDsEMG). The detected signal includes information from a greater proportion of the muscle of interest than conventional clinical EMG. However, recording with many electrodes simultaneously often implies bad-contacts, which introduce large power-line interference in the corresponding channels, and short-circuits that cause near-zero single differential signals when using gel. Such signals are called 'outliers' in data mining. In this work, outlier detection (focusing on bad contacts) is discussed for monopolar HDsEMG signals and a new method is proposed to identify 'bad' channels. The overall performance of this method was tested using the agreement rate against three experts' opinions. Three other outlier detection methods were used for comparison. The training and test sets for such methods were selected from HDsEMG signals recorded in Triceps and Biceps Brachii in the upper arm and Brachioradialis, Anconeus, and Pronator Teres in the forearm. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm were, respectively, 96.9 ± 6.2 and 96.4 ± 2.5 in percent in the test set (signals registered with twenty 2D electrode arrays corresponding to a total of 2322 channels), showing that this method is promising.

  5. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  6. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  7. Slip-additive migration, surface morphology, and performance on injection moulded high-density polyethylene closures.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Nabeen; Shanks, Robert; Gengenbach, Thomas; Gill, Harsharn; Chalmers, David; Adhikari, Benu; Pardo Martinez, Isaac

    2017-11-01

    The amount and distribution of slip agents, erucamide, and behenamide, on the surface of high-density polyethene, is determined by integral characteristics of slip agent structure and polymer morphology. A suite of surface analysis techniques was applied to correlate physicochemical properties with slip-additive migration behaviour and their surface morphology. The migration, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the slip additives, crystallinity and orientation of polyethene spherulites and interaction between slip additives and high-density polyethene influence the surface characteristics. The high-density polyethene closures were produced with erucamide and behenamide separately and stored until they produced required torque. Surface composition was determined employing spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The distribution of additives was observed under optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. The surface energy, crystallinity and application torque were measured using contact angle, differential scanning calorimeter and a torque force tester respectively. Each slip additive produced a characteristic amide peak at 1645cm(-1) in infrared spectroscopy and peaks of oxygen and nitrogen in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting their presence on the surface. The erucamide produced placoid scale-like structures and behenamide formed denticulate structures. The surface erucamide and behenamide responsible for reducing the torque was found to be 15.7µg/cm(2) and 1.7µg/cm(2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional mapping of the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles from high-density surface EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun; He, Jinbao; Khavari, Rose; Boone, Timothy B; Zhang, Yingchun

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge of the innervation of pelvic floor and sphincter muscles is of great importance to understanding the pathophysiology of female pelvic floor dysfunctions. This report presents our high-density intravaginal and intrarectal electromyography (EMG) probes and a comprehensive innervation zone (IZ) imaging technique based on high-density EMG readings to characterize the IZ distribution. Both intravaginal and intrarectal probes are covered with a high-density surface electromyography electrode grid (8 × 8). Surface EMG signals were acquired in ten healthy women performing maximum voluntary contractions of their pelvic floor. EMG decomposition was performed to separate motor-unit action potentials (MUAPs) and then localize their IZs. High-density surface EMG signals were successfully acquired over the vaginal and rectal surfaces. The propagation patterns of muscle activity were clearly visualized for multiple muscle groups of the pelvic floor and anal sphincter. During each contraction, up to 218 and 456 repetitions of motor units were detected by the vaginal and rectal probes, respectively. MUAPs were separated with their IZs identified at various orientations and depths. The proposed probes are capable of providing a comprehensive mapping of IZs of the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles. They can be employed as diagnostic and preventative tools in clinical practices.

  9. Highly collimated monoenergetic target-surface electron acceleration in near-critical-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Li, D. Z.; Aeschlimann, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-30

    Optimized-quality monoenergetic target surface electron beams at MeV level with low normalized emittance (0.03π mm mrad) and high charge (30 pC) per shot have been obtained from 3 TW laser-solid interactions at a grazing incidence. The 2-Dimension particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons are wake-field accelerated in a large-scale, near-critical-density preplasma. It reveals that a bubble-like structure as an accelerating cavity appears in the near-critical-density plasma region and travels along the target surface. A bunch of electrons are pinched transversely and accelerated longitudinally by the wake field in the bubble. The outstanding normalized emittance and monochromaticity of such highly collimated surface electron beams could make it an ideal beam for fast ignition or may serve as an injector in traditional accelerators.

  10. Interfacial fracture between highly crosslinked polymer networks and a solid surface: Effect of interfacial bond density

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-03-23

    For highly crosslinked, polymer networks bonded to a solid surface, the effect of interfacial bond density as well as system size on interfacial fracture is studied molecular dynamics simulations. The correspondence between the stress-strain curve and the sequence of molecular deformations is obtained. The failure strain for a fully bonded surface is equal to the strain necessary to make taut the average minimal path through the network from the bottom solid surface to the top surface. At bond coverages less than full, nanometer scale cavities form at the surface yielding an inhomogeneous strain profile. The failure strain and stress are linearly proportional to the number of bonds at the interface unless the number of bonds is so few that van der Waals interactions dominate. The failure is always interfacial due to fewer bonds at the interface than in the bulk.

  11. High-density stretchable microelectrode arrays: An integrated technology platform for neural and muscular surface interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Numerous applications in neuroscience research and neural prosthetics, such as retinal prostheses, spinal-cord surface stimulation for prosthetics, electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording for epilepsy detection, etc., involve electrical interaction with soft excitable tissues using a surface stimulation and/or recording approach. These applications require an interface that is able to set up electrical communications with a high throughput between electronics and the excitable tissue and that can dynamically conform to the shape of the soft tissue. Being a compliant and biocompatible material with mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) offers excellent potential as the substrate material for such neural interfaces. However, fabrication of electrical functionalities on PDMS has long been very challenging. This thesis work has successfully overcome many challenges associated with PDMS-based microfabrication and achieved an integrated technology platform for PDMS-based stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs). This platform features a set of technological advances: (1) we have fabricated uniform current density profile microelectrodes as small as 10 mum in diameter; (2) we have patterned high-resolution (feature as small as 10 mum), high-density (pitch as small as 20 mum) thin-film gold interconnects on PDMS substrate; (3) we have developed a multilayer wiring interconnect technology within the PDMS substrate to further boost the achievable integration density of such sMEA; and (4) we have invented a bonding technology---via-bonding---to facilitate high-resolution, high-density integration of the sMEA with integrated circuits (ICs) to form a compact implant. Taken together, this platform provides a high-resolution, high-density integrated system solution for neural and muscular surface interfacing. sMEAs of example designs are evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experimentations on their biocompatibility, surface conformability

  12. Wafer-scale fabrication of high-density nanoslit arrays for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Mingliang; Zhu, Yunfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2016-12-01

    Surfaces with a periodic nanostructure and controllable feature size are sought after for optical applications, and the fabrication of such surfaces in large areas with high reproducibility, good stability and low deviation is very important. We present a strategy to fabricate large-area nanoslit arrays with controllable pitches and gaps. Au nanoslit arrays with gaps down to around 10 nm and a high gap density of 2.0 × 104 cm-1 have been fabricated, which can greatly enhance the near-field electromagnetic field to achieve localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). An averaged surface-enhanced Raman scattering analytical enhancement factor of 8.0 × 107 has been achieved on the substrate using a 633 nm laser source and the ‘coupling effect’ of LSPR of the nanoslits.

  13. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  14. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm2 are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  15. Examination of Poststroke Alteration in Motor Unit Firing Behavior Using High-Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Holobar, Ales; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in high-density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition have made it a feasible task to discriminate single motor unit activity from surface EMG interference patterns, thus providing a noninvasive approach for examination of motor unit control properties. In the current study, we applied high-density surface EMG recording and decomposition techniques to assess motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke. Surface EMG signals were collected using a 64-channel 2-D electrode array from the paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of nine hemiparetic stroke subjects at different isometric discrete contraction levels between 2 to 10 N with a 2 N increment step. Motor unit firing rates were extracted through decomposition of the high-density surface EMG signals and compared between paretic and contralateral muscles. Across the nine tested subjects, paretic FDI muscles showed decreased motor unit firing rates compared with contralateral muscles at different contraction levels. Regression analysis indicated a linear relation between the mean motor unit firing rate and the muscle contraction level for both paretic and contralateral muscles (p < 0.001), with the former demonstrating a lower increment rate (0.32 pulses per second (pps)/N) compared with the latter (0.67 pps/N). The coefficient of variation (averaged over the contraction levels) of the motor unit firing rates for the paretic muscles (0.21 ± 0.012) was significantly higher than for the contralateral muscles (0.17 ± 0.014) (p < 0.05). This study provides direct evidence of motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke using surface EMG, which can be an important factor contributing to hemiparetic muscle weakness.

  16. High density Ag nanobranches decorated with sputtered Au nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Schilling, Joerg; Schweizer, Stefan L.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2017-07-01

    High density Ag nanobranches (NBs) decorated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated through pulsed electrodeposition using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template, followed by a metal sputtering process. Au NP-decorated Ag NBs show higher surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensity than pure Ag NBs due to tiny Au NPs creating additional hot spots which contribute to the increased Raman enhancement. High density Ag NBs protruding from planar AAO templates function not only as an effective plasmonic material but also as an indispensable platform for loading a large amount of Au NPs with a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the long term stability of the SERS substrates significantly improved by decorating Ag NBs with Au NPs resulting in high SERS intensity even after several months of storage in air.

  17. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  18. Incorporation of Ca and P on anodized titanium surface: Effect of high current density.

    PubMed

    Laurindo, Carlos A H; Torres, Ricardo D; Mali, Sachin A; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Soares, Paulo

    2014-04-01

    This study systematically evaluated the surface and corrosion characteristics of commercially pure titanium (grade 2) modified by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with high current density. The anodization process was carried out galvanostatically (constant current density) using a solution containing calcium glycerophosphate (0.02mol/L) and calcium acetate (0.15mol/L). The current densities applied were 400, 700, 1000 and 1200mA/cm(2) for a period of 15s. Composition, crystalline structure, morphology, roughness, wettability and "in-vitro" bioactivity test in SBF of the anodized layer were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurements. Corrosion properties were evaluated by open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the TiO2 oxide layers present an increase of thickness, porosity, roughness, wettability, Ca/P ratio, and bioactivity, with the applied current density up to 1000mA/cm(2). Corrosion resistance also increases with applied current density. It is observed that for 1200mA/cm(2), there is a degradation of the oxide layer. In general, the results suggest that the anodized TiO2 layer with better properties is formed with an applied current of 1000mA/cm(2).

  19. Laser surfacing of high density polyethylene for reduction in fuel permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W.W. ); Ogmen, M.; Steel, T. ); Mihailov, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the increasing use of plastics by the automobile industry has resulted in new manufacturing technology. For example, high density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks can now be blow-molded to fit available vehicle space. Such HDPE tanks offer several advantages over conventional metal tanks. Some of these advantages are: lower production cost; ease of fabrication and fitting to vehicle; reduced explosion hazard; 40 - 50 % reduction in weight; impact resistance; and lack of corrosion. The effect of UV and CO[sub 2] laser radiation on the surface of HDPE gas tank material in relation to the permeability of the surface to unleaded gasoline has been investigated. It is found that while excimer (UV) laser radiation has no effect on permeability, CO[sub 2] laser radiation at low intensity modifies the surface so as to reduce permeability over timescales of 1 - 2 days. A possible origin for this modification is suggested.

  20. Surface properties of magnetic rigid disks for high-density data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsiao-chu; Eltoukhy, Atef

    1990-05-01

    The chemical toughened glass is shown to be very safe for the disk-drive application based upon Weibull analyses of spin-to-break test data. Investigations revealed that frictional performance of glass disks can be correlated with two parameters (zero crossing and peak to valley) of the surface profile as measured by phase-shift interferometry. To compare the surface characteristics of glass with a conventional Al disk, the piezoelectrical baseline signals were measured by a glide head while flying steadily over a disk without asperity hits. The results showed that the glass disk caused less disturbance to the slider than the Al disk and can thus provide an intrinsically better surface for low-fly-height, high-density application.

  1. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Maoqi

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6 ± 4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85 ± 1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield. PMID:27642525

  2. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoqi; Holobar, Ales; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6 ± 4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85 ± 1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield.

  3. Superhydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Patterned Surfaces as High-Density Cell Microarrays: Optimization of Reverse Transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Erica; Feng, Wenqian; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-10-01

    High-density microarrays can screen thousands of genetic and chemical probes at once in a miniaturized and parallelized manner, and thus are a cost-effective alternative to microwell plates. Here, high-density cell microarrays are fabricated by creating superhydrophilic-superhydrophobic micropatterns in thin, nanoporous polymer substrates such that the superhydrophobic barriers confine both aqueous solutions and adherent cells within each superhydrophilic microspot. The superhydrophobic barriers confine and prevent the mixing of larger droplet volumes, and also control the spreading of droplets independent of the volume, minimizing the variability that arises due to different liquid and surface properties. Using a novel liposomal transfection reagent, ScreenFect A, the method of reverse cell transfection is optimized on the patterned substrates and several factors that affect transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity are identified. Higher levels of transfection are achieved on HOOC- versus NH2 -functionalized superhydrophilic spots, as well as when gelatin and fibronectin are added to the transfection mixture, while minimizing the amount of transfection reagent improves cell viability. Almost no diffusion of the printed transfection mixtures to the neighboring microspots is detected. Thus, superhydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surfaces can be used as cell microarrays and for optimizing reverse cell transfection conditions before performing further cell screenings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Temperature-dependent conformational change of PNIPAM grafted chains at high surface density in water.

    SciTech Connect

    Satija, Sushil K.; Mendez, Sergio; Balamurugan, Sreelatha S.; Balamurugan, Subramanian; Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun; Lopez, Gabriel P.

    2003-07-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of {approx}30 C in water that is attributed to alterations in the hydrogen-bonding interactions of the amide group. PNIPAM in various forms has been explored for a variety of applications including controlled drug delivery, solute separation, tissue culture substrates, and controlling the adsorption of proteins, blood cells, and bacteria. Grafting PNIPAM onto surfaces is a promising strategy for creating responsive surfaces, since the physical properties of PNIPAM are readily controlled by changing the temperature. Considerable effort has been devoted to studying variations in chain conformations with temperature (T) in PNIPAM-based materials. Kubota et al. studied conformational changes of PNIPAM free chains with temperature for molecular weights ranging from 1.63 x 10{sup 6} to 2.52 x 10{sup 7} g/mol (M{sub w}/M{sub n} > 1.3) in water using laser light scattering. They reported a decrease in the radius of gyration (R{sub g}) as the solution temperature increased above the LCST. The magnitude of the effect was more pronounced with increasing molecular weight, ranging up to a factor of two for the highest molecular weight sample. In a similar study, Wu et al. observed a decrease in R{sub g} of a factor of seven for a high molecular weight PNIPAM sample with very low polydispersity (M{sub w} = 1.3 x 10{sup 7} g/mol, M{sub w}/M{sub n} < 1.05). Regarding grafted PNIPAM chains, Kidoaki et al. recently employed an iniferter-based graft polymerization method to generate a dense, high molecular weight brush and reported changes in the thickness measured by AFM. The thickness of the grafted layer was obtained from AFM images of the boundary between grafted and nongrafted (ablated by laser light) regions. They found that the swollen film thickness decreased by a factor of {approx}2 with increasing temperature from 25 to 40 C for samples with a range of dry film thickness from 250 to

  5. Blu-ray-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance for high-density optical memory

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shencheng; Zhang, Xintong; Han, Qiang; Liu, Shuangyan; Han, Xiuxiu; Liu, Yichun

    2016-01-01

    Tunable spectrum-response is desired for efficient photo-energy transformation. Blu-ray (~405 nm) and polarization sensitive Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite films are thus fascinating in application of fast-response and high-density optical memory device. The Ag/TiO2 film has the ability of replicating hologram based on optical coherence by laser-stimulated dissolution of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The rate and efficiency of the dissolution are supposed to be enhanced by introducing uniform and small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films. However, no effective methods have been proposed to resolve this issue by now. Here, we develop a simple method of thermal-reduction to obtain high-density, space-dispersed and extremely small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films pretreated with tannic acid. The film shows both high and narrow absorbance band centered at ~405 nm. Diffraction efficiency of the blu-ray holographic storage in the Ag/TiO2 film is improved by one order of magnitude compared to the traditional UV-reduced sample. Based on such properties, polarization-multiplexing holograms are able to be written at 405 nm and readout with little crosstalk. This work provides effective solutions for sensitizing localized surface plasmon resonance at near-UV region, extending the growth range of Ag NPs in the volume of TiO2, and resultantly, realizing high-density optical memory. PMID:27819328

  6. Blu-ray-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance for high-density optical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shencheng; Zhang, Xintong; Han, Qiang; Liu, Shuangyan; Han, Xiuxiu; Liu, Yichun

    2016-11-01

    Tunable spectrum-response is desired for efficient photo-energy transformation. Blu-ray (~405 nm) and polarization sensitive Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite films are thus fascinating in application of fast-response and high-density optical memory device. The Ag/TiO2 film has the ability of replicating hologram based on optical coherence by laser-stimulated dissolution of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The rate and efficiency of the dissolution are supposed to be enhanced by introducing uniform and small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films. However, no effective methods have been proposed to resolve this issue by now. Here, we develop a simple method of thermal-reduction to obtain high-density, space-dispersed and extremely small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films pretreated with tannic acid. The film shows both high and narrow absorbance band centered at ~405 nm. Diffraction efficiency of the blu-ray holographic storage in the Ag/TiO2 film is improved by one order of magnitude compared to the traditional UV-reduced sample. Based on such properties, polarization-multiplexing holograms are able to be written at 405 nm and readout with little crosstalk. This work provides effective solutions for sensitizing localized surface plasmon resonance at near-UV region, extending the growth range of Ag NPs in the volume of TiO2, and resultantly, realizing high-density optical memory.

  7. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; ...

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore » an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  8. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Surface Lattice Resonances for Enhanced and Directional Electroluminescence at High Current Densities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes in periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures offer a promising trade-off between high-quality cavities and subdiffraction mode confinement. However, their application in electrically driven light-emitting devices is hindered by their sensitivity to the surrounding environment and to charge injecting metallic electrodes in particular. Here, we demonstrate that the planar structure of light-emitting field-effect transistor (LEFET) ensures undisturbed operation of the characteristic modes. We incorporate a square array of gold nanodisks into the charge transporting and emissive layer of a polymer LEFET in order to tailor directionality and emission efficiency via the Purcell effect and variation of the fractional local density of states in particular. Angle- and polarization-resolved spectra confirm that the enhanced electroluminescence correlates with the dispersion curves of the surface lattice resonances supported by these structures. These LEFETs reach current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm2, which may pave the way toward practical optoelectronic devices with tailored emission patterns and potentially electrically pumped plasmonic lasers. PMID:28042593

  10. Surface Lattice Resonances for Enhanced and Directional Electroluminescence at High Current Densities.

    PubMed

    Zakharko, Yuriy; Held, Martin; Graf, Arko; Rödlmeier, Tobias; Eckstein, Ralph; Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo; Hähnlein, Bernd; Pezoldt, Jörg; Zaumseil, Jana

    2016-12-21

    Hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes in periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures offer a promising trade-off between high-quality cavities and subdiffraction mode confinement. However, their application in electrically driven light-emitting devices is hindered by their sensitivity to the surrounding environment and to charge injecting metallic electrodes in particular. Here, we demonstrate that the planar structure of light-emitting field-effect transistor (LEFET) ensures undisturbed operation of the characteristic modes. We incorporate a square array of gold nanodisks into the charge transporting and emissive layer of a polymer LEFET in order to tailor directionality and emission efficiency via the Purcell effect and variation of the fractional local density of states in particular. Angle- and polarization-resolved spectra confirm that the enhanced electroluminescence correlates with the dispersion curves of the surface lattice resonances supported by these structures. These LEFETs reach current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm(2), which may pave the way toward practical optoelectronic devices with tailored emission patterns and potentially electrically pumped plasmonic lasers.

  11. An area with high density of craters on the lunar surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    In previous studies [1, 2] on the lunar surface were detected areas with high density of craters. One such area is located to the north of the Mare Orientale and to the west of the Mare Imbrium in the highland region placed between 0° N and 70° N, and between 160° E and 290° E. In this area there are such large craters as Mach (182 km) and Landau (225 km). According to data from GRAIL mission [3], the crust thickness in this area varies from 30 km in the eastern part up to 60 km in the western part. We investigated the distribution of the impact craters in this region using the Morphological Catalogue of Lunar Craters [4]. The characteristics, such as crater number, coordinates, diameter and morphological features, for 15000 craters with diameter more than 10 km are contained in this catalogue. All the craters in the catalogue were divided into five class of degradation: from class 1 (youngest craters) to class 5 (oldest, most destroyed craters). According to our research, the number of craters with a diameter of more than 10 km in the area reaches 4604, accounting for 31% of the total number of craters with a diameter of more than 10 km on the moon. Thus the crater density in this region is 658 craters per 1 million km². This value is much higher than the estimates of the mean crater densities for the lunar highlands (442 craters per 1 million km²), maria (73 craters per 1 million km²) and South Pole Aitken basin (393 craters per 1 million km²) obtained in previous studies [2,5]. The study of the distribution of craters by diameter revealed that the density of craters with a diameter of ≥ 30 km in the same area as a whole on the Moon. At the same time, in this area there is a significant increase in the craters with a diameter of 10 high-preserved craters: 1, 2 and 3 class of degradation (41, 34, and 40% of the total number of craters of these classes on the entire

  12. High-surface step density on dendritic pd leads to exceptional catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Patra, S; Viswanath, B; Barai, K; Ravishankar, N; Munichandraiah, N

    2010-11-01

    Dendritic Pd with corrugated surfaces, obtained by a novel AC technique, exhibits an exceptionally high catalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid because of the presence of a high density of surface steps. The formation of twinned dendrites leads to a predominance of exposed 111 facets with a high density of surface steps as evident from high resolution electron microscopy investigations. These surface sites provide active sites for the adsorption of the formic acid molecules, thereby enhancing the reaction rate. Control experiments by varying the time of deposition reveal the formation of partially grown dendrites at shorter times indicating that the dendrites were formed by growth rather than particle attachment. Our deposition method opens up interesting possibilities to produce anisotropic nanostructures with corrugated surfaces by exploiting the perturbations involved in the growth process.

  13. Muscle Activity Map Reconstruction from High Density Surface EMG Signals With Missing Channels Using Image Inpainting and Surface Reconstruction Methods.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Parviz; Marateb, Hamid R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reconstruct low-quality High-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) signals, recorded with 2-D electrode arrays, using image inpainting and surface reconstruction methods. It is common that some fraction of the electrodes may provide low-quality signals. We used variety of image inpainting methods, based on partial differential equations (PDEs), and surface reconstruction methods to reconstruct the time-averaged or instantaneous muscle activity maps of those outlier channels. Two novel reconstruction algorithms were also proposed. HDsEMG signals were recorded from the biceps femoris and brachial biceps muscles during low-to-moderate-level isometric contractions, and some of the channels (5-25%) were randomly marked as outliers. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the original and reconstructed maps was then calculated. Overall, the proposed Poisson and wave PDE outperformed the other methods (average RMSE 8.7 μVrms ± 6.1 μVrms and 7.5 μVrms ± 5.9 μVrms) for the time-averaged single-differential and monopolar map reconstruction, respectively. Biharmonic Spline, the discrete cosine transform, and the Poisson PDE outperformed the other methods for the instantaneous map reconstruction. The running time of the proposed Poisson and wave PDE methods, implemented using a Vectorization package, was 4.6 ± 5.7 ms and 0.6 ± 0.5 ms, respectively, for each signal epoch or time sample in each channel. The proposed reconstruction algorithms could be promising new tools for reconstructing muscle activity maps in real-time applications. Proper reconstruction methods could recover the information of low-quality recorded channels in HDsEMG signals.

  14. Accuracy assessment of CKC high-density surface EMG decomposition in biceps femoris muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marateb, H. R.; McGill, K. C.; Holobar, A.; Lateva, Z. C.; Mansourian, M.; Merletti, R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) method in decomposing high-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) signals from the pennate biceps femoris long-head muscle. Although the CKC method has already been thoroughly assessed in parallel-fibered muscles, there are several factors that could hinder its performance in pennate muscles. Namely, HDsEMG signals from pennate and parallel-fibered muscles differ considerably in terms of the number of detectable motor units (MUs) and the spatial distribution of the motor-unit action potentials (MUAPs). In this study, monopolar surface EMG signals were recorded from five normal subjects during low-force voluntary isometric contractions using a 92-channel electrode grid with 8 mm inter-electrode distances. Intramuscular EMG (iEMG) signals were recorded concurrently using monopolar needles. The HDsEMG and iEMG signals were independently decomposed into MUAP trains, and the iEMG results were verified using a rigorous a posteriori statistical analysis. HDsEMG decomposition identified from 2 to 30 MUAP trains per contraction. 3 ± 2 of these trains were also reliably detected by iEMG decomposition. The measured CKC decomposition accuracy of these common trains over a selected 10 s interval was 91.5 ± 5.8%. The other trains were not assessed. The significant factors that affected CKC decomposition accuracy were the number of HDsEMG channels that were free of technical artifact and the distinguishability of the MUAPs in the HDsEMG signal (P < 0.05). These results show that the CKC method reliably identifies at least a subset of MUAP trains in HDsEMG signals from low force contractions in pennate muscles.

  15. Extracting extensor digitorum communis activation patterns using high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Nina L.; Xue, Cindy; Rymer, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7 × 9) surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG) was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic). Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal–distal direction than in the radial–ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders. PMID:26500558

  16. Spatial variability in cortex-muscle coherence investigated with magnetoencephalography and high-density surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Piitulainen, Harri; Botter, Alberto; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2015-11-01

    Cortex-muscle coherence (CMC) reflects coupling between magnetoencephalography (MEG) and surface electromyography (sEMG), being strongest during isometric contraction but absent, for unknown reasons, in some individuals. We used a novel nonmagnetic high-density sEMG (HD-sEMG) electrode grid (36 mm × 12 mm; 60 electrodes separated by 3 mm) to study effects of sEMG recording site, electrode derivation, and rectification on the strength of CMC. Monopolar sEMG from right thenar and 306-channel whole-scalp MEG were recorded from 14 subjects during 4-min isometric thumb abduction. CMC was computed for 60 monopolar, 55 bipolar, and 32 Laplacian HD-sEMG derivations, and two derivations were computed to mimic "macroscopic" monopolar and bipolar sEMG (electrode diameter 9 mm; interelectrode distance 21 mm). With unrectified sEMG, 12 subjects showed statistically significant CMC in 91-95% of the HD-sEMG channels, with maximum coherence at ∼25 Hz. CMC was about a fifth stronger for monopolar than bipolar and Laplacian derivations. Monopolar derivations resulted in most uniform CMC distributions across the thenar and in tightest cortical source clusters in the left rolandic hand area. CMC was 19-27% stronger for HD-sEMG than for "macroscopic" monopolar or bipolar derivations. EMG rectification reduced the CMC peak by a quarter, resulted in a more uniformly distributed CMC across the thenar, and provided more tightly clustered cortical sources than unrectifed sEMGs. Moreover, it revealed CMC at ∼12 Hz. We conclude that HD-sEMG, especially with monopolar derivation, can facilitate detection of CMC and that individual muscle anatomy cannot explain the high interindividual CMC variability.

  17. The Distribution of Mass Surface Densities in a High-mass Protocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Kainulainen, Jouni; Ma, Bo; Butler, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of mass surface densities, Σ, of infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07 and its surrounding giant molecular cloud. This PDF constrains the physical processes, such as turbulence, magnetic fields, and self-gravity, that are expected to be controlling cloud structure and star formation activity. The chosen IRDC is of particular interest since it has almost 100,000 solar masses within a radius of 8 pc, making it one of the most massive, dense molecular structures known and is thus a potential site for the formation of a “super star cluster.” We study Σ in two ways. First, we use a combination of NIR and MIR extinction maps that are able to probe the bulk of the cloud structure up to Σ ˜ 1 g cm-2(A V ≃ 200 mag). Second, we study the FIR and submillimeter dust continuum emission from the cloud utilizing Herschel-PACS and SPIRE images and paying careful attention to the effects of foreground and background contamination. We find that the PDFs from both methods, applied over a ˜20‧(30 pc)-sized region that contains ≃1.5 × 105 M ⊙ and enclosing a minimum closed contour with Σ ≃ 0.013 g cm-2 (A V ≃ 3 mag), shows a lognormal shape with the peak measured at Σ ≃ 0.021 g cm-2 (A V ≃ 4.7 mag). There is tentative evidence for the presence of a high-Σ power-law tail that contains from ˜3% to 8% of the mass of the cloud material. We discuss the implications of these results for the physical processes occurring in this cloud.

  18. Surface grafting density analysis of high anti-clotting PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Ning-Lin; Xiao, Ying-Hong; Tang, Yi-Da; Jin, Su-Xing; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Well-defined zwitterionic polymer brushes with good blood compatibility were studied, grafted from polyurethane (PU) substrate (PU-Si-g-P(MPC)) by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP). We found that the structure of polymer brushes and hence their properties greatly depend on the grafting density. To solve the problems of the normal method for grafting density measurement, i.e., more requirements for qualified and proficient instrument operator, we established an effective and feasible way instead of the conventional method of spectroscopic ellipsometer combined with gel permeation chromatograph (ELM/GPC) to calculate the grafting density of PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films by using a software named ImageJ 1.44e in combination with scanning electronic microscope (SEM) or atomic microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM and AFM were employed to analyze the surface topography and changes of elements before and after graft modification of the synthetic PU-Si-g-P(MPC) biofilms.

  19. Proportional estimation of finger movements from high-density surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Celadon, Nicolò; Došen, Strahinja; Binder, Iris; Ariano, Paolo; Farina, Dario

    2016-08-04

    The importance to restore the hand function following an injury/disease of the nervous system led to the development of novel rehabilitation interventions. Surface electromyography can be used to create a user-driven control of a rehabilitation robot, in which the subject needs to engage actively, by using spared voluntary activation to trigger the assistance of the robot. The study investigated methods for the selective estimation of individual finger movements from high-density surface electromyographic signals (HD-sEMG) with minimal interference between movements of other fingers. Regression was evaluated in online and offline control tests with nine healthy subjects (per test) using a linear discriminant analysis classifier (LDA), a common spatial patterns proportional estimator (CSP-PE), and a thresholding (THR) algorithm. In all tests, the subjects performed an isometric force tracking task guided by a moving visual marker indicating the contraction type (flexion/extension), desired activation level and the finger that should be moved. The outcome measures were mean square error (nMSE) between the reference and generated trajectories normalized to the peak-to-peak value of the reference, the classification accuracy (CA), the mean amplitude of the false activations (MAFA) and, in the offline tests only, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCORR). The offline tests demonstrated that, for the reduced number of electrodes (≤24), the CSP-PE outperformed the LDA with higher precision of proportional estimation and less crosstalk between the movement classes (e.g., 8 electrodes, median MAFA ~ 0.6 vs. 1.1 %, median nMSE ~ 4.3 vs. 5.5 %). The LDA and the CSP-PE performed similarly in the online tests (median nMSE < 3.6 %, median MAFA < 0.7 %), but the CSP-PE provided a more stable performance across the tested conditions (less improvement between different sessions). Furthermore, THR, exploiting topographical information about the single finger

  20. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density and high performance for glass surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Masahiro; Matsudaira, Yuto; Hori, Masaru; Inui, Hirotoshi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Naofumi; Ito, Masafumi

    2008-02-25

    We produced a nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by applying an alternative current between two electrodes. The gas temperature and electron density were evaluated using optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the plasma had gas temperatures from 1800 to 2150 K and ultrahigh electron densities in the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. A remarkably high oxygen radical concentration of 1.6x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} was obtained at a 1% O{sub 2}/Ar gas flow rate of 15 slm (standard liters per minute). Contact angles below 10 deg. were obtained in the process of glass cleaning with a plasma exposure time of 23 ms.

  1. The surface density of haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Lee, Xi-Guo

    We study the correlation between the central surface density and the core radius of the dark matter haloes of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We find that the surface density within the halo characteristic radius r* is not a universal quantity as claimed by some authors (e.g., Milgrom 2009), but it correlates with several physical quantities (e.g., the halo mass M200, and the magnitude MB). The slope of the surface density-mass relation is 0.18 ± 0.05, leaving small room to the possibility of a constant surface density. Finally, we compare the results with MOND predictions.

  2. High-density single-molecule analysis of cell surface dynamics in C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Francois B.; McFadden, William M.; Yao, Baixue; Munro, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general, versatile and non-invasive method to image single molecules near the cell surface that can be applied to any GFP-tagged protein in C. elegans embryos. We exploit tunable expression via RNAi and a dynamically exchanging monomer pool to achieve fast continuous single-molecule imaging at optimal densities with signal-to-noise ratios adequate for robust single particle tracking (SPT) analysis. We also introduce and validate a new method called smPReSS that infers exchange rates from quantitative analysis of single molecule photobleaching kinetics, without using SPT. Combining SPT and smPReSS allows spatially and temporally resolved measurements of protein mobility and exchange kinetics. We use these methods (a) to resolve distinct mobility states and spatial variation in exchange rates of the polarity protein Par-6 and (b) to measure spatiotemporal modulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly. The introduction of these methods in a powerful model system offers a promising new avenue to investigate dynamic mechanisms that pattern the embryonic cell surface. PMID:24727651

  3. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Chung, Jin Suk; Hur, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a 'grafting from' technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures (T g) than those of pristine PMMA.

  4. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a ‘grafting from’ technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures (Tg) than those of pristine PMMA. PMID:25114639

  5. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Chung, Jin Suk; Hur, Seung Hyun

    2014-07-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a `grafting from' technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures ( T g) than those of pristine PMMA.

  6. Surface cleaning and etching of 4H-SiC(0001) using high-density atmospheric pressure hydrogen plasma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Heiji; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Yasutake, Kiyoshi

    2011-04-01

    We propose low-damage and high-efficiency treatment of 4H-SiC(0001) surfaces using atmospheric pressure (AP) hydrogen plasma. Hydrogen radicals generated by the AP plasma was found to effectively remove damaged layers on SiC wafers and improve surface morphology by isotropic etching. Localized high-density AP plasma generated with a cylindrical rotary electrode provides a high etching rate of 1.6 microm/min and yields smooth morphology by eliminating surface corrugation and scratches introduced by wafer slicing and lapping procedures. However, high-rate etching with localized plasma was found to cause an inhomogeneous etching profile depending on the plasma density and re-growth of the poly-Si layer at the downstream due to the decomposition of the vaporized SiH(x) products. On the other hand, for the purpose of achieving moderate etching and ideal cleaning of SiC surfaces, we demonstrated the application of a novel porous carbon electrode to form delocalized and uniform AP plasma over 4 inches in diameter. We obtained a reasonably moderate etching rate of 0.1 microm/min and succeeded in fabricating damage-free SiC surfaces.

  7. Development of Functional Surfaces on High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) via Gas-Assisted Etching (GAE) Using Focused Ion Beams.

    PubMed

    Sezen, Meltem; Bakan, Feray

    2015-12-01

    Irradiation damage, caused by the use of beams in electron and ion microscopes, leads to undesired physical/chemical material property changes or uncontrollable modification of structures. Particularly, soft matter such as polymers or biological materials is highly susceptible and very much prone to react on electron/ion beam irradiation. Nevertheless, it is possible to turn degradation-dependent physical/chemical changes from negative to positive use when materials are intentionally exposed to beams. Especially, controllable surface modification allows tuning of surface properties for targeted purposes and thus provides the use of ultimate materials and their systems at the micro/nanoscale for creating functional surfaces. In this work, XeF2 and I2 gases were used in the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope instrument in combination with gallium ion etching of high-density polyethylene surfaces with different beam currents and accordingly different gas exposure times resulting at the same ion dose to optimize and develop new polymer surface properties and to create functional polymer surfaces. Alterations in the surface morphologies and surface chemistry due to gas-assisted etching-based nanostructuring with various processing parameters were tracked using high-resolution SEM imaging, complementary energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses, and atomic force microscopic investigations.

  8. High density nitrogen-vacancy sensing surface created via He{sup +} ion implantation of {sup 12}C diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinsasser, Ed E.; Stanfield, Matthew M.; Banks, Jannel K. Q.; Zhu, Zhouyang; Li, Wen-Di; Acosta, Victor M.; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Itoh, Kohei M.; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2016-05-16

    We present a promising method for creating high-density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers with narrow spin-resonances for high-sensitivity magnetic imaging. Practically, narrow spin-resonance linewidths substantially reduce the optical and RF power requirements for ensemble-based sensing. The method combines isotope purified diamond growth, in situ nitrogen doping, and helium ion implantation to realize a 100 nm-thick sensing surface. The obtained 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} nitrogen-vacancy density is only a factor of 10 less than the highest densities reported to date, with an observed 200 kHz spin resonance linewidth over 10 times narrower.

  9. Surface-Wave Excitation in High-Density Planar Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanashev, I.; Morita, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Sugai, H.; Toyoda, N.

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic surface waves introduced into a metal chamber through large(K. Komachi J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A) 11 (1993) 164. or slot-type(H. Sugai et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 192. apertures of various shapes can sustain overdense plasmas in a wide range of gas pressures. A simple cavity model(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 337. successfully identifies the eigen-modes in the case of single-mode operation and small slot antennas, while neglecting the latter. The stability analysis(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 4704. suggests that the source performance is governed by the dependence of the chamber power reflection coefficient R on the plasma density n_e. The values of R depend on the geometry of the coupling aperture(s) and thus cannot be suggested by a simple theory neglecting them. In this communication we present a full-wave electromagnetic analysis taking into account the aperture(s), along with experimental results for the character of the R--ne dependence. The simulation results suggest, in accordance with the experimental observations, that, depending on the operating conditions, both single- and multi-mode regimes can be realised. This work was supported by Toshiba Corp. and Nisshin Electronic MFG Co., Ltd.

  10. Examination of Post-stroke Alteration in Motor Unit Firing Behavior Using High Density Surface EMG Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Holobar, Aleš; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto; Rymer, William Z.; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in high density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition have made it a feasible task to discriminate single motor unit activity from surface EMG interference patterns, thus providing a noninvasive approach for examination of motor unit control properties. In the current study we applied high density surface EMG recording and decomposition techniques to assess motor unit firing behavior alterations post-stroke. Surface EMG signals were collected using a 64-channel 2-dimensional electrode array from the paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of nine hemiparetic stroke subjects at different isometric discrete contraction levels between 2 N to 10 N with a 2 N increment step. Motor unit firing rates were extracted through decomposition of the high density surface EMG signals, and compared between paretic and contralateral muscles. Across the nine tested subjects, paretic FDI muscles showed decreased motor unit firing rates compared with contralateral muscles at different contraction levels. Regression analysis indicated a linear relation between the mean motor unit firing rate and the muscle contraction level for both paretic and contralateral muscles (p < 0.001), with the former demonstrating a lower increment rate (0.32 pulses per second (pps)/N) compared with the latter (0.67 pps/N). The coefficient of variation (CoV, averaged over the contraction levels) of the motor unit firing rates for the paretic muscles (0.21 ± 0.012) was significantly higher than for the contralateral muscles (0.17 ± 0.014) (p < 0.05). This study provides direct evidence of motor unit firing behavior alterations post-stroke using surface EMG, which can be an important factor contributing to hemiparetic muscle weakness. PMID:25389239

  11. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  12. High cell-surface density of HER2 deforms cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Inhee; Reichelt, Mike; Shao, Lily; Akita, Robert W.; Koeppen, Hartmut; Rangell, Linda; Schaefer, Gabriele; Mellman, Ira; Sliwkowski, Mark X.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancers (BC) with HER2 overexpression (referred to as HER2 positive) progress more aggressively than those with normal expression. Targeted therapies against HER2 can successfully delay the progression of HER2-positive BC, but details of how this overexpression drives the disease are not fully understood. Using single-molecule biophysical approaches, we discovered a new effect of HER2 overexpression on disease-relevant cell biological changes in these BC. We found HER2 overexpression causes deformation of the cell membranes, and this in turn disrupts epithelial features by perturbing cell–substrate and cell–cell contacts. This membrane deformation does not require receptor signalling activities, but results from the high levels of HER2 on the cell surface. Our finding suggests that early-stage morphological alterations of HER2-positive BC cells during cancer progression can occur in a physical and signalling-independent manner. PMID:27599456

  13. "Rings of saturn-like" nanoarrays with high number density of hot spots for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhigao; Mei, Fei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Liao, Lei; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xinyue; Li, Wei; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-07-01

    The Ag nanoparticles (NPs) surrounding triangular nanoarrays (TNAs) with high number density of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) hot spots (SERS hot spots ring) are prepared by a combination of NPs deposition and subsequent colloid lithography processing. Owing to the SERS hot spots ring, the Ag NPs surrounding TNAs have been proved an excellent candidate for ultrasensitive molecular sensing for their high SERS signal enhancing capacity in experiments and theories. The Ag NPs surrounding TNAs can be readily used for the quick detection of low concentrations of molecules related to food safety; herein, detection of melamine is discussed.

  14. Late-Time Mixing Sensitivity to Initial Broadband Surface Roughness in High-Energy-Density Shear Layers

    DOE PAGES

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; ...

    2016-11-23

    While using a large volume high-energy-density fluid shear experiment ( 8.5 cm 3 ) at the National Ignition Facility, we have demonstrated for the first time the ability to significantly alter the evolution of a supersonic sheared mixing layer by controlling the initial conditions of that layer. Furthermore, by altering the initial surface roughness of the tracer foil, we demonstrate the ability to transition the shear mixing layer from a highly ordered system of coherent structures to a randomly ordered system with a faster growing mix layer, indicative of strong mixing in the layer at a temperature of several tensmore » of electron volts and at near solid density. Moreover, simulations using a turbulent-mix model show good agreement with the experimental results and poor agreement without turbulent mix.« less

  15. Late-Time Mixing Sensitivity to Initial Broadband Surface Roughness in High-Energy-Density Shear Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Capelli, D.; Cardenas, T.; DeVolder, B.; Fierro, F.; Huntington, C. M.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; MacLaren, S. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Perry, T. S.; Randolph, R. B.; Rivera, G.; Schmidt, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    Using a large volume high-energy-density fluid shear experiment (8.5 cm3 ) at the National Ignition Facility, we have demonstrated for the first time the ability to significantly alter the evolution of a supersonic sheared mixing layer by controlling the initial conditions of that layer. By altering the initial surface roughness of the tracer foil, we demonstrate the ability to transition the shear mixing layer from a highly ordered system of coherent structures to a randomly ordered system with a faster growing mix layer, indicative of strong mixing in the layer at a temperature of several tens of electron volts and at near solid density. Simulations using a turbulent-mix model show good agreement with the experimental results and poor agreement without turbulent mix.

  16. Late-Time Mixing Sensitivity to Initial Broadband Surface Roughness in High-Energy-Density Shear Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Capelli, D.; Cardenas, T.; DeVolder, B.; Fierro, F.; Huntington, C. M.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; MacLaren, S. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Perry, T. S.; Randolph, R. B.; Rivera, G.; Schmidt, D. W.

    2016-11-23

    Using a large volume high-energy-density fluid shear experiment (8.5 cm3) at the National Ignition Facility, we have demonstrated for the first time the ability to significantly alter the evolution of a supersonic sheared mixing layer by controlling the initial conditions of that layer. By altering the initial surface roughness of the tracer foil, we demonstrate the ability to transition the shear mixing layer from a highly ordered system of coherent structures to a randomly ordered system with a faster growing mix layer, indicative of strong mixing in the layer at a temperature of several tens of electron volts and at near solid density. Simulations using a turbulent-mix model show good agreement with the experimental results and poor agreement without turbulent mix.

  17. Microscopic theory of desorption of neutral atoms due to high excitonic density at the surfaces of III V compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jai; Itoh, N.

    1990-11-01

    A microscopic theory of desorption of neutral atoms from the surface of crystalline GaP is presented. Derived results suggest that bonds are broken at the surface due to high excitonic density, so that a pair of excited holes can get localised on the same bond because such an excited state has much lower energy than that of a free exciton state. Any bond with a pair of holes, instead of covalent electrons, will be broken. Strong exciton-lattice interaction is assumed. It is argued that the mechanism of atomic desorption from surfaces is analogous to that of polymer ablation; and the desorption of neutral atoms increases linearly to super linearly with the increase in laser fluence. This agrees well with experiments.

  18. Murine mesenchymal stem cell isolated and expanded in low and high density culture system: surface antigen expression and osteogenic culture mineralization.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Nadri, Samad

    2009-09-01

    Marrow culture from mice has been reported to be overgrown by non-mesenchymal cells. In almost all protocols for isolation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), high density culture systems have been employed. Since MSCs are colonogenic cells, the initiating cell seeding density may have significant impact on their cultures. This subject was explored in this study. For this purpose, the bone marrow cells from NMRI mice were plated at 2.5 x 10(6) cells/cm(2) and upon confluency were reseeded as either low density (50 cells/cm(2)) or high density (8 x 10(4) cells/cm(2)) cultures. The cells were expanded through an additional subculture and the passage 2 cells as a product of two culture systems were statistically compared with respect to their surface antigen profiles and osteogenic culture mineralization. While low density culture grew with multiple colony formation, there were no distinct colonies in high density cultures. In contrast to high density cultures, passage 2 cells from low density system possessed typical homogenous fibroblastic morphology. Some cells from high density system but not the low density cultures expressed hematopoietic and endothelial cell markers including CD135, CD34, CD31, and Vcam surface antigens. Furthermore, osteogenic cultures from low density system displayed significantly more mineralization than those from high density system. Taken together, it seems that low density culture system resulted in more purified MSC culture than its counterpart as high density culture system.

  19. High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Surface Treatment Using an RF Capacitive Atmospheric Pressure Cold Ar Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiaomeng; Shin-ichi, Kuroda; Tamio, Mori; Katsuhiko, Hosoi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 5-mm-thick, 0.95 g/cm3) surface was treated using an RF capacitive atmospheric pressure cold Ar plasma jet. By using this Ar plasma jet, a hydrophilic HDPE surface was formed during the plasma treatment. In particular, the effects of an additive gas (N2 or O2) on the HDPE surface treatment were investigated in detail. It was shown that the addition of N2 or O2 gas had an important influence on the HDPE surface treatment. Compared to pure Ar plasma treatment, a lower value of water contact angle (WCA) was obtained when a trace of N2 or O2 gas was added. It was also found that besides the quantities of active species in the plasma jet, the treatment temperature played an important role in the HDPE surface treatment. This is because surface molecular motion is not negligible when the treatment temperature is close to the melting point of the polymer.

  20. High-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays in applications of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Qingwei; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on high-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays. By ion beam etching (IBE) the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and subsequent Ag coating, ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays were created on the Si substrate. Unlike the ‘hot spots’ generated between adjacent metallic nanostructures, the Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl introduced ‘hot spots’ on the metal boundary of its hemispherical cavity. Based on the analysis of SERS signals, the optimized SERS substrate of Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays had both high sensitivity and large-area uniformity. A detection limit as low as 10-10 M was obtained using chemisorbed p-thiocresol (p-Tc) molecules, and the SERS signal was highly reproducible with a small standard deviation. The method opens up a new way to create highly sensitive SERS sensors with high-density ‘hot spots’, and it could play an important role in device design and corresponding biological and food safety monitoring applications.

  1. Active Free Surface Density Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelen, S.

    2016-10-01

    Percolation problems were occupied to many physical problems after their establishment in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley. They can be used to solve complex systems such as bone remodeling. Volume fraction method was adopted to set some algorithms in the literature. However, different rate of osteoporosis could be observed for different microstructures which have the same mass density, mechanical stimuli, hormonal stimuli and nutrition. Thus it was emphasized that the bone might have identical porosity with different specific surfaces. Active free surface density of bone refers the used total area for its effective free surface. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a mathematical approach which can be called as “active free surface density maps” for different surface patterns and derive their formulations. Active free surface density ratios were calculated for different Archimedean lattice models according to Helmholtz free energy and they were compared with their site and bond percolation thresholds from the background studies to derive their potential probability for bone remodeling.

  2. Sputter-Etching Characteristics of BST and SBT using a Surface-Wave High-Density Plasma Reactor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, L.; Margot, J.; Delprat, S.; Chaker, M.; Queney, D.

    2001-10-01

    In the context of the integration of ferroelectric capacitors such as FeRAMs and DRAMs, the dry etching of pulse laser deposited barium-strontium-titanate (BST) and bismuth-strontium-tantalate (SBT) is investigated using a non-reactive surface-wave high-density argon magnetoplasma. The etching characteristics of rf-biased thin films are evaluated as a function of the self-bias voltage, the magnetic field intensity and the gas pressure. It is found that high etch rates with a good selectivity over resist can be achieved without any plasma chemistry provided the plasma is operated in the mtorr regime. For BST, etch rates as high as 1000 Åmin with a selectivity of 0.6 over HPR504 photoresist are obtained for self-bias voltages lower than 150 V. Both BST and SBT present similar sputter-etching characteristics, SBT being however etched faster then BST.

  3. Development of a LytE-based high-density surface display system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chyi-Liang; Wu, Sau-Ching; Tjia, Wai Mui; Wang, Christopher L C; Lohka, Manfred J; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2008-03-01

    The three N-terminal, tandemly arranged LysM motifs from a Bacillus subtilis cell wall hydrolase, LytE, formed a cell wall-binding module. This module, designated CWBM(LytE), was demonstrated to have tight cell wall-binding capability and could recognize two classes of cell wall binding sites with fivefold difference in affinity. The lower-affinity sites were approximately three times more abundant. Fusion proteins with β-lactamase attached to either the N- or C-terminal end of CWBM(LytE) showed lower cell wall-binding affinity. The number of the wall-bound fusion proteins was less than that of CWBM(LytE). These effects were less dramatic with CWBM(LytE) at the N-terminal end of the fusion. Both CWBM(LytE) and β-lactamase were essentially functional whether they were at the N- or C-terminal end of the fusion. In the optimal case, 1.2 × 10(7) molecules could be displayed per cell. As cells overproducing CWBM(LytE) and its fusions formed filamentous cells (with an average of nine individual cells per filamentous cell), 1.1 × 10(8)β-lactamase molecules could be displayed per filamentous cell. Overproduced CWBM(LytE) and its fusions were distributed on the entire cell surface. Surface exposure and accessibility of these proteins were confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy.

  4. Urban scale atmospheric inversion of CO2 emissions using a high-density surface tower network over Indianapolis area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K. J.; Deng, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Mcgowan, L. E.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Sarmiento, D.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse Gas emissions from urban areas represent a significant fraction of the overall release of fossil fuel CO2 from the surface of the globe into the atmosphere. Several ongoing efforts attempt to quantify these emissions over a few major cities across the world (i.e. Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Paris, London, Salt Lake City,...) and demonstrate the concept of atmospheric monitoring of city emissions. The accuracy of the method will highly depend on the inverse modeling framework. The atmospheric transport model and the probabilities assumed in the a priori will be used to extract the information content of surface emissions at very fine scales. But incorrect assumptions in the background emissions and concentrations or systematic errors in the local dynamics can generate artificial trends and seasonal variability in the local emissions. The construction of unbiased atmospheric modeling systems and well-defined prior errors remains a critical step in atmospheric emissions monitoring over urban areas. We present here the first inverse emission estimates over Indianapolis using a high-density surface tower network of CO2 analyzers. In order to minimize transport model errors, we developed a WRF-Chem-FDDA modeling system ingesting surface and profile measurements of horizontal mean wind, temperature and moisture in addition to the original CO2 emissions and boundary conditions. The systematic improvement of the simulated atmospheric conditions thanks to the nudging system is critical to identify and retrieve source locations at high resolution over the area. We then present an ensemble of inverse fluxes generated from varying the configuration of the inverse system in order to more accurately represent the probability space, exploring the assumptions in the a priori (i.e. the prior local urban emissions and the background atmospheric concentrations). We finally discuss the detection of trends or changes in the spatial distribution of sources at decadal time

  5. A high-density poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for immobilization on glass-type surfaces.

    PubMed

    Piehler, J; Brecht, A; Valiokas, R; Liedberg, B; Gauglitz, G

    2000-01-01

    Label-free heterogeneous phase detection critically depends on the properties of the interfacial layer. We have obtained high-density monomolecular poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layers by solvent-free coupling of homo-bifunctional PEGs (2,000 g/mol) at 75 degrees C to silica surfaces silanized with glycidyloxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS). Characterization by ellipsometry and contact angles revealed that PEG layers up to 3.4 ng/mm2 with low roughness and flexibility were obtained. Specific and non-specific binding at these PEG surfaces was monitored by reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). No significant non-specific adsorption upon incubation of 1 mg/ml ovalbumin was detectable (< 10 pg/mm2), and 150 pg/mm2 upon incubation of 10% calf serum, less than 10% of the amount adsorbed to the solely silanized surfaces. The terminal functional groups of the PEG layers were utilized to couple ligands and a protein. Specific protein interaction with these immobilized compounds was detected with saturation loadings in the range of protein monolayers (2-4 ng/mm2). The excellent functional properties, the high stability of the layers, the generic and practical coupling procedure and the versatility for immobilizing compounds of very different functionality make these PEG layers very attractive for application in label-free detection with silica or metal-oxide based transducers.

  6. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  7. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  8. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. Methods A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Results Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. Conclusions A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions. PMID:23419192

  9. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  10. High-density polyethylene facial implants show surface oxidation in SEM and EDX examination: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Draenert, G F; Doeblinger, M; Draenert, M; Gosau, M

    2009-05-01

    Previous histopathological studies on explanted Medpor high-density polyethylene (HDPE) facial implants indicated signs of material destruction and claimed to observe phagocytized HDPE particles within the tissue samples beside the usual type IV reaction with severe fibrosis. We examined new and explanted Medpor material with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The implant surface of three patient-derived specimens showed significantly higher oxygenation in EDX analysis and morphological changes in SEM compared to the new unused material directly after opening of the package and after 1 year of exposure to air. Our preliminary findings indicate a possible oxidative biocorrosion in HDPE surgical implants. Further studies should confirm these pilot project results.

  11. Interaction of high-density and low-density lipoproteins to solid surfaces coated with cholesterol as determined by an optical fiber-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bal R.; Poirier, Michelle A.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, the use of fiber optics has become an important tool in biomedicine and biotechnology. We are involved in developing and employing a new system which, through the use of fiber optics, may be capable of measuring the content of cholesterol and lipoproteins in blood samples in real time. In the optical fiber-based biosensor, a laser beam having a wavelength of 512 nm (green light) is launched into an optical fiber, which transmits the light to its distal end. An evanescent wave (travelling just outside the fiber core) is used to excite rhodamine-labelled HDL or LDL which become bound to the fiber or to fiber-bound molecules. The fluorescence (red light) is coupled back into the fiber and detected with a photodiode. Preliminary work has involved testing of high density lipoprotein (HDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber and to a bare fiber and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber. A significant difference was observed in the binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL and lower) to a bare fiber as opposed to a cholesterol-coated fiber. The binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL) to a bare fiber was 7.5 (mu) V/sec and to a cholesterol-coated fiber was 3.5 (mu) V/sec. We have calculated the binding affinity of LDL to a cholesterol- coated fiber as 1.4 (mu) M-1. These preliminary results suggest that the optical fiber-based biosensor can provide a unique and promising approach to the analysis of lipoprotein interaction with solid surfaces and with cholesterol. More importantly, the results suggest that this technique may be used to assess the binding of blood proteins to artificial organs/tissues, and to measure the amount of cholesterol, HDL and LDL in less than a minute.

  12. Surface layer structure of AISI 1020 steel at different stages of dry sliding under electric current of high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleutdinov, K. A.; Rubtsov, V. Ye; Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    Wear intensity of the sliding electric contact steel 1020/steel 1045 depending on sliding time is presented at the contact current density higher than 100 A/cm2 without lubricant. It is shown that wear intensity of 1020 steel decreases at increasing of sliding time. Wear intensity is stabilized after some sliding time. This time (burn-in time) decreases at reduction of current density. Structural changes are realized in surface layer. Signs of liquid phase are observed on sliding surface. This liquid isn't a result of melting. It is established using Auger spectrometry that the contact layer contains up to 50 at.% of oxygen.

  13. High power density targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellemoine, Frederique

    2013-12-01

    In the context of new generation rare isotope beam facilities based on high-power heavy-ion accelerators and in-flight separation of the reaction products, the design of the rare isotope production targets is a major challenge. In order to provide high-purity beams for science, high resolution is required in the rare isotope separation. This demands a small beam spot on the production target which, together with the short range of heavy ions in matter, leads to very high power densities inside the target material. This paper gives an overview of the challenges associated with this high power density, discusses radiation damage issues in targets exposed to heavy ion beams, and presents recent developments to meet some of these challenges through different projects: FAIR, RIBF and FRIB which is the most challenging. Extensive use of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been made at all facilities to specify critical target parameters and R&D work at FRIB successfully retired two major risks related to high-power density and heavy-ion induced radiation damage.

  14. High Density Waves of the Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Propagating Swarms Result in Efficient Colonization of Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Anyan, Morgen; Kim, Oleg; Leevy, W. Matthew; Shrout, Joshua D.; Alber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new, to our knowledge, strategy of efficient colonization and community development where bacteria substantially alter their physical environment. Many bacteria move in groups, in a mode described as swarming, to colonize surfaces and form biofilms to survive external stresses, including exposure to antibiotics. One such bacterium is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for both acute and persistent infections in susceptible individuals, as exampled by those for burn victims and people with cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa often, but not always, forms branched tendril patterns during swarming; this phenomena occurs only when bacteria produce rhamnolipid, which is regulated by population-dependent signaling called quorum sensing. The experimental results of this work show that P. aeruginosa cells propagate as high density waves that move symmetrically as rings within swarms toward the extending tendrils. Biologically justified cell-based multiscale model simulations suggest a mechanism of wave propagation as well as a branched tendril formation at the edge of the population that depends upon competition between the changing viscosity of the bacterial liquid suspension and the liquid film boundary expansion caused by Marangoni forces. Therefore, P. aeruginosa efficiently colonizes surfaces by controlling the physical forces responsible for expansion of thin liquid film and by propagating toward the tendril tips. The model predictions of wave speed and swarm expansion rate as well as cell alignment in tendrils were confirmed experimentally. The study results suggest that P. aeruginosa responds to environmental cues on a very short timescale by actively exploiting local physical phenomena to develop communities and efficiently colonize new surfaces. PMID:22947877

  15. Effects of Reduced Terrestrial LiDAR Point Density on High-Resolution Grain Crop Surface Models in Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up. PMID:25521383

  16. An isometric muscle force estimation framework based on a high-density surface EMG array and an NMF algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To realize accurate muscle force estimation, a novel framework is proposed in this paper which can extract the input of the prediction model from the appropriate activation area of the skeletal muscle. Approach. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from the biceps brachii muscle during isometric elbow flexion were collected with a high-density (HD) electrode grid (128 channels) and the external force at three contraction levels was measured at the wrist synchronously. The sEMG envelope matrix was factorized into a matrix of basis vectors with each column representing an activation pattern and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. The activation pattern with the highest activation intensity, which was defined as the sum of the absolute values of the time-varying coefficient curve, was considered as the major activation pattern, and its channels with high weighting factors were selected to extract the input activation signal of a force estimation model based on the polynomial fitting technique. Main results. Compared with conventional methods using the whole channels of the grid, the proposed method could significantly improve the quality of force estimation and reduce the electrode number. Significance. The proposed method provides a way to find proper electrode placement for force estimation, which can be further employed in muscle heterogeneity analysis, myoelectric prostheses and the control of exoskeleton devices.

  17. Effects of reduced terrestrial LiDAR point density on high-resolution grain crop surface models in precision agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-12-16

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up.

  18. Surface layer structure and average contact temperature of copper-containing materials under dry sliding with high electric current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and powder composites of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-graphite compositions against 1045 steel under electric current of contact density higher than 250 A/cm2 has been studied, which demonstrated the change in surface layer structure and formation of tribolayer consisting of iron, copper and FeO oxide. Signs of quasi-viscous flow of worn surface were observed. It was noted that the thin contact layer containing about 40 at % of oxygen and 40% of Fe was the main factor decreasing the adhesion interaction. It was affirmed that the introduction of graphite into the primary structure of the composite leads to rather low content of FeO oxide and to the increased tendency of surface layer to catastrophic deterioration under sliding with contact current density of about 300 A/cm2. The temperature of contact did not exceed 400°C.

  19. Optimization of growth media for obtaining high-cell density cultures of halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Pasić, Lejla; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan

    2009-06-01

    Optimization of media components for the growth and biomass production of Halobacterium salinarum VKMM 013 was carried out using response surface methodology. A second order quadratic model was estimated and media components were determined based on quadratic regression equation generated by model. These were 6.35 g L(-1) of KCl, 9.70 g L(-1) of MgSO(4), 13.38 g L(-1) of gelatin and 12.00 g L(-1) of soluble starch in nutrient broth supplemented with artificial seawater with 20% (w/v) of NaCl. In these optimal conditions, the obtained cell concentration of 0.746 g L(-1) dry weight was in agreement with the predicted cell concentration. The optimized media significantly shortened the time required for cell culture to reach the stationary phase while providing a nearly 2.4-fold increase in biomass production. Furthermore, in cell cultures of three other halophilic archaea the use of optimized media enhanced growth rate and provided high-cell density.

  20. Muscle-tendon units localization and activation level analysis based on high-density surface EMG array and NMF algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. Approach. Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the data collection experiments, and 128-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected with a high-density sEMG electrode grid (a grid consists of 8 rows and 16 columns). Then the sEMG envelopes matrix was factorized into a matrix of weighting vectors and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Main results. The experimental results demonstrated that the weightings vectors, which represent invariant pattern of muscle activity across all channels, could be used to estimate the location of MTUs and the time-varying coefficients could be used to depict the variation of MTUs activation level during dynamic motion task. Significance. The proposed method provides one way to analyze in-depth the functional state of MTUs during dynamic tasks and thus can be employed on multiple noteworthy sEMG-based applications such as muscle force estimation, muscle fatigue research and the control of myoelectric prostheses. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 61431017 and 61271138.

  1. Surface chemistry and mechanical property changes of wood-flour/high-density-polyethylene composites after accelerated weathering

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2004-01-01

    Although wood–plastic composites have become more accepted and used in recent years and are promoted as low-maintenance, high-durability building products, they do experience a color change and a loss in mechanical properties with accelerated weathering. In this study, we attempted to characterize the modulus-of-elasticity (MOE) loss of photostabilized high- density...

  2. 1 μm-thickness ultra-flexible and high electrode-density surface electromyogram measurement sheet with 2 V organic transistors for prosthetic hand control.

    PubMed

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Shinozuka, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Koichi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Takamiya, Makoto; Someya, Takao; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2014-12-01

    A 64-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) measurement sheet (SEMS) with 2 V organic transistors on a 1 μm-thick ultra-flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) film is developed for prosthetic hand control. The surface EMG electrodes must satisfy the following three requirements; high mechanical flexibility, high electrode density and high signal integrity. To achieve high electrode density and high signal integrity, a distributed and shared amplifier (DSA) architecture is proposed, which enables an in-situ amplification of the myoelectric signal with a fourfold increase in EMG electrode density. In addition, a post-fabrication select-and-connect (SAC) method is proposed to cope with the large mismatch of organic transistors. The proposed SAC method reduces the area and the power overhead by 96% and 98.2%, respectively, compared with the use of conventional parallel transistors to reduce the transistor mismatch by a factor of 10.

  3. Estimating reflex responses in large populations of motor units by decomposition of the high-density surface electromyogram.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Sebik, Oğuz; Holobar, Aleŝ; Frömmel, Cornelius; Türker, Kemal S; Farina, Dario

    2015-10-01

    Reflex responses of single motor units have been used for the study of spinal circuitries but the methods employed are invasive and limited to the assessment of a relatively small number of motor units. We propose a new approach to investigate reflexes on individual motor units based on high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) decomposition. The decomposition of HDsEMG has been previously validated in voluntary isometric contractions but never during reflex activities. The use of HDsEMG decomposition for reflex studies at the individual motor unit level, during constant force contractions, with excitatory and inhibitory stimuli, was validated here by the comparison of results with concurrently recorded intramuscular EMG signals. The validation results showed that HDsEMG decomposition allows an accurate quantification of reflex responses for a large number of individual motor units non-invasively, for both excitatory and inhibitory stimuli. We propose and validate a non-invasive method that enables accurate detection of the discharge times of a relatively large number of motor units during excitatory and inhibitory reflex stimulations. High-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) and intramuscular EMG (iEMG) were recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle during ankle dorsiflexions performed at 5%, 10% and 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force, in nine healthy subjects. The tibial nerve (inhibitory reflex) and the peroneal nerve (excitatory reflex) were stimulated with constant current stimuli. In total, 416 motor units were identified from the automatic decomposition of the HDsEMG. The iEMG was decomposed using a state-of-the-art decomposition tool and provided 84 motor units (average of two recording sites). The reflex responses of the detected motor units were analysed using the peri-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) and the peri-stimulus frequencygram (PSF). The reflex responses of the common motor units identified concurrently from the HDs

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Indianapolis using a High-Density Surface Tower Network and an Atmospheric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Davis, K. J.; Richardson, S.; Deng, A.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Wu, K.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Podolske, J. R.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods of detection and attribution of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Indianapolis is intended to serve as a test bed for these methods; the results will inform efforts at measuring emissions from urban centers worldwide, including megacities. The generally accepted method for determining urban greenhouse gas emissions is inventories, which are compiled from records of land use and human activity. Atmospheric methods, in which towers are instrumented with sensors to measure greenhouse gas mole fractions and these data are used in an inversion model, have the potential to provide independent determination of emissions. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2. A subset of five towers additionally measure CH4, and a different subset measure CO. The subset measuring CO also include weekly flask samples of a wide variety of trace gases including 14CO2. Here we discuss the observed urban spatial and temporal patterns in greenhouse gas mole fraction in Indianapolis, with the critical result being the detectability of city emissions with this high-density network. We also present the first atmospheric inversion results for both CO2 and CH4, compare these results to inventories, and discuss the effects of critical assumptions in the inversion framework. The construction of unbiased atmospheric modeling systems and well-defined prior errors remains an important step in atmospheric emissions monitoring over urban areas. In order to minimize transport model errors, we developed a WRF-Chem FDDA modeling system ingesting surface and profile measurements of horizontal mean wind, temperature, and moisture. We demonstrate the impact of the meteorological data assimilation system on

  5. Influence of high-power density plasma on heteroepitaxial diamond nucleation on 3C-SiC surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaita, Junya; Natal, Meralys; Saddow, Stephen E.; Hatano, Mutsuko; Iwasaki, Takayuki

    2017-04-01

    Nucleation of a heteroepitaxial diamond on a heterogeneous substrate is a significant process that determines the quality of the diamond. We revealed that the use of high-power density plasma improved the orientation of a diamond on 3C-SiC/Si substrates. Physical analyses suggest that the epitaxial relationship between the diamond and the 3C-SiC can be retained if a large amount of atomic hydrogen is generated in the plasma. By subsequent film growth, we obtained a highly orientated diamond film with a tilt spread of 0.52°, which is the smallest value among diamond films on 3C-SiC buffer layers.

  6. Differences observed in the surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films electrochemically deposited at low and high applied current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, U.; Kaya, M.; Baykul, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    In this research, nanocrystalline Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films using electrochemical deposition technique were produced at low and high applied current densities onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated conducting glass substrates. Change of surface morphology and microstructural properties of the films were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements showed that the Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films exhibit anomalous codeposition behaviour during the electrochemical deposition process. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, it was revealed that there are two segregated phases such as Cu- rich and Ni-rich within the films. The crystallographic structure of the films was face-centered cubic (FCC). It was also observed that the film has lower lattice micro-strain and higher texture degree at high applied current density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the films have rounded shape particles on the base part and cauliflower-like structures on the upper part. The film electrodeposited at high current density had considerably smaller rounded shape particles and cauliflower-like structures. From the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses, it was shown that the film deposited at high current density has smaller particle size and surface roughness than the film grown at low current density.

  7. Fermi Surface and Superconductivity in Low-Density High-Mobility Delta-Doped SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.

    2011-08-19

    The electronic structure of low-density n-type SrTiO{sub 3} {delta}-doped heterostructures is investigated by angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In addition to a controllable crossover from a three- to two-dimensional Fermi surface, clear beating patterns for decreasing dopant layer thicknesses are found. These indicate the lifting of the degeneracy of the conduction band due to subband quantization in the two-dimensional limit. Analysis of the temperature-dependent oscillations shows that similar effective masses are found for all components, associated with the splitting of the light electron pocket. The dimensionality crossover in the superconducting state is found to be distinct from the normal state, resulting in a rich phase diagram as a function of dopant layer thickness.

  8. Fermi surface and superconductivity in low-density high-mobility δ-doped SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Bell, C; Kozuka, Y; Kurita, M; Hikita, Y; Hwang, H Y

    2011-09-02

    The electronic structure of low-density n-type SrTiO3 δ-doped heterostructures is investigated by angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In addition to a controllable crossover from a three- to two-dimensional Fermi surface, clear beating patterns for decreasing dopant layer thicknesses are found. These indicate the lifting of the degeneracy of the conduction band due to subband quantization in the two-dimensional limit. Analysis of the temperature-dependent oscillations shows that similar effective masses are found for all components, associated with the splitting of the light electron pocket. The dimensionality crossover in the superconducting state is found to be distinct from the normal state, resulting in a rich phase diagram as a function of dopant layer thickness.

  9. Surface optimization of high density polyethylene and carbon nanofiber composites for the improvement of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Brandon C.

    Nanoreinforced composites of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) of varying nanofiber concentration were fabricated via melt mixing. Following fabrication, various metal and metal-nitride thin films were sputter deposited upon the substrates. Volume resistivity measurements of the composite substrates, as well as four point probe analysis of the composites and the deposited films were performed and are reported. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE) measurements were performed upon all samples in order to gauge the effects of percolation and the presence of the deposited film(s) upon overall SE. Comparisons of experimental measurements with analytical models available in the literature will be made in order to gain insight in to the dominant shielding mechanisms in the composite(s).

  10. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  11. High density harp for SSCL linac

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities.

  12. Average contact temperature and morphological details of the worn surface of copper based materials under high current density sliding against steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Kulikova, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and sintered composites of composition Cu-bearing steel against AISI steel 1045 under electric current of high contact density have been carried out. It is shown that the surface layer of copper and composites undergoes structural changes and tribolayer containing iron, copper and FeO oxide is formed. It is noted that the thin contact layer contains about 40 at % of oxygen and 40 at % Fe. Appearance of signs of a liquid phase is morphological feature of worn surface. It is established that contact temperature does not exceed 300°C. It allows claiming that melting of metals in tribolayer does not happen.

  13. Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges

    SciTech Connect

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R.; Leach, J.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D.

    2013-11-04

    To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

  14. Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killat, N.; Montes Bajo, M.; Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R.; Leach, J.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D.; Kuball, M.

    2013-11-01

    To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

  15. Ultra high energy density nanocomposite capacitors using surface-functionalized BaTiO3 nanowires and PVDF-TrFE-CFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Lin, Yirong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2012-04-01

    High energy density capacitors are critically important in advanced electronic devices and electric power systems due to their reduced weight, size and cost to meet desired applications. Nanocomposites hold strong potential for increased performance, however, the energy density of most nanocomposites is still low compared to commercial capacitors and neat polymers. Here, high energy density nanocomposite capacitors are fabricated using surface-functionalized high aspect ratio barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanowires (NWs) in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) matrix. These nanocomposites have 63.5% higher dielectric permittivity compared to previous nanocomposites with BaTiO3 nanoparticles and also have high breakdown strength. At a 17.5% volume fraction, the nanocomposites show more than 145.3% increase in energy density above that of the pure P(VDF-TrFE- CFE) polymer (10.48 J/cm3 compared to 7.21 J/cm3). This value is significant and exceeds those reported for the conventional polymer-ceramic composites; it is also more than two times larger than high performance commercial materials. The findings of this research could lead to broad interest due to the potential for fabricating next generation energy storage devices.

  16. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  17. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  18. Simple high-cell density fed-batch technique for high-level recombinant protein production with Pichia pastoris: Application to intracellular production of Hepatitis B surface antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gurramkonda, Chandrasekhar; Adnan, Ahmad; Gäbel, Thomas; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Ross, Anton; Nemani, Satish Kumar; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin; Rinas, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is a serious global public health concern. Though a safe and efficacious recombinant vaccine is available, its use in several resource-poor countries is limited by cost. We have investigated the production of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 by inserting the HBsAg gene into the alcohol oxidase 1 locus. Results Large-scale production was optimized by developing a simple fed-batch process leading to enhanced product titers. Cells were first grown rapidly to high-cell density in a batch process using a simple defined medium with low salt and high glycerol concentrations. Induction of recombinant product synthesis was carried out using rather drastic conditions, namely through the addition of methanol to a final concentration of 6 g L-1. This methanol concentration was kept constant for the remainder of the cultivation through continuous methanol feeding based on the on-line signal of a flame ionization detector employed as methanol analyzer in the off-gas stream. Using this robust feeding protocol, maximum concentrations of ~7 grams HBsAg per liter culture broth were obtained. The amount of soluble HBsAg, competent for assembly into characteristic virus-like particles (VLPs), an attribute critical to its immunogenicity and efficacy as a hepatitis B vaccine, reached 2.3 grams per liter of culture broth. Conclusion In comparison to the highest yields reported so far, our simple cultivation process resulted in an ~7 fold enhancement in total HBsAg production with more than 30% of soluble protein competent for assembly into VLPs. This work opens up the possibility of significantly reducing the cost of vaccine production with implications for expanding hepatitis B vaccination in resource-poor countries. PMID:19208244

  19. Measurement of the surface effect of a small scattering object in a highly scattering medium by use of diffuse photon-pairs density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jheng-Syong; Yu, Li-Ping; Chou, Chien

    2016-06-01

    The surface effect close to the boundary of a small light-scattering object in a highly scattering medium is experimentally demonstrated. This is the first attempt to measure the surface effect of a small spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution by use of developed diffuse photon-pairs density wave (DPPDW) in terms of the amplitude and phase detection. Theoretically, the surface effect of a small scattering object in turbid media is localized close to the boundary according to the perturbation theory, concerning an inhomogeneous distribution of the diffusion coefficient in the frequency-domain diffusion equation. Hence, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image via an inverse algorithm, which relates to detection sensitivity of localization to the boundary of the image object in a multiple scattering medium, is anticipated. In this study, we demonstrate that DPPDW is able to sense the surface effect of a 2-mm spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution, with high sensitivity. Subsequently, an improvement of spatial resolution of imaging in turbid media by using DPPDW in comparison with conventional diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) using inverse algorithm is discussed.

  20. High density circuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    Polyimide dielectric materials were acquired for comparative and evaluative studies in double layer metal processes. Preliminary experiments were performed. Also, the literature indicates that sputtered aluminum films may be successfully patterned using the left-off technique provided the substrate temperature remains low and the argon pressure in the chamber is relatively high at the time of sputtering. Vendors associated with dry processing equipment are identified. A literature search relative to future trends in VLSI fabrication techniques is described.

  1. “Rings of saturn-like” nanoarrays with high number density of hot spots for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Zhigao; Liao, Lei; Wu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xinyue; Li, Wei; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong E-mail: czjiang@whu.edu.cn; Mei, Fei; Xiao, Xiangheng E-mail: czjiang@whu.edu.cn; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jiao

    2014-07-21

    The Ag nanoparticles (NPs) surrounding triangular nanoarrays (TNAs) with high number density of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) hot spots (SERS hot spots ring) are prepared by a combination of NPs deposition and subsequent colloid lithography processing. Owing to the SERS hot spots ring, the Ag NPs surrounding TNAs have been proved an excellent candidate for ultrasensitive molecular sensing for their high SERS signal enhancing capacity in experiments and theories. The Ag NPs surrounding TNAs can be readily used for the quick detection of low concentrations of molecules related to food safety; herein, detection of melamine is discussed.

  2. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  3. Photoactivation of alkyl C-H and silanization: a simple and general route to prepare high-density primary amines on inert polymer surfaces for protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Gan, Shenghua; Yang, Peng; Yang, Wantai

    2009-05-11

    Surface modification through implanting functional groups has been demonstrated to be extremely important to biomedical applications. The usage of organic polymer phase is often required to achieve satisfactory results. However, organic surfaces usually have poor chemical reactivity toward other reactants and target biomolecules because these surfaces usually only consist of simple alkyl (C-H) and/or alkyl ether (ROR') structures. For the first time, we here report the potential to perform silanization techniques on alkyl polymer surface, which provide a simple, fast, inexpensive, and general method to decorate versatile functional groups at the molecular level. As an example, high-density primary amines could be obtained on a model polymer, polypropylene substrate, through the reaction between amine-capped silane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and hydroxylated polypropylene surface. A model protein, immunoglobulin (IgG), could be effectively immobilized on the surface after transforming amines to aldehydes by the aldehyde-amine condensation reaction between glutaraldehyde (GA) and amines. The routes we report here could directly make use of the benefits from well-developed silane chemistry, and hereby are capable of grafting any functionalities on inert alkyl surfaces via changing the terminal groups in silanes, which should instantly stimulate the development of many realms such as microarrays, immunoassays, biosensors, filtrations, and microseparation.

  4. High energy density electrochemical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, J. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Primary cell has an anode of lithium, a cathode containing dihaloisocyanuric acid, and a nonaqueous electrolyte comprised of a solution of lithium perchlorate in methyl formate. It produces an energy density of 213 watt hrs/lb and can achieve a high current density.

  5. Atmospheric freeze drying for the reduction of powder electrostatics of amorphous, low density, high surface area pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K P; Cai, Z; Schmerler, P; Williams, R O

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous itraconazole (ITZ) was prepared by Thin Film Freezing (TFF) utilizing 1,4-dioxane as the solvent with subsequent solvent removal via conventional tray lyophilization (ITZ LYO) or atmospheric freeze drying (ITZ AFD). ITZ AFD was prepared under various drying conditions to assess the influence of drying parameters on powder properties. XRD analysis confirmed all products were amorphous and DSC analysis revealed both drying processes resulted in the formation of the nematic mesophase of ITZ. SEM revealed a larger pore size and agglomerate size with fewer fine particles (i.e. less than 10 microns in diameter) for ITZ AFD compared to ITZ LYO. Residual solvent analysis revealed a primary drying temperature of -10°C resulted in residual solvent levels above the acceptable limits set by the International Conference on Harmonization as a result of microcollapse. Primary drying temperatures of less than -10°C resulted in acceptable residual solvent levels. The extent of microcollapse did not alter the macrostructure of the resulting powder. Powder flowability was determined to be similar for ITZ AFD and ITZ LYO based on Carr's index and the Hausner ratio, as well as by dynamic angle of repose. All powders displayed poor flowability. Chargeability measurements demonstrated a lower charge transfer for ITZ AFD powders compared to ITZ LYO due to a combination of factors including differences in residual solvent level, particle size, pore size, surface area, and fine particles content. The reduction in chargeability as a result of AFD is highly desirable because it allows for improved powder handling and use post-production.

  6. X-ray refraction effect and density determination of steep-gradient, high-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamanaka, C.

    1982-12-01

    X-ray defraction due to the steep density gradient of a laser-produced plasma has been observed. Distribution of the density gradient was determined from the measured refraction angle. Estimation of the radial density profile and the density scale length in the high-density region near the ablation surface are presented.

  7. Disk Surface Density Transitions as Protoplanet Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, F. S.; Morbidelli, A.; Crida, A.; Ferreira, J.

    2006-05-01

    The tidal torque exerted by a protoplanetary disk with power-law surface density and temperature profiles onto an embedded protoplanetary embryo is generally a negative quantity that leads to the embryo inward migration. Here we investigate how the tidal torque balance is affected at a disk surface density radial jump. The jump has two consequences: (1) It affects the differential Lindblad torque. In particular, if the disk is merely empty on the inner side, the differential Lindblad torque almost amounts to the large negative outer Lindblad torque. (2) It affects the corotation torque, which is a quantity very sensitive to the local gradient of the disk surface density. In particular, if the disk is depleted on the inside and the jump occurs radially over a few pressure scale heights, the corotation torque is a positive quantity that is much larger than in a power-law disk. We show by means of customized numerical simulations of low-mass planets embedded in protoplanetary nebulae with a surface density jump that the second effect is dominant; that is, that the corotation torque largely dominates the differential Lindblad torque on the edge of a central depletion, even a shallow one. Namely, a disk surface density jump of about 50% over 3-5 disk thicknesses suffices to cancel out the total torque. As a consequence, the type I migration of low-mass objects reaching the jump should be halted, and all these objects should be trapped there provided some amount of dissipation is present in the disk to prevent the corotation torque saturation. As dissipation is provided by turbulence, which induces a jitter of the planet semimajor axis, we investigate under which conditions the trapping process overcomes the trend of turbulence to induce stochastic migration across the disk. We show that a cavity with a large outer to inner surface density ratio efficiently traps embryos from 1 to 15 M⊕, at any radius up to 5 AU from the central object, in a disk that has same surface

  8. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the mechanism of binding of apoA-I to high density lipoprotein particles

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Katz, Sissel; Nguyen, David; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Kono, Momoe; Nickel, Margaret; Saito, Hiroyuki; Phillips, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The partitioning of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules in plasma between HDL-bound and -unbound states is an integral part of HDL metabolism. We used the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to monitor in real time the reversible binding of apoA-I to HDL. Biotinylated human HDL2 and HDL3 were immobilized on a streptavidin-coated SPR sensor chip, and apoA-I solutions at different concentrations were flowed across the surface. The wild-type (WT) human and mouse apoA-I/HDL interaction involves a two-step process; apoA-I initially binds to HDL with fast association and dissociation rates, followed by a step exhibiting slower kinetics. The isolated N-terminal helix bundle domains of human and mouse apoA-I also exhibit a two-step binding process, consistent with the second slower step involving opening of the helix bundle domain. The results of fluorescence experiments with pyrene-labeled apoA-I are consistent with the N-terminal helix bundle domain interacting with proteins resident on the HDL particle surface. Dissociation constants (Kd) measured for WT human apoA-I interactions with HDL2 and HDL3 are about 10 µM, indicating that the binding is low affinity. This Kd value does not apply to all of the apoA-I molecules on the HDL particle but only to a relatively small, labile pool. PMID:19786567

  9. Comparative study of the surface layer density of liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, E.; Fernández, E. M.; Duque, D.; Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Tarazona, P.

    2009-11-01

    Capillary wave fluctuations blur the inherent structure of liquid surfaces in computer simulations. The intrinsic sampling method subtracts capillary wave fluctuations and yields the intrinsic surface structure, leading to a generic picture of the liquid surface. The most relevant magnitude of the method is the surface layer density ns that may be consistently determined from different properties: the layering structure of the intrinsic density profiles, the turnover rate for surface layer particles, and the hydrodynamic damping rate of capillary waves. The good agreement among these procedures provides evidence for the physical consistency of the surface layering hypothesis, as an inherent physical property of the liquid surfaces. The dependence of the surface compactness, roughness, and exchange rate with temperature is analyzed for several molecular interaction models.

  10. Anode Biofilm Transcriptomics Reveals Outer Surface Components Essential for High Density Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Methé, Barbara A.; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Covalla, Sean F.; Franks, Ashley E.; Liu, Anna; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 µm) biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes. PMID:19461962

  11. MPD arcjet cathode surface current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, T. S.

    1991-08-01

    The radial current density distribution on the cathodic longitudinal surface of magnetoplasmadynamic arcjets for axisymmetric geometries has been obtained by simultaneous solution of the electromagnetic equations for a given uniform gas dynamic field. The solution for the current density distribution displays current concentrations at two locations, that is, at the upstream and downstream ends of the cathode. This result is in conformity with known experimental data. The parameters responsible for these current concentrations are identified. It is shown that the effect of the magnetic Reynolds number on the current density distribution is different depending on whether or not the Hall effect is included.

  12. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  13. Photoionization and High Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Bautista, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results of calculations using the XSTAR version 2 computer code. This code is loosely based on the XSTAR v.1 code which has been available for public use for some time. However it represents an improvement and update in several major respects, including atomic data, code structure, user interface, and improved physical description of ionization/excitation. In particular, it now is applicable to high density situations in which significant excited atomic level populations are likely to occur. We describe the computational techniques and assumptions, and present sample runs with particular emphasis on high density situations.

  14. Optimizing the torrefaction of mixed softwood by response surface methodology for biomass upgrading to high energy density.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo

    2012-07-01

    The optimal conditions for the torrefaction of mixed softwood were investigated by response surface methodology. This showed that the chemical composition of torrefied biomass was influenced by the severity factor of torrefaction. The lignin content in the torrefied biomass increased with the SF, while holocellulose content decreased. Similarly, the carbon content energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg increased from 50.79 to 57.36%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg. This implied that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 4-19%, when compared with the untreated biomass. The energy value and weight loss in biomass slowly increased as the SF increased up until 6.12; and then dramatically increased as the SF increased further from 6.12 to 7.0. However, the energy yield started decreasing at SF value higher than 6.12; and the highest energy yield was obtained at low SF.

  15. Meson Masses in High Density QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Silas R. Beane; Paulo F. Bedaque; Martin J. Savage

    2000-06-15

    The low-energy effective theories for the two- and three-flavor color-superconductors arising in the high density limit of QCD are discussed. Using an effective field theory to describe quarks near the fermi surface, we compute the masses of the pseudo-Goldstone bosons that dominate the low-momentum dynamics of these systems.

  16. Density-density correlations on a gelatin films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, D. V.; Krasovskii, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    The spatial correlations on the surface of films obtained from aqueous solutions of gelatin during cooling from 320 to 293 K have been studied using electron microscopy. It has been shown that the total density fluctuation correlation function on the scale R > 4 nm can be represented in the form h( R) ˜ R - n exp(- R/ζ), where the correlation radius ζ coincides with the hydrodynamic radius of a macromolecule. Unfolding of macromolecules in the coil → helix transformation leads to a decrease in the density and the fractal dimension of the physical network of pinnings of macromolecules and to variation in the index n of the power term in the function h( R) from n = 1 to 2, due to the transition from a continual type of disorder to a cellular type in a solid.

  17. High density semiconductor nanodots by direct laser fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghizadeh, Anahita; Yang, Haeyeon

    2016-03-01

    We report a direct method of fabricating high density nanodots on the GaAs(001) surfaces using laser irradiations on the surface. Surface images indicate that the large clumps are not accompanied with the formation of nanodots even though its density is higher than the critical density above which detrimental large clumps begin to show up in the conventional Stranski-Krastanov growth technique. Atomic force microscopy is used to image the GaAs(001) surfaces that are irradiated by high power laser pulses interferentially. The analysis suggests that high density quantum dots be fabricated directly on semiconductor surfaces.

  18. Coexistence of bulk and surface states probed by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Bi2Se3 with high charge-carrier density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, E. K.; Pezzini, S.; Meijer, M. J.; Koirala, N.; Salehi, M.; Moon, J.; Oh, S.; Wiedmann, S.; Banerjee, T.

    2017-07-01

    Topological insulators are ideally represented as having an insulating bulk with topologically protected, spin-textured surface states. However, it is increasingly becoming clear that these surface transport channels can be accompanied by a finite conducting bulk, as well as additional topologically trivial surface states. To investigate these parallel conduction transport channels, we studied Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Bi2Se3 thin films, in high magnetic fields up to 30 T so as to access channels with a lower mobility. We identify a clear Zeeman-split bulk contribution to the oscillations from a comparison between the charge-carrier densities extracted from the magnetoresistance and the oscillations. Furthermore, our analyses indicate the presence of a two-dimensional state and signatures of additional states the origin of which cannot be conclusively determined. Our findings underpin the necessity of theoretical studies on the origin of and the interplay between these parallel conduction channels for a careful analysis of the material's performance.

  19. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  20. Sensor-Free Surface Density Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huixuan

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an optical-based method to measure the absolute air density on a wall surface in compressible turbulent boundary layers. The temporal resolution can be higher than 1MHz, and the spatial resolution can research 10 micron. For isothermal flows, our system can also be used to obtain the wall pressure distributions or volume-ratio of two-species gas. It is a powerful tool for observing turbulent fluctuations and flow separations in sub-, trans-, and supersonic airflows. The working principle of our method is to detect the air density by measuring the refractive index, which linearly depends on density and determines the transmission coefficient at the interface. For single- or multiple-point measurements, we do not need to install sensors on the wall surface, which is a big advantage compared to conventional methods. In 2D cases, a layer of anti-reflection coating is needed. The optical measurement range is not limited by the surface material or sensor. These advantages make our method a good complement or better alternative to the other approaches, such as focused laser differential interferometry technique, which provides density gradient, and pressure (temperature) sensitive paints, which depends significantly on the material properties.

  1. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  2. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  3. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  4. Spatially revolved high density electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold; Chen, Yuechen; Guo, Ran; Gu, Xixi

    2015-05-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In practice, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, several tens of minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In order to improve the resolution and the distortion cause by the hair and scalp, large array magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are introduced. The major challenge is to systematically compare the accuracy of epileptic source localization with high electrode density to that obtained with sparser electrode setups. In this report, we demonstrate a two dimension (2D) image Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis along with utilization of Peano (space-filling) curve to further reduce the hardware requirement for high density EEG and improve the accuracy and performance of the high density EEG analysis. The brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in this work is enhanced by A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board with optimized two dimension (2D) image Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis.

  5. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  6. Between-day reliability of triceps surae responses to standing perturbations in people post-stroke and healthy controls: A high-density surface EMG investigation.

    PubMed

    Gallina, A; Pollock, C L; Vieira, T M; Ivanova, T D; Garland, S J

    2016-02-01

    The reliability of triceps surae electromyographic responses to standing perturbations in people after stroke and healthy controls is unknown. High-Density surface Electromyography (HDsEMG) is a technique that records electromyographic signals from different locations over a muscle, overcoming limitations of traditional surface EMG such as between-day differences in electrode placement. In this study, HDsEMG was used to measure responses from soleus (SOL, 18 channels) and medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG, 16 channels each) in 10 people after stroke and 10 controls. Timing and amplitude of the response were estimated for each channel of the grids. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and normalized Standard Error of Measurement (SEM%) were calculated for each channel individually (single-channel configuration) and on the median of each grid (all-channels configuration). Both timing (single-channel: ICC=0.75-0.96, SEM%=5.0-9.1; all-channels: ICC=0.85-0.97; SEM%=3.5-6.2%) and amplitude (single-channel: ICC=0.60-0.91, SEM%=25.1-46.6; ICC=0.73-0.95, SEM%=19.3-42.1) showed good-to-excellent reliability. HDsEMG provides reliable estimates of EMG responses to perturbations both in individuals after stroke and in healthy controls; reliability was marginally better for the all-channels compared to the single-channel configuration.

  7. Synthesis of porous graphene/activated carbon composite with high packing density and large specific surface area for supercapacitor electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhou, Xufeng; Cao, Hailiang; Wang, Guohua; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-07-01

    A simple method has been developed to prepare graphene/activated carbon (AC) nanosheet composite as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitor. Glucose solution containing dispersed graphite oxide (GO) sheets is hydrothermally carbonized to form a brown char-like intermediate product, and finally converts to porous nanosheet composite by two-step chemical activation using KOH. In this composite, a layer of porous AC coats on graphene to from wrinkled nanosheet structure, with length of several micrometers and thickness of tens of nanometer. The composite has a relatively high packing density of ∼0.3 g cm-3 and large specific surface area of 2106 m2 g-1, as well as containing plenty of mesopores. It exhibits specific capacitance up to 210 F g-1 in aqueous electrolyte and 103 F g-1 in organic electrolyte, respectively, and the specific capacitance decreases by only 5.3% after 5000 cycles. These results indicate that the porous graphene/AC nanosheet composite prepared by hydrothermal carbonization and chemical activation can be applied for high performance supercapacitors.

  8. Effects of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-06-01

    The influence of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to processing surfaces (stainless steel and polyethylene) was assessed. Slices of bologna (14 g) were inoculated with Listeria at different levels, from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm2. Transfer experiments were done at a constant contact time (30 s) and pressure (45 kPa) with a universal testing machine. After transfer, cells that had been transferred to sterile stainless steel and polyethylene were removed and counted, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. As the inoculation level increased from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm(2), the absolute level of transfer increased in a similar fashion. By calculating EOTs, the data were normalized, and the initial inoculation level had no effect on the transfer (P > 0.05). The influence of hydration level on stainless steel, high-density polyethylene, and material type was investigated, and the EOTs ranged from 0.1 to 1 under all the conditions tested. Our results show that transfers to wetted processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.43) were no different from dried processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.35) (P > 0.05). Material type was shown to be a significant factor, with greater numbers of Listeria transferring from bologna to stainless steel (mean EOT = 0.49) than from bologna to polyethylene (mean EOT = 0.28) (P < 0.01). Stainless steel with three different surface roughness (Ra) values of <0.8 microm (target Ra = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 Vmicrom) and two different finishes (mechanically polished versus mechanically polished and further electropolished) was used to evaluate its effect on the transfer. The surface roughness and finish on the stainless steel did not have any effect on the transfer of Listeria (P > 0.05). Our results showed that when evaluating the transfer of Listeria, the use of EOTs rather than the absolute transfer values is essential to allow comparisons of

  9. The Electrosome: A Surface-Displayed Enzymatic Cascade in a Biofuel Cell’s Anode and a High-Density Surface-Displayed Biocathodic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Szczupak, Alon; Aizik, Dror; Moraïs, Sarah; Vazana, Yael; Barak, Yoav; Bayer, Edward A.; Alfonta, Lital

    2017-01-01

    The limitation of surface-display systems in biofuel cells to a single redox enzyme is a major drawback of hybrid biofuel cells, resulting in a low copy-number of enzymes per yeast cell and a limitation in displaying enzymatic cascades. Here we present the electrosome, a novel surface-display system based on the specific interaction between the cellulosomal scaffoldin protein and a cascade of redox enzymes that allows multiple electron-release by fuel oxidation. The electrosome is composed of two compartments: (i) a hybrid anode, which consists of dockerin-containing enzymes attached specifically to cohesin sites in the scaffoldin to assemble an ethanol oxidation cascade, and (ii) a hybrid cathode, which consists of a dockerin-containing oxygen-reducing enzyme attached in multiple copies to the cohesin-bearing scaffoldin. Each of the two compartments was designed, displayed, and tested separately. The new hybrid cell compartments displayed enhanced performance over traditional biofuel cells; in the anode, the cascade of ethanol oxidation demonstrated higher performance than a cell with just a single enzyme. In the cathode, a higher copy number per yeast cell of the oxygen-reducing enzyme copper oxidase has reduced the effect of competitive inhibition resulting from yeast oxygen consumption. This work paves the way for the assembly of more complex cascades using different enzymes and larger scaffoldins to further improve the performance of hybrid cells. PMID:28644390

  10. Spacelab high density digital recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and performance of the high-density digital recorder (HDDR) developed for use at the NASA centers (KSC, JSC, and GSFC) and at the JPL to store and retrieve 50-Mb/s PCM data streams from the Spacelab experiments are reported. The recording reproduction, and transport requirements are reviewed; and the design solutions adopted in the final version of the HDDR are described, incuding three-position-modulation and Y-phase encoding, microprocessor-controlled automatic bit synchronization and equalization, cyclic-redundancy-check error detection and correction, clock regeneration, data and clock variations, tape-speed control, and EEE-488 remote control. Reliable performance, with bit error rates 1 in 10 to the 10th forward and 1 in 10 to the 9th reverse or better and packing density up to 50 percent greater than that obtainable using conventional codes, is reported after 1.5 years of service.

  11. Spacelab high density digital recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and performance of the high-density digital recorder (HDDR) developed for use at the NASA centers (KSC, JSC, and GSFC) and at the JPL to store and retrieve 50-Mb/s PCM data streams from the Spacelab experiments are reported. The recording reproduction, and transport requirements are reviewed; and the design solutions adopted in the final version of the HDDR are described, incuding three-position-modulation and Y-phase encoding, microprocessor-controlled automatic bit synchronization and equalization, cyclic-redundancy-check error detection and correction, clock regeneration, data and clock variations, tape-speed control, and EEE-488 remote control. Reliable performance, with bit error rates 1 in 10 to the 10th forward and 1 in 10 to the 9th reverse or better and packing density up to 50 percent greater than that obtainable using conventional codes, is reported after 1.5 years of service.

  12. A novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt3Ru1 alloy nanoparticles with high density of surface defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Xinyi; Cui, Lan; Liu, Haiyan; Xie, Junbo; Liu, Weixing

    2016-06-15

    A novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Pt3Ru1 alloy nanoparticles (Pt3Ru1/GCE) was fabricated. Pt3Ru1 alloy nanoparticles were prepared by a reverse microemulsion method at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrate that Pt3Ru1 nanoparticles are disordered alloy with face central cubic (fcc) structure and the atom ratio of Pt and Ru is 3:1. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images show that Pt3Ru1 alloy nanoparticles were aggregated with a high density of surface defects. Furthermore, the sensor properties of Pt3Ru1/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) in 0.01 M PBS (pH 7.4). The results indicate that the proposed sensor exhibits a wide linear range of 5 × 10(-7)M to 10(-2)M (R(2)=0.9988) with a low detection limit of 0.3 μM for glucose. Moreover, the sensor demonstrates good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and better anti-interference performance toward ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and fructose (Fru).

  13. High-density digital recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, F. (Editor); Buschman, A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The problems associated with high-density digital recording (HDDR) are discussed. Five independent users of HDDR systems and their problems, solutions, and insights are provided as guidance for other users of HDDR systems. Various pulse code modulation coding techniques are reviewed. An introduction to error detection and correction head optimization theory and perpendicular recording are provided. Competitive tape recorder manufacturers apply all of the above theories and techniques and present their offerings. The methodology used by the HDDR Users Subcommittee of THIC to evaluate parallel HDDR systems is presented.

  14. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-08-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane-protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far been capable of mapping surface charge densities under physiologically relevant conditions. Here, we use a scanning nanopipette setup (scanning ion-conductance microscope) combined with a novel algorithm to investigate the surface conductivity near supported lipid bilayers, and we present a new approach, quantitative surface conductivity microscopy (QSCM), capable of mapping surface charge density with high-quantitative precision and nanoscale resolution. The method is validated through an extensive theoretical analysis of the ionic current at the nanopipette tip, and we demonstrate the capacity of QSCM by mapping the surface charge density of model cationic, anionic and zwitterionic lipids with results accurately matching theoretical values.

  15. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane–protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far been capable of mapping surface charge densities under physiologically relevant conditions. Here, we use a scanning nanopipette setup (scanning ion-conductance microscope) combined with a novel algorithm to investigate the surface conductivity near supported lipid bilayers, and we present a new approach, quantitative surface conductivity microscopy (QSCM), capable of mapping surface charge density with high-quantitative precision and nanoscale resolution. The method is validated through an extensive theoretical analysis of the ionic current at the nanopipette tip, and we demonstrate the capacity of QSCM by mapping the surface charge density of model cationic, anionic and zwitterionic lipids with results accurately matching theoretical values. PMID:27561322

  16. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  17. Spatiotemporal temperature and density characterization of high-power atmospheric flashover discharges over inert poly(methyl methacrylate) and energetic pentaerythritol tetranitrate dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, V.; Grant, C. D.; McCarrick, J. F.; Zaug, J. M.; Glascoe, E. A.; Wang, H.

    2012-03-01

    A flashover arc source that delivered up to 200 mJ on the 100s-of-ns time-scale to the arc and a user-selected dielectric surface was characterized for studying high-explosive kinetics under plasma conditions. The flashover was driven over thin pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dielectric films and the resultant plasma was characterized in detail. Time- and space-resolved temperatures and electron densities of the plasma were obtained using atomic emission spectroscopy. The hydrodynamics of the plasma was captured through fast, visible imaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the films pre- and post-shot for any chemical alterations. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) provided PETN depletion data during the plasma discharge. For both types of films, temperatures of 1.6-1.7 eV and electron densities of ˜7-8 × 1017/cm3 ˜570 ns after the start of the discharge were observed with temperatures of 0.6-0.7 eV persisting out to 15 μs. At 1.2 μs, spatial characterization showed flat temperature and density profiles of 1.1-1.3 eV and 2-2.8 × 1017/cm3 for PETN and PMMA films, respectively. Images of the plasma showed an expanding hot kernel starting from radii of ˜0.2 mm at ˜50 ns and reaching ˜1.1 mm at ˜600 ns. The thin films ablated or reacted several hundred nm of material in response to the discharge. First TRIR data showing the in situ reaction or depletion of PETN in response to the flashover arc were successfully obtained, and a 2-μs, 1/e decay constant was measured. Preliminary 1 D simulations compared reasonably well with the experimentally determined plasma radii and temperatures. These results complete the first steps to resolving arc-driven PETN reaction pathways and their associated kinetic rates using in situ spectroscopy techniques.

  18. Spatiotemporal temperature and density characterization of high-power atmospheric flashover discharges over inert poly(methyl methacrylate) and energetic pentaerythritol tetranitrate dielectric surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, V.; Grant, C. D.; McCarrick, J. F.; Zaug, J. M.; Glascoe, E. A.; Wang, H.

    2012-03-01

    A flashover arc source that delivered up to 200 mJ on the 100s-of-ns time-scale to the arc and a user-selected dielectric surface was characterized for studying high-explosive kinetics under plasma conditions. The flashover was driven over thin pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dielectric films and the resultant plasma was characterized in detail. Time- and space-resolved temperatures and electron densities of the plasma were obtained using atomic emission spectroscopy. The hydrodynamics of the plasma was captured through fast, visible imaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the films pre- and post-shot for any chemical alterations. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) provided PETN depletion data during the plasma discharge. For both types of films, temperatures of 1.6-1.7 eV and electron densities of {approx}7-8 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3}{approx}570 ns after the start of the discharge were observed with temperatures of 0.6-0.7 eV persisting out to 15 {mu}s. At 1.2 {mu}s, spatial characterization showed flat temperature and density profiles of 1.1-1.3 eV and 2-2.8 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3} for PETN and PMMA films, respectively. Images of the plasma showed an expanding hot kernel starting from radii of {approx}0.2 mm at {approx}50 ns and reaching {approx}1.1 mm at {approx}600 ns. The thin films ablated or reacted several hundred nm of material in response to the discharge. First TRIR data showing the in situ reaction or depletion of PETN in response to the flashover arc were successfully obtained, and a 2-{mu}s, 1/e decay constant was measured. Preliminary 1 D simulations compared reasonably well with the experimentally determined plasma radii and temperatures. These results complete the first steps to resolving arc-driven PETN reaction pathways and their associated kinetic rates using in situ spectroscopy techniques.

  19. High Energy Density Extended Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-06-01

    Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and, thus, the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies, it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune novel properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Over the past decade or two, a large number of new materials and novel phenomena have been discovered and predicted at extreme pressure-temperature conditions. Commonly observed under extreme conditions is the transformation of solids into more compact structures with itinerant electrons such as metallic and nonmetallic extended phases. Nonmolecular extended solids, particularly made of low Z elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, constitute a new class of high energy density solids, which can store a large sum of energy in their three-dimensional network structure (˜ several eV/bond). Yet, a large cohesive energy of singly bonded (or sp3 hybridized) electrons gives rise to an extremely stiff lattice and novel electronic and optical properties. Broadly speaking, these molecular-to-nonmolecular transitions occur due to electron delocalization manifested as a rapid increase in electron kinetic energy at high density, but there are many outstanding questions as well regarding the exact nature of chemical bonding, phase stability, chemical mechanisms, and so on. These questions constitute fundamental chemistry unique to extreme pressure

  20. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

  1. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  2. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  3. High-density surface EMG decomposition allows for recording of motor unit discharge from proximal and distal flexion synergy muscles simultaneously in individuals with stroke.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Thompson, Christopher K; Negro, Francesco; Heckman, C J; Farina, Dario; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of motor unit discharge can provide insight into the neural control of movement in healthy and pathological states, but it is typically completed in one muscle at a time. For some research investigations, it would be advantageous to study motor unit discharge from multiple muscles simultaneously. One such example is investigation of the flexion synergy, an abnormal muscle co-activation pattern in post-stroke individuals in which activation of shoulder abductors is involuntarily coupled with that of elbow and finger flexors. However, limitations in available technology have hindered the ability to efficiently extract motor unit discharge from multiple muscles simultaneously. In this study, we propose the use of high-density surface EMG decomposition from proximal and distal flexion synergy muscles (deltoid, biceps, wrist/finger flexors) in combination with an isometric joint torque recording device in individuals with chronic stroke. This innovative approach provides the ability to efficiently analyze both motor units and joint torques that have been simultaneously recorded from the shoulder, elbow, and fingers. In preliminary experiments, 3 stroke and 5 control participants generated shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, and finger flexion torques at 10, 20, 30 and 40% of maximum torque. Motor unit spike trains could be extracted from all muscles at each torque level. Mean motor unit firing rates were significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group for all three muscles. Within the stroke group, wrist/finger flexor motor units had the lowest coefficient of variation. Additionally, modulation of mean firing rates across torque levels was significantly impaired in all three paretic muscles. The implications of these findings and overall impact of this approach are discussed.

  4. Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H  →  L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H  →  L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.

  5. Density profiles and surface tension of polymers near colloidal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, A. A.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Meijer, E. J.; Hansen, J. P.

    2002-06-01

    The surface tension of interacting polymers in a good solvent is calculated theoretically and by computer simulations for a planar wall geometry and for the insertion of a single colloidal hard sphere. This is achieved for the planar wall and for the larger spheres by an adsorption method, and for smaller spheres by a direct insertion technique. Results for the dilute and semidilute regimes are compared to results for ideal polymers, the Asakura-Oosawa penetrable-sphere model, and to integral equations, scaling and renormalization group theories. The largest relative changes with density are found in the dilute regime, so that theories based on noninteracting polymers rapidly break down. A recently developed "soft colloid" approach to polymer-colloid mixtures is shown to correctly describe the one-body insertion free-energy and the related surface tension.

  6. High Power Density Spray Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    storage causing a large surface tanperature increase. In this case, the surface temperature quickly excee the Leidenfrost taperature, and the surface become...heat content of the liquid on the heat transfer rate at surface temperatures below the Leidenfrost point. All ccmparisons are in the form of total...experiment. lpariments were begun at roam temperature and ramVed up continuously until Leidenfrost conditions were reached, after which the heaters were

  7. XPS and SPR analysis of glycoarray surface density.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Marshal; Ratner, Daniel M

    2009-02-17

    Despite the fact that the carbohydrate microarray has seen increasing use within the field of glycobiology, the surface chemistry of the glycoarray remains largely unexplored. Motivated by the need to develop surface analytical techniques to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces, we developed a quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) method to study glycan biosensors. We performed a comparative analysis on the relative coverage of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, consisting of a thiol-functionalized trimannoside (Manalpha1,2Manalpha1,2Manalpha-OEG-SH) at varying concentrations (0-100%) mixed separately with two thiol-containing polyethylene glycol oligomers. XPS C1s core level analysis was used to identify the O-C-O functionality unique to the carbohydrate acetal moiety and to separate and quantify the relative coverage of sugar in carbohydrate/OEG mixed SAMs. XPS spectra of the mixed SAMs demonstrated a proportional increase in the acetal signature of the glycan with increasing sugar concentration. To relate surface glycan density with biological function, we carried out a kinetic analysis of Concanavalin A (ConA) binding to SAMs of varying densities of carbohydrate using SPR imaging. We observed protein binding that was highly dependent on both glycan density and the nature of the OEG-thiol used in the mixed self-assembly. These results illustrate the utility of surface analytical techniques such as XPS and SPR in carbohydrate biosensor characterization and optimization.

  8. THE DEPENDENCE OF STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY ON GAS SURFACE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Andreas; Hartmann, Lee E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu

    2013-08-10

    Studies by Lada et al. and Heiderman et al. have suggested that star formation mostly occurs above a threshold in gas surface density {Sigma} of {Sigma}{sub c} {approx} 120 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} (A{sub K} {approx} 0.8). Heiderman et al. infer a threshold by combining low-mass star-forming regions, which show a steep increase in the star formation rate per unit area {Sigma}{sub SFR} with increasing {Sigma}, and massive cores forming luminous stars which show a linear relation. We argue that these observations do not require a particular density threshold. The steep dependence of {Sigma}{sub SFR}, approaching unity at protostellar core densities, is a natural result of the increasing importance of self-gravity at high densities along with the corresponding decrease in evolutionary timescales. The linear behavior of {Sigma}{sub SFR} versus {Sigma} in massive cores is consistent with probing dense gas in gravitational collapse, forming stars at a characteristic free-fall timescale given by the use of a particular molecular tracer. The low-mass and high-mass regions show different correlations between gas surface density and the area A spanned at that density, with A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -3} for low-mass regions and A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -1} for the massive cores; this difference, along with the use of differing techniques to measure gas surface density and star formation, suggests that connecting the low-mass regions with massive cores is problematic. We show that the approximately linear relationship between dense gas mass and stellar mass used by Lada et al. similarly does not demand a particular threshold for star formation and requires continuing formation of dense gas. Our results are consistent with molecular clouds forming by galactic hydrodynamic flows with subsequent gravitational collapse.

  9. Energy of the surface layer deterioration of 1020 steel and copper at dry sliding against 1045 steel with a high electric current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and 1020 steel against 1045 steel under the influence of the contact current density higher than 250 A/cm2 is carried out by using the pin-on-ring testing scheme. The change in the surface layer structure and the formation of a tribolayer consisting of iron, copper, and FeO oxide are shown. It is noted that the thin contact layer contains near 40 at % of oxygen. The specific wear rate is calculated based on the data of wear and current-voltage characteristics of the contact. A limited applicability of this parameter for the description of the surface layer deterioration is shown. We propose a wear parameter close to it, which characterizes more correctly the specimen tribolayer deterioration. These wear characteristics increase with a current density increase. It is established that the work of tribolayer deterioration can be close to a half of energy generated in contact. Some increase in the work of tribolayer deterioration due to a reduction in heat flow to the specimen is noted. It is shown that these wear characteristics of copper are considerably lower than that of 1020 steel. It is explained by the presence of copper in the tribolayer of the copper specimen that allows an easier stress relaxation to be realized.

  10. Gravitational lensing by a smoothly variable surface mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Wambsganss, Joachim

    1989-01-01

    The statistical properties of gravitational lensing due to smooth but nonuniform distributions of matter are considered. It is found that a majority of triple images had a parity characteristic for 'shear-induced' lensing. Almost all cases of triple or multiple imaging were associated with large surface density enhancements, and lensing objects were present between the images. Thus, the observed gravitational lens candidates for which no lensing object has been detected between the images are unlikely to be a result of asymmetric distribution of mass external to the image circle. In a model with smoothly variable surface mass density, moderately and highly amplified images tended to be single rather than multiple. An opposite trend was found in models which had singularities in the surface mass distribution.

  11. Gravitational lensing by a smoothly variable surface mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Wambsganss, Joachim

    1989-01-01

    The statistical properties of gravitational lensing due to smooth but nonuniform distributions of matter are considered. It is found that a majority of triple images had a parity characteristic for 'shear-induced' lensing. Almost all cases of triple or multiple imaging were associated with large surface density enhancements, and lensing objects were present between the images. Thus, the observed gravitational lens candidates for which no lensing object has been detected between the images are unlikely to be a result of asymmetric distribution of mass external to the image circle. In a model with smoothly variable surface mass density, moderately and highly amplified images tended to be single rather than multiple. An opposite trend was found in models which had singularities in the surface mass distribution.

  12. High performance, high density hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankenfeld, J. W.; Hastings, T. W.; Lieberman, M.; Taylor, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The fuels were selected from 77 original candidates on the basis of estimated merit index and cost effectiveness. The ten candidates consisted of 3 pure compounds, 4 chemical plant streams and 3 refinery streams. Critical physical and chemical properties of the candidate fuels were measured including heat of combustion, density, and viscosity as a function of temperature, freezing points, vapor pressure, boiling point, thermal stability. The best all around candidate was found to be a chemical plant olefin stream rich in dicyclopentadiene. This material has a high merit index and is available at low cost. Possible problem areas were identified as low temperature flow properties and thermal stability. An economic analysis was carried out to determine the production costs of top candidates. The chemical plant and refinery streams were all less than 44 cent/kg while the pure compounds were greater than 44 cent/kg. A literature survey was conducted on the state of the art of advanced hydrocarbon fuel technology as applied to high energy propellents. Several areas for additional research were identified.

  13. High energy density redox flow device

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  14. Mapping surface charge density with a scanning nanopipette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-03-01

    Characterisation of the surface charge density (SCD) is important in interface and colloid science, and especially local variations in SCD of biological samples are of keen interest. The surface charge of lipid bilayers governs the uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell interactions. As the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations, direct probing of the potential can only be performed at a sub nanometer distance; therefore it was impossible to directly measure the SCD under physiological conditions. Yet the charged surface attracts counter ions leading to an enhanced ionic concentration near the surface, creating a measurable surface conductivity. In this study we measure SCD using a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup, where the electrolyte current through a nanopipette is monitored as the pipette is positioned in the vicinity of the sample. We investigate the current dependency of SCD and pipette potential using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations and characterise a complex system governed by a multitude of factors such as pipette size, geometry and charge. We then propose an imaging method and prove its feasibility by mapping the surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  15. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  16. Using a new high resolution regional model for malaria that accounts for population density and surface hydrology to determine sensitivity of malaria risk to climate drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Ermert, Volker; Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as VECTRI: VECtor borne disease community model of ICTP, TRIeste (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations. Local host population density affects the transmission intensity, and the model thus reproduces the differences between peri-urban and rural transmission noted in Africa. A new simple pond model framework represents surface hydrology. The model can be used on with spatial resolutions finer than 10km to resolve individual health districts and thus can be used as a planning tool. Results of the models representation of interannual variability and longer term projections of malaria transmission will be shown for Africa. These will show that the model represents the seasonality and spatial variations of malaria transmission well matching a wide range of survey data of parasite rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from across West and East Africa taken in the period prior to large-scale interventions. The model is used to determine the sensitivity of malaria risk to climate variations, both in rainfall and temperature, and then its use in a prototype forecasting system coupled with ECMWF forecasts will be demonstrated.

  17. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  18. Density functional study of the electric double layer formed by a high density electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Douglas; Lamperski, Stanisław; Jin, Zhehui; Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-11-10

    We use a classical density functional theory (DFT) to study the electric double layer formed by charged hard spheres near a planar charged surface. The DFT predictions are found to be in good agreement with recent computer simulation results. We study the capacitance of the charged hard-sphere system at a range of densities and surface charges and find that the capacitance exhibits a local minimum at low ionic densities and small electrode charge. Although this charging behavior is typical for an aqueous electrolyte solution, the local minimum gradually turns into a maximum as the density of the hard spheres increases. Charged hard spheres at high density provide a reasonable first approximation for ionic liquids. In agreement with experiment, the capacitance of this model ionic liquid double layer has a maximum at small electrode charge density.

  19. States of high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O/sup 16/ and S/sup 32/ incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O/sup 16/ on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dsigmadN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dsigmadE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations.

  20. Modeling High Energy Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, J. R.; Liberman, D. A.; Wilson, B. G.

    1999-11-01

    Ultra-short-pulse lasers are being used to form plasmas at near normal/solid density, heating a target in a time shorter than that on which it can expand. Radiative signatures of the dense plasma conditions are a key diagnostic, and typically require the support of modeling for their design and interpretation. Modeling also often serves to guide the experimental program of work. Here we report on our first attempts to use the INFERNO average-atom atomic model to a construct detailed-configuration-accounting description of the plasma equation-of-state, that is, its distribution of ionization and excitation states, and further, its radiative line, edge, and continuum features.

  1. High-density immobilization of antibodies onto nanobead-coated cyclic olefin copolymer plastic surfaces for application as a sensitive immunoassay chip.

    PubMed

    Sung, Daekyung; Yang, Sung; Park, Jeong Won; Jon, Sangyong

    2013-08-01

    Our research efforts have been devoted to development of nanobead multilayer-based sensitive immunoassays on cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) plastic surfaces. To facilitate nanobead attachment and impart antibiofouling properties to a COC substrate, we used an amphiphilic copolymer comprising benzyl, polyethylene glycol, and reactive ester moieties to coat the hydrophobic COC surface in an aqueous environment. Subsequently, NH2-modified polystyrene nanobeads were reacted with the polymer-coated COC surface and further assembled into multilayers that increased the overall surface area available for attaching capture antibodies. After treatment of the nanobead multilayers with an amine-reactive homobifunctional crosslinker, a model capture antibody (anti-rabbit IgG) was covalently immobilized onto the activated surface of nanobeads. Finally, a sandwich immunoassay was carried out using rabbit IgG as a target analyte and rhodamine-labeled anti-rabbit IgG as a probe. Compared with a nanobead-free, polymer-coated COC surface, the nanobead multilayer-based immunoassay exhibited ~4-fold higher fluorescence intensity. In addition, our nanobead-based assay system exhibited a wide dynamic range of detection (0.1 to 1,000 ng/mL) and high specificity for rabbit IgG. Furthermore, much better detection sensitivity for rabbit IgG was attained in the nanobead multilayer-based immunoassay than with a conventional ELISA system (0.1 ng/mL versus 10 ng/mL), indicating the potential value of the proposed immunoassay system in plastic-based portable biochip applications.

  2. Some novel phenomena at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Evan Scott

    Astrophysical environments probe matter in ways impossible on Earth. In particular, matter in compact objects are extraordinarily dense. In this thesis we discuss two phenomena that may occur at high density. First, we study toroidal topological solitons called vortons, which can occur in the kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked phase of high-density quark matter, a candidate phase for the core of some neutron stars. We show that vortons have a large radius compared to their thickness if their electrical charge is on the order of 104 times the fundamental charge. We show that shielding of electric fields by electrons dramatically reduces the size of a vorton. Second, we study an unusual phase of degenerate electrons and nonrelativistic Bose-condensed helium nuclei that may exist in helium white dwarfs. We show that this phase supports a previously-unknown gapless mode, known as the half-sound, that radically alters the material's specific heat, and can annihilate into neutrinos. We provide evidence that this neutrino radiation is negligible compared to the star's surface photoemission.

  3. Control of size and density of self-assembled Au droplets via systematic deposition amount control on high-index GaAs type-A surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2014-09-01

    Au droplets as a catalyst can be used to determine the size, density, and configuration of nanowires (NWs) during crystallization at the liquid-solid interface, and the growth direction, cross-sectional shape, and even the quality of the NWs can be controlled by adjusting the substrate index utilized. In this study, the control of the size and density of self-assembled Au droplets is systematically demonstrated via the deposition amount (DA) control between 2 and 12 nm on various GaAs type-A substrates: (711)A, (511)A, (411)A, and (311)A. The self-assembled Au droplets are formed owing to the much higher binding energy between Au adatoms than the energy between Au atoms and substrate atoms based on the Volmer-Weber growth mode, and even up to 12 nm DA, the three-dimensional (3D) island phase (droplets) without coalescence is observed. Within the DA range, the self-assembled Au droplets sensitively respond to the DA variation, which results in over 3 times increment in dimensions along with the corresponding change in density on the two orders of magnitude from ˜108 to ˜1010. Depending on the index utilized, the high index effect is not obvious owing to weak binding energy between GaAs substrate and Au adatoms and the wide DA range. The results are systematically analyzed using atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), cross-sectional line profiles, and Fourier filter transform (FFT) power spectra.

  4. XPS and SPR Analysis of Glycoarray Surface Density

    PubMed Central

    Dhayal, Marshal; Ratner, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that the carbohydrate microarray has seen increasing use within the field of glycobiology, the surface chemistry of the glycoarray remains largely unexplored. Motivated by the need to develop surface analytical techniques to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces, we developed a quantitative X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPR imaging) method to study glycan biosensors. We performed a comparative analysis on the relative coverage of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, consisting of a thiol-functionalized trimannoside (Manα1,2Manα1,2Manα-OEG-SH) at varying concentrations (0 to 100%) mixed separately with two thiol-containing polyethylene glycol oligomers. XPS C1s core level analysis was used to identify the O-C-O functionality unique to the carbohydrate acetal moiety and to separate and quantify the relative coverage of sugar in carbohydrate/OEG mixed SAMs. XPS spectra of the mixed SAMs demonstrated a proportional increase in the acetal signature of the glycan with increasing sugar concentration. To relate surface glycan density with biological function, we carried out a kinetic analysis of Concanavalin A (ConA) binding to SAMs of varying densities of carbohydrate using SPR imaging. We observed protein-binding that was highly dependent on both glycan density and the nature of the OEG-thiol used in the mixed self-assembly. These results illustrate the utility of surface analytical techniques such as XPS and SPR in carbohydrate biosensor characterization and optimization. PMID:19199748

  5. Surfing the High Density Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The central theme of the proposed research is to link what we know about galaxy clusters and large-scale structure in the local Universe at z less than 0.1 to what we know about the original fluctuations that led to this structure as observed in the cosmic microwave background. The simple-minded approach to this question (the kind I always take) is to took at structure in the regime 0.1 less than z less than 1000. We have a unique resource to help us in this task in the form of the VLA FIRST radio survey in which, to date, we have completed mapping nearly 5000 deg2 of the northern sky to a 20 cm flux density limit of 1.0 mJy. The 435,000 radio sources detected all have positions accurate to better than 1. As this report is written, we are obtaining the next - 1000 deg 2 of data; the goal of the survey is to complete the full 10,000 deg 2 to be covered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  6. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  7. High density laser-driven target

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  8. Self-assembly of various Au nanocrystals on functionalized water-stable PVA/PEI nanofibers: a highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with high density of "hot" spots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Zou, Meiling; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2014-04-15

    We have demonstrated a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible and reliable sulfydryl functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers with excellent water stability for the self-assembly of Au nanocrystals, such as Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), Au nanoflowers (AuNFs) and Au nanorods (AuNRs), used as the highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the detection of rhodamine B (RhB). Various methods were employed to cross-link the PVA nanofibers with better morphology and porous structures after immersing in water for desired times. Various SERS-active Au nanocrystals, such as AuNPs, AuNFs, and AuNRs have been successfully synthesized. After the grafting of MPTES on the cross-linked PVA/PEI nanofibers, the Au nanocrystals can easily be self-assembled on the surfaces of the nanofibers because of the strong interactions of the Au-S chemical bondings. The Au nanocrystals self-assembled throughout the PVA/PEI nanofibers used as SERS substrates all exhibit enhanced SERS signals of RhB compared with their individual nanocrystals. It is mainly due to the close interparticle distance, mutual orientation and high density of "hot" spots, that can strongly affect the overall optical response and the SERS enhancement. By changing the amounts of the self-assembled AuNFs on the nanofibers, we can control the density of the "hot" spots. With the increased amounts of the AuNFs throughout the nanofibers, the SERS substrates show enhanced Raman signals of the RhB, indicating that the increased density of "hot" spots can directly lead to the SERS enhancement. The AuNFs/(PVA/PEI) SERS substrates show good sensitivity, reliability and low detection limit (10(-9) M). The presented approach can be broadly applicable to the assembly of different types of plasmonic nanostructures and these novel materials with strong SERS enhancement can be applied in bioanalysis and biosensors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES OF HUMAN HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    DeLalla, Louis; Levine, Lawrence; Brown, Ray K.

    1957-01-01

    High density serum lipoprotein underwent serologic and physicochemical alterations on aging during storage at 0°C. for 1 month, as judged by decrease of diffusion coefficient and increase of C' fixation. Ultracentrifugation, dialysis, and high concentrations of sodium chloride did not cause these changes. A protein sedimenting at density 1.24 in the ultracentrifuge reacted with antiserum to high density lipoprotein. Probably it was the protein portion of α lipoprotein dissociated from the lipide during ultracentrifugation. Although the antiserum to high density lipoprotein did not react with low density lipoprotein prepared from normal serum, it reacted with similarly prepared lipoproteins from the serum of a patient with biliary cirrhosis. PMID:13449236

  10. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  11. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  12. Tuning of the vinyl groups' spacing at surface of modified silica in preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles: a dispersive solid-phase extraction materials for chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Chen, Xuemei; Nie, Li; Luo, Jing; Jiang, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Hu, Qin; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2010-05-15

    This paper reports the preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles toward selective recognition and fast enrichment of chlorpyrifos (CP) from complicated matrices. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully coated at the surface of modified silica through using the chemical immovable vinyl groups at the nanoparticles' surface, followed by the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of templates CP. It has been demonstrated that the space of end vinyl groups at the surface of silica can be controlled by changing the condition of chemical modification, regulating the thickness of imprinted shells and the density of efficient imprinted sites. After removal of templates by solvent extraction, the recognition sites of CP were created in the polymer coating layer. The CP-imprinted nanoparticles exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to CP analyte. When the CP-imprinted nanoparticles were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) materials, the high recovery yields of 76.1-93.5% from various spiked samples with only 1microg/mL analyte were achieved by one-step extraction. These results reported herein provide the possibility for the separation and enrichment of CP from complicated matrices by the molecular imprinting modification at the surface of common silica nanoparticles.

  13. Approach of high density coal preparation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Density difference of aged anthracite coal of high density and discard is less than that of general coal and discard; conventional separation methods are difficult to be used. For the special coal, coal dry beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed has obvious superiority over other separation methods.

  14. The BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network: design, calibration, and initial evaluation of a high-density CO2 surface network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, A.; Teige, V.; Turner, A. J.; Newman, C.; Kim, J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Conventionally, ground-based carbon dioxide monitoring efforts rely on a small handful of costly instruments scattered thinly across large domains. While well characterizing total integrated emissions originating from a given metropolitan area, such approaches are ill suited to resolve the heterogeneous patterns of urban CO2 sources occurring within the domain, despite the fact that these sources are often regulated individually and independently of the regional total. To better observe said heterogeneities, we present the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N), an ensemble of 28 moderate-cost CO2 and air quality sensing "nodes" distributed across and around the city of Oakland, California at 2 km intervals, constituting what is, to our knowledge, the highest density CO2 monitoring network to date. We evaluate the network on the basis of four performance parameters (cost, reliability, precision, and bias) and derive various post hoc mathematical treatments to compensate for the deleterious effects of meteorological variability, temporal drift, and uncharacterized atemporal biases on the sensor data. We find our approach to dependably provide observations of sufficient quality to faithfully represent intra-city phenomena while nonetheless remaining cost-competitive with sparser networks of more expensive instruments. Furthermore, preliminary analyses of the first three years of observations reveal small scale variability in CO2 concentrations that cannot be accurately captured by current mesoscale modeling techniques, reinforcing the importance of such high resolution top-down observational methodologies to our understanding of urban CO2 on the actual scales of emission and regulation.

  15. A promising high-energy-density material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenquan; Zhang, Jiaheng; Deng, Mucong; Qi, Xiujuan; Nie, Fude; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-08-03

    High-energy density materials represent a significant class of advanced materials and have been the focus of energetic materials community. The main challenge in this field is to design and synthesize energetic compounds with a highest possible density and a maximum possible chemical stability. Here we show an energetic compound, [2,2'-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole)]-5,5'-dinitramide, is synthesized through a two-step reaction from commercially available reagents. It exhibits a surprisingly high density (1.99 g cm(-3) at 298 K), poor solubility in water and most organic solvents, decent thermal stability, a positive heat of formation and excellent detonation properties. The solid-state structural features of the synthesized compound are also investigated via X-ray diffraction and several theoretical techniques. The energetic and sensitivity properties of the explosive compound are similar to those of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-(hexanitrohexaaza)cyclododecane (CL-20), and the developed compound shows a great promise for potential applications as a high-energy density material.High energy density materials are of interest, but density is the limiting factor for many organic compounds. Here the authors show the formation of a high density energetic compound from a two-step reaction between commercially available compounds that exhibit good heat thermal stability and detonation properties.

  16. A universal method to calculate the surface energy density of spherical surfaces in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Bian, Jianjun; Niu, Xinrui; Wang, Gangfeng

    2017-02-01

    Surface energy plays an important role in the mechanical performance of nanomaterials; however, determining the surface energy density of curved surfaces remains a challenge. In this paper, we conduct atomic simulations to calculate the surface energy density of spherical surfaces in various crystalline metals. It is found that the average surface energy density of spherical surfaces remains almost constant once its radius exceeds 5 nm. Then, using a geometrical analysis and the scaling law, we develop an analytical approach to estimate the surface energy density of spherical surfaces through that of planar surfaces. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the direct atomic simulations, and thus provides a simple and general method to calculate the surface energy density in crystals.

  17. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  18. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  19. Constant Surface Gravity and Density Profile of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    Cumulative observational evidence confirms that the surface gravity of dark matter (DM) halos μ0 D = r0ρ0, where r0 and ρ0 are the halo core radius and central density, respectively, is nearly constant and independent of galaxy luminosity for a high number of galactic systems (spirals, dwarf irregular and spheroidals, elliptics) spanning over 14 magnitudes in luminosity and of different Hubble types. Remarkably, its numerical value, μ0D ≃140M⊙/pc2 = (18.6 MeV)3, is approximately the same (up to a factor of 2) in all these systems. First, we present the physical consequences of the independence of μ0D from r0: the energy scales as the volume ˜ r03, while the mass and the entropy scale as the surface ˜ r02 and the surface times log r0, respectively. Namely, the entropy scales similarly to the black hole entropy but with a much smaller coefficient. Second, we compute the surface gravity and the density profile for small scales from first principles and the evolution of primordial density fluctuations from the end of inflation till today using the linearized Boltzmann-Vlasov equation. The density profile ρlin(r) obtained in this way decreases as r-1-ns/2 for intermediate scales, where ns≃0.964 is the primordial spectral index. This scaling is in remarkable agreement with the empirical behavior found observationally and in N-body simulations: r-1.6±0.4. The observed value of μ0D indicates that the DM particle mass m is on the keV scale. The theoretically derived density profiles ρlin(r) turn to be cored for m on the keV scale and they are cusped for m on the GeV scale or beyond. We consider both fermions and bosons as DM particles decoupling either ultrarelativistically or nonrelativistically. Our results do not use any particle physics model and vary slightly with the statistics of the DM particle.

  20. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Elvidge, Christopher D; Tuttle, Benjamin T; Sutton, Paul C; Baugh, Kimberly E; Howard, Ara T; Milesi, Cristina; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2007-09-21

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density ofconstructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots,buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatialresolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimateddensity of ISA on a one-km² grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA - thebrightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model wascalibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey.Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights andreference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States landarea is impervious surface (83,337 km²) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703km²) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country(87,182 km²), but has only 67 m² of ISA per person, compared to 297 m² per person in theUSA. The distribution of ISA in the world's primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  1. Mapping of an approximate neutral density surface with Ungridded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu

    2008-02-01

    A neutral density surface is a logical study frame for water-mass mixing since water parcels spread along such a surface without doing work against buoyancy restoring force. Mesoscale eddies are believed to stir and subsequently mix predominantly along such surfaces. Because of the nonlinear nature of the equation of state of seawater, the process of accurately mapping a neutral density surface necessarily involves lateral computation from one conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) cast to the next in a logical sequence. By contrast, the depth of a potential density surface on any CTD cast is found solely from the data on this cast. The lateral calculation procedure causes a significant inconvenience. In a previous paper by present author published in this journal (You, 2006), the mapping of neutral density surfaces with regularly gridded data such as Levitus data has been introduced. In this note, I present a new method to find the depth of a neutral density surface from a cast without having to specify an integration path in space. An appropriate reference point is required that is on the neutral density surface and thereafter the neutral density surface can be determined by using the CTD casts in any order. This method is only approximate and the likely errors can be estimated by plotting a scatter diagram of all the pressures and potential temperatures on the neutral density surfaces. The method assumes that the variations of potential temperature and pressure (with respect to the values at the reference point) on the neutral density surface are proportional. It is important to select the most appropriate reference point in order to approximately satisfy this assumption, and in practice this is found by inspecting the θ-p plot of data on the surface. This may require that the algorithm be used twice. When the straight lines on the θ-p plot, drawn from the reference point to other points on the neutral density surface, enclose an area that is external to

  2. High density plasma etching of magnetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kee Bum

    Magnetic materials such as NiFe (permalloy) or NiFeCo are widely used in the data storage industry. Techniques for submicron patterning are required to develop next generation magnetic devices. The relative chemical inertness of most magnetic materials means they are hard to etch using conventional RIE (Reactive Ion Etching). Therefore ion milling has generally been used across the industry, but this has limitations for magnetic structures with submicron dimensions. In this dissertation, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) for the etching of magnetic materials (NiFe, NiFeCo, CoFeB, CoSm, CoZr) and other related materials (TaN, CrSi, FeMn), which are employed for magnetic devices like magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAM), magnetic read/write heads, magnetic sensors and microactuators. This research examined the fundamental etch mechanisms occurring in high density plasma processing of magnetic materials by measuring etch rate, surface morphology and surface stoichiometry. However, one concern with using Cl2-based plasma chemistry is the effect of residual chlorine or chlorinated etch residues remaining on the sidewalls of etched features, leading to a degradation of the magnetic properties. To avoid this problem, we employed two different processing methods. The first one is applying several different cleaning procedures, including de-ionized water rinsing or in-situ exposure to H2, O2 or SF6 plasmas. Very stable magnetic properties were achieved over a period of ˜6 months except O2 plasma treated structures, with no evidence of corrosion, provided chlorinated etch residues were removed by post-etch cleaning. The second method is using non-corrosive gas chemistries such as CO/NH3 or CO2/NH3. There is a small chemical contribution to the etch mechanism (i.e. formation of metal carbonyls) as determined by a comparison with Ar and N2 physical sputtering. The discharge should be NH3

  3. High-density monolayers of metal complexes: preparation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenji; Sawamura, Masaya; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials for realizing a sustainable society. However, we may encounter problematic cases where conventional catalyst systems cannot provide effective solutions. We thus believe that the establishment of novel methods of catalyst preparation is currently necessary. Utilization of high-density monolayers of molecular metal complexes is our strategy, and we expect that this methodology will enable facile and systematic screening of unique and efficient catalysts. This Personal Account describes our challenges to establish such an immature method in catalyst preparation as well as the related background and perspective. Preparation and catalysis by high-density monolayers of Rh complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene, structurally compact phosphine and diisocyanide ligands on gold surfaces are presented. The catalytic application of a high-density Pd-bisoxazoline complex prepared on a single-crystal silicon surface is also shown. Uniquely high catalyst turnover numbers and high chemoselectivities were observed with these catalyst systems.

  4. High density tape/head interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csengery, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The high energy (H sub c approximately or = to 650 oersteds) tapes and high track density (84 tracks per inch) heads investigated had, as its goal, the definition of optimum combinations of head and tape, including the control required of their interfacial dynamics that would enable the manufacture of high rate (150 Mbps) digital tape recorders for unattended space flight.

  5. High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli with surface anchored transglucosidase for use as whole-cell biocatalyst for alpha-arbutin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Hung; Nair, Giridhar R; Chu, I-Ming; Wu, Wen-Teng

    2008-02-01

    A fed-batch culture strategy for the production of recombinant Escherichia coli cells anchoring surface-displayed transglucosidase for use as a whole-cell biocatalyst for alpha-arbutin synthesis was developed. Lactose was used as an inducer of the recombinant protein. In fed-batch cultures, dissolved oxygen was used as the feed indicator for glucose, thus accumulation of glucose and acetate that affected the cell growth and recombinant protein production was avoided. Fed-batch fermentation with lactose induction yielded a biomass of 18 g/L, and the cells possessed very high transglucosylation activity. In the synthesis of alpha-arbutin by hydroquinone glucosylation, the whole-cell biocatalysts showed a specific activity of 501 nkat/g cell and produced 21 g/L of arbutin, which corresponded to 76% molar conversion. A sixfold increased productivity of whole cell biocatalysts was obtained in the fed-batch culture with lactose induction, as compared to batch culture induced by IPTG.

  6. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  7. Reduction in the interface-states density of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on high-index Si (114) surfaces by using an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, J. De La Hidalga, J.; Gutierrez, E.

    2014-08-14

    After fabrication of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices on high-index silicon (114) surfaces, their threshold voltage (Vth) and interface-states density (Dit) characteristics were measured under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field of B = 6 μT at room temperature. The electron flow of the MOSFET's channel presents high anisotropy on Si (114), and this effect is enhanced by using an external magnetic field B, applied parallel to the Si (114) surface but perpendicular to the electron flow direction. This special configuration results in the channel electrons experiencing a Lorentzian force which pushes the electrons closer to the Si (114)-SiO{sub 2} interface and therefore to the special morphology of the Si (114) surface. Interestingly, Dit evaluation of n-type MOSFETs fabricated on Si (114) surfaces shows that the Si (114)-SiO{sub 2} interface is of high quality so that Dit as low as ∼10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2}·eV{sup −1} are obtained for MOSFETs with channels aligned at specific orientations. Additionally, using both a small positive Vds ≤ 100 mV and B = 6 μT, the former Dit is reduced by 35% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned parallel to row-like nanostructures formed atop Si (114) surfaces (channels having a 90° rotation), whereas Dit is increased by 25% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned perpendicular to these nanostructures (channels having a 0° rotation). From these results, the special morphology of a high-index Si (114) plane having nanochannels on its surface opens the possibility to reduce the electron-trapping characteristics of MOSFET devices having deep-submicron features and operating at very high frequencies.

  8. Solvation of complex surfaces via molecular density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Maximilien; Marry, Virginie; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Borgis, Daniel

    2012-12-14

    We show that classical molecular density functional theory, here in the homogeneous reference fluid approximation in which the functional is inferred from the properties of the bulk solvent, is a powerful new tool to study, at a fully molecular level, the solvation of complex surfaces and interfaces by polar solvents. This implicit solvent method allows for the determination of structural, orientational, and energetic solvation properties that are on a par with all-atom molecular simulations performed for the same system, while reducing the computer time by two orders of magnitude. This is illustrated by the study of an atomistically-resolved clay surface composed of over a thousand atoms wetted by a molecular dipolar solvent. The high numerical efficiency of the method is exploited to carry a systematic analysis of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic components of the surface-solvent interaction within the popular Clay Force Field (CLAYFF). Solvent energetics and structure are found to depend weakly upon the atomic charges distribution of the clay surface, even for a rather polar solvent. We conclude on the consequences of such findings for force-field development.

  9. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  10. Fermi surface, charge-density-wave gap, and kinks in 2H- TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossnagel, K.; Rotenberg, Eli; Koh, H.; Smith, N. V.; Kipp, L.

    2005-09-01

    The Fermi surface of the layered charge-density-wave compound 2H-TaSe2 is measured by angle-resolved photoemission as a function of temperature. A surprising Fermi-surface topology and a Fermi-surface branch-dependent charge-density-wave gap are found. In the charge-density-wave state band hybridization effects are strong and responsible for kinks in the band dispersions at relatively high binding energy. The implications of the results on the charge-density-wave mechanism are discussed.

  11. Surface impact of seeded jets at relatively large background densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Mora, J. Fernandez

    1985-04-01

    The large inertia of heavy molecules suspended in a light carrier gas is exploited in the impingement of seeded free jets against surfaces at near-continuum conditions. It emerges that the kinetic energy at impact can be close to the free stream convective kinetic energy, even at near-continuum densities, i.e., at Knudsen numbers of 10-2 or less. Thus, one can simulate collision energies previously obtained only under molecular beam conditions but with the much higher flux densities characteristic of free jets upstream of the transition to free-molecule flow. The principal design parameter in such ``high density seeded free jet'' experiments is the heavy molecule Knudsen number, analogous to the Stokes number governing the inertial impaction of aerosol particles. When the ratio of masses mp/m for the heavy and the light gases is large, the interspecies transfer of momentum and energy is rather slow, and the Stokes number is of the order of mp/m times larger than the light gas Knudsen number. Thus, there is a region in which the light gas still behaves as a continuum fluid while the heavy component penetrates through it under effectively free-molecular conditions. A hydrodynamic theory capable of predicting the distribution of impact energies for such free jets impinging on solid objects at Stokes numbers of order unity is developed.

  12. Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.

  13. The high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    During the past few years techniques have been developed for producing pinches in solid deuterium. The conditions which exist in these plasmas are quiet different from those produced earlier. The pinch is formed from a fiber of solid deuterium rather than from a low density gas, and the current is driven by a low impedance, high voltage pulse generator. Because of the high initial density, it is not necessary to compress the pinch to reach thermonuclear conditions, and the confinement time required for energy production is much shorter than for a gas. The experimental results, which have been verified by experiments performed at higher current were quite surprising and encouraging. The pinch appeared to be stable for a time much longer than the Alfven radial transit time. In this paper, however, I argue that the pinch is not strictly stable, but it does not appear to disassemble in a catastrophic fashion. It appears that there may be a distinction between stability and confinement in the high density pinch. In the discussion below I will present the status of the high density Z-pinch experiments at laboratories around the world, and I will describe some of the calculational and experimental results. I will confine my remarks to recent work on the high density pinch. 17 refs. 10 figs.

  14. High Density Diffusion-Free Nanowell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Takulapalli, Bharath R; Qiu, Ji; Magee, D. Mitchell; Kahn, Peter; Brunner, Al; Barker, Kristi; Means, Steven; Miersch, Shane; Bian, Xiaofang; Mendoza, Alex; Festa, Fernanda; Syal, Karan; Park, Jin; LaBaer, Joshua; Wiktor, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics aspires to elucidate the functions of all proteins. Protein microarrays provide an important step by enabling high-throughput studies of displayed proteins. However, many functional assays of proteins include untethered intermediates or products, which could frustrate the use of planar arrays at very high densities because of diffusion to neighboring features. The nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), is a robust, in situ synthesis method for producing functional proteins just-in-time, which includes steps with diffusible intermediates. We determined that diffusion of expressed proteins led to cross-binding at neighboring spots at very high densities with reduced inter-spot spacing. To address this limitation, we have developed an innovative platform using photolithographically-etched discrete silicon nanowells and used NAPPA as a test case. This arrested protein diffusion and cross-binding. We present confined high density protein expression and display, as well as functional protein-protein interactions, in 8,000 nanowell arrays. This is the highest density of individual proteins in nano-vessels demonstrated on a single slide. We further present proof of principle results on ultra-high density protein arrays capable of up to 24,000 nanowells on a single slide. PMID:22742968

  15. Influence of electropolishing current densities on sulfur generation at niobium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Noguchi, T.; Sawabe, M.; Saeki, T.; Hayano, H.; Kato, S.

    2013-11-01

    We report the effect of different current densities on sulfur generation at Nb surface in the electropolishing (EP) with aged electrolyte. In this regard, we conducted a series of electropolishing (EP) experiments in aged EP electrolyte with high (≈50 mA/cm2) and low (≈30 mA/cm2) current densities on Nb surfaces. The experiments were carried out both for laboratory coupons and a real Nb single cell cavity with six witness samples located at three typical positions (equator, iris and beam pipe). Sample's surfaces were investigated by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The surface analysis showed that the EP with a high current density produced a huge amount of sulfate/sulfite particles at Nb surface whereas the EP with a low current density was very helpful to mitigate sulfate/sulfite at Nb surface in both the experiments.

  16. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  17. The Surface Density Distribution in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2004-01-01

    The commonly used minimum mass power law representation of the pre-solar nebula is reanalyzed using a new cumulative-mass-model. This model predicts a smoother surface density approximation compared with methods based on direct computation of surface density. The density is quantified using two independent analytical formulations. First, a best-fit transcendental function is applied directly to the basic planetary data. Next a solution to the time-dependent disk evolution equation is parametrically adapted to the solar nebula data. The latter model is shown to be a good approximation to the finite-size early Solar Nebula, and by extension to other extra solar protoplanetary disks.

  18. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    SciTech Connect

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2010-10-10

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  19. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  20. Fabrication of very high density fuel pellets of thorium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Tetsuo; Fukuda, Kosaku

    1993-06-01

    Very high density ThO 2 pellets were prepared without binders and lubricants from the ThO 2 powder originated by the thorium oxalate, which was aimed to simplify the fabrication process by skipping a preheat treatment. The as-received ThO 2 powder with a surface area of 4.56 m 2/g was ball-milled up to about 9 m 2/g in order to increase the green pellet density as high as possible. Both of the single-sided and the double-sided pressing were tested in the range from 2 to 5 t/cm 2 in the green pellet formation. Sintering temperature was such low as 1550°C. The pellet prepared in this experiment had a very high density in the range from about 96 to 98% TD without any cracks, in which a difference of the pellet density was not recognized in the single-sided pressing methods.

  1. Modification of Surface Density of a Porous Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Espinoza, Christian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for increasing density of a region of a porous, phenolic bonded ("PPB") body adjacent to a selected surface to increase failure tensile strength of the adjacent region and/or to decrease surface recession at elevated temperatures. When the surface-densified PPB body is brought together with a substrate, having a higher failure tensile strength, to form a composite body with a PPB body/substrate interface, the location of tensile failure is moved to a location spaced apart from the interface, the failure tensile strength of the PPB body is increased, and surface recession of the material at elevated temperature is reduced. The method deposits and allows diffusion of a phenolic substance on the selected surface. The PPB body and the substrate may be heated and brought together to form the composite body. The phenolic substance is allowed to diffuse into the PPB body, to volatilize and to cure, to provide a processed body with an increased surface density.

  2. Surface ocean turbulence driven by horizontal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Surface ocean turbulence is of fundamental importance for ocean ecosystems because of its role in driving surface mixing, bringing nutrients from depth, and assisting in transferring atmospheric gases into the water. Researchers know that small-scale turbulence is a pervasive feature of the surface ocean. They also know that once established, these small eddies interact with dynamics such as gravity waves or Langmuir circulation. Identifying the underlying mechanism generating the turbulence eddies, however, has proven more difficult. Deriving a set of differential equations, Benilov found that surface turbulence grows out of an interaction between vortices driven by ocean water density inhomogeneities and surface waves.

  3. The B-ring's surface mass density from hidden density waves: Less than meets the eye?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's B ring is the most opaque ring in our Solar System, but many of its fundamental parameters, including its total mass, are not well constrained. Spiral density waves generated by mean-motion resonances with Saturn's moons provide some of the best constraints on the rings' mass density, but detecting and quantifying such waves in the B ring has been challenging because of this ring's high opacity and abundant fine-scale structure. Using a wavelet-based analyses of 17 occultations of the star γ Crucis observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to examine five density waves in the B ring. Two of these waves are generated by the Janus 2:1 and Mimas 5:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 96,427 km and 101,311 km from Saturn's center, respectively. Both of these waves can be detected in individual occultation profiles, but the multi-profile wavelet analysis reveals unexpected variations in the pattern speed of the Janus 2:1 wave that might arise from the periodic changes in Janus' orbit. The other three wave signatures are associated with the Janus 3:2, Enceladus 3:1 and Pandora 3:2 Inner Lindblad Resonances at 115,959 km, 115,207 km and 108,546 km. These waves are not visible in individual profiles, but structures with the correct pattern speeds can be detected in appropriately phase-corrected average wavelets. Estimates of the ring's surface mass density derived from these five waves fall between 40 and 140 g/cm2, even though the ring's optical depth in these regions ranges from ∼1.5 to almost 5. This suggests that the total mass of the B ring is most likely between one-third and two-thirds the mass of Saturn's moon Mimas.

  4. The interaction energy between two parallel plates with constant surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoping; Hou, Chuangye; Jin, Jun

    2003-07-15

    On the basis of Langmuir's suggestion we simplify the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and derive the relation of surface potential, potential midway, and the plate distance. Thus we obtain the interaction force and energy equations between two dissimilar plates in the case of constant surface charge density. Agreement with the exact numerical values of the interaction of dissimilar plates is good. This method may not only apply to the cases of high constant potential but to the case of high constant charge density.

  5. Unconventional High Density Vertically Aligned Conducting Polymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    CVD) method on silicon substrates using iron (Fe) on alumina as a catalyst . The as-grown A-CNT forests have a 1% volume fraction (Vf) of CNTs with...here, consisting of the anode of the conformal coating of oCVD PEDOT on A-CNTs (PEDOT/A-CNTs) and ultra-high density graphene-oxide cathode ( HD -a

  6. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Preface: High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    This special issue marks the tenth High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics conference. Over 5 days in May 2014, 130 scientists from more than 20 countries gathered in Bordeaux (France) to present and discuss developments in this relatively young field. Testifying to its now well established international dimension, this was the first meeting held outside of the USA.

  8. High-energy-density cylindrical capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. D.; Zelik, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Manufacturing technique produces high quality metalized-film cylindrical capacitors of energy density greater than 0.1 J/g uncased, using either 24-gage polyvinylidene flouride or 14-gage polycarbonate film. Components are wound wrinkle-free on hollow PTFE cores, using winding machine that applies constant dynamically controlled tension to film during winding operation.

  9. High gluon densities in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction x of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of ‘saturation’ which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the ‘saturation momentum’, that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small x gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in heavy ion collisions are briefly discussed at the end, for illustration purpose.

  10. Durable High-Density Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    The focus ion beam (FIB) micromilling process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate that the useful life of data written on silicon or gold-coated silicon to be on the order of a few thousand years without the need to rewrite the data every few years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface, much like stone cutters in ancient civilizations removed material from stone. The deeper the information is carved into the media, the longer the expected life of the information. The process can record information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 23 Gbits/square inch, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus, it is possible to record, in a human-viewable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the remaining higher density information.

  11. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  12. Global surface density variability on scales relevant to SWOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drushka, K.; Gille, S. T.; Sprintall, J.; Johnson, L.; Hoang, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to interpret SWOT measurements of sea surface height (SSH), better knowledge of the typical SSH variations on spatial scales measured by SWOT is needed. SWOT's performance will be evaluated in part based on the spectral slopes of wavenumber spectra measured from SSH, so there is a particular need to quantify wavenumber spectra globally. In the present study, we exploit historical surface density observations from shipboard thermosalinographs (TSGs), which make continuous underway measurements of temperature and salinity at 5 m depth. Though TSG measurements represent variations in the mixed layer rather than the column-integrated dynamic height variations that SWOT will sample, they nonetheless provide valuable information about where and when the ocean is energetic on the scales measured by SWOT. We use TSG data to characterize global surface density variations on horizontal scales of 2 to 150 km, with a focus on regional and seasonal patterns. Density fluctuations on these scales are found to be strongest where large-scale salinity or temperature gradients are strong, e.g. near boundary currents and river plumes. Outside of the subtropics, density variations tend to be dominated by salinity rather than temperature variability. Wavenumber spectra of surface density based on TSG data show distinctive latitudinal patterns; we discuss these in the context of predictions for quasi-geostrophy, surface quasi-geostrophy, and internal wave spectra.

  13. Testing of High Energy Density Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    extended amount of time. Secondly high potting a new capacitor allows the capacitor to go through self healing prior to high current being switched...believed that this was due to a self healing process taking place in the early shots of the capacitor. From the peak Q value, till the one hundredth...and manufacturer B’s capacitors are polypropylene metallized film capacitors. While energy density is a major concern for our tests; attributes

  14. High Energy Density Film Capacitors (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    capacitor film, and the test of our first generation prototype capacitors . II. HIGH-K POLYMER DIELECTRIC MATERIALS Commercial polypropylene (PP...metallized polypropylene energy storage capacitors ”, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30(5): 1939 (2002). [2] W. Clelland, et al., Paktron Division of...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2127 HIGH ENERGY DENSITY FILM CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) Shihai Zhang, Brian Zellers, Jim Henrish, Shawn Rockey, and Dean

  15. High-density particulate gravity currents and their internal density stratifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Hansen, Ernst W. M.; Postma, George

    2013-04-01

    High-density particulate gravity currents exhibit internal density stratifications. In the basal part of these stratified flows, high-sediment concentrations cause rheological deviations from the Newtonian turbulent flow that dominates clear water and low density conditions. Previous studies have distinguished different types of basal layers on the basis of concentration dependent differences in grain interactions. Field studies have classically linked crude stratification bands, spaced laminations, and/or abundant internal erosion surfaces to high-density particulate gravity currents. Studies of the deposits of such flows have proposed various mechanisms for this variation in depositional characteristics; however, none of these propositions has been thoroughly tested by experiments or theory. This study presents experiments of high-density turbidity currents (varying in initial sediment concentration between 9-26 vol%) moving quasi steady on an inclined bed surface in a 4 x 0.5 x 0.07 m tank. Three distinct internal flow layers were distinguished on the basis of their observed behaviour as captured by a high-speed camera. Ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) probes were used to measure the overall velocity and turbulent intensity profiles of the flows, and the change therein as a result of different stacking patterns of internal flow layers. The relation between maximum velocity, shear stress and equilibrium slope for different types of high-density layers were investigated in the experiments. Velocity and camera data were combined to study the interactions between the different flow layers over time. Small-scale fluctuations (0.2-2 seconds) were observed to have a clear control on the depositional behaviour of the flow. However, the influence of these fluctuations gradually decreased with increasing sediment concentrations as function of the different types of basal flow layers. By combining these observations with theoretical grain size sorting mechanism previous

  16. Spin Polarization in High Density Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providência, Constança; da Providência, João

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, to which it is related through a Fierz transformation. Flavor SU(2) and flavor SU(3) quark matter are considered. A second-order phase transition is predicted at densities about 5 times the normal nuclear matter density. It is also found that in flavor SU(3) quark matter, a first-order transition from the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP.

  17. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  18. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  19. Manufacture of high-density ceramic sinters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibata, Y.

    1986-01-01

    High density ceramic sinters are manufactured by coating premolded or presintered porous ceramics with a sealing material of high SiO2 porous glass or nitride glass and then sintering by hot isostatic pressing. The ceramics have excellent abrasion and corrosion resistances. Thus LC-10 (Si3N2 powder) and Y2O3-Al2O3 type sintering were mixed and molded to give a premolded porous ceramic (porosity 37%, relative bulk density 63%). The ceramic was dipped in a slurry containing high SiO2 porous glass and an alcohol solution of cellulose acetate and dried. The coated ceramic was treated in a nitrogen atmosphere and then sintered by hot isostatic pressing to give a dense ceramic sinter.

  20. Flame surface density and burning rate in premixed turbulent flames

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, I.G.

    1995-10-01

    The flame surface density has been measured in hydrocarbon/air stagnation point and v-shaped premixed turbulent flames. A method is proposed to determine the flame surface density from the data obtained by laser sheet tomography. The average flame length and flame zone area as a function of the progress variable are calculated from a map of progress variable and a set of flame edges obtained from the tomographs. From these results a surface density estimate in two dimensions is determined. By this technique it is possible to avoid the difficulties which arise when using an algebraic model based on the measurement of the flame front geometry and a scalar length scale. From these results the burning rate can be obtained which compares well with estimates calculated using the fractal technique. The present method, however, is not constrained by a minimum window size as is the case for the fractal determinations.

  1. Morphology of Highly Textured HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-29

    Abstract -High density polyethylene ( HDPE ) specimens were subjected to high orientation producing deformations below the melting point using either a...large strain plastic flow in semi- crystalline polymers, polyethylene , texture evolution. 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify...high density polyethylene supplied by the USI chemical company. Its molecular weight was M. - 55,000, with a poly- dispersity ratio M.,/M, of 4.8. The

  2. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  3. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  4. Method for Estimating the Charge Density Distribution on a Dielectric Surface.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuya; Suhara, Hiroyuki; Murata, Hidekazu; Shimoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    High-quality color output from digital photocopiers and laser printers is in strong demand, motivating attempts to achieve fine dot reproducibility and stability. The resolution of a digital photocopier depends on the charge density distribution on the organic photoconductor surface; however, directly measuring the charge density distribution is impossible. In this study, we propose a new electron optical instrument that can rapidly measure the electrostatic latent image on an organic photoconductor surface, which is a dielectric surface, as well as a novel method to quantitatively estimate the charge density distribution on a dielectric surface by combining experimental data obtained from the apparatus via a computer simulation. In the computer simulation, an improved three-dimensional boundary charge density method (BCM) is used for electric field analysis in the vicinity of the dielectric material with a charge density distribution. This method enables us to estimate the profile and quantity of the charge density distribution on a dielectric surface with a resolution of the order of microns. Furthermore, the surface potential on the dielectric surface can be immediately calculated using the obtained charge density. This method enables the relation between the charge pattern on the organic photoconductor surface and toner particle behavior to be studied; an understanding regarding the same may lead to the development of a new generation of higher resolution photocopiers.

  5. Free energies of (Co, Fe, Ni, Zn)Fe₂O₄ spinels and oxides in water at high temperatures and pressure from density functional theory: results for stoichiometric NiO and NiFe₂O₄ surfaces.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, C J; Rák, Z; Brenner, D W

    2013-11-06

    A set of effective chemical potentials (ECPs) are derived that connect energies of (Co, Fe, Ni, Zn)Fe2O4 spinels and oxides calculated at 0 K from density functional theory (DFT) to free energies in high temperature and pressure water. The ECPs are derived and validated by solving a system of linear equations that combine DFT and experimental free energies for NiO, ZnO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO(OH), CoFe2O4, ZnFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and H2O. To connect to solution phase chemistry, a set of ECPs are also derived for solvated Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions using an analogous set of linear equations and the solid ECPs. The ECPs are used to calculate free energies of low index stoichiometric surfaces of nickel oxide (NiO) and nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) in water as a function of temperature from 300 to 600 K at a pressure of 155 bar. Surface denuding at high temperatures is predicted, the implications of which for the formation of oxide corrosion products on heat transfer surfaces in light-water nuclear reactors are discussed.

  6. Saturn A ring surface mass densities from spiral density wave dispersion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, Stuart; Lane, Arthur L.; Nelson, Robert M.; Pollard, Benjamin; Russell, Christopher T.

    2004-10-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of the Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data of Saturn's A ring. The Voyager PPS observed the bright star δ Scorpii as it was occulted by Saturn's main rings during the spacecraft flyby of the Saturn system in 1981. The occultation measurement produced a ring profile with radial resolution of approximately 100 m, and radial structure is evident in the profile down to the resolution limit. We have applied an autoregressive technique to the data for estimating the power spectrum as a function of radius, which has allowed us to identify 40 spiral density waves in Saturn's A ring, associated with the strongest torques due to forcing from the moons. The majority of the detected waves are observed to disperse linearly in regions beginning a few kilometers from the resonance location. We have used the dispersion behavior for those waves to calculate local surface mass densities in the vicinity of each wave. We find that the inner three-quarters of the A ring (up to the beginning of the Encke gap) has an average surface mass density of 43.8±7.9 g cm-2, while the outer region has an average surface mass density of 28.3±10.8 g cm-2. The two regions have different mean surface mass densities with a significance of approximately 0.999993, as estimated with a T-statistic, which corresponds to about 4.5 σ. While the mean optical depth of the A ring increases slightly with increasing distance from Saturn, we find that it is not significantly correlated with the surface mass density; the two quantities having a linear Pearson's correlation coefficient of rcorr≈-0.03. The variation of mass density, independent of PPS optical depth, is consistent with previous conjectures that the particle size distribution and composition are not constant across the entire A ring, particularly in the very outer portion. We estimate the mass of Saturn's A ring from our surface mass density estimates as 4.9×10 21 gm, or 8.61×10 -9 of the mass

  7. Shaken helical track bioreactors: Providing oxygen to high-density cultures of mammalian cells at volumes up to 1000 L by surface aeration with air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; Reif, Oscar; Kocourek, Andreas; Dejesus, Maria; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2008-06-01

    A new scalable reactor was developed by applying a novel mixing principle that allows the large-scale cultivation of mammalian cells simply with surface aeration using air owing to increased liquid-gas transfer compared to standard stirred-tank bioreactors. In the cylindrical vessels (50 mL-1500 L) with a helical track attached to the inside wall, the liquid moved upward onto the track as the result of orbital shaking to increase the liquid-gas interface area significantly. This typically resulted in a 5-10-fold improvement in the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In a 1500-L helical track vessel with a working volume of 1000 L, a k(L)a of 10h(-1) was obtained at a shaking speed of 39 rpm. Cultivations of CHO cells in a shaken 55-L helical track bioreactor resulted in improved cell growth profiles compared to control cultures in standard systems. These results demonstrated the possibility of using these new bioreactors at scales of 1000 L or more.

  8. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  9. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  10. Two-color QCD at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Tamer; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-01-22

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor’kov propagator. We express the Gor’kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  11. Revisiting the Fermi Surface in Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mukunda P.; Green, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    The Fermi surface is an abstract object in the reciprocal space of a crystal lattice, enclosing the set of all those electronic band states that are filled according to the Pauli principle. Its topology is dictated by the underlying lattice structure and its volume is the carrier density in the material. The Fermi surface is central to predictions of thermal, electrical, magnetic, optical and superconducting properties in metallic systems. Density functional theory is a first-principles method used to estimate the occupied-band energies and, in particular, the isoenergetic Fermi surface. In this review we survey several key facts about Fermi surfaces in complex systems, where a proper theoretical understanding is still lacking. We address some critical difficulties.

  12. Cortical High-Density Counterstream Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Nikola T.; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery. PMID:24179228

  13. Cortical high-density counterstream architectures.

    PubMed

    Markov, Nikola T; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kennedy, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery.

  14. Quarksonic matter at high isospin density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gaoqing; He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2017-05-01

    Analogous to the quarkyonic matter at high baryon density in which the quark Fermi seas and the baryonic excitations coexist, it is argued that a “quarksonic matter” phase appears at high isospin density where the quark (antiquark) Fermi seas and the mesonic excitations coexist. We explore this phase in detail in both large N c and asymptotically free limits. In the large N c limit, we sketch a phase diagram for the quarksonic matter. In the asymptotically free limit, we study the pion superfluidity and thermodynamics of the quarksonic matter by using both perturbative calculations and an effective model. Supported by Thousand Young Talents Program of China, Shanghai Natural Science Foundation, (14ZR1403000) and NSFC (11535012), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (KLH1512072)

  15. Crystallization of High Bulk Density Nitroguanidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AD AD-E403 332 Technical Report ARMET-TR-10045 CRYSTALLIZATION OF HIGH BULK DENSITY NITROGUANIDINE Ruslan Mudryy Reddy Damavarapu Victor ...NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Ruslan Mudryy, Reddy Damavarapu, and Victor Stepanov, ARDEC Raghunath Haider, Stevens Institute of Technology 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...automated apparatus manufactured by Mettler Toledo , model RC-1. The apparatus consists of a 1-L jacketed glass vessel with automatic controls for stirring

  16. High bone density and bone health.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Karin Sedó; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Medeiros; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the main aspects related to high bone density (HBD) as well as to discuss the physiologic mechanisms involved in bone health. There are still no well-defined criteria for identification of individuals with HBD and there are few studies on the topic. Most studies demonstrate that overweight, male gender, black ethnic background, physical activity, calcium and fluoride intake and use of medications such as statins and thiazide diuretics play a relevant and positive role on bone mineral density. Moreover, it is known that individuals with certain diseases such as obesity, diabetes, estrogen receptor-positive breast or endometrial cancer have greater bone density than healthy individuals, as well as athletes having higher bone density than non-athletes does not necessarily mean that they have healthy bones. A better understanding of risk and protective factors may help in the management of patients with bone frailty and have applicability in the treatment and in the prevention of osteoporosis, especially intervening on non-modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. High Temperature Surface Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    yttrium sulfide. Surface segregation studies were conducted employing Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) coupled with cyclic oxidation experiments...temperature (530*C) in air. The early stages of oxidation were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with depth profiling using inert gas ion...basicity at 927 ’C are shown in Figure 7 . The purpose of such studies is to mfnlmize hot corrosion reactions by selection of an alloy or coating which is

  18. The central surface density of `dark haloes' predicted by MOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2009-09-01

    Prompted by the recent claim, by Donato et al., of a quasi-universal central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, I look at what MOND has to say on the subject. MOND, indeed, predicts a quasi-universal value of this quantity for objects of all masses and of any internal structure, provided they are mostly in the Newtonian regime; i.e. their mean acceleration is at or above a0. The predicted value is γΣM, with ΣM ≡ a0/2πG = 138(a0/1.2 × 10-8cms-2)Msolarpc-2 and γ is a constant of the order of 1 that depends only on the form of the MOND interpolating function. For the nominal value of a0, log(ΣM/Msolarpc-2) = 2.14, which is consistent with that found by Doanato et al. of 2.15 +/- 0.2. MOND predicts, on the other hand, that this quasi-universal value is not shared by objects with much lower mean accelerations. It permits halo central surface densities that are arbitrarily small, if the mean acceleration inside the object is small enough. However, for such low-surface-density objects, MOND predicts a halo surface density that scales as the square root of the baryonic one, and so the range of the former is much compressed relative to the latter. This explains, in part, the finding of Donato et al. that the universal value applies to low-acceleration systems as well. Looking at literature results for a number of the lowest surface density disc galaxies with rotation curve analysis, I find that, indeed, their halo surface densities are systematically lower then the above `universal' value. The prediction of ΣM as an upper limit, and accumulation value, of halo central surface densities pertains, unlike most other MOND predictions, to a pure `halo' property, not to a relation between baryonic and `dark matter' properties.

  19. Goethite surface reactivity: II. A microscopic site-density model that describes its surface area-normalized variability.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Mario; Cheney, Marcos A; Alcaraz-Cienfuegos, Jorge

    2009-08-15

    The model described in this investigation explains the variable macroscopic surface reactivity of different goethite preparations when adsorption data are normalized by surface area, especially the high reactivity of low specific surface area goethites. A simplified model of crystalline face distributions for each of the goethite preparations, in combination with experimental maximum chromate adsorption values previously determined, allowed a crystallographic site-density analysis that would explain the latter values. In addition, a surface complexation modeling approach was coupled to the previous model and provided individual affinity constants for proton and ion binding for singly, doubly, and triply coordinated surface sites. The proposed microscopic model is able to accurately describe the macroscopic adsorption behavior of protons, carbonate, chromate, and lead(II) ions on three goethites of specific surface areas of 50, 70, and 94 m(2)/g, using the same affinity constants. The model results indicate that the surface of high specific surface area nanoparticulate goethites may be described mostly as a combination of (1 0 1) and (0 0 1) faces, with reactive singly and triply coordinated surface oxygen sites; while the model for low specific surface area goethites requires, in addition to one of the above faces, a variable but high degree of (0 1 0)/(2 1 0) faces containing high surface densities of reactive singly and doubly coordinated oxygen groups. The model is potentially very useful and may be applied to any goethite provided its maximum ion adsorption capacity and proton charging behavior are known.

  20. Improved DFT Potential Energy Surfaces via Improved Densities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Park, Hansol; Son, Suyeon; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron

    2015-10-01

    Density-corrected DFT is a method that cures several failures of self-consistent semilocal DFT calculations by using a more accurate density instead. A novel procedure employs the Hartree-Fock density to bonds that are more severely stretched than ever before. This substantially increases the range of accurate potential energy surfaces obtainable from semilocal DFT for many heteronuclear molecules. We show that this works for both neutral and charged molecules. We explain why and explore more difficult cases, for example, CH(+), where density-corrected DFT results are even better than sophisticated methods like CCSD. We give a simple criterion for when DC-DFT should be more accurate than self-consistent DFT that can be applied for most cases.

  1. The use of low density high accuracy (LDHA) data for correction of high density low accuracy (HDLA) point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Michal Bartosz; Wozniak, Adam; Mayer, J. R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Coordinate measuring techniques rely on computer processing of coordinate values of points gathered from physical surfaces using contact or non-contact methods. Contact measurements are characterized by low density and high accuracy. On the other hand optical methods gather high density data of the whole object in a short time but with accuracy at least one order of magnitude lower than for contact measurements. Thus the drawback of contact methods is low density of data, while for non-contact methods it is low accuracy. In this paper a method for fusion of data from two measurements of fundamentally different nature: high density low accuracy (HDLA) and low density high accuracy (LDHA) is presented to overcome the limitations of both measuring methods. In the proposed method the concept of virtual markers is used to find a representation of pairs of corresponding characteristic points in both sets of data. In each pair the coordinates of the point from contact measurements is treated as a reference for the corresponding point from non-contact measurement. Transformation enabling displacement of characteristic points from optical measurement to their match from contact measurements is determined and applied to the whole point cloud. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by comparison with data from a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Three surfaces were used for this evaluation: plane, turbine blade and engine cover. For the planar surface the achieved improvement was of around 200 μm. Similar results were obtained for the turbine blade but for the engine cover the improvement was smaller. For both freeform surfaces the improvement was higher for raw data than for data after creation of mesh of triangles.

  2. Structures of High Density Molecular Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, B; Cynn, H; Iota, V; Yoo, C-S

    2002-02-01

    The goal of this proposal is to develop an in-situ probe for high density molecular fluids. We will, therefore, use Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) applied to laser heated samples in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) to investigate molecular fluids at simultaneous conditions of high temperatures (T > 2000K) and high pressures (P > 10 GPa.) Temperatures sufficient to populate vibrational levels above the ground state will allow the vibrational potential to be mapped by CARS. A system capable of heating and probing these samples will be constructed. Furthermore, the techniques that enable a sample to be sufficiently heated and probed while held at static high pressure in a diamond-anvil-cell will be developed. This will be an in-situ investigation of simple molecules under conditions relevant to the study of detonation chemistry and the Jovain planet interiors using state of the art non-linear spectroscopy, diamond-anvil-cells, and laser heating technology.

  3. Surfaces of Homopolar Amorphous Semiconductors: Definition, Characterization, and Density of Surface States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Daniel Lee

    To rigorously investigate the contribution of surfaces to the density of electronic states of a-Si (Ge), and the effect of the topology on the density of surface states, a surface for amorphous homopolar tetrahedral solids is defined. Continuous random network models are statistically analyzed for homogeneity. Various possible surfaces generated from these models are examined with the result that a spherical surface is found to be most representative of a surface from a homogeneous infinite amorphous solid. The homopolar amorphous surface is characterized by a wealth of steric and dangling bond configurations. Surface atoms can have one, two, or three dangling bonds, and can have from zero to three nearest neighbor surface atoms. The density of dangling bonds is 0.106 bonds/(ANGSTROM)('2). Reconstruction enables a 96% reduction in the density of dangling bonds. The ring structure of the surface atoms is significantly different from the ring structure of the bulk atoms. The topological effects on the density of surface states is exhaustively treated using a s-band Hamiltonian. Rings of different sizes uniquely contribute to the density of states. Other topological properties, such as multiple dangling bonds per surface atom and near neighbor surface atoms are treated. The effects on the density of states by the surface in the valence band and energy gap of a tetrahedral solid is investigated using a two parameter Hamiltonian. The local and configuration averaged density of states are computed for the dangling bond and four back bond hybrids. The ring structure affects the density of surface states in the valence band, but not the more localized energy gap states. The antibonding spectral feature in the energy gap deriving from surface atoms with two or three dangling bonds is independent of all topological effects, while the bonding spectral feature from these same surface atoms is not. The spectral feature due to surface atoms with only one dangling bond is also

  4. High density scintillating glass proton imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, C. J.; Goranson, K.; Turney, A.; Xie, Q.; Tillman, I. J.; Thune, Z. L.; Dong, A.; Pritchett, D.; McInally, W.; Potter, A.; Wang, D.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, proton therapy has achieved remarkable precision in delivering doses to cancerous cells while avoiding healthy tissue. However, in order to utilize this high precision treatment, greater accuracy in patient positioning is needed. An accepted approximate uncertainty of +/-3% exists in the current practice of proton therapy due to conversions between x-ray and proton stopping power. The use of protons in imaging would eliminate this source of error and lessen the radiation exposure of the patient. To this end, this study focuses on developing a novel proton-imaging detector built with high-density glass scintillator. The model described herein contains a compact homogeneous proton calorimeter composed of scintillating, high density glass as the active medium. The unique geometry of this detector allows for the measurement of both the position and residual energy of protons, eliminating the need for a separate set of position trackers in the system. Average position and energy of a pencil beam of 106 protons is used to reconstruct the image rather than by analyzing individual proton data. Simplicity and efficiency were major objectives in this model in order to present an imaging technique that is compact, cost-effective, and precise, as well as practical for a clinical setting with pencil-beam scanning proton therapy equipment. In this work, the development of novel high-density glass scintillator and the unique conceptual design of the imager are discussed; a proof-of-principle Monte Carlo simulation study is performed; preliminary two-dimensional images reconstructed from the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  5. Simulating irradiation power density on body surface in postmortem cooling.

    PubMed

    Mall, Gita; Hubig, Michael; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    Irradiation poses a major problem to determining the time since death by temperature-based methods. Neither empirical nor heat-flow postmortem cooling models have so far been able to assess irradiation. Heat-flow models seem overall better suited to calculate irradiation because of their direct relation to the physics of heat transfer. An implementation of irradiation boundary conditions in heat-transfer models requires the knowledge of the irradiation power density on the body surface. The present study develops formulae and implements them in a computer program to simulate the radiation power density on a semi-cylindrical body surface coming from irradiation by a rectangular radiant heater nearby or from the sun. The formulae are valid for deliberate geometrical arrangements of either body and radiant heater or body and sun. In case of the radiant heater scenario shading functions for the shading of the semi-cylinder by itself and by the rear panel of the radiant heater are developed. In case of the sun scenario only the shading by the semi-cylinder is relevant. In examplary analyses of typical irradiation scenarios the power density coming from a 2000W radiant heater nearby on the body surface amounted to a maximum of 418W/m2, the radiation power density originating from sunlight on a clear summer afternoon in middle-Europe amounted to a maximum of 422W/m2.

  6. Effect of Growth Parameters and Substrate Surface Preparation for High-Density Vertical GaAs/GaAsSb Core-Shell Nanowires on Silicon with Photoluminescence Emission at 1.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan Kumar; Ojha, Sai Krishna; Sami, Shifat Us; Lewis Reynolds, C.; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2016-04-01

    GaAs/GaAsSb nanowire (NW) arrays are ideally suited to meet the demands of the next generation infrared (IR) photodetectors with potential for improving detection. NWs in a core-shell geometry have the advantage of providing axial direction for a long optical path for enhanced optical absorption and a short radial path for charge diffusion and collection. For the Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of vertical, dense and uniform GaAs core NWs on Si (111), the effects of substrate surface preparation in combination with growth parameter variation were examined. On the epiready substrate without any surface preparation, both initial Ga shutter opening duration and V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio play a vital role in achieving almost all vertical NWs with moderate density ~107 cm-2. Also the spatial uniformity of the NWs was poor. Substrate surface preparation by chemical cleaning followed by oxidation in air led to highly vertical and uniform NWs with high density (8 × 108 cm-2). The GaAsSb shell was then successfully grown around the highly dense and vertical core GaAs NWs at growth temperatures ranging from 550°C to 590°C. It was found that growth temperature has a strong influence on Sb incorporation in the NWs and, hence, the NW morphology and 4K photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The presence of x-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to (111) reflection only and its higher-order reflections attest to the vertical alignment of NWs. Strain in the NWs as estimated using the Williamson-Hall isotropic strain model increases with Sb incorporation, which results in bending of the NWs with increasing Sb. Structural properties of these NWs using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are also presented. The temperature dependence PL of the NWs exhibited "S-curve" behavior, which is a well-known signature of localized excitons and a room temperature band edge PL emission occurring at ~1.3 μm.

  7. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Helmholtz free energy of fluid hydrogen at high density and high temperature is developed. This model aims at describing both pressure and temperature dissociation and ionization and bears directly on equations of state of partially ionized plasmas, as encountered in astrophysical situations and high-pressure experiments. This paper focuses on a mixture of hydrogen atoms and molecules and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of pressure dissociation at finite temperatures. In the present model, the strong interactions are described with realistic potentials and are computed with a modified Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluid perturbation theory that reproduces Monte Carlo simulations to better than 3 percent. Theoretical Hugoniot curves derived from the model are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  8. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Helmholtz free energy of fluid hydrogen at high density and high temperature is developed. This model aims at describing both pressure and temperature dissociation and ionization and bears directly on equations of state of partially ionized plasmas, as encountered in astrophysical situations and high-pressure experiments. This paper focuses on a mixture of hydrogen atoms and molecules and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of pressure dissociation at finite temperatures. In the present model, the strong interactions are described with realistic potentials and are computed with a modified Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluid perturbation theory that reproduces Monte Carlo simulations to better than 3 percent. Theoretical Hugoniot curves derived from the model are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  9. Surprises in High Energy Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Teller's work on what is now called High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) is not so well known as some of his work in other areas of physics. Yet he made substantial contributions since the 1940s and the models that he developed and the problems that he worked on are still relevant today. In this talk we shall look at two major areas in HEDP with the first treated more historically and the second more with a view to recent work that the author and others have undertaken which perhaps indicates future directions.

  10. High-Density-Tape Casting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Centrifuge packs solids from slurry into uniform, dense layer. New system produces tapes of nearly theoretical packing density. Centrifugal system used to cast thin tapes for capacitors, fuel cells, and filters. Cylindrical rotary casting chamber mounted on high-speed bearings and connected to motor. Liquid for vapor-pressure control and casting slurry introduced from syringes through rotary seal. During drying step, liquid and vapor vented through feed tubes or other openings. Laminated tapes produced by adding more syringes to cast additional layers of different materials.

  11. High density circuit technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  12. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  13. Excess densities and equimolar surfaces for spherical cavities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, Franca Maria

    2007-02-01

    For hard spheres with a radius up to 10Å in TIP4P water under ambient conditions, the author studies how the excess number of molecules at the accessible surface depends on the radius of the cavity. Simulation results derived from excess volumes are discussed in terms of radial distribution functions (rdfs), which compare well with extended simple point charge and theoretical rdfs from the literature. The excess number of molecules at the accessible surface inserted in the expression which refers to an arbitrary dividing surface enables one to find the position of the equimolar surface. The surface tension corresponding to this dividing surface was obtained from values of the free energy of cavity formation. For radii in the range of the simulation data, its behavior with curvature is quite different from that usually shown in the literature. A model, which describes how the excess number of molecules at the accessible surface changes with the radius, is discussed in the large length limit by examining consistent rdfs described by a simple analytical form. The inclusion in the model of a logarithmic term has also been considered. Comparison with theoretical results from the literature shows a good agreement for a cavity with a radius of 20Å. For a radius of 100Å and beyond, the model predicts instead sharper density profiles. Such differences have a poor effect on the surface tension at the equimolar surface.

  14. Measuring Protoplanetary Disk Gas Surface Density Profiles with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor

    2016-10-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M gas = 0.048 M ⊙, and accretion disk characteristic size R c = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2-1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [12CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2-1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 M Jup at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2-0.″3 and integration times of ˜20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R c to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  15. High Energy Density Matter for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrick, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) program is to identify, develop, and exploit high energy atomic and molecular systems as energetic sources for rocket propulsion applications. It is a high risk, high payoff program that incorporates both basic and applied research, experimental and theoretical efforts, and science and engineering efforts. The HEDM program is co-sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Phillips Laboratory (PURKS). It includes both in-house and contracted University/Industry efforts. Technology developed by the HEDM program offers the opportunity for significant breakthroughs in propulsion system capabilities over the current state-of-the-art. One area of great interest is the use of cryogenic solids to increase the density of the propellant and to act as a stable matrix for storage of energetic materials. No cryogenic solid propellant has ever been used in a rocket, and there remain engineering challenges to such a propellant. However, these solids would enable a wide class of highly energetic materials by providing an environment that is at very low temperatures and is a physical barrier to recombination or energy loss reactions. Previous to our experiments only hydrogen atoms had been isolated in solid hydrogen. To date we have succeeded in trapping B, Al, Li, N, and Mg atoms in solid H2. Small molecules, such as B2 and LiB, are also of interest. Current efforts involve the search for new energetic small molecules, increasing free radical concentrations up to 5 mole percent, and scale-up for propulsion testing.

  16. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  17. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Natalie; Taylor Mitchell, Shelby; Neumann, Christof; Bowers, Amanda; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with ≈2–3 μm average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (≈6–9 μm diameter) which often coalesced to form nonspherical μm-sized units. Both, low- and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp2-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp3-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp3 connections in their surface network. PMID:28144554

  18. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density.

    PubMed

    Frese, Natalie; Taylor Mitchell, Shelby; Neumann, Christof; Bowers, Amanda; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with ≈2-3 μm average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (≈6-9 μm diameter) which often coalesced to form nonspherical μm-sized units. Both, low- and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp(2)-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp(3)-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp(3) connections in their surface network.

  19. Density functional study of the stability of various α-Bi2O3 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan-Hua; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2013-02-07

    Bi(2)O(3) is an important metal oxide in catalysis. In this paper we employed density functional theory and slab model to investigate the surface energies and structures of various α-Bi(2)O(3) surfaces. We first studied ten different terminations along [100] direction which has both polar and nonpolar terminations due to alternating stacking of Bi layers and O layers. Our calculated surface free energies show that the stoichiometric symmetric terminations are most stable at both high and low oxygen pressures, followed by the T(2O)/T(4O) terminations at low/high oxygen pressures. In the low Miller index planes, the (010) plane is the most stable whereas the (110) plane is the least stable. Analyses reveal that relaxation may change the surface structures significantly and there is a nice linear relationship between the surface density of broken short Bi-O bonds and the surface energy before relaxation.

  20. High Energy Density aluminum/oxygen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell, an example of which is the metal/air cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, with high energy and power densities, environmentally acceptable and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum/oxygen system is currently under development for a prototype unmanned, undersea vehicle (UUV) for the US navy and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys, and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from 5 to 150 mA/cm 2 have been identified, such materials being essential to realize mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 h in a large scale, half-cell system.

  1. High energy density aluminum-oxygen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    1993-11-01

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell. An example of this is the metal-air fuel cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, having high energy and power densities, being environmentally acceptable, and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum-oxygen system is currently under development for a UUV test vehicle, and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from S to 150 mA/sq cm have been identified. These materials are essential to realizing an acceptable mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 hours in a large scale, half-cell system.

  2. High energy density aluminum-oxygen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell. An example of this is the metal-air fuel cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, having high energy and power densities, being environmentally acceptable, and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum-oxygen system is currently under development for a UUV test vehicle, and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from S to 150 mA/sq cm have been identified. These materials are essential to realizing an acceptable mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 hours in a large scale, half-cell system.

  3. A Robust High Current Density Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, F.; Peter, W.; Shiloh, J.; Len, L. K.

    1996-11-01

    Proof-of-principle experiments are proposed to validate a new concept for a robust, high-current density Pierce electron gun (RPG) for use in klystrons and high brightness electron sources for accelerators. This rugged, long-life electron gun avoids the difficulties associated with plasma cathodes, thermionic emitters, and field emission cathodes. The RPG concept employs the emission of secondary electrons in a transmission mode as opposed to the conventional mode of reflection, i.e., electrons exit from the back face of a thin negative electron affinity (NEA) material, and in the same direction as the incident beam. Current amplification through one stage of a NEA material could be over 50 times. The amplification is accomplished in one or more stages consisting of one primary emitter and one or more secondary emitters. The primary emitter is a low current density robust emitter (e.g., thoriated tungsten). The secondary emitters are thin NEA electrodes which emit secondary electrons in the same direction as the incident beam. Specific application is targeted for a klystron gun to be used by SLAC with a cold cathode at 30-40 amps/cm^2 output from the secondary emission stage, a ~2 μs pulse length, and ~200 pulses/second.

  4. Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

  5. Ultralow energy ion beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C

    2005-12-01

    Ultralow energy Ar+ and O+ ion beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ ions at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low energy (20 eV) oxygen ions there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ ions in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the ion energy. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the ion flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low energy ions (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.

  6. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

    2008-08-11

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

  7. Density functional theory for the recognition of polymer at nanopatterned surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houyang; Ye, Zhencheng; Peng, Changjun; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying

    2006-11-01

    The recognition of homopolymer at nanopatterned surface has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). Chain conformation and pattern transfer parameter predicted from the DFT are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation results. The theory describes satisfactorily the transition from depletion at low packing fractions to adsorption and double-layer adsorption at high packing fractions and also accounts for the crucial effect of the segment-wall interaction. It is found that homopolymer is better recognized at a low bulk density and a stronger interaction with the surface. The polymer can not only recognize the surface but also invert the surface at high bulk densities. The chain in the solution-wall interface exhibits a typical "brush" conformation with a length approximated by half the length of polymer chain.

  8. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  9. Characteristics of density currents over regular and irregular rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, K.

    2013-12-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used as a tool to understand the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of density currents. Simulations have been performed for lock-exchange flow with gate separating the dense and the lighter fluid. As the lock is released the dense fluid collapses with the lighter fluid on the top, resulting in formation of horizontally evolving density current. The talk will focus on the fundamental differences between the propagation of the density current over regular and irregular rough surfaces. The flow statistics and the flow structures are discussed. The results have revealed the spacing between the roughness elements is an important factor in classifying the density currents. The empirical relations of the front velocity and location for the dense and sparse roughness have been evaluated in terms of the roughness height, spacing between the elements and the initial amount of lock fluid. DNS results for a dense current flowing over a (a) smooth and (b) rough bottom with egg-carton roughness elements in a regular configuration. In these simulations the lock-exchange box is located in the middle of the channel and has two gates which allow two dense currents to be generated, one moving to the right and one to the left side of the channel. Note how the dense current interface presents smaller structures when over a rough bottom (right).

  10. SURFACE SYMMETRY ENERGY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONALS

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, N; Schunck, N; Nazarewicz, W; Bender, M; Pei, J

    2010-12-20

    We study the bulk deformation properties of the Skyrme nuclear energy density functionals. Following simple arguments based on the leptodermous expansion and liquid drop model, we apply the nuclear density functional theory to assess the role of the surface symmetry energy in nuclei. To this end, we validate the commonly used functional parametrizations against the data on excitation energies of superdeformed band-heads in Hg and Pb isotopes, and fission isomers in actinide nuclei. After subtracting shell effects, the results of our self-consistent calculations are consistent with macroscopic arguments and indicate that experimental data on strongly deformed configurations in neutron-rich nuclei are essential for optimizing future nuclear energy density functionals. The resulting survey provides a useful benchmark for further theoretical improvements. Unlike in nuclei close to the stability valley, whose macroscopic deformability hangs on the balance of surface and Coulomb terms, the deformability of neutron-rich nuclei strongly depends on the surface-symmetry energy; hence, its proper determination is crucial for the stability of deformed phases of the neutron-rich matter and description of fission rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  11. High-density fiber optic biosensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Jason R.; Walt, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Novel approaches are required to coordinate the immense amounts of information derived from diverse genomes. This concept has influenced the expanded role of high-throughput DNA detection and analysis in the biological sciences. A high-density fiber optic DNA biosensor was developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1 mm diameter microspheres deposited into the etched wells on the distal face of a 500 micrometers imaging fiber bundle. Imaging fiber bundles containing thousands of optical fibers, each associated with a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence, were the foundation for an optically connected, individually addressable DNA detection platform. Different oligonucleotide-functionalized microspheres were combined in a stock solution, and randomly dispersed into the etched wells. Microsphere positions were registered from optical dyes incorporated onto the microspheres. The distribution process provided an inherent redundancy that increases the signal-to-noise ratio as the square root of the number of sensors examined. The representative amount of each probe-type in the array was dependent on their initial stock solution concentration, and as other sequences of interest arise, new microsphere elements can be added to arrays without altering the existing detection capabilities. The oligonucleotide probe sequences hybridize to fluorescently-labeled, complementary DNA target solutions. Fiber optic DNA microarray research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons, and single cell-based assays. This biosensor array is proficient in DNA detection linked to specific disease states, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) discrimination, and gene expression analysis. This array platform permits multiple detection formats, provides smaller feature sizes, and enables sensor design flexibility. High-density fiber optic microarray biosensors provide a fast

  12. Orbital nodal surfaces: Topological challenges for density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschebrock, Thilo; Armiento, Rickard; Kümmel, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Nodal surfaces of orbitals, in particular of the highest occupied one, play a special role in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The exact Kohn-Sham exchange potential, for example, shows a protruding ridge along such nodal surfaces, leading to the counterintuitive feature of a potential that goes to different asymptotic limits in different directions. We show here that nodal surfaces can heavily affect the potential of semilocal density-functional approximations. For the functional derivatives of the Armiento-Kümmel (AK13) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 036402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.036402] and Becke88 [Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevA.38.3098] energy functionals, i.e., the corresponding semilocal exchange potentials, as well as the Becke-Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 221101 (2006), 10.1063/1.2213970] and van Leeuwen-Baerends (LB94) [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.2421] model potentials, we explicitly demonstrate exponential divergences in the vicinity of nodal surfaces. We further point out that many other semilocal potentials have similar features. Such divergences pose a challenge for the convergence of numerical solutions of the Kohn-Sham equations. We prove that for exchange functionals of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) form, enforcing correct asymptotic behavior of the potential or energy density necessarily leads to irregular behavior on or near orbital nodal surfaces. We formulate constraints on the GGA exchange enhancement factor for avoiding such divergences.

  13. High-Density Nanosharp Microstructures Enable Efficient CO2 Electroreduction.

    PubMed

    Saberi Safaei, Tina; Mepham, Adam; Zheng, Xueli; Pang, Yuanjie; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Liu, Min; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-11-09

    Conversion of CO2 to CO powered by renewable electricity not only reduces CO2 pollution but also is a means to store renewable energy via chemical production of fuels from CO. However, the kinetics of this reaction are slow due its large energetic barrier. We have recently reported CO2 reduction that is considerably enhanced via local electric field concentration at the tips of sharp gold nanostructures. The high local electric field enhances CO2 concentration at the catalytic active sites, lowering the activation barrier. Here we engineer the nucleation and growth of next-generation Au nanostructures. The electroplating overpotential was manipulated to generate an appreciably increased density of honed nanoneedles. Using this approach, we report the first application of sequential electrodeposition to increase the density of sharp tips in CO2 electroreduction. Selective regions of the primary nanoneedles are passivated using a thiol SAM (self-assembled monolayer), and then growth is concentrated atop the uncovered high-energy planes, providing new nucleation sites that ultimately lead to an increase in the density of the nanosharp structures. The two-step process leads to a new record in CO2 to CO reduction, with a geometric current density of 38 mA/cm(2) at -0.4 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), and a 15-fold improvement over the best prior reports of electrochemical surface area (ECSA) normalized current density.

  14. High-Energy-Density Shear Flow and Instability Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Merritt, E. C.; di Stefano, C. A.; Devolder, B. G.; Kurien, S.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    High-energy-density shear experiments have been performed by LANL at the OMEGA Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments have been simulated using the LANL radiation-hydrocode RAGE and have been used to assess turbulence models' ability to function in the high-energy-density, inertial-fusion-relevant regime. Beginning with the basic configuration of two counter-oriented shock-driven flows of > 100 km/s, which initiate a strong shear instability across an initially solid-density, 20 μm thick Al plate, variations of the experiment to details of the initial conditions have been performed. These variations have included increasing the fluid densities (by modifying the plate material from Al to Ti and Cu), imposing sinusoidal seed perturbations on the plate, and directly modifying the plate's intrinsic surface roughness. Radiography of the unseeded layer has revealed the presence of emergent Kelvin-Helmholtz structures which may be analyzed to infer fluid-mechanical properties including turbulent energy density. This work is conducted by the US DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  16. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  17. High Density Mastering Using Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshiaki; Kitahara, Hiroaki; Kasono, Osamu; Katsumura, Masahiro; Wada, Yasumitsu

    1998-04-01

    A mastering system for the next-generation digital versatile disk (DVD) is required to have a higher resolution compared with the conventional mastering systems. We have developed an electron beam mastering machine which features a thermal field emitter and a vacuum sealed air spindle motor. Beam displacement caused by magnetic fluctuation with spindle rotation was about 60 nm(p-p) in both the radial and tangential directions. Considering the servo gain of a read-out system, it has little influence on the read-out signal in terms of tracking errors and jitters. The disk performance was evaluated by recording either the 8/16 modulation signal or a groove on the disk. The electron beam recording showed better jitter values from the disk playback than those from a laser beam recorder. The deviation of track pitch was 44 nm(p-p). We also confirmed the high density recording with a capacity reaching 30 GB.

  18. Ground state of high-density matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  19. Monostatic and bistatic scattering from a density contrast surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillade, C.; Clay, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    Chu's formalism for the impulse response of a point source to a density contrast isovelocity wedge [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1883-1896 (1989)] is of significant practical importance, since it facilitates the extension of wedge diffraction boundary scattering models to rough penetrable surfaces. The method is used here to study scattering from an experimental surface described by Li et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3715-3720 (1994)]. The geometry contains both interior and exterior wedges, and allows the diffracted scattering component to be studied independently of the reflected component. For density contrast values which emulate rigid boundary conditions, the formalism correctly models the experimental results, and duplicates predictions of the Biot-Tolstoy solution for a rigid wedge [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 381-391 (1957)]. The formalism is then used to investigate an assumption commonly made in boundary scattering work, i.e., that scattering levels can be effectively estimated by scaling the predictions of a rigid surface scattering model by the reflectivity of the surface. The results suggest that the assymption is most valid for monostatic (backscattering) configurations, and less good for bistatic cases, with increasing differences occurring between interior and exterior wedge geometries. [Work supported by ONR.

  20. Surface measurement system for the atmospheric electrical vertical conduction current density, with displacement current density correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, A. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    Global thunderstorm and shower cloud activity generate the global electric potential difference between the Earth's surface and the lower ionosphere. The finite conductivity of atmospheric air, which arises from cosmic ray and natural radioactive ionisation, permits a vertical conduction current density (~1 pA m-2) between the lower ionosphere and the surface during fair-weather conditions; this current provides a physical link between the upper and lower atmospheres. A new instrument system is described to measure the conduction current density at the surface (the "air-Earth current"), which operates on a novel principle using two collecting electrodes of different geometry. Simultaneous measurements from two independent co-located systems using the geometrical principle show close agreement (correlation of 0.96 during 2.5 h of 5 min measurements). The sensor design described is durable and successful measurements in fair and disturbed weather have been obtained in air temperatures between -6 and 35 °C, relative humidity between 44% and 100%, fog, rain and snowfall. The uncertainty in conduction current density determinations is 0.20 pA m-2.

  1. Laser Direct Routing for High Density Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Wilfrido Alejandro

    The laser restructuring of electronic circuits fabricated using standard Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) process techniques, is an excellent alternative that allows low-cost quick turnaround production with full circuit similarity between the Laser Restructured prototype and the customized product for mass production. Laser Restructurable VLSI (LRVLSI) would allow design engineers the capability to interconnect cells that implement generic logic functions and signal processing schemes to achieve a higher level of design complexity. LRVLSI of a particular circuit at the wafer or packaged chip level is accomplished using an integrated computer controlled laser system to create low electrical resistance links between conductors and to cut conductor lines. An infrastructure for rapid prototyping and quick turnaround using Laser Restructuring of VLSI circuits was developed to meet three main parallel objectives: to pursue research on novel interconnect technologies using LRVLSI, to develop the capability of operating in a quick turnaround mode, and to maintain standardization and compatibility with commercially available equipment for feasible technology transfer. The system is to possess a high degree of flexibility, high data quality, total controllability, full documentation, short downtime, a user-friendly operator interface, automation, historical record keeping, and error indication and logging. A specially designed chip "SLINKY" was used as the test vehicle for the complete characterization of the Laser Restructuring system. With the use of Design of Experiment techniques the Lateral Diffused Link (LDL), developed originally at MIT Lincoln Laboratories, was completely characterized and for the first time a set of optimum process parameters was obtained. With the designed infrastructure fully operational, the priority objective was the search for a substitute for the high resistance, high current leakage to substrate, and relatively low density Lateral

  2. Infrared imaging of high density protein arrays.

    PubMed

    De Meutter, Joëlle; Vandenameele, Julie; Matagne, André; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2017-04-10

    We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of data on the spotted sample (protein secondary structure, phosphorylation, glycosylation, presence of impurities, etc.). In the present work, 100 μm protein spots each containing about 100 pg protein were deposited to form high density regular arrays. Using arrays of infrared detectors, high resolution images could be obtained where each pixel of the image is in fact a full infrared spectrum. With microarrays, hundreds of experimental conditions can be tested easily and quickly, with no further labelling or chemistry of any kind. We describe how the noise present in the infrared spectra can be split into image noise and detector noise. We also detail how both types of noise can be most conveniently dealt with to generate very high quality spectra of less than 100 pg protein. Finally, the results suggest that the protein secondary structure is preserved during microarray building.

  3. Optical determination of surface density in oriented metalloprotein nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.G.; Bohn, P.W.; Sligar, S.G. )

    1993-06-01

    In the current work we circumvent a difficulty in estimating surface coverage by noting that iron-porphyrin proteins in solution have been assayed spectrophotometrically after conversion to pyridine hemochromes. By comparing the total adsorbance obtained from direct absorption measurements of oriented metalloprotein layers on SiO[sub 2] at the Soret resonance (410 nm in cytochrome b[sub 5]) to the total number density of surface protein, obtained from subsequent pyridine hemochrome assay (PHCA) analysis, the apparent surface molar absorptivity is obtained directly. In this correspondence we report the use of the PHCA to determine the surface molar absorptivity for oriented arrays of cytochrome b[sub 5] mutants. The heme is completely dissociated from the surface cytochrome b[sub 5] and converted to the reduced pyridine hemochrome in solution. Subsequently, the absorbance of reduced species in solution is determined colorimetrically. From the correlation of the absorbance of reduced hemochrome to the standard curve obtained from pyridine hemochrome assay of solution cytochrome b[sub 5], the surface concentration is estimated. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Density functional theories of surface interactions in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Jan

    2009-02-14

    Most current density functional theories rely upon the presence of hard cores, also between ions of like charge. These hard cores should in principle reflect exchange repulsion. However, by the way in which these theories are formulated, the hard cores effectively determine the range of ion-ion correlations. This is because the mutual repulsion between like-charged ions is truncated below the corresponding hard sphere diameter. In most relevant applications, at least those related to ion correlations and surface forces in colloidal dispersions, exchange repulsion between like-charged ions is unimportant. This can easily be demonstrated by simulations. Unfortunately, the hard cores can in practice serve as fitting parameters in calculations with traditional density functional theory. In this work, we present alternative density functional theories to describe aqueous salt solutions. In these approaches, an approximation of the relevant "Coulomb hole" that results from correlations between like-charged ions is calculated for the system under study. Hence, our theories are completely free from fitting parameters, and the results are appropriately insensitive to the exchange repulsion acting between ions of like charge. The theories are evaluated by comparing predictions with simulation data, with an emphasis on ion correlations and surface interactions.

  5. A tale of two electrons: Correlation at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Pierre-François; Gill, Peter M. W.

    2010-11-01

    We review our recent progress in the determination of the high-density correlation energy E in two-electron systems. Several two-electron systems are considered, such as the well known helium-like ions (helium), and the Hooke's law atom (hookium). We also present results regarding two electrons on the surface of a sphere (spherium), and two electrons trapped in a spherical box (ballium). We also show that, in the large-dimension limit, the high-density correlation energy of two opposite-spin electrons interacting via a Coulomb potential is given by E˜-1/(8D2) for any radial external potential V(r), where D is the dimensionality of the space. This result explains the similarity of E in the previous two-electron systems for D=3.

  6. A Coupled Plasma-Sheath Model for High Density Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2000-01-01

    High density, low pressure plasmas are used for etching and deposition in microelectronics fabrication processes. The process characteristics are strongly determined by the ion energy distribution (IED) and the ion flux arriving at the substrate that are responsible for desorption of etch products and neutral dissociation at the surface. The ion flux and energy are determined by a self- consistent modeling of the bulk plasma, where the ions and the neutral radicals are produced, and the sheath, where the ions are accelerated. Due to their widely different time scales, it is a formidable task to self-consistently resolve non-collisional sheath in a high density bulk plasma model. In this work, we first describe a coupled plasma-sheath model that attempts to resolve the non-collisional sheath in a reactor scale model. Second, we propose a semianalytical radio frequency (RF) sheath model to improve ion dynamics.

  7. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  8. Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-08

    The possible phases and the nanoscale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma, is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature Tc ≈ 4.8 K, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting condensed dark ground state.

  9. MEG forward problem formulation using equivalent surface current densities.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye

    2005-07-01

    We present a formulation for the magnetoencephalography (MEG) forward problem with a layered head model. Traditionally the magnetic field is computed based on the electric potential on the interfaces between the layers. We propose to express the effect of the volumetric currents in terms of an equivalent surface current density on each interface, and obtain the magnetic field based on them. The boundary elements method is used to compute the equivalent current density and the magnetic field for a realistic head geometry. We present numerical results showing that the MEG forward problem is solved correctly with this formulation, and compare it with the performance of the traditional formulation. We conclude that the traditional formulation generally performs better, but still the new formulation is useful in certain situations.

  10. Atomistic picture of charge density wave formation at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wall, Simone; Krenzer, Boris; Wippermann, Stefan; Sanna, Simone; Klasing, Friedrich; Hanisch-Blicharski, Anja; Kammler, Martin; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2012-11-02

    We used ultrafast electron diffraction and density-functional theory calculations to gain insight into the charge density wave (CDW) formation on In/Si(111). Weak excitation by a femtosecond-laser pulse results in the melting of the CDW. The immediate freezing is hindered by a barrier for the motion of atoms during the phase transition: The melted CDW constitutes a long-lived, supercooled phase and is strong evidence for a first-order transition. The freezing into the CDW is triggered by preexisting adsorbates. Starting at these condensation nuclei, the CDW expands one dimensionally on the In/Si(111) surface, with a constant velocity of more than 80 m/s.

  11. High power density electrodes for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. Perry; Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Underwood, Mark L.; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    Trilayer tungsten/platinum electrodes have provided dramatic improvements in stable power densities in alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC) experimental cells. The specific power density required to achieve a system conversion efficiency of approximately 15 percent or more with temperatures appropriate to space nuclear power sources is examined. Thus, if the observed power densities are sustained for thousands of hours, prototype AMTEC space nuclear power systems can be designed and tested.

  12. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  13. Classical density functional study of wetting transitions on nanopatterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Rascón, C.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Even simple fluids on simple substrates can exhibit very rich surface phase behaviour. To illustrate this, we consider fluid adsorption on a planar wall chemically patterned with a deep stripe of a different material. In this system, two phase transitions compete: unbending and pre-wetting. Using microscopic density-functional theory, we show that, for thin stripes, the lines of these two phase transitions may merge, leading to a new two-dimensional-like wetting transition occurring along the walls. The influence of intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuations on this phase transition and at complete pre-wetting are considered in detail.

  14. High-density electroencephalography developmental neurophysiological trajectories.

    PubMed

    Dan, Bernard; Pelc, Karine; Cebolla, Ana M; Cheron, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connectivity at the level of fibre tract systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a complementary approach with more direct access to brain electrical activity. Its temporal resolution is excellent, and its spatial resolution can be enhanced to physiologically relevant levels, through the combination of high-density recordings (e.g. by using 64 channels in newborn infants) and mathematical models (e.g. inverse modelling computation), to identify generators of different oscillation bands and synchrony patterns. The integration of functional and structural topography of the neonatal brain provides insights into typical brain organization, and the deviations seen in particular contexts, for example the effect of hypoxic-ischaemic insult in terms of damage, eventual reorganization, and functional changes. Endophenotypes can then be used for pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurements, and allow a longitudinal approach to individual developmental trajectories.

  15. Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis with High Pixel Density

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the “image capturing” photoreceptors, while neurons in the “image processing” inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems, which deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation was produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations from 0.5 to 4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances from 0.2 to 10 mW/mm2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 μm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully-integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density. PMID:23049619

  16. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  17. High-density deformable mirrors to enable coronographic planet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ealey, Mark A.; Trauger, John T.

    2004-02-01

    Active wavefront correction of a space telescope provides a technology path for extremely high contrast imaging astronomy at levels well beyond the capabilities of current telescope systems. A precision deformable mirror technology intended specifically for wavefront correction in a visible/near-infrared space telescope has been developed at Xinetics and extensively tested at JPL over the past several years. Active wavefront phase correction has been demonstrated to 1-Angstrom rms over the spatial frequency range accessible to a mirror with an array of actuators on a 1-mm pitch. High density deformable mirror technology is based on a modular actuator arrays that are scalable to 1000s of actuator elements coupled to the surface of a thin mirror facesheet. Precision actuator control is done by using a low-power, vacuum compatible multiplexed driver system. Mirror surface figure, actuator influence function, and dimensional stability will be given in the context of the Eclipse point design for a coronagraphic space telescope.

  18. Modeled Seasonal Variations of Firn Density Induced by Steady State Surface Air Temperature Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Li; Zwally, H. Jay; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal variations of firn density in ice-sheet firn layers have been attributed to variations in deposition processes or other processes within the upper firn. A recent high-resolution (mm scale) density profile, measured along a 181 m core from Antarctica, showed small-scale density variations with a clear seasonal cycle that apparently was not-related to seasonal variations in deposition or known near-surface processes (Gerland and others 1999). A recent model of surface elevation changes (Zwally and Li, submitted) produced a seasonal variation in firn densification, and explained the seasonal surface elevation changes observed by satellite radar altimeters. In this study, we apply our 1-D time-dependent numerical model of firn densification that includes a temperature-dependent formulation of firn densification based on laboratory measurements of grain growth. The model is driven by a steady-state seasonal surface temperature and a constant accumulation rate appropriate for the measured Antarctic ice core. The modeled seasonal variations in firn density show that the layers of snow deposited during spring to mid-summer with the highest temperature history compress to the highest density, and the layers deposited during later summer to autumn with the lowest temperature history compress to the lowest density. The initial amplitude of the seasonal difference of about 0.13 reduces to about 0.09 in five years and asymptotically to 0.92 at depth, which is consistent with the core measurements.

  19. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  20. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  1. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  2. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  3. Flux Surface Variation of Impurity Density and Flows in the Pedestal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Michael; Lipschultz, Bruce; Theiler, Christian; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-10-01

    Measured impurity density and flows in the pedestal region of Alcator C-Mod can deviate significantly on a flux surface from current model predictions. Comparing localized measurements at the low-field side (LFS) midplane and the high-field side (HFS) midplane, boron (B5 +) impurity density asymmetries larger than 10x are observed in H-mode plasmas, with larger densities at the HFS. The LFS density pedestal varies in position and width with varying plasma conditions, while the HFS impurity density profile remains rather fixed. Impurity density asymmetries are not observed in plasmas with small gradients, i.e L-mode, suggesting the drive for the asymmetry may be the strong gradients in the H-mode pedestal region. However, impurity density asymmetries are also absent in I-mode plasmas, despite the presence of a strong radial gradient in temperature (with no main ion density pedestal). This indicates an interplay between the gradient scale lengths of the main ion density and temperature in the drive of the impurity density asymmetry. Impurity flows in the pedestal show the opposite behavior; flows measured in H-mode plasmas are close to the expected in-out variation, while in I-mode they deviate significantly. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  4. Headgroup dimerization in methanethiol monolayers on the Au(111) surface: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Ge; Williams, Quinton L.; Hagelberg, Frank

    2007-08-01

    A long-standing controversy related to the dimer pattern formed by S atoms in methanethiol (CH3SH) on the Au(111) surface has been resolved using density functional theory. Here, dimerization of methanethiol adsorbates on the Au(111) surface is established by computational modeling. For methylthiolate (CH3S) , it is shown that the S atoms do not dimerize at high coverage but reveal a dimer pattern at intermediate coverage. Molecular dynamics simulation at high coverage demonstrates that the observed dialkyl disulfide species are formed during the desorption process, and thus are not attached to the surface.

  5. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  6. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  7. Effect of Random Clustering on Surface Damage Density Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M J; Feit, M D

    2007-10-29

    Identification and spatial registration of laser-induced damage relative to incident fluence profiles is often required to characterize the damage properties of laser optics near damage threshold. Of particular interest in inertial confinement laser systems are large aperture beam damage tests (>1cm{sup 2}) where the number of initiated damage sites for {phi}>14J/cm{sup 2} can approach 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}, requiring automatic microscopy counting to locate and register individual damage sites. However, as was shown for the case of bacteria counting in biology decades ago, random overlapping or 'clumping' prevents accurate counting of Poisson-distributed objects at high densities, and must be accounted for if the underlying statistics are to be understood. In this work we analyze the effect of random clumping on damage initiation density estimates at fluences above damage threshold. The parameter {psi} = a{rho} = {rho}/{rho}{sub 0}, where a = 1/{rho}{sub 0} is the mean damage site area and {rho} is the mean number density, is used to characterize the onset of clumping, and approximations based on a simple model are used to derive an expression for clumped damage density vs. fluence and damage site size. The influence of the uncorrected {rho} vs. {phi} curve on damage initiation probability predictions is also discussed.

  8. Effects of Surface Ligand Density on Lipid-Monolayer-mediated 2D Assembly of Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuto, M.; Wang, S; Lohr, M; Kewalramani, S; Yang, L

    2010-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) assembly of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-bearing lipid monolayer was studied as a function of the surface density of biotin, a protein-binding ligand, by means of in situ X-ray scattering and optical Brewster angle microscopy measurements at the liquid-vapor interface. Although this model system has been studied extensively, the relationship between the surface biotin density and the adsorption, 2D phase behavior, and binding state of streptavidin has yet to be determined quantitatively. The observed equilibrium phase behavior provides direct structural evidence that the 2D crystallization of the lipid-bound streptavidin occurs as a density-driven first-order phase transition. The minimum biotin density required for the 2D crystallization of streptavidin is found to be remarkably close to the density of the ligand-binding sites in the protein crystal. Moreover, both above and below this transition, the observed biotin-density dependence of protein adsorption is well described by the binding of biotin-bearing lipids at both of the two available sites per streptavidin molecule. These results imply that even in the low-density noncrystalline phase, the bound proteins share a common, fixed orientation relative to the surface normal, and that the 2D crystallization occurs when the lateral protein density reaches 50-70% of the 2D crystal density. This study demonstrates that in addition to a well-defined molecular orientation, high lateral packing density is essential to the 2D crystallization of proteins.

  9. Current-voltage characteristics influenced by the nanochannel diameter and surface charge density in a fluidic field-effect-transistor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar Pal; Guo, Chunlei

    2017-06-21

    The nanochannel diameter and surface charge density have a significant impact on current-voltage characteristics in a nanofluidic transistor. We have simulated the effect of the channel diameter and surface charge density on current-voltage characteristics of a fluidic nanochannel with positive surface charge on its walls and a gate electrode on its surface. Anion depletion/enrichment leads to a decrease/increase in ion current with gate potential. The ion current tends to increase linearly with gate potential for narrow channels at high surface charge densities and narrow channels are more effective to control the ion current at high surface charge densities. The current-voltage characteristics are highly nonlinear for wide channels at low surface charge densities and they show different regions of current change with gate potential. The ion current decreases with gate potential after attaining a peak value for wide channels at low values of surface charge densities. At low surface charge densities, the ion current can be controlled by a narrow range of gate potentials for wide channels. The current change with source drain voltage shows ohmic, limiting and overlimiting regions.

  10. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  11. High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism in Man

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Conrad B.; Levy, Robert I.; Eisenberg, Shlomo; Hall, Marshall; Goebel, Robert H.; Berman, Mones

    1977-01-01

    The turnover of 125I-high density lipoprotein (HDL) was examined in a total of 14 studies in eight normal volunteers in an attempt to determine the metabolic relationship between apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and A-II (apoA-II) of HDL and to define further some of the determinants of HDL metabolism. All subjects were first studied under conditions of an isocaloric balanced diet (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate). Four were then studied with an 80% carbohydrate diet, and two were studied while receiving nicotinic acid (1 g three times daily) and ingesting the same isocaloric balanced diet. The decay of autologous 125I-HDL and the appearance of urinary radioactivity were followed for at least 2 wk in each study. ApoA-I and apoA-II were isolated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography from serial plasma samples in each study. The specific activities of these peptides were then measured directly. It was found that the decay of specific activity of apoA-I and apoA-II were parallel to one another in all studies. The mean half-life of the terminal portion of decay was 5.8 days during the studies with a balanced diet. Mathematical modeling of the decay of plasma radioactivity and appearance of urinary radioactivity was most consistent with a two-compartment model. One compartment is within the plasma and exchanges with a nonplasma component. Catabolism occurs from both of these compartments. With a balanced isocaloric diet, the mean synthetic rate for HDL protein was 8.51 mg/kg per day. HDL synthesis was not altered by the high carbohydrate diet and was only slightly decreased by nicotinic acid treatment. These perturbations had effects on HDL catabolic pathways that were reciprocal in many respects. With an 80% carbohydrate diet, the rate of catabolism from the plasma compartment rose by a mean of 39.1%; with nicotinic acid treatment, it fell by 42.2%. Changes in the rate of catabolism from the second compartment were generally opposite those in the rate of catabolism from the plasma

  12. Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene; Sciortino, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    It has been suggested that high-density amorphous (HDA) ice is a structurally arrested form of high-density liquid (HDL) water, while low-density amorphous ice is a structurally arrested form of low-density liquid (LDL) water. Recent experiments and simulations have been interpreted to support the possibility of a second distinct high-density structural state, named very high-density amorphous (VHDA) ice, questioning the LDL-HDL hypothesis. We test this interpretation using extensive computer simulations and find that VHDA is a more stable form of HDA and that, in fact, VHDA should be considered as the amorphous ice of the quenched HDL.

  13. Surface tension of liquid mercury: a comparison of density-dependent and density-independent force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Anton; Bedrov, Dmitry; Müller, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by growing interest in interfacial properties of liquid mercury we investigate by atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulation the ability of density-independent, empiric density-dependent, and recently proposed embedded-atom force fields to predict the surface tension and coexistence density of liquid mercury at room temperature, 293 K. The effect of the density dependence of the studied models on the liquid-vapor coexistence and surface tension is discussed in detail and our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations and semi-analytic liquid-state theory. The latter approach is particularly useful to identify and rationalize artifacts that arise from an ad-hoc generalization of density-independent potentials by introducing density-dependent coefficients. In view of computational efficiency and thermodynamic robustness of density-independent model we optimize its functional form to obtain higher surface tension values in order to improve agreement with experiment.

  14. High Density And High Temperature Plasmas In Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, A.

    2010-07-01

    For the realization of the fusion reactor, it is necessary to confine high density and high temperature plasma for a time, which is well known as the Lawson criterion. To improve the plasma or confinement performance, vigorous experiments have been performed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in National Institute for Fusion Science, which is the largest superconducting heliotron device with R = 3.9 m r = 0.6 m, Bt = 3 T. Recently a promising confinement regime called Super Dense Core (SDC) mode was discovered. An extremely high density core region with more than ~ 1 × 10^20 m-3 is obtained with the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The density gradient at the IDB (? = 0.6) is very high and the particle confinement in the core region is ~ 0.2 s. It is expected, for the future reactor, that the IDB-SDC mode has a possibility to achieve the self-ignition condition with lower temperature than expected before. The IDB-SDC mode is also favorable from the engineering point of view since one can moderate demands for heating devices and plasma facing components. In order to achieve the IDB-SDC mode, the central fuelling with the pellet injection and the low recycling condition are essential. A repetitive pellet injector was newly developed to continuously feed the particle source to the central region. For the recycling control, the effective divertor system should be employed to control the edge plasma. Conventional approaches to increase the temperature have also been tried in LHD. For the ion heating, the perpendicular neutral beam injection effectively increased the ion temperature more than 10 keV with the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB). In the core region, the heat conductivity is improved to the neoclassical level, while no clear ITB for electron was seen. Another interesting phenomenon called "impurity hole" was observed inside the ITB. During the high ion temperature discharge, the im- purity density in the core region becomes

  15. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. High power density molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.; Johnson, S.A.; Geyer, H.K.; Roche, M.F.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1995-07-01

    Our results to date indicate that the specific power of the MCFC can be increased from 1200 W/m{sup 2} to above 2000W/m{sup 2} through the use of advanced components such as the double doped LiFeO{sub 2} cathode and pressurized operation. Its volumetric power density can also be increased by an additional 60% by multiple manifolding. Therefore, MCFCs with two to three times the power density of the current generation of MCFCs are possible.

  17. The Location of Peak Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity During Submaximal Contractions is not Associated With the Location of Myofascial Trigger Points: New Insights Revealed by High-density Surface EMG.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Marco; Falla, Deborah; Mafodda, Luca; Cescon, Corrado; Gatti, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    To apply topographical mapping of the electromyography (EMG) amplitude recorded from the upper trapezius muscle to evaluate the distribution of activity and the location of peak activity during a shoulder elevation task in participants with and without myofascial pain and myofascial trigger points (MTrP) and compare this location with the site of the MTrP. Thirteen participants with myofascial pain and MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle and 12 asymptomatic individuals participated. High-density surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius muscle using a matrix of 64 surface electrodes aligned with an anatomic landmark system (ALS). Each participant performed a shoulder elevation task consisting of a series of 30 s ramped contractions to 15% or 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. Topographical maps of the EMG average rectified value were computed and the peak EMG amplitude during the ramped contractions was identified and its location determined with respect to the ALS. The location of the MTrP was also determined relative to the ALS and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between MTrP and peak EMG amplitude location. The location of the peak EMG amplitude was significantly (P<0.05) different between groups (participants with pain/MTrP: -0.32±1.2 cm at 15% MVC and -0.35±0.9 cm at 60% MVC relative to the ALS; asymptomatic participants: 1.0±1.3 cm at 15% MVC and 1.3±1.1 cm relative to the ALS). However, no correlation was observed between the position of the MTrP and peak EMG amplitude during the ramped contractions at either force level (15%: rs=0.039, P=0.9; 60%: rs=-0.087, P=0.778). People with myofascial pain and MTrP displayed a caudal shift of the distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity compared with asymptomatic individuals during a submaximal shoulder elevation task. For the first time, we show that the location of peak muscle activity is not associated with the location of the MTrP.

  18. High temperature, high density opacity measurements using short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Brown, C. R. D.; Williams, B. M.; Guymer, T.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Chapman, D.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Brown, G.; Schneider, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chung, H. K.; Harris, J. W. O.; Upcraft, L.; Smith, C. C.; Lee, R. W.

    2010-08-01

    Heating of thin foil targets by a high power laser at intensities of 1017 -1019W/cm2 has been studied as a method for producing high temperature, high density samples to investigate X-ray opacity and equation of state. The targets were plastic (parylene N) foils with a buried microdot of a sample material, which was either aluminium, germanium or a mixture of germanium and titanium mixture of germanium and titanium. L-shell and K-shell spectra were taken using crystal spectrometers recording onto film and an ultrafast X-ray streak camera coupled to a conical focussing crystal with a time resolution of 1ps. The conditions in the microdot were inferred by comparing the measured spectra to synthetic spectra produced by the time-dependent collisional-radiative (CR) models FLY and FLYCHK. The data were also compared to simulated spectra from a number of opacity codes assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Temperature and density gradients were taken into account in the comparisons. The sample conditions, inferred from the CR modelling using FLYCHK, were 800±100eV and 1.5±0.5g/cc, in the germanium/titanium samples and 600+50/-150eV, 3-4g/cc in the pure germanium or aluminium samples. The higher densities were achieved by using a combination of long and short pulses to compress and heat the foils respectively. The experimental results and comparisons to predicted spectra are presented and discussed.

  19. Assessment of the Tao-Mo nonempirical semilocal density functional in applications to solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yuxiang; Car, Roberto; Staroverov, Viktor N.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Tao, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Tao and Mo developed a semilocal exchange-correlation density functional. The exchange part of this functional is derived from a density-matrix expansion corrected to reproduce the fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the slowly-varying-density limit, while the correlation part is based on the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) correlation functional, with a modification for the low-density limit. In the present paper, the Tao-Mo (TM) functional is assessed by computing various properties of solids and jellium surfaces. This includes 22 lattice constants and bulk moduli, 30 band gaps, seven cohesive energies, and jellium surface exchange and correlation energies for the density parameter rs in the range from 2 to 3 bohr. Our calculations show that the TM approximation can yield consistently high accuracy for most properties considered here, with mean absolute errors (MAEs) of 0.025 Å for lattice constants, 7.0 GPa for bulk moduli, 0.08 eV/atom for cohesive energies, and 35 erg /c m2 for surface exchange-correlation energies. The MAE in band gaps is larger than that of TPSS, but slightly smaller than the errors of the local spin-density approximation, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation, and revised TPSS. However, band gaps are still underestimated, particularly for large-gap semiconductors, compared to the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof nonlocal screened hybrid functional.

  20. Patterned Platinum Etching Studies in an Argon High Density Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delprat, Sébastien; Chaker, Mohamed; Margot, Joëlle; Pépin, Henri; Tan, Liang; Smy, Tom

    1998-10-01

    A high-density surface-wave Ar plasma operated in the low pressure regime is used to study pure physical etching characteristics of platinum thin films. The platinum samples are RF biased so as to obtain a maximum DC self-bias voltage of 150 V. The sputter-etching characteristics are investigated as a function of the magnetic field intensity, the self-bias voltage and the gas pressure. At 1 mtorr, the etch rate is found to be a unique linear function of both the self-bias voltage and the ion density, independently of the magnetic field intensity value. However, even though the ion density increases, the etch rate is found to decrease with increasing pressure. In the low pressure regime, etch rates as high as 2000 A/min are obtained with a good selectivity over resist. Without any optimization of the etching process, we were able to etch 0.5 micron Pt trenches, 0.6 micron thick yielding fence-free profiles and sidewall angles (75º) that already meets the present industrial requirements of NVRAM technology.

  1. Collaborative tool for collecting reference data on the density of constructed surfaces worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul C.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a web-based interface for the collection of surface cover type data using gridded point counts on displays of high spatial resolution color satellite imagery available in Google Earth. The system is designed to permit a distributed set of analysts to contribute gridded point counts to a common database. Our application of the system is to develop a calibration for estimating the density of constructed surface areas worldwide at 1 km2 resolution based on the brightness of satellite observed lights and population count. The system has been used to collect a test data set and a preliminary calibration for estimating the density of constructed surfaces. We believe the web-based system could have applications for research projects and analyses that require the collection of surface cover type data from diverse locations.

  2. Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, M.; Galli, D. E.; Moroni, S.; Vitali, E.

    2015-10-28

    We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.

  3. Surface modification for polystyrene colloidal particles with controlled charge densities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongman; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo; Song, Ju-Myung; Kim, Joon-Seop; Seo, Young-Soo; Tael, Giyoong; Jon, Sangyong

    2007-11-01

    A significant amount of polystyrene sulfonated acid (PSSA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylic acid) (PSAA) random copolymer can be adsorbed by dispersion of PS particles via a swelling-quenching process. A THF-water mixed solvent was used in the swelling process and a large amount of pure water was used, to give a low concentration of THF% in quenching process. Our results showed that functional PSSA groups were randomly and tightly adsorbed to the PS particles. When the mol.% of charged segments was increased, the progressive adsorption of PSSA chains to the PS particles leads to an increase in the electrophoretic mobility and zeta-potential of aqueous dispersions. Thus, we were able to obtain well-distributed surface charge density on the PS particles.

  4. Density, Molar Volume, and Surface Tension of Liquid Al-Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessing, Johanna Jeanette; Brillo, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Al-Ti-based alloys are of enormous technical relevance due to their specific properties. For studies in atomic dynamics, surface physics and industrial processing the precise knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the liquid phase is crucial. In the present work, we systematically measure mass density, ρ (g cm-3), and the surface tension, γ (N m-1), as functions of temperature, T, and compositions of binary Al-Ti melts. Electromagnetic levitation in combination with the optical dilatometry method is used for density measurements and the oscillating drop method for surface tension measurements. It is found that, for all compositions, density and surface tension increase linearly upon decreasing temperature in the liquid phase. Within the Al-Ti system, we find the largest values for pure titanium and the smallest for pure aluminum, which amount to ρ(L,Ti) = 4.12 ± 0.04 g cm-3 and γ(L,Ti) = 1.56 ± 0.02 N m-1; and ρ(L,Al) = 2.09 ± 0.01 g cm-3 and γ(L,Al) = 0.87 ± 0.06 N m-1, respectively. The data are analyzed concerning the temperature coefficients, ρ T and γ T, excess molar volume, V E, excess surface tension, γ E, and surface segregation of the surface active component, Al. The results are compared with thermodynamic models. Generally, it is found that Al-Ti is a highly nonideal system.

  5. Lattice QCD and High Baryon Density State

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nakamura, Atsushi; Motoki, Shinji; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Takuya

    2011-10-21

    We report our recent studies on the finite density QCD obtained from lattice QCD simulation with clover-improved Wilson fermions of two flavor and RG-improved gauge action. We approach the subject from two paths, i.e., the imaginary and chemical potentials.

  6. Understanding trichloroethylene chemisorption to iron surfaces using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianliu; Luo, Jing; Blowers, Paul; Farrell, James

    2008-03-15

    This research investigated the thermodynamic favorability and resulting structures for chemical adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) to metallic iron using periodic density functional theory (DFT). Three initial TCE positions having the plane defined by HCC atoms parallel to the iron surface resulted in formation of three different chemisorption complexes between carbon atoms in TCE and the iron surface. The Cl-bridge initial configuration with the HCC plane of TCE perpendicular to the iron surface did not result in C-Fe bond formation. The most energetically favorable complex formed at the C-bridge site where the initial configuration had the C=C bond in TCE at a bridge site between adjacent iron atoms. In the C-bridge complex, one C atom formed two a bonds to different Fe atoms, while the second C atom formed a sigma bond with a second Fe atom. Surface complexation atthe C-bridge site resulted in scission of all three C-Cl bonds and also resulted in a shortening of the C==C bond to a distance intermediate between a double and a triple bond. Initial configurations with the C==C bond adsorbed at top or hollow sites on the iron surface resulted in formation of C-Fe a bonds between a single C and two adjacent Fe atoms, and the scission of only two C==Cl bonds. Bond angles and bond lengths indicated that there were no changes in bond order of the C==C bond for top and hollow adsorption. Chemisorption at the C-bridge site had an activation energy of 49 kJ/mol and an early transition state where all three C-CI bonds were activated. The early transition state and the loss of all three Cl atoms upon chemisorption are consistent with most experimental observations that TCE undergoes complete dechlorination in one interaction with the iron surface. The absence of chemisorption and scission of only two C--Cl bonds at the Cl-bridge site is consistent with experimental observations that trace amounts of chloroacetylene may also be produced from reactions of TCE with iron.

  7. Estimating the amount and distribution of radon flux density from the soil surface in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Weihai; Guo, Qiuju; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Guan

    2008-07-01

    Based on an idealized model, both the annual and the seasonal radon ((222)Rn) flux densities from the soil surface at 1099 sites in China were estimated by linking a database of soil (226)Ra content and a global ecosystems database. Digital maps of the (222)Rn flux density in China were constructed in a spatial resolution of 25 km x 25 km by interpolation among the estimated data. An area-weighted annual average (222)Rn flux density from the soil surface across China was estimated to be 29.7+/-9.4 mBq m(-2)s(-1). Both regional and seasonal variations in the (222)Rn flux densities are significant in China. Annual average flux densities in the southeastern and northwestern China are generally higher than those in other regions of China, because of high soil (226)Ra content in the southeastern area and high soil aridity in the northwestern one. The seasonal average flux density is generally higher in summer/spring than winter, since relatively higher soil temperature and lower soil water saturation in summer/spring than other seasons are common in China.

  8. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks: IX. Dust and gas surface densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Allen, R. J.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Bouchard, A.; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Leroy, A.

    2013-03-01

    Our aim is to explore the relation between gas, atomic and molecular, and dust in spiral galaxies. Gas surface densities are from atomic hydrogen and CO line emission maps. To estimate the dust content, we use the disk opacity as inferred from the number of distant galaxies identified in twelve HST/WFPC2 fields of ten nearby spiral galaxies. The observed number of distant galaxies is calibrated for source confusion and crowding with artificial galaxy counts and here we verify our results with sub-mm surface brightnesses from archival Herschel-SPIRE data. We find that the opacity of the spiral disk does not correlate well with the surface density of atomic (H I) or molecular hydrogen (H_2) alone implying that dust is not only associated with the molecular clouds but also the diffuse atomic disk in these galaxies. Our result is a typical dust-to-gas ratio of 0.04, with some evidence that this ratio declines with galactocentric radius, consistent with recent Herschel results. We discuss the possible causes of this high dust-to-gas ratio; an over-estimate of the dust surface-density, an under-estimate of the molecular hydrogen density from CO maps or a combination of both. We note that while our value of the mean dust-to-gas ratio is high, it is consistent with the metallicity at the measured radii if one assumes the Pilyugin & Thuan (2005) calibration of gas metallicity.

  9. Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-05-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.

  10. Surface regulated arsenenes as Dirac materials: From density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Junhui; Xie, Qingxing; Yu, Niannian; Wang, Jiafu

    2017-02-01

    Using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have systematically investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of chemically decorated arsenenes, AsX (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe). Phonon dispersion and formation energy analysis reveal that all the five chemically decorated buckled arsenenes are energetically favorable and could be synthesized. Our study shows that wide-bandgap arsenene would turn into Dirac materials when functionalized by -X (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe) groups, rendering new promises in next generation high-performance electronic devices.

  11. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus-topped Marine Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.; Brewer, W. A.; Miller, Matthew A.; Hall, Andrew M.; Burleyson, Casey D.

    2015-09-01

    Density currents (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density current fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density current tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer wind (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density current propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density currents were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density current occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density current formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.

  12. Ultra-high density recording technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Research Center in Data Storage Systems at Carnegie Mellon University in cooperation with the National Storage Industry Consortium has selected goals of achieving 10 Gbit/sq in. recording density in magnetic and magneto-optic disk recording and 1 terabyte/cubic in. magnetic tape recording technologies. This talk describes the approaches being taken and the status of research leading to these goals.

  13. Zinc surface complexes on birnessite: A density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Kideok D.; Refson, Keith; Sposito, Garrison

    2009-01-05

    Biogeochemical cycling of zinc is strongly influenced by sorption on birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which are found in diverse terrestrial and aquatic environments. Zinc has been observed to form both tetrahedral (Zn{sup IV}) and octahedral (Zn{sup VI}) triple-corner-sharing surface complexes (TCS) at Mn(IV) vacancy sites in hexagonal birnessite. The octahedral complex is expected to be similar to that of Zn in the Mn oxide mineral, chalcophanite (ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O), but the reason for the occurrence of the four-coordinate Zn surface species remains unclear. We address this issue computationally using spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT) to examine the Zn{sub IV}-TCS and Zn{sup VI}-TCS species. Structural parameters obtained by DFT geometry optimization were in excellent agreement with available experimental data on Zn-birnessites. Total energy, magnetic moments, and electron-overlap populations obtained by DFT for isolated Zn{sup IV}-TCS revealed that this species is stable in birnessite without a need for Mn(III) substitution in the octahedral sheet and that it is more effective in reducing undersaturation of surface O at a Mn vacancy than is Zn{sub VI}-TCS. Comparison between geometry-optimized ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O (chalcophanite) and the hypothetical monohydrate mineral, ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, which contains only tetrahedral Zn, showed that the hydration state of Zn significantly affects birnessite structural stability. Finally, our study also revealed that, relative to their positions in an ideal vacancy-free MnO{sub 2}, Mn nearest to Zn in a TCS surface complex move toward the vacancy by 0.08-0.11 {angstrom}, while surface O bordering the vacancy move away from it by 0.16-0.21 {angstrom}, in agreement with recent X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses.

  14. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Kreiskott, Sascha [Los Alamos, NM; Matias, Vladimir [Santa Fe, NM; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM; Bronisz, Lawrence E [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  15. Tuning surface grafting density of CeO2 nanocrystals with near- and supercritical solvent characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giroire, B; Slostowski, C; Marre, S; Aymonier, C; Aida, T; Hojo, D; Aoki, N; Takami, S; Adschiri, T

    2016-01-21

    In this work, the solvent effect on the synthesis of CeO2 nanocrystals synthesized in near- and supercritical alcohols is discussed. The materials prepared displayed a unique morphology of small nanocrystals (<10 nm) aggregated into larger nanospheres (∼100-200 nm). In such syntheses, alcohol molecules directly interact with the nanocrystal surface through alkoxide and carboxylate bondings. The grafting density was quantified from the weight loss measured using thermogravimetric analysis. A direct correlation between the grafting density and the alcohol chain length can be established. It was demonstrated that the shorter the alcohol chain length (i.e. methanol), the higher the surface coverage is. This trend is independent of the synthesis mode (batch or continuous). Additionally, an influence of the grafting density on the resulting nanocrystal size was established. It is suggested that the surface coverage has a high influence on the early stages of the nucleation and growth. Indeed, when high surface coverages are reached, all surface active sites are blocked, limiting the growth step and therefore leading to smaller particles. This effect was noticed with the materials prepared in the continuous mode where shorter reaction time was performed.

  16. Electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges over liquid water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeni Simeni, M.; Roettgen, A.; Petrishchev, V.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved electron density, electron temperature, and gas temperature in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium and O2-He mixtures near liquid water surface are measured using Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering, in two different geometries, (a) ‘diffuse filament’ discharge between a spherical high-voltage electrode and a grounded pin electrode placed in a reservoir filled with distilled water, with the tip exposed, and (b) dielectric barrier discharge between the high-voltage electrode and the liquid water surface. A diffuse plasma filament generated between the electrodes in helium during the primary discharge pulse exhibits noticeable constriction during the secondary discharge pulse several hundred ns later. Adding oxygen to the mixture reduces the plasma filament diameter and enhances constriction during the secondary pulse. In the dielectric barrier discharge, diffuse volumetric plasma occupies nearly the entire space between the high voltage electrode and the liquid surface, and extends radially along the surface. In the filament discharge in helium, adding water to the container results in considerable reduction of plasma lifetime compared to the discharge in dry helium, by about an order of magnitude, indicating rapid electron recombination with water cluster ions. Peak electron density during the pulse is also reduced, by about a factor of two, likely due to dissociative attachment to water vapor during the discharge pulse. These trends become more pronounced as oxygen is added to the mixture, which increases net rate of dissociative attachment. Gas temperature during the primary discharge pulse remains near room temperature, after which it increases up to T ~ 500 K over 5 µs and decays back to near room temperature before the next discharge pulse several tens of ms later. As expected, electron density and electron temperature in diffuse DBD plasmas are considerably lower compared to peak values in the filament discharge. Use of Thomson

  17. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  18. Surface texture and density-density correlation in films of adamantane-containing polyimides and copolyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, D. V.

    2017-05-01

    By means of electron microscopy, the spatial correlation of gold nanoparticles are studied, obtained by thermal vacuum sputtering of metal on a bromine-activated surface of films of adamantane-containing polyimides and copolyimides based on pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA), 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), and 1-aminoethyl-3-(4'-aminophenyl)adamantane (AEAPhA) or 3,4,3',4'-tetracarboxydiphenyloxide dianhydride (ODPA), ODA, and AEAPhA with varying ratio of ODA and AEAPhA fragments. It is shown that with increasing ratio of mole fractions [AEAPhA]/[ODA], the texture of the film surface, free volume, the correlation length, and the frequency of alternation of the particle distribution density change. The shortrange order decreases, while the long-range order increases in ensembles of particles. The supramolecular structure of the polymer is transformed similarly because of structural transitions in the amorphous state of ODPA-ODA-AEAPhA and the mesomorphic state of PMDA-ODA-AEAPhA.

  19. Exact high-density limit of correlation potential for two-electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Burke, Kieron; Levy, Mel

    1999-06-01

    Present approximations to the correlation energy, Ec[n], in density functional theory yield poor results for the corresponding correlation potential, vc([n];r)=δEc[n]δ/n(r). Improvements in vc([n];r), are especially needed for high-quality Kohn-Sham calculations. For a two-electron density, the exact form of vc([n];r) in its high-density limit is derived in terms of the density of the system and the first-order wave function from the adiabatic perturbation theory. Our expression leads to a formula for the difference 2Ec[n]-∫vc([n];r)n(r)dr, valid for any two-electron density in the high-density limit, thus generalizes previous results. Numerical results (both exact and approximate) are presented for both Ec[n] and ∫vc([n];r)n(r)dr in this limit for two electrons in a harmonic oscillator external potential (Hooke's atom).

  20. Calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density by measurement of the three-phase contact angle.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, H; Nikolov, A; Wasan, D T

    2012-11-01

    The silica/silicon wafer is widely used in the semiconductor industry in the manufacture of electronic devices, so it is essential to understand its physical chemistry and determine the surface potential at the silica wafer/water interface. However, it is difficult to measure the surface potential of a silica/silicon wafer directly due to its high electric resistance. In the present study, the three-phase contact angle (TPCA) on silica is measured as a function of the pH. The surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/water surface are calculated by a model based on the Young-Lippmann equation in conjunction with the Gouy-Chapman model for the electric double layer. In measurements of the TPCA on silica, two distinct regions were identified with a boundary at pH 9.5-showing a dominance of the surface ionization of silanol groups below pH 9.5 and a dominance of the dissolution of silica into the aqueous solution above pH 9.5. Since the surface chemistry changes above pH 9.5, the model is applied to solutions below pH 9.5 (ionization dominant) for the calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/aqueous interface. In order to evaluate the model, a galvanic mica cell was made of a mica sheet and the surface potential was measured directly at the mica/water interface. The model results are also validated by experimental data from the literature, as well as the results obtained by the potentiometric titration method and the electro-kinetic measurements.

  1. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  2. High density harp for SSCL linac. [Suerconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L. . Bendix Kansas City Div.); Crist, C.E. )

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities.

  3. High Precision 2-D Grating Groove Density Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall; Tedesco, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Our research group at Penn State University is working on producing X-ray reflection gratings with high spectral resolving power and high diffraction efficiency. To estimate our fabrication accuracy, we apply a precise 2-D grating groove density measurement to plot groove density distributions of gratings on 6-inch wafers. In addition to plotting a fixed groove density distribution, this method is also sensitive to measuring the variation of the groove density simultaneously. This system can reach a measuring accuracy (ΔN/N) of 10-3. Here we present this groove density measurement and some applications.

  4. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123 Section 93.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a high...

  5. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  6. High-Energy-Density Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in weight and volume make new application possible. Supercapacitors and improved ultracapacitors advanced electrolytic capacitors developed for use as electric-load-leveling devices in such applications as electric vehicle propulsion systems, portable power tools, and low-voltage pulsed power supplies. One primary advantage: offer power densities much higher than storage batteries. Capacitors used in pulse mode, with short charge and discharge times. Derived from commercially available ultracapacitors. Made of lightweight materials; incorporate electrode/electrolyte material systems capable of operation at voltages higher than previous electrode/electrolyte systems. By use of innovative designs and manufacturing processes, made in wide range of rated capacitances and in rated operating potentials ranging from few to several hundred volts.

  7. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  8. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  9. Fractionating Polymer Microspheres as Highly Accurate Density Standards.

    PubMed

    Bloxham, William H; Hennek, Jonathan W; Kumar, Ashok A; Whitesides, George M

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes a method of isolating small, highly accurate density-standard beads and characterizing their densities using accurate and experimentally traceable techniques. Density standards have a variety of applications, including the characterization of density gradients, which are used to separate objects in a variety of fields. Glass density-standard beads can be very accurate (±0.0001 g cm(-3)) but are too large (3-7 mm in diameter) for many applications. When smaller density standards are needed, commercial polymer microspheres are often used. These microspheres have standard deviations in density ranging from 0.006 to 0.021 g cm(-3); these distributions in density make these microspheres impractical for applications demanding small steps in density. In this paper, commercial microspheres are fractionated using aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS), aqueous mixture of polymers and salts that spontaneously separate into phases having molecularly sharp steps in density, to isolate microspheres having much narrower distributions in density (standard deviations from 0.0003 to 0.0008 g cm(-3)) than the original microspheres. By reducing the heterogeneity in densities, this method reduces the uncertainty in the density of any specific bead and, therefore, improves the accuracy within the limits of the calibration standards used to characterize the distributions in density.

  10. Enhanced power production from microbial fuel cells with high cell density culture.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dan-Dan; Li, Bing; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Sun, De-Zhen; Si, Rong-Wei; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of power production in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a high cell density culture strategy was developed. By using high cell density culture, the voltage output and power density output of the MFC were enhanced about 0.6 and 1.6 times compared to the control, respectively. Further analysis showed that riboflavin concentration in the MFC was dramatically increased from 0.1 mg/L to 1.2 mg/L by high cell density culture. Moreover, the biofilm formation on the anode surface was significantly enhanced by this new strategy. The increased accumulation of electron shuttle (riboflavin) as well as enhanced biofilm formation contributed to the improvement in anodic electrochemical activity and these factors were the underlying mechanism for MFC performance improvement by high cell density culture. This work demonstrated that high cell density culture would be a simple and practical strategy for MFC manipulation.

  11. Purification of very high density lipoproteins by differential density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Haunerland, N H; Ryan, R O; Law, J H; Bowers, W S

    1987-03-01

    Differential density gradient ultracentrifugation procedures, utilizing a vertical rotor, were developed for the preparative purification of very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, density greater than 1.21 g/ml). The VHDLs of several insect species were purified as follows. An initial density gradient ultracentrifugation step removed lipoproteins of lower density from the VHDL-fraction, which partially separated from the nonlipoproteins present in the infranatant. A complete separation was achieved by a second centrifugation step employing a modified gradient system. The use of a vertical rotor and specially designed discontinuous gradients allows a relatively fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the class of very high density lipoproteins. Similar gradient systems should be useful for the detection and purification of VHDLs from other sources.

  12. A Coupled Plasma and Sheath Model for High Density Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Bose; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a coupled plasma and collisionless; sheath model for the simulation of high density plasma processing reactors. Due to inefficiencies in numerical schemes and the resulting computational burden, a coupled multidimensional plasma and sheath simulation has not been possible model for gas mixtures and high density reactors of practical interest. In this work we demonstrate that with a fully implicit algorithm and a refined computational mesh, a self-consistent plasma and sheath simulation is feasible. We discuss the details of the model equations, the importance of ion inertia, and the resulting sheath profiles for argon and chlorine plasmas. We find that at low operating pressures (10-30 mTorr), the charge separation occurs only within a 0.5 mm layer near the surface in a 300 mm inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. A unified model eliminates the use of off-line or loosely coupled sheath models with simplifying assumptions which generally lead to uncertainties in ion flux and sheath electrical properties.

  13. Simulating deposition of high density tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaoglu, Yagmur; Simms, Paul H.

    2017-08-01

    Tailings are a slurry of silt-sized residual material derived from the milling of rock. High density (HD) tailings are tailings that have been sufficiently dewatered to a point where they exhibit a yield stress upon deposition. They form gently sloped stacks on the surface when deposited; this eliminates or minimizes the need for dams or embankments for containment. Understanding the flow behaviour of high density tailings is essential for estimating the final stack geometry and overall slope angle. This paper focuses on modelling the flow behaviour of HD tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporating a `bi-viscosity' model to simulate the non-Newtonian behaviour. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with bench scale experiments simulating single or multi-layer deposits in two-dimensions. The results indicate that the model agreed fairly well with the experimental work, excepting some repulsion of particles away from the bottom boundary closer to the toe of the deposits. Novel aspects of the work, compared to other simulation of Bingham fluids by SPH, are the simulation of multilayer deposits and the use of a stopping criteria to characterize the rest state.

  14. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2011-09-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  15. High density circuit technology, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    Dry processing - both etching and deposition - and present/future trends in semiconductor technology are discussed. In addition to a description of the basic apparatus, terminology, advantages, glow discharge phenomena, gas-surface chemistries, and key operational parameters for both dry etching and plasma deposition processes, a comprehensive survey of dry processing equipment (via vendor listing) is also included. The following topics are also discussed: fine-line photolithography, low-temperature processing, packaging for dense VLSI die, the role of integrated optics, and VLSI and technology innovations.

  16. Estimation of Electron Density Profile Near the Lunar Surface from the AKR Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Moriuchi, R.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.

    2012-12-01

    Electron density profiles near the lunar surface were estimated from radio occultation measurements from the Soviet Luna spacecraft in the 1970s. The profiles showed 500-1000 /cc peak densities at altitudes of 5-10 km and the densities smoothly decreased with scale heights of 10-30 km both upward and downward. This high-density layer was interpreted to be the lunar ionosphere. Since the lunar atmosphere is extremely tenuous and plasma produced by photoionization is considered to be less dense than solar wind, the measurements taken by the Luna have been viewed with skepticism over the past three decades. On the recent KAGUYA mission, the same kinds of radio occultation experiments were conducted and weak signatures of electron density enhancement with densities on the order of 100 /cc were found below 30 km altitude at solar zenith angles less than 60 degrees. In this study, we deal with a completely different method to estimate the electron density near the lunar surface in which interference patterns of the AKR (auroral kilometric radiation) spectrum observed by the KAGUYA spacecraft were used. The AKR waves were originated from the earth's polar region and were frequently observed by the KAGUYA in lunar orbits. The interference patterns arise from differences of path lengths between waves that had directly arrived and waves that were reflected on the lunar surface. It is noted that the AKR reflection altitude and reflectance can be derived from stripe interval and strength ratio of the interference pattern, respectively, and the electron density near the lunar surface can be derived from such reflection altitudes and reflectance. We calculated the AKR reflection altitude from 160 stripe intervals which had been observed near the terminator regions by the KAGUYA/NPW. As a result, the reflection altitude was 1,740 km in average, and standard deviation was 8.7 km. Considering the mean radius of the moon is 1,737 km, the AKR waves were reflected at several

  17. Optoelectronically probing the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Yaping

    2015-02-02

    Surface trap states play a dominant role in the optoelectronic properties of nanoscale devices. Understanding the surface trap states allows us to properly engineer the device surfaces for better performance. But characterization of surface trap states at nanoscale has been a formidable challenge using the traditional capacitive techniques. Here, we demonstrate a simple but powerful optoelectronic method to probe the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit. In this method, we choose to tune the quasi-Fermi level across the bandgap of a silicon nanowire photoconductor, allowing for capture and emission of photogenerated charge carriers by surface trap states. The experimental data show that the energy density of nanowire surface trap states is in a range from 10{sup 9 }cm{sup −2}/eV at deep levels to 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}/eV near the conduction band edge. This optoelectronic method allows us to conveniently probe trap states of ultra-scaled nano/quantum devices at extremely high precision.

  18. The effect of surface symmetry on the adsorption energetics of SCH 3 on gold surfaces studied using Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masens, C.; Ford, M. J.; Cortie, M. B.

    2005-04-01

    Adsorption of methanethiol onto the three, high symmetry gold surfaces has been studied at the density functional level using a linear combination of atomic orbitals approach. In all three cases the bond energy between the thiolate radical and surface is typical of a covalent bond, and is of the order of 40 kcal mol -1. For the (1 1 1) surface the fcc hollow site is slightly more stable than the bridge site. For the (1 0 0) surfaces the four-fold hollow is clearly the most stable, and for the reconstructed (1 1 0) surface the bridge/edge sites either side of the first layer atoms are preferred. The calculated differences in binding energy between the three surfaces indicate that the thiolate will preferentially bind to the Au(1 1 0) or (1 0 0) before (1 1 1) surface, by about 10 kcal mol -1. The (1 1 0) surface is slightly more favourable than the (1 0 0), although the energy difference is only 3 kcal mol -1. The results suggest the possibility of selectively functionalising the different facets offered by a gold nanoparticle.

  19. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  20. Characterization of high density through silicon vias with spectral reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yi-Sha; Huang, Kuo Cheng; Hsu, Weite

    2011-03-28

    Measurement and control is an important step for production-worthy through silicon vias etch. We demonstrate the use and enhancement of an existing wafer metrology tool, spectral reflectometer by implementing novel theoretical model and measurement algorithm for high density through-silicon via (HDTSV) inspection. It is capable of measuring depth and depth variations of array vias by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis in one shot measurement. Surface roughness of via bottom can also be extracted by scattering model fitting. Our non-destructive solution can measure TSV profile diameters as small as 5 μm and aspect ratios greater than 13:1. The measurement precision is in the range of 0.02 μm. Metrology results from actual 3D interconnect processing wafers are presented.

  1. Surface modification of lignocellulosic fibers using high-frequency ultrasound

    Treesearch

    Jayant B. Gadhe; Ram B. Gupta; Thomas Elder

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of fiber surfaces has been reported in the literature as a method for producing medium density fiberboards without using synthetic adhesives. This work focuses on modifying the surface properties of wood fibers by the generation of free radicals using high-frequency ultrasound. A sonochemical reactor operating at 610 kHz is used to...

  2. Step density waves on growing vicinal crystal surfaces - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, Bogdan; Müller, Pierre; Metois, Jean-Jacques; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) theory plays a key conceptual role in understanding and modeling the crystal growth of vicinal surfaces. In BCF theory the adatom concentration on a vicinal surface obeys to a diffusion equation, generally solved within quasi-static approximation where the adatom concentration at a given distance x from a step has a steady state value n (x) . Recently, we show that going beyond this approximation (Ranguelov and Stoyanov, 2007) [6], for fast surface diffusion and slow attachment/detachment kinetics of adatoms at the steps, a train of fast-moving steps is unstable against the formation of steps density waves. More precisely, the step density waves are generated if the step velocity exceeds a critical value related to the strength of the step-step repulsion. This theoretical treatment corresponds to the case when the time to reach a steady state concentration of adatoms on a given terrace is comparable to the time for a non-negligible change of the step configuration leading to a terrace adatom concentration n (x , t) that depends not only on the terrace width, but also on its "past width". This formation of step density waves originates from the high velocity of step motion and has nothing to do with usual kinetic instabilities of step bunching induced by Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, surface electromigration and/or the impact of impurities on the step rate. The so-predicted formation of step density waves is illustrated by numerical integration of the equations for step motion. In order to complete our previous theoretical treatment of the non-stationary BCF problem, we perform an in-situ reflection electron microscopy experiment at specific temperature interval and direction of the heating current, in which, for the first time, the step density waves instability is evidenced on Si(111) surface during highest possible Si adatoms deposition rates.

  3. Effects of Surface Wave Turbulence on the Steep Density Gradients in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1984-01-01

    We point out that the surface wave turbulence in the plasma region where the temperature and density have large gradients can reduce the thermal flux and consequently steepen the temperature and density profiles significantly. An expression for the resultant density gradient as a function of the stationary intensity of the excited surface modes is also calculated.

  4. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  5. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  6. Fracture behavior of kaolin-reinforced high density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherhold, R.C.; Mouzakis, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    The addition of the low-cost mineral filler kaolin to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) creates a composite with both improved stiffness and toughness properties. This study focuses on two aspects of the toughness of these composites: the fracture toughness increment produced by work at the fracture surface and the directionality induced by the injection molding fabrication process. The Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) method gives results which show that a higher volume fraction of kaolin produces more surface work, consistent with earlier work using Compact Tension (CT) tests. The EWF method also demonstrates that a lower volume fraction can produce a higher overall plastic work and apparent toughness. A heat treatment that removes the orientation of the matrix but not that of the particles was applied to study the effect of matrix crystallinity. The results indicate that the matrix supramolecular structure (crystallinity and skin-core effect) is responsible for the directionality of toughness, and that a heat treatment can be used to produce high toughness behavior in both major directions.

  7. Density functional theory study of ethanol decomposition on 3Ni/α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsin-Ni; Wang, Chia-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Chin; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang; Hsieh, Horng-Ming

    2010-10-19

    We have investigated the decomposition of ethanol (EtOH) on a 3Ni/α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface using periodic density functional theory calculations. A triangular Ni trimer doped on a 2 × 2 α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface was used to represent the 3Ni/α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface. We considered several possible pathways for EtOH decomposition over the 3Ni/α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface, including dehydrogenation and C-C bond cleavage. Our calculated results indicated that (i) the 3Ni/α-Al₂O₃(0001) surface possesses high activity to inhibit coke formation and (ii) the CH₂CH₂O((a)) → CH₂CHO((a)) + H((a)) reaction is the rate-determining step for the overall reaction [CH₃CH₂OH((a)) → CH(2(a)) + CO((a)) + 4 H((a))] with an energy barrier of 1.20 eV. One feasible channel leading to C-C bond cleavage is weakening of the C-C bond in the stable CH₂CO intermediate via transformation of the adsorbed structure to a metastable structure, thereby increasing the coordination number of the two C atoms to the Ni trimer. In addition, we also investigated the nature of the metal-ethanol bonding through scrutiny of density of states (DOS) and electron density difference contour plots. The DOS analysis allowed us to characterize the state interactions between ethanol and the surfaces; the electron density difference plots provide evidence that is consistent with the prediction from DOS analysis.

  8. High brightness negative ion sources with high emission current density

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-10-18

    Through the development of Charge Exchange Injection [1] and Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) with Cesium Catalysis [2,3,4,5] the possibility for the accumulation of a high brightness proton beam in circular accelerators was increased greatly, and now it is more than sufficient for all real applications. The combination of the SPS with charge-exchange injection improved large accelerators operation and has permitted beam accumulation up to space-charge limit and overcome this limit several times [6]. The early SPS for accelerators have been in operation without modification for {approx}25 years. in this note an attention is concentrated on the seldom-discussed distinctive features of high brightness beam formation in noiseless regimes of negative ion source operation. Beam quality enhancement up to the level j/T > 1 A/cm{sup 2} eV is possible by optimization of negative ion generation, extraction, and transportation in SPS with cesium catalysis. Advanced version of the SPS for accelerators will be described. Features of negative ion beam formation, transportation, space-charge neutralization-overneutralization, and instability damping will be considered. Practical aspects of SPS operation and high brightness beam production will be discussed.

  9. Density wave like transport anomalies in surface doped Na2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlawat, Kavita; Singh, Yogesh

    2017-05-01

    We report that the surface conductivity of Na2IrO3 crystal is extremely tunable by high energy Ar plasma etching and can be tuned from insulating to metallic with increasing etching time. Temperature dependent electrical transport for the metallic samples show signatures of first order phase transitions which are consistent with charge or spin density wave like phase transitions predicted recently. Additionally, grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) reveal that the room temperature surface structure of Na2IrO3 does not change after plasma etching.

  10. Surface Density Effects in Quenching: Cause or Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2016-12-01

    There are very strong observed correlations between the specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of galaxies and their mean surface mass densities, Σ, as well as other aspects of their internal structure. These strong correlations have often been taken to argue that the internal structure of a galaxy must play a major physical role, directly or indirectly, in the control of star formation. In this paper we show by means of a very simple toy model that these correlations can arise naturally without any such physical role once the observed evolution of the size-mass relation for star-forming galaxies is taken into account. In particular, the model reproduces the sharp threshold in Σ between galaxies that are star-forming and those that are quenched and the evolution of this threshold with redshift. Similarly, it produces iso-quenched-fraction contours in the f Q(m, R e) plane that are almost exactly parallel to lines of constant Σ for centrals and shallower for satellites. It does so without any dependence on quenching on size or Σ and without invoking any differences between centrals and satellites, beyond the different mass dependences of their quenching laws. The toy model also reproduces several other observations, including the sSFR gradients within galaxies and the appearance of inside-out build-up of passive galaxies. Finally, it is shown that curvature in the main-sequence sSFR-mass relation can produce curvature in the apparent B/T ratios with mass. Our analysis therefore suggests that many of the strong correlations that are observed between galaxy structure and sSFR may well be a consequence of things unrelated to quenching and should not be taken as evidence of the physical processes that drive quenching.

  11. High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2008-01-01

    A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing

  12. High Density Jet Fuel Supply and Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    same shortcomings. Perhaps different LAK blends using heavy reformate or heavy cat cracker naphtha (both high in aromatics and isoparaffins) could... catalytic cracking (FCC) process. Subsequent investigations funded by the U. S. Air Force concentrated on producing a similar fuel from the...cut (19% overhead) and adding heavy naphtha (320-440F) from a nearby paraffinic crude (40"API Wyoming Sweet) an excellent JP-8X can be created. Table 5

  13. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    self - healing (failure safe), high current carrying capacitors, Sigma designed an oil printing system to produce segmented ectrode capacitor film...DESIGN AND FABRICATION 4.1 HEAVY EDGE-THIN ELECTRODE DESIGN Self - healing properties of metallized capacitors are enhanced significantly by increasing...are limited to low loss dielectrics such as polypropylene . Lower rep rate applications can beserved with higher loss dielectrics that include

  14. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX . Bonner Nuclear Labs.)

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Density equalisation in supercooled high- and low-density water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Niall J.; Kusalik, Peter G.; Tse, John S.

    2013-08-01

    The temporal evolution of two model high-density/low-density (HDL/LDL) interfaces was examined from molecular dynamics (MD) calculations at temperatures close to the predicted second critical point of water for three water models. In all cases, interfacial density equalisation occurred rapidly showing no preference for inhomogenous distribution. A uniform density (of ca. 0.99-1.067 g/cm3, depending on the potential) was always observed at the interface, indicating the free energy of water in low- and high-density forms is metastable, and that LDL and HDL should not coexist as independent entities at thermodynamic equilibrium. It is reckoned that previous MD studies supporting the "two-liquid" model have an explicit, if inappropriate, assumption of mechanical equilibrium between the two phases. The present result challenges the notion that a second critical point exists, and that LDL/HDL mixtures could be even kinetically metastable.

  16. Directly mapping the surface charge density of lipid bilayers under physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, Thomas; Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-03-01

    The surface charge density of lipid bilayers governs the cellular uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. Direct probing of the potential requires sub nanometer distances as the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations. This prevented direct measurement of the SCD under physiological conditions. In this study we investigate supported bilayers of lipid mixtures that form domains of distinct surface charges, submerged in 150mM NaCl. We use a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup to measure the ionic current through a nanopipette as the pipette is scanned several nanometers above the sample. The charged headgroups of the lipids attract counter ions leading to a charge dependent enhancement of the ion concentration near the surface. This creates a measurable change of conductivity in the vicinity of the surface. As the dependency of the current on the SCD and pipette potential is non-trivial we characterized it using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Based on the simulation results we propose an imaging method. We confirm feasibility of the proposed method by experimentally mapping the local surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  17. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strongly Dipolar Polythiourea and Polyurea Dielectrics with High Electrical Breakdown, Low Loss, and High Electrical Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shan; Burlingame, Quinn; Cheng, Zhao-Xi; Lin, Minren; Zhang, Q. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dielectric materials with high electric energy density and low loss are of great importance for applications in modern electronics and electrical systems. Strongly dipolar materials have the potential to reach relatively higher dielectric constants than the widely used non-polar or weakly dipolar polymers, as well as a much lower loss than that of nonlinear high K polymer dielectrics or polymer-ceramic composites. To realize the high energy density while maintaining the low dielectric loss, aromatic polythioureas and polyureas with high dipole moments, high dipole densities, tunable molecular structures and dielectric properties were investigated. High energy density (>24 J/cm3), high breakdown strength (>800 MV/m), and high charge-discharge efficiency (>90%) can be achieved in the new polymers. The molecular structure and film surface morphology were also studied; it is of great importance to optimize the fabrication process to make high-quality thin films.

  19. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  20. Establishment of high density installation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Shigeo; Nakao, Masahiro; Nakai, Muneaki; Shimizu, Akira

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the research on optimum processes for soldering is presented. Review of high reliability soldering materials was conducted on tin system solder. Thermal shock evaluation test was conducted on cubic chip resistors to evaluate the effects of soldering materials, fillet configurations, component configurations, and substrate materials to the reliability of junction points. Review for solving problems was conducted on migration property of soldering materials and cleanliness of the soldered joint. Some factors for developing life projecting technology for soldered joint were described.

  1. Density limits of high temperature and multiple local droplet etching on AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbst, J.; Heyn, Ch.; Slobodskyy, T.; Hansen, W.

    2014-03-01

    The density of nanoholes created by self-assembled Al droplet etching of AlAs surfaces during molecular beam epitaxy is studied. We find a clear decrease of the hole density with increasing etching temperature T up to a threshold temperature T = 620 ° C. At T > 620 ° C, the hole density saturates at a minimum of 2 ×108cm-2. We attribute this saturation to a change of the AlAs surface reconstruction. On the other hand, at reduced T, hole densities up to 2 ×109cm-2 have been achieved. However, this hole density increase is accompanied by a reduction of the hole depth. To generate high density holes with larger depth suited for quantum dot fabrication, we have studied the effect of repeated etching steps.

  2. Roughness and near-surface density of Mars from SHARAD radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Carter, Lynn M.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Phillips, Roger. J.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a technique for estimating Mars topographic roughness on horizontal scales from about 10 m to 100 m using Shallow Radar (SHARAD) sounding data. Our results offer a view of surface properties complementary to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) pulse-width or baseline roughness maps and can be compared to SHARAD peak-echo properties to infer deviations from the average near-surface density. Latitudinal averaging of SHARAD-derived roughness over Arabia and Noachis Terrae shows good agreement with MOLA-derived roughness and provides clear evidence for latitude-dependent mantling deposits previously inferred from image data. In northwestern Gordii Dorsum, we find that bulk density in at least the upper few meters is significantly lower than in other units of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We observe the same behavior indicative of low near-surface density in wind-eroded crater fill in the southern highlands. Combining surface-properties analysis, subsurface sounding, and high-resolution optical images, we show that the Pavonis Mons fan-shaped deposit differs significantly from lobate debris aprons which SHARAD has shown to be ice-cored. There are no internal radar reflections from the smooth-facies portion of the Pavonis Mons fan-shaped deposit, and we suggest that these deposits are either quite thin or have little dielectric (i.e., density) contrast with the underlying terrain. Future application of these techniques can identify other low-density units across Mars, assist in the mapping of regional volatile-rich mantling units, and provide new constraints on the physical properties of the polar layered terrain.

  3. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    The Helmholtz-free-energy model for nonideal mixtures of hydrogen atoms and molecules by Saumon and Chabrier (1991) is extended to describe dissociation and ionization in similar mixtures in chemical equilibrium. A free-energy model is given that describes partial ionization in the pressure and temperature ionization region. The plasma-phase transition predicted by the model is described for hydrogen mixtures including such components as H2, H, H(+), and e(-). The plasma-phase transition has a critical point at Tc = 15,300 K and Pc = 0.614 Mbar, and thermodynamic instability is noted in the pressure-ionization regime. The pressure dissociation and ionization of fluid hydrogen are described well with the model yielding information on the nature of the plasma-phase transition. The model is shown to be valuable for studying dissociation and ionization in astrophysical objects and in high-pressure studies where pressure and temperature effects are significant.

  4. Acoustic Sensing Based on Density Shift of Microspheres by Surface Binding of Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Akihisa; Inoue, Yoshinori; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we propose a concept for sensing based on density changes of microparticles (MPs) caused by a biochemical reaction. The MPs are levitated by a combined acoustic-gravitational force at a position determined by the density and compressibility. Importantly, the levitation is independent of the MPs sizes. When gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are bound on the surface of polymer MPs through a reaction, the density of the MPs dramatically increases, and their levitation position in the acoustic-gravitational field is lowered. Because the shift of the levitation position is proportional to the number of AuNPs bound on one MP, we can determine the number of molecules involved in the reaction. The avidin-biotin reaction is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept. The number of molecules involved in the reaction is very small because the reaction space is small for an MP; thus, the method has potential for highly sensitive detection.

  5. High baryon density from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H.; Schlagel, T.J. |

    1993-10-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics, is developed and applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS energies. This model is in excellent agreement with observed particle spectra in heavy ion collisions using Si beams, where baryon densities of three and four times the normal nuclear matter density ({rho}{sub 0}) are reached. For Au on Au collisions, the authors predict the formation of matter at very high densities (up to 10 {rho}{sub 0}).

  6. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S; Giger, Maryellen L

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists' breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 ([Formula: see text]) was obtained between left and right breast density estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 ([Formula: see text]) indicated high reliability for the inter-user variability of the HiSS-based breast density estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 ([Formula: see text]) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists' BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy.

  7. Ultra high energy density and fast discharge nanocomposite capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing high dielectric permittivity ceramics embedded in high breakdown strength polymers are currently of considerable interest as a solution for the development of high energy density capacitors. However, the improvement of dielectric permittivity comes at expense of the breakdown strength leading to limit the final energy density. Here, an ultra-high energy density nanocomposite was fabricated based on high aspect ratio barium strontium titanate nanowires. The pyroelectric phase Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 was chosen for the nanowires combined with quenched PVDF to fabricate high energy density nanocomposite. The energy density with 7.5% Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires reached 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which represented a 42.9% increase in comparison to the PVDF with an energy density of 10.4 J/cc at the same electric field. The capacitors have 1138% greater than higher energy density than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640). These results demonstrate that the high aspect ratio nanowires can be used to produce nanocomposite capacitors with greater performance than the neat polymers thus providing a novel process for the development of future pulsed-power capacitors.

  8. Layer-by-Layer Sorting of Rhenium Disulfide via High-Density Isopycnic Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joohoon; Sangwan, Vinod K; Wood, Joshua D; Liu, Xiaolong; Balla, Itamar; Lam, David; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-11-09

    Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation (iDGU) has been widely applied to sort nanomaterials by their physical and electronic structure. However, the commonly used density-gradient medium iodixanol has a finite maximum buoyant density that prevents the use of iDGU for high-density nanomaterials. Here, we overcome this limit by adding cesium chloride (CsCl) to iodixanol, thus increasing its maximum buoyant density to the point where the high-density two-dimensional nanomaterial rhenium disulfide (ReS2) can be sorted in a layer-by-layer manner with iDGU. The resulting aqueous ReS2 dispersions show photoluminescence at ∼1.5 eV, which is consistent with its direct bandgap semiconductor electronic structure. Furthermore, photocurrent measurements on thin films formed from solution-processed ReS2 show a spectral response that is consistent with optical absorbance and photoluminescence data. In addition to providing a pathway for effective solution processing of ReS2, this work establishes a general methodology for sorting high-density nanomaterials via iDGU.

  9. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  10. Power spectral density specifications for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.A.; English, R.E. Jr.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-04-22

    This paper describes the use of Fourier techniques to characterize the transmitted and reflected wavefront of optical components. Specifically, a power spectral density, (PSD), approach is used. High power solid-state lasers exhibit non-linear amplification of specific spatial frequencies. Thus, specifications that limit the amplitude of these spatial frequencies are necessary in the design of these systems. Further, NIF optical components have square, rectangular or irregularly shaped apertures with major dimensions up-to 800 mm. Components with non-circular apertures can not be analyzed correctly with Zernicke polynomials since these functions are an orthogonal set for circular apertures only. A more complete and powerful representation of the optical wavefront can be obtained by Fourier analysis in 1 or 2 dimensions. The PSD is obtained from the amplitude of frequency components present in the Fourier spectrum. The shape of a resultant wavefront or the focal spot of a complex multicomponent laser system can be calculated and optimized using PSDs of the individual optical components which comprise the system. Surface roughness can be calculated over a range of spatial scale-lengths by integrating the PSD. Finally, since the optical transfer function (OTF) of the instruments used to measure the wavefront degrades at high spatial frequencies, the PSD of an optical component is underestimated. We can correct for this error by modifying the PSD function to restore high spatial frequency information. The strengths of PSD analysis are leading us to develop optical specifications incorporating this function for the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  11. Thermospheric Density Model Including High-Latitude Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, O. K.; Moe, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    As was predicted long ago by Sydney Chapman, there is a major contribution to thermospheric energy from the magnetosphere at all times. The contribution of this magnetospheric energy source produces a neutral density bulge at high latitudes even during geomagnetically quiet times. We present an analytical, semi- empirical model of the global neutral density at such quiet times. The total density is expressed as the sum of two terms: The first term describes the combined effects of the solar ultra-violet heating and various other contributions like the semi-annual variation; the second term gives the contribution to the density associated with particle precipitation and joule heating coming from magnetospheric sources during times of low geomagnetic activity. The region of density enhancement at high latitudes is associated with the locations of the dayside cusps. Therefore the model produces a density distribution which depends on universal time as well as on altitude, latitude, local time, and the usual solar UV energy source. The numerical values of the parameters in the empirical model were originally determined 30 years ago from density data collected by the Bell-MESA accelerometer on the LOGACS satellite and the pressure gauge on the SPADES satellite. As an example of the model output, we show a Mercator projection of the global density distribution at 400 km altitude at 12 hours GMT in late May at a time of moderate solar activity and low geomagnetic activity. The parameters in the model can now be substantially improved by using recent advances like the latest description of the semi-annual variation and by incorporating the precise density measurements made by the accelerometers on board the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In the original model, density values at times of high geomagnetic activity were included in the second density term. The parameters in that term can also be improved as accurate storm-time densities become available.

  12. Equation of state for titanium at high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    A caloric equation-of-state model, which represents the relation of pressure with density and internal energy, is applied for titanium in the bcc and liquid phases. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold-compression curve at T = 0 and Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with available data from shock-wave experiments at high energy densities.

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: current perspective for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins are regarded as ''good guys'' but not always. Situations involving high-density lipoproteins are discussed and medication results are considered. Clinicians usually consider high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nicotinic acid is the best available medication to elevate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and this appears beneficial for cardiovascular risk. The major problem with nicotinic acid is that many patients do not tolerate the associated flushing. Laropiprant decreases this flushing and has an approval in Europe but not in the United States. The most potent medications for increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. The initial drug in this class, torcetrapib, was eliminated by excess cardiovascular problems. Two newer cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, R1658 and anacetrapib, initially appear promising. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol may play an important role in improving cardiovascular risk in the 60% of patients who do not receive cardiovascular mortality/morbidity benefit from low-density lipoproteins reduction by statins.

  14. Using the power spectral density method to characterise the surface topography of optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Ludbrook, Geoff D.; Owen, Tommy; Dockree, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Power Spectral Density (PSD) is an alternative method for specifying optical surfaces, and quantifies the contribution of each spatial regime to the total surface error. This approach naturally includes mid-range spatial frequency errors, which are often overlooked. The PSD method has recently been adopted by the Space and Astronomy industries, but has not yet received general acceptance within the synchrotron community. To assess the suitability for specifying synchrotron optics using PSD, Fast Fourier Transforms were performed on topography data from a range of optical surfaces of varying quality and manufacturing techniques. For each grade of optic, the entire regime ({100nm to {50mm) of surface errors was measured, with overlapping bandwidths, using a micro-interferometer and a Fizeau interferometer. From this heuristic information, root-mean square "roughness" can be predicted over any desired spatial range, thus allowing direct comparison of metrology data obtained by instruments with different spatial bandwidths. We present an efficient approach for calculating 1-D and 2-D PSDs using MATLAB algorithms, and discuss analysis considerations, including "field of view" effects and instrument calibration.

  15. Fibrovascularization and osteogenesis in high-density porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Renato Victor; de Souza Nunes, Leandro Soeiro; Filho, Hugo Nary; de Andrade Holgado, Leandro; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2009-07-01

    High-density porous polyethylene (HDPP) has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions with high-level success and minimal complications. It is known for its biocompatibility and satisfactory stability in the receptor bone area, presenting only a few reports of mobility and infection. In the current study, attention was given to the interface area between HDPP and bone surface to analyze fibrous and bone tissue formation and ingrowth into the pores of the material placed in the mandible of rabbits. Twelve male New Zealand rabbits underwent surgical procedure to receive bilateral HDPP implants in buccal face of dentate mandibular alveolar process, fixed with titanium screws. After 7, 14, 45, and 90 days, the animals were killed, and the specimens were retrieved for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. No implant loss or infection was detected at the retrieval of the specimens. The microscopic analysis presented satisfactory integration of the material to the bone surface, with new bone formation from the receptor bed and inside the pores of the material, observed from the 15th day. After 90 days, remodeling bone and fibrous tissue was seen in the interface region. Among some of the pores, mature lamellar bone was present. Immunohistochemistry pointed out a moderate expression either to Core binding factor protein 1/RUNX2 or to vascular endothelial growth factor for early periods evaluated, that is, 7 and 15 days after surgery. These results confirm the osteoconductive behavior and high biocompatibility of the material, associated to its adequate immobilization, leading to its lifelong presence in human biologic system.

  16. The role of amine surface density in carbon dioxide adsorption on functionalized mixed oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Young, Pria D; Notestein, Justin M

    2011-11-18

    Supported amines are considered as adsorbents to replace aqueous amines for carbon capture and for CO(2) capture/conversion into chemicals. Here, amines are grafted to SiO(2) or Ti-SiO(2) by using aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) or (3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tert-butylcarbamate (TESPtBC) and then removing the carbamate group introduced by the latter by mild heating to 'deprotect' the amine. Structures are verified by using (13) C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy, acid titration, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. Diffuse reflectance UV/Visible spectroscopy shows that amines from APTES coordinate directly to Ti cations, whereas Ti cations remain coordinatively unsaturated after grafting of TESPtBC and deprotection. CO(2) chemisorption is studied as a function of amine precursor, average surface density, and the presence of Ti. CO(2) uptake increases from <0.02 CO(2) per amine for as-synthesized TESPtBC materials to only approximately 0.05 CO(2) per amine for the isolated amines present after deprotection. In contrast, clustered amines from APTES chemisorb up to approximately 0.35 CO(2) per amine. Cooperative ammonium carbamates form preferentially above an apparent local density of 0.6 amines per nm(2) from APTES, but do not form even up to 0.9 amines per nm(2) for TESPtBC-derived materials. This suggests that the true local surface density form APTES is underestimated by as much as 150 %. CO(2) uptake falls to <0.01 CO(2) per amine for ATPES on TiSiO(2), but uptake is less affected for the 'protected' TESPtBC precursor. These results show that TESPtBC may be a viable precursor for applications in acid-base cooperative CO(2) conversion catalysts, and that variation in the local amine surface density and the chemistry of the underlying support may account for some of the large variability in reported CO(2) capacities of supported amine materials in literature.

  17. How surface density of galaxy disks affects metallicity? Outflow and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tully, R. Brent; Neill, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    The surface density of disk is considered as a second parameter affecting the evolution of disk galaxies other than mass. Several physical and chemical properties of galaxies are found to be correlated with surface density of disk galaxies. However, the surface density, or surface brightness, is also strongly correlated with mass. It's not clear whether surface density really plays a role, or those correlations simply reflect the effect from stellar mass. To ask the question properly, one should take away the dependence on mass of galaxies, i.e., compare galaxies with the same mass but different surface densities.In this study, we ask, besides stellar mass, whether the surface density of disks also affects chemical evolution of galaxies. We demonstrate that, after removing the dependence on stellar mass and gas mass, the metallicity of galaxy still correlates with surface density of the galaxy disk. At the same stellar and gas mass, higher surface brightness galaxies on average possess both higher stellar and gas-phase metallicity, inferred from broadband color and spectrosopy of HII regions, respectively.We use an analytical model of chemical evolution involving gas outflow and accretion to explore possible reasons causing the difference in metallicity. Accroding to the model, at the same mass, lower metallicity galaxies should have experienced severer mass loss during star-formation events, and/or be inert to gas accretion. Both scenarios are consistent with general expections from properties of low surface density disks of shallow potential wells and dynamical stability.

  18. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Y S; Lu, Wu

    2017-08-30

    Supercapacitors, based on the fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage with highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density prevents them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7,000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to the ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Efficient black silicon solar cell with a density-graded nanoporous surface: Optical properties, performance limitations, and design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Yost, Vernon E.; Page, Matthew R.; Stradins, Paul; Meier, Daniel L.; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-09-01

    We study optical effects and factors limiting performance of our confirmed 16.8% efficiency "black silicon" solar cells. The cells incorporate density-graded nanoporous surface layers made by a one-step nanoparticle-catalyzed etch and reflect less than 3% of the solar spectrum, with no conventional antireflection coating. The cells are limited by recombination in the nanoporous layer which decreases short-wavelength spectral response. The optimum density-graded layer depth is then a compromise between reflectance reduction and recombination loss. Finally, we propose universal design rules for high-efficiency solar cells based on density-graded surfaces.

  20. High energy density nanocomposite capacitors using non-ferroelectric nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-02-01

    A high energy density nanocomposite capacitor is fabricated by incorporating high aspect ratio functionalized TiO2 nanowires (NWs) into a polyvinylidene-fluoride matrix. These nanocomposites exhibited energy density as high as 12.4 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which is nine times larger than commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640 MV/m). Also, the power density can reach 1.77 MW/cc with a discharge speed of 2.89 μs. The results presented here demonstrate that nanowires can be used to develop nanocomposite capacitors with high energy density and fast discharge speed for future pulsed-power applications.

  1. Fabrication of surface-channel charge-coupled devices with ultralow density of interface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saks, Nelson S.

    1982-10-01

    Surface-channel charge-coupled devices (CCD's) have been fabricated with ultralow density of (fast) interface states in the range 1-3×108/cm2 eV. This low interface state density is achieved by hydrogen implantation into the metal-nitride-oxide-silicon (MNOS) insulator structure of the CCD as the final fabrication step after aluminum interconnect metallization. The CCD's are shown to have excellent operating characteristics including high transfer efficiency (˜0.99995 without bias charge), low dark current (0.25-0.50 nA/cm2 at 20°C), and high signal charge capacity (1.55×1012 e/cm2 for 10-V clock swing).

  2. The effect of RGD density on osteoblast and endothelial cell behavior on RGD-grafted polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Celine; Chanseau, Christel; Remy, Murielle; Guignandon, Alain; Bareille, Reine; Labrugère, Christine; Bordenave, Laurence; Durrieu, Marie-C

    2009-02-01

    Hybrid materials combining polyethylene terephthalate and different types of cells (endothelial and osteoblastic cells) have been developed thanks to the covalent grafting of different densities of RGD containing peptides onto the polymer surface. Biomimetic modifications were performed by means of a three-step reaction procedure: creation of COOH functions, coupling agent grafting and the immobilization of the RGDC peptides. High resolution mu-imager was used to evaluate RGD densities (varying between 0.6 and 2.4 pmol/mm(2)) and has exhibited the stability of the surface grafted peptides when treated in harsh conditions. The efficiency of this route for biomimetic modification of a PET surface was demonstrated by measuring the adhesion of MC3T3 and HSVEC cells and by focal adhesion observation. Results obtained prove that a minimal RGDC density of 1 pmol/mm(2) is required to improve MC3T3 and HSVEC cells responses. Indeed, cells seeded onto a RGDC-modified PET with a density higher than 1 pmol/mm(2) were able to establish focal adhesion as visualized by fluorescence microscope compared to cells immobilized onto unmodified PET and RGDC-modified PET with densities lower than 1 pmol/mm(2). Moreover, the number of focal contacts was enhanced by the increase of RGDC peptide densities grafted onto the material surface. With this study we proved that the density of peptides immobilized on the surface is a very important parameter influencing osteoblast or endothelial cell adhesion and focal contact formation.

  3. Development of high energy density electrical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Thamarai selvi

    potential at 1mA/cm 2. A brief study on non-polar co-solvents for EDLC was studied. Among the solvents studied, fluorinated solvents had low melting point and viscosity due to incorporation of asymmetry. However, because of low dielectric constant, TEABF4 is insoluble and had to be mixed with other solvents. The mixed fluorinated solvents had slightly higher voltage window due to decreased donicity of lone pairs of electrons. The second approach to increasing energy density is to increase capacitance. Capacitance is mainly dependent on surface area and porosity of electrodes. Nanostructured materials which can offer multiple charge storage are currently of interest. Hence, novel NiSi nanotubes were studied as electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Silicon material has high capacity and these inert electrodes can enable higher capacitance by controlling the porosity and functional groups in specific electrolytes. The Silicon wafers were made porous by anodization using hydrofluoric acid. In order to improve the conductivity, the porous silicon was doped, then plated with Ni using electroless plating method and annealed to form nickel mono silicide. Gold was deposited on the back side of the electrode to enhance conductivity. Our porous NiSi electrodes gave capacitance of about 1185muF /cm2 in 0.5 M H 2SO4. Further investigation of oxide formation and modification of functional groups will help achieve higher capacitance.

  4. Density waves driven by a high harmonic cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A high harmonic cavity (HHC) with a certain phase modulation frequency can increase the longitudinal emittance and smooth the density distribution within a particle bunch. Such a cavity helps to prevent particle losses during passage through the transition energy. The speed of dilution and the quality of density redistribution depend on the phase modulation program. In this report, we show how to choose such a program which will create traveling waves which push the front of high density from the center of the bunch to its boundary. Supporting results from machine and computer experiments are presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Surface Structure and Electron Density Dependence of Scattered Ne+ Ion Fractions from Cd- and S-Terminated CdS\\{0001\\} Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssiau, L.; Rabalais, J. W.; Wolfgang, J.; Nordlander, P.

    1998-12-01

    Experimental measurements of the magnitudes and azimuthal anisotropies of 4 keV Ne+ scattered ion fractions from both the Cd- and S-terminated surfaces of CdS\\{0001\\} exhibit high sensitivity to both surface structure and electron density. Using a density functional approach, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between these Ne+ ion fractions and the lateral variation of the electrostatic potential along the outgoing trajectories of the scattered Ne atoms. The observed anisotropy in the ion fractions is a result of the variations in surface to atom electron transfer rates due to tunneling barriers introduced by the electrostatic potentials.

  6. Hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene on Nanostructured Porous Silicon Surface: Role of Current Density and Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shalini; Sharma, Shailesh N.; Govind, Govind; Khan, Mukhtar A.; Singh, P. K.

    2009-06-01

    We report the formation of nanostructured PS on boron doped p-type silicon wafer (100) by electrochemical anodization using aqueous hydrofluoric acid and isopropyl alcohol solution at different current densities 20mAcm-2 and 50mAcm-2 with pore size being 20-30 nm and 50-60 nm, respectively. For organic functionalization of PS surface 1-Dodecene treatment under UV light was done. PL, FTIR and XPS studies have been carried out to characterize the PS after surface modification using dodecene. Stability studies were performed under normal ambience and humid condition for as-anodized (Fresh PS) and dodecene-treated samples. It is observed that the dodecene functionalized samples were more stable than as-anodized porous silicon. The present study demonstrates that nanoporous silicon can provide chemically modified stable and high surface area for the sensing applications of PS.

  7. Relatively high plasma density in low pressure inductive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured in a low pressure argon inductive discharge. As radio frequency (RF) power increases, discharge mode is changed from E-mode (capacitively coupled) to H-mode (inductively coupled) and the EEPFs evolve from a bi-Maxwellian distribution to a Maxwellian distribution. It is found that the plasma densities at low RF powers (<30 W) are much higher than the density predicted from the slope of the densities at high powers. Because high portion of high energy electrons of the bi-Maxwellian distribution lowers the collisional energy loss and low electron temperature of low energy electrons reduces particle loss rate at low powers. Therefore, the energy loss of plasma decreases and electron densities become higher at low powers.

  8. High-density scintillating glasses for a proton imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, I. J.; Dettmann, M. A.; Herrig, V.; Thune, Z. L.; Zieser, A. J.; Michalek, S. F.; Been, M. O.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M. M.; Koster, H. J.; Wilkinson, C. J.; Kielty, M. W.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Akgun, U.

    2017-06-01

    High-density scintillating glasses are proposed for a novel proton-imaging device that can improve the accuracy of the hadron therapy. High-density scintillating glasses are needed to build a cost effective, compact calorimeter that can be attached to a gantry. This report summarizes the study on Europium, Terbium, and Cerium-doped scintillating glasses that were developed containing heavy elements such as Lanthanum, Gadolinium, and Tungsten. The density of the samples reach up to 5.9 g/cm3, and their 300-600 nm emission overlaps perfectly with the peak cathode sensitivity of the commercial photo detectors. The developed glasses do not require any special quenching and can be poured easily, which makes them a good candidate for production in various geometries. Here, the glass making conditions, preliminary tests on optical and physical properties of these scintillating, high-density, oxide glasses developed for a novel medical imaging application are reported.

  9. High Precision Density Measurements of Single Particles: The Density of Metastable Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Chieffo, Logan; Imre, Dan G.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a system designed to measure the size, composition and density of individual particles in real-time. It uses a DMA to select a monodisperse particle population and the single particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle aerodynamic diameter and composition. Mobility and aerodynamic diameters are used to extract particle density. The addition of individual particle density to the mass spectrum is intended to improve the data classification process. In the present paper we demonstrate that the system has the requisite accuracy and resolution to make this approach practicable. We also present a high precision variant that uses an internal calibrant to remove any of the systematic errors and significantly improves the measurement quality. The high precision scheme is most suitable for laboratory studies making it possible to follow slight changes in particle density. An application of the system to measure the density of hygroscopic particles of atmospheric importance in metastable phases near zero relative humidity is presented. The density data are consistent with conclusions reached in a number of other studies that some particle systems of atmospheric significance once deliquesced persist as droplets down to near zero relative humidity.

  10. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  11. Surface Area, Volume, Mass, and Density Distributions for Sized Biomass Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2007-06-30

    This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to June 30, 2007 which covers the entire performance period of the project. 25 individual biomass particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546 in the size range of 100-200 microns) were levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and their external surface area, volume, and drag coefficient/mass (C{sub d}/m) ratios were characterized applying highly specialized video based and high-speed diode array imaging systems. Analysis methods were employed using shape and drag information to calculate mass and density distributions for these particles. Results of these measurements and analyses were validated by independent mass measurements using a particle weighing and counting technique. Similar information for 28 PSOC 1451D bituminous coal particles was retrieved from a previously published work. Using these two information, density correlations for coal/biomass blends were developed. These correlations can be used to estimate the density of the blend knowing either the volume fraction or the mass fraction of coal in the blend. The density correlations presented here will be useful in predicting the burning rate of coal/biomass blends in cofiring combustors. Finally, a discussion on technological impacts and economic projections of burning biomass with coal in US power plants is presented.

  12. Correlation between surface tension, density, and sound velocity of liquid metals.

    PubMed

    Blairs, Sidney

    2006-10-01

    The inter-relationship of surface tension sigma, density rho, and sound velocity c has been examined for forty-one liquid metals. Sound velocities correlate with the equation, log c=0.5526log(sigma/rho)+5.4364. Unknown sound velocities may be estimated using surface tension and liquid density values.

  13. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-12-15

    A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.

  14. Measurements of uranium mass confined in high density plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An X-ray absorption method for measuring the amount of uranium confined in high density, rf-heated uranium plasmas is described. A comparison of measured absorption of 8 keV X-rays with absorption calculated using Beer Law indicated that the method could be used to measure uranium densities from 3 times 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm to 5 times 10 to the 18th power atoms/cu cm. Tests were conducted to measure the density of uranium in an rf-heated argon plasma with UF6 infection and with the power to maintain the discharge supplied by a 1.2 MW rf induction heater facility. The uranium density was measured as the flow rate through the test chamber was varied. A maximum uranium density of 3.85 times 10 to the 17th power atoms/cu cm was measured.

  15. Measurements of uranium mass confined in high density plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An X-ray absorption method for measuring the amount of uranium confined in high density, rf-heated uranium plasmas is described. A comparison of measured absorption of 8 keV X-rays with absorption calculated using Beer Law indicated that the method could be used to measure uranium densities from 3 times 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm to 5 times 10 to the 18th power atoms/cu cm. Tests were conducted to measure the density of uranium in an rf-heated argon plasma with UF6 infection and with the power to maintain the discharge supplied by a 1.2 MW rf induction heater facility. The uranium density was measured as the flow rate through the test chamber was varied. A maximum uranium density of 3.85 times 10 to the 17th power atoms/cu cm was measured.

  16. Disorder-induced density of states on the surface of a spherical topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Adam C.

    2016-06-01

    We consider a topological insulator (TI) of spherical geometry and numerically investigate the influence of disorder on the density of surface states. The energy spectrum of the spherical TI surface is discrete, for a sphere of finite radius, and can be truncated by imposing a high-energy cutoff at the scale of the bulk band gap. To this clean system we add a surface disorder potential of the most general Hermitian form, V =V0(θ ,ϕ ) 1 +V (θ ,ϕ ) .σ , where V0 describes the spin-independent part of the disorder and the three components of V describe the spin-dependent part. We expand these four disorder functions in spherical harmonics and draw the expansion coefficients randomly from a four-dimensional, zero-mean Gaussian distribution. Different strengths and classes of disorder are realized by specifying the 4 ×4 covariance matrix. For each instantiation of the disorder, we solve for the energy spectrum via exact diagonalization. Then we compute the disorder-averaged density of states, ρ (E ) , by averaging over 200 000 different instantiations. Disorder broadens the Landau-level delta functions of the clean density of states into peaks that decay and merge together. If the spin-dependent term is dominant, these peaks split due to the breaking of the degeneracy between time-reversed partner states. Increasing disorder strength pushes states closer and closer to zero energy (the Dirac point), resulting in a low-energy density of states that becomes nonzero for sufficient disorder, typically approaching an energy-independent saturation value, for most classes of disorder. But for purely spin-dependent disorder with V either entirely out-of-surface or entirely in-surface, we identify intriguing disorder-induced features in the vicinity of the Dirac point. In the out-of-surface case, a new peak emerges at zero energy. In the in-surface case, we see a symmetry-protected zero at zero energy, with ρ (E ) increasing linearly toward nonzero-energy peaks. These

  17. Frontiers for discovery in high energy density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    2005-07-01

    Recent advances in extending the energy, power, and brightness of lasers, particle beams, and Z-pinch generators make it possible to create matter with extremely high energy density in the laboratory. The collective interaction of this matter, often in the plasma state, with itself, intense particle beams, and radiation fields, is a rapidly growing field of research called high energy density physics. It is a field characterized by extreme states of matter, previously unattainable in laboratory experiments, and not unlike the conditions occurring in many astrophysical systems. It is also a field rich in opportunities for scientific discovery and compelling applications, propelled by advances in high-performance computing and advanced instrumentation and measuring techniques. This plenary presentation will summarize the results of two recent national studies of high energy density physics commissioned by the National Academies -- National Research Council, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy's Interagency Working Group on the Physics of the Universe. It will also provide an overview of the exciting research opportunities of high intellectual value in this highly interdisciplinary field, with examples ranging from fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion, to the creation of quark-gluon plasmas characteristic of the very early Universe using heavy ion accelerators. For purposes of this presentation, the working definition of high energy density refers to energy densities exceeding 100 kilojoules per cubic centimeter, or equivalently, pressures exceeding one megabar. For reference, the bulk moduli of solid materials under standard conditions are about 100 kilojoules per cubic centimeter.

  18. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  19. A Density Functional Study of the Americium (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Da; Ray, Asok Kumar

    2006-03-01

    Electronic structure properties of the fcc americium (001) surface, modeled by periodically repeated fcc Am (001) surface slabs, have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The alternative basis set APW+lo is used inside the atomic spheres for chemically important orbitals that are difficult to converge, whereas LAPW is used for others. The core states are treated fully relativistically and for valence states, two levels of treatments are implemented: (1) a scalar relativistic scheme including the mass-velocity correction and the Darwin s-shift and (2) a fully relativistic scheme with spin-orbit coupling included in a second variational treatment using the scalar-relativistic eigenfunctions as basis. Our results indicate that the ground state of Am (001) surface is anti-ferromagnetic. The quantum size effects in the surface energies and the work functions of the (001) fcc americium ultra thin films (UTF) have been examined up to seven layers. In addition, the Am (001) surface properties are compared with our earlier study of the Am (111) surface.

  20. Fabrication of high density, high aspect-ratio polyimide nanofilters.

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, O.; Tang, C.-M.; Amstutz, P.; Divan, R.; Imre, A.; Mancini, D. C.; Hoffbauer, M.; Williamson, T.

    2009-01-01

    A novel fabrication process produces high porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform, and straight pores with high aspect ratios. The process utilizes electron beam lithography and energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy techniques. The method has the potential to produce a new generation of high-precision, very-high-porosity, biocompatible filters with pore sizes down to 100 nm.

  1. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy

    There exists wide ranging research interest in high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants as a potential replacement for existing industry standard fuels for liquid rocket engines. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research Lab, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center each either recently concluded or currently has ongoing programs in the synthesis and development of these potential new propellants. In order to perform conceptual designs using these new propellants, most conceptual rocket engine powerhead design tools (e.g. NPSS, ROCETS, and REDTOP-2) require several thermophysical properties of a given propellant over a wide range of temperature and pressure. These properties include enthalpy, entropy, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. Very little thermophysical property data exists for most of these potential new HEDM propellants. Experimental testing of these properties is both expensive and time consuming and is impractical in a conceptual vehicle design environment. A new technique for determining these thermophysical properties of potential new rocket engine propellants is presented. The technique uses a combination of three different computational methods to determine these properties. Quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics are used to model new propellants at a molecular level in order to calculate density, enthalpy, and entropy. Additivity methods are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity and thermal conductivity of new propellants. This new technique is validated via a series of verification experiments of HEDM compounds. Results are provided for two HEDM propellants: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). In each case, the new technique does a better job than the best current computational methods at accurately matching the experimental data of the HEDM compounds of interest. A case study is provided to help quantify the vehicle level impacts of using HEDM

  2. Structural Stability and Functional Remodeling of High-Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gursky, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Lipoproteins are protein-lipid nanoparticles that transport lipids in circulation and are central in atherosclerosis and other disorders of lipid metabolism. Apolipoproteins form flexible structural scaffolds and important functional ligands on the particle surface and direct lipoprotein metabolism. Lipoproteins undergo multiple rounds of metabolic remodeling that is crucial to lipid transport. Important aspects of this remodeling, including apolipoprotein dissociation and particle fusion, are mimicked in thermal or chemical denaturation and are modulated by free energy barriers. Here we review our biophysical studies that revealed kinetic mechanism of lipoprotein stabilization and unraveled its structural basis. The main focus is on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An inverse correlation between stability and functions of various HDLs in cholesterol transport suggests functional role of structural disorder. A mechanism for conformational adaptation of the major HDL proteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, to the increasing lipid load is proposed. Together, these studies help understand why HDL form discrete subclasses separated by kinetic barriers, which have distinct composition, conformation and functional properties. Understanding these properties may help improve HDL quality and develop novel therapies for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25749369

  3. Stability of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Mohsen; Fried, Eliot

    Motivated by experimental and numerical studies revealing that discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles may adopt flat elliptical and nonplanar saddle-like configurations, it is hypothesized that these might represent stabilized configurations of initially unstable flat circular particles. A variational description is developed to explore the stability of a flat circular discoidal HDL particle. While the lipid bilayer is modeled as two-dimensional fluid film endowed with surface tension and bending elasticity, the apoA-I belt is modeled as one-dimensional inextensible twist-free chain endowed with bending elasticity. Stability is investigated using the second variation of the underlying energy functional. Various planar and nonplanar instability modes are predicted and corresponding nondimensional critical values of salient dimensionless parameters are obtained. The results predict that the first planar and nonplanar unstable modes occur due to in-plane elliptical and transverse saddle-like perturbations. Based on available data, detailed stability diagrams indicate the range of input parameters for which a flat circular discoidal HDL particle is linearly stable or unstable.

  4. Stability of Magnetically Implode Liners for High Energy Density Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Atchison, W.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Ekdahl, C.E.; Faehl, R.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Keinigs, R.K.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Morgan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Tasker, D.G.; Trainor, R.J.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1998-10-18

    Magnetically imploded cylindrical metal shells (z-pinch liners) are attractive drivers for a wide variety of hydrodynamics and material properties experiments. The ultimate utility of liners depends on the acceleration of near-solid density shells to velocities exceeding 20 km/sec with good azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity. Two pulse power systems (Ranchero and Atlas) currently operational or under development at Los Alamos provide electrical energy adequate to accelerate {approximately}50 gr. liners to 1-2 MJ/cm kinetic energy. As in all z-pinches, the outer surface of a magnetically imploded liner is unstable to magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) modes during acceleration. Large-scale distortion in the liners from RT modes growing from glide plane interactions or initial imperfections could make liners unusable for man experiments. On the other hand, material strength in the liner should, from first principles, reduce the growth rate of RT modes - and can render some combinations of wavelength and amplitude analytically stable. The growth of instabilities in both soft aluminum liners and in high strength aluminum alloy liners has been studied analytically, computationally and experimentally at liner kinetic energies up to 100 KJ/cm on the Pegasus capacitor bank using driving currents up to 12 MA.

  5. Generation of Gigabar Pressures for High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Mangino, D.; Casner, A.; Beg, F. N.; Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Wei, M. S.; Schoff, M. E.; Florido, R.; Mancini, R. C.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on the OMEGA laser were performed to study gigabar pressures in small (50- μm-diam) Ti and Cu target samples for high-energy-density plasma applications. The samples were precisely placed (better than 10 μm) at the center of a spherical plastic matrix that is irradiated at incident laser intensities of 5 ×1015 W /cm2 . The laser launches a spherical shock wave that converges in the center in order to reach Gbar pressures in the sample. The shock convergence produces a short burst ( 30ps) of x-ray emission. Time-resolved and time-integrated x-ray spectroscopy provides the means to diagnose the plasma conditions in the sample. The time-resolved spectra are compared to predictions from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to infer the material conditions at Gbar pressures. A second x-ray flash delayed by 600ps caused by the breakout of the rebounded shock through the outer surface of the compressed plastic was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and by the Fusion Science Center under Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER54789.

  6. Preparing high-density polymer brushes by mechanically assisted polymer assembly (MAPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel method of modifying the surface properties of materials. This technique, called MAPA (="mechanically assisted polymer assembly"), is based on: 1) chemically attaching polymerization initiators to the surface of an elastomeric network that has been previously stretched by a certain length, Δx, and 2) growing end-anchored macromolecules using surface initiated ("grafting from") atom transfer living radical polymerization. After the polymerization, the strain is removed from the substrate, which returns to its original size causing the grafted macromolecules to stretch away from the substrate and form a dense polymer brush. We demonstrate the feasibility of the MAPA method by preparing high-density polymer brushes of poly(acryl amide), PAAm. We show that, as expected, the grafting density of the PAAm brushes can be increased by increasing Δx. We demonstrate that polymer brushes with extremely high grafting densities can be successfully prepared by MAPA.

  7. Engineering high-density endothelial cell monolayers on soft substrates.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W; Schumacher, James F; Brennan, Anthony B

    2009-07-01

    This study demonstrates that a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) can be tissue engineered on a soft substrate with a cell density and morphology that approximates in vivo conditions. We achieved formation of a confluent EC monolayer on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer by microcontact printing of fibronectin (FN) in a square lattice array of 3microm diameter circular islands at a 6microm pitch. Uniform coatings of FN or serum proteins on PDMS or on tissue-culture-treated polystyrene failed to support the equivalent EC density and/or confluence. The ECs on the FN micropatterned PDMS achieved a density of 1,536+/-247cellsmm(-2), close to the 3,215+/-336cellsmm(-2) observed in vivo from porcine pulmonary artery and significantly higher (2- to 5-fold) than EC density on other materials. The probable mechanism for enhanced EC adhesion, growth and density is increased focal adhesion (FA) formation between the ECs and the substrate. After 14days culture, the micropatterned FN surface increased the average number of FAs per cell to 35+/-10, compared to 7+/-6 for ECs on PDMS uniformly coated with FN. Thus, microscale patterning of FN into FA-sized, circular islands on PDMS elastomer promotes the formation of EC monolayers with in vivo-like cell density and morphology.

  8. Systematic control of surface Dirac fermion density on topological insulator Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Suyang; Xia, Yuqi; Grauer, David; Hor, Yewsan; Cava, Robert; Hasan, Zahid

    2010-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) topological insulators are quantum materials with a spin-orbit induced bulk insulating gap that exhibit quantum-Hall-like phenomena in the absence of applied magnetic fields. They feature surface states that are topologically protected against scattering by time reversal symmetry. The proposed applications of topological insulators in device geometries rely on the ability to tune the chemical potential on their surfaces in the vicinity of the Dirac node. Here, we demonstrate a suite of surface control methods based on a combination of photo-doping and molecular-doping to tune the Dirac fermion density on the topological (111) surface of Bi2Te3. Their efficacy is demonstrated via direct electronic structure measurements using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. These results open up new opportunities for probing topological behavior of Dirac electrons in Bi2Te3. At least one of the methods demonstrated here can be successfully applied to other topological insulators (Bi1-xSbx, Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3). More importantly, our methods of topological surface state manipulation demonstrated here are highly suitable for future spectroscopic studies of topological phenomena which will complement the transport results gained from the traditional electrical gating techniques.

  9. Strain and Cohesive Energy of TiN Deposit on Al(001) Surface: Density Functional Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Xuejie

    2016-07-01

    To apply the high hardness of TiN film to soft and hard multilayer composite sheets, we constructed a new type of composite structural material with ultra-high strength. The strain of crystal and cohesive energy between the atoms in the eight structures of N atom, Ti atom, 2N2Ti island and TiN rock salt deposited on the Al(001) surface were calculated with the first-principle ultra-soft pseudopotential approach of the plane wave based on the density functional theory. The calculations of the cohesive energy showed that N atoms could be deposited in the face-centered-cubic vacancy position of the Al(001) surface and results in a cubic structure AlN surface. The TiN film could be deposited on the interface of β-AlN. The calculations of the strains showed that the strain in the TiN film deposited on the Al(001) surface was less than that in the 2N2Ti island deposited on the Al(001) surface. The diffusion behavior of interface atom N was investigated by a nudged elastic band method. Diffusion energy calculation showed that the N atom hardly diffused to the substrate Al layer.

  10. Near surface stoichiometry in UO2: A density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Valderrama, Billy; Henderson, Hunter B.; Manuel, Michele V.; Allen, Todd

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2 at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2 near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110) surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2 have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM), a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variation is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2 prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.

  11. Near surface stoichiometry in UO2: A density functional theory study

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Jianguo; Valderrama, Billy; Henderson, Hunter B.; ...

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2 at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2 near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110) surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2 have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM), a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variationmore » is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2 prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.« less

  12. Near Surface Stoichiometry in UO2 : A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Valderrama, Billy; Henderson, Hunter B.; Manuel, Michele V.; Allen, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110) surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM), a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variation is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.

  13. Effect of Reacting Surface Density on the Overall Graphite Oxidation Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung Kim; Jong Lim; Richard Schultz; David Petti

    2009-05-01

    Graphite oxidation in an air-ingress accident is presently a very important issue for the reactor safety of the very high temperature gas cooled-reactor (VHTR), the concept of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) because of its potential problems such as mechanical degradation of the supporting graphite in the lower plenum of the VHTR might lead to core collapse if the countermeasure is taken carefully. The oxidation process of graphite has known to be affected by various factors, including temperature, pressure, oxygen concentration, types of graphite, graphite shape and size, flow distribution, etc. However, our recent study reveals that the internal pore characteristics play very important roles in the overall graphite oxidation rate. One of the main issues regarding graphite oxidation is the potential core collapse problem that may occur following the degradation of graphite mechanical strength. In analyzing this phenomenon, it is very important to understand the relationship between the degree of oxidization and strength degradation. In addition, the change of oxidation rate by graphite oxidation degree characterization by burn-off (ratio of the oxidized graphite density to the original density) should be quantified because graphite strength degradation is followed by graphite density decrease, which highly affects oxidation rates and patterns. Because the density change is proportional to the internal pore surface area, they should be quantified in advance. In order to understand the above issues, the following experiments were performed: (1)Experiment on the fracture of the oxidized graphite and validation of the previous correlations, (2) Experiment on the change of oxidation rate using graphite density and data collection, (3) Measure the BET surface area of the graphite. The experiments were performed using H451 (Great Lakes Carbon Corporation) and IG-110 (Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd) graphite. The reason for the use of those graphite materials is because

  14. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  15. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an "oxygen depletion design" whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm⁻²) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm⁻³). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells.

  16. Comparison of High and Low Density Airborne LIDAR Data for Forest Road Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, K.; Malinen, J.; Tokola, T.

    2016-06-01

    Good quality forest roads are important for forest management. Airborne laser scanning data can help create automatized road quality detection, thus avoiding field visits. Two different pulse density datasets have been used to assess road quality: high-density airborne laser scanning data from Kiihtelysvaara and low-density data from Tuusniemi, Finland. The field inventory mainly focused on the surface wear condition, structural condition, flatness, road side vegetation and drying of the road. Observations were divided into poor, satisfactory and good categories based on the current Finnish quality standards used for forest roads. Digital Elevation Models were derived from the laser point cloud, and indices were calculated to determine road quality. The calculated indices assessed the topographic differences on the road surface and road sides. The topographic position index works well in flat terrain only, while the standardized elevation index described the road surface better if the differences are bigger. Both indices require at least a 1 metre resolution. High-density data is necessary for analysis of the road surface, and the indices relate mostly to the surface wear and flatness. The classification was more precise (31-92%) than on low-density data (25-40%). However, ditch detection and classification can be carried out using the sparse dataset as well (with a success rate of 69%). The use of airborne laser scanning data can provide quality information on forest roads.

  17. High thermal power density heat transfer. [thermionic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically non-conducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  18. Serum amyloid A-containing human high density lipoprotein 3. Density, size, and apolipoprotein composition.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, G A; Strachan, A F; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Hoppe, H C; Jeenah, M S; de Beer, F C

    1986-07-25

    Serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA), an acute phase reactant, is an apolipoprotein of high density lipoproteins (HDL), in particular the denser subpopulation HDL3. The structure of HDL3 isolated from humans affected by a variety of severe disease states was investigated with respect to density, size, and apolipoprotein composition, using density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and solid phase immunoadsorption. Apo-SAA was present in HDL particles in increasing amounts as particle density increased. Apo-SAA-containing HDL3 had bigger radii than normal HDL3 of comparable density. Purified apo-SAA associated readily with normal HDL3 in vitro, giving rise to particles containing up to 80% of their apoproteins as apo-SAA. The addition of apo-SAA resulted in a displacement of apo-A-I and an increase in particle size. Acute phase HDL3 represented a mixture of particles, polydisperse with respect to apolipoprotein content; for example, some particles were isolated that contained apo-A-I, apo-A-II, and apo-SAA, whereas others contained apo-A-I and apo-SAA but no apo-A-II. We conclude that apo-SAA probably associates in the circulation of acute phase patients with existing HDL particles, causing the remodeling of the HDL shell to yield particles of bigger size and higher density that are relatively depleted of apo-A-I.

  19. Instability Analysis of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony Layiwola

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas were performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The temporal growth rates and the phase velocity of the disturbances were obtained. It was found that the presence of variable density within the shear layer resulted in an increase in the temporal amplification rate of the disturbances and an increase in the range of unstable frequencies, accompanied by a reduction in the phase velocities of the disturbances. Also, the temporal growth rates of the disturbances were increased as the Froude number was reduced (i.e. gravitational effects increased), indicating the destabilizing role played by gravity. The spatio-temporal stability analysis was performed to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet. The roles of the density ratio

  20. Allotypy of High Density Lipoprotein of Rabbit Serum

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kåre; Boman, Helge; Torsvik, Harald; Walker, Suzanne M.

    1971-01-01

    A common antigenic polymorphism of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in rabbit serum is described. The presence or absence of an antigen termed Hl 1 appears to be controlled by autosomal dominant inheritance. The polymorphism should be a useful tool in the study of serum lipoproteins, particularly since genetic polymorphisms within the low density lipoprotein are already known in several species. The Hl polymorphism may make the rabbit more useful for model studies of serum lipoproteins in health and disease. Images PMID:4995822

  1. High current density pulsed cathode experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R.; Fant, K.; Vlieks, A.

    1990-06-01

    A 1.9 microperveance beam diode has been constructed to test high current density cathodes for use in klystrons. Several standard and specially coated dispenser cathodes are being tested. Results of tests to date show average cathode current densities in excess of 25 amps/cm, and maximum electric field gradients of more than 450 kV/cm for pulses of the order of 1{mu}sec. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Modeling of Homogeneous Condensation in High Density Thruster Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    Density Thruster Plumes 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan Jansen (USC); Natalia Gimelshein & Sergey Gimelshein...N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Modeling of Homogeneous Condensation in High Density Thruster Plumes Ryan...related to thruster plume expansion into surrounding rarefied atmosphere.1 It is well known that particulates of different kind are the main contributor to

  3. Single-charge-exchange reactions and the neutron density at the surface of the nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loc, Bui Minh; Auerbach, Naftali; Khoa, Dao T.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study the charge-exchange reaction to the isobaric analog state using two types of transition densities. One transition density is equal to the difference of the total neutron density minus the total proton density and the other one is the density of the excess neutrons only. We show that for projectiles that do not probe the interior of the nucleus but mostly the surface of this nucleus, distinct differences in the cross section arise when two types of transition densities are employed. We demonstrate this by considering the (3He,t ) reaction.

  4. Study of a high performance evaporative heat transfer surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hamasaki, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative surface is described for heat pipes and other two-phase heat transfer applications that consists of a hybrid composition of V-grooves and capillary wicking. Characteristics of the surface include both a high heat transfer coefficient and high heat flux capability relative to conventional open-faced screw thread surfaces. With a groove density of 12.6 cm/1 and ammonia working fluid, heat transfer coefficients in the range of 1 to 2 W/sq cm have been measured along with maximum heat flux densities in excess of 20 W/sq cm. A peak heat transfer coefficient in excess of 2.3 W/sq cm was measured with a 37.8 cm/1 hybrid surface.

  5. A quantitative study of the effect of surface texture on plasticity induced surface roughness and dislocation density of crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, Amir R.; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Bieler, Thomas R.

    2008-10-01

    Microscale simulations are used to study the effects of the surface texture and plastic deformation on surface roughness and dislocation density, which are important parameters controlling some surface physical properties such as electron work function (EWF) and phonon emission of crystalline materials. The results of the simulations on superconducting niobium show that the intensity and the components of the surface texture have significant effects on the plasticity induced surface roughness and dislocation density. A weak surface texture develops a rough surface after plastic deformation, which is due to the different plastic "shear rates and directions" behavior in the grains with different orientations. Some grains with specific orientation experience more plastic deformation, and therefore develop an intragrain surface roughness due to the development of microtexture and inhomogeneous plastic deformation inside the grain. Due to an inhomogeneous plastic deformation, the dislocation density not only is different in the grains with different orientations but also is inhomogeneous within a grain. Therefore, it may be possible to design surface texture to obtain optimal EWF and minimal electron emission and control surface roughness and dislocation density in polycrystalline materials.

  6. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  7. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae).

    PubMed

    Corrêa, F F; Pereira, M P; Madail, R H; Santos, B R; Barbosa, S; Castro, E M; Pereira, F J

    2017-03-01

    Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  8. Comparative study of semilocal density functionals on solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yuxiang; Tian, Guocai; Tao, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Tao and Mo (TM) proposed an accurate nonempirical meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA). To better understand the performance of this functional, here we make a comparative study of the combinations of the TM exchange part with the original TPSS correlation (TMTPSS) and the modified TPSS correlation (TM) on a variety of solids and surfaces. Specifically, we compare the performance of these two functionals on 22 lattice constants and bulk moduli, 30 band gaps of semiconductors, 7 cohesive energies, and surface exchange-correlation energies of simple metals with rs ranging from 2 to 3 bohr.

  9. Arc-textured high emittance radiator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    High emittance radiator surfaces are produced by arc-texturing. This process produces such a surface on a metal by scanning it with a low voltage electric arc from a carbon electrode in an inert environment.

  10. High Density Planar High Temperature Superconducting Josephson Junctions Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    the wavefunction, and h is Planck’s constant. In the stationary state 101 is constant because from quantum mechanics 1I 12 is proportional to the...electrons with opposite momentum and spin can interact with lattice phonons and form a bound pair called a Cooper pair. Cooper pairs obey Bose-Einstein...Fermi surface can condense into a single collective state , the superconducting ground state . As a result their 20- are identical. This results in

  11. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  12. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  13. Laser nanoablation of diamond surface at high pulse repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Gololobov, V. M.; Pashinin, V. P.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical etching of the surface of a natural diamond single crystal irradiated by subpicosecond laser pulses with a high repetition rate (f ≤slant 500 {\\text{kHz}}) in air is experimentally investigated. The irradiation has been performed by the second-harmonic (515 {\\text{nm}}) radiation of a disk Yb : YAG laser. Dependences of the diamond surface etch rate on the laser energy density and pulse repetition rate are obtained.

  14. Density functional theory in surface chemistry and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Nørskov, Jens K.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Bligaard, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition-metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. The current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling theory and experiment and future challenges. PMID:21220337

  15. Density functional theory in surface chemistry and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Bligaard, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition-metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. The current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling theory and experiment and future challenges.

  16. Density Functional Theory in Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Norskov, Jens

    2011-05-19

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. Current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling between theory and experiment and future challenges.

  17. Dispersal, density dependence, and population dynamics of a fungal microbe on leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Woody, Scott T; Ives, Anthony R; Nordheim, Erik V; Andrews, John H

    2007-06-01

    Despite the ubiquity and importance of microbes in nature, little is known about their natural population dynamics, especially for those that occupy terrestrial habitats. Here we investigate the dynamics of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (Ap) on apple leaves in an orchard. We asked three questions. (1) Is variation in fungal population density among leaves caused by variation in leaf carrying capacities and strong density-dependent population growth that maintains densities near carrying capacity? (2) Do resident populations have competitive advantages over immigrant cells? (3) Do Ap dynamics differ at different times during the growing season? To address these questions, we performed two experiments at different times in the growing season. Both experiments used a 2 x 2 factorial design: treatment 1 removed fungal cells from leaves to reveal density-dependent population growth, and treatment 2 inoculated leaves with an Ap strain engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), which made it possible to track the fate of immigrant cells. The experiments showed that natural populations of Ap vary greatly in density due to sustained differences in carrying capacities among leaves. The maintenance of populations close to carrying capacities indicates strong density-dependent processes. Furthermore, resident populations are strongly competitive against immigrants, while immigrants have little impact on residents. Finally, statistical models showed high population growth rates of resident cells in one experiment but not in the other, suggesting that Ap experiences relatively "good" and "bad" periods for population growth. This picture of Ap dynamics conforms to commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, expectations of microbe dynamics in nature. It also highlights the importance of local processes, as opposed to immigration, in determining the abundance and dynamics of microbes on surfaces in terrestrial systems.

  18. The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-05-01

    Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

  19. High Density Ion Implanted Contiguous Disk Bubble Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-31

    wall motion Depending on the type of device being studied, the forces in (1) may arise from externally applied fields, permalloy propagation elements...the applied bias field, 2) the charged wall, 3) the edge- affinity due to the implanted/unimplanted boundary and, 4) conductors used to activate...c, H and H denote the Z components of the applied .V . 6 " field and the demagnetizing field originating from surface pole density averaged over the

  20. Analytical performance of molecular beacons on surface immobilized gold nanoparticles of varying size and density.

    PubMed

    Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-11-25

    The high quenching efficiency of metal nanoparticles has facilitated its use as quenchers in molecular beacons. To optimize this system, a good understanding of the many factors that influence molecular beacon performance is required. In this study, molecular beacon performance was evaluated as a function of gold nanoparticle size and its immobilization characteristics. Gold nanoparticles of 4 nm, 15 nm and 87 nm diameter, were immobilized onto glass slides. Each size regime offered distinctive optical properties for fluorescence quenching of molecular dyes that were conjugated to oligonucleotides that were immobilized to the gold nanoparticles. Rigid double stranded DNA was used as a model to place fluorophores at different distances from the gold nanoparticles. The effect of particle size and also the immobilization density of nanoparticles was evaluated. The 4 nm and 87 nm gold nanoparticles offered the highest sensitivity in terms of the change in fluorescence intensity as a function of distance (3-fold improvement for Cy5). The optical properties of the molecular fluorophore was of significance, with Cy5 offering higher contrast ratios than Cy3 due to the red-shifted emission spectrum relative to the plasmon peak. A high density of gold nanoparticles reduced contrast ratios, indicating preference for a monolayer of immobilized nanoparticles when considering analytical performance. Molecular beacon probes were then used in place of the double stranded oligonucleotides. There was a strong dependence of molecular beacon performance on the length of a linker used for attachment to the nanoparticle surface. The optimal optical performance was obtained with 4 nm gold nanoparticles that were immobilized as monolayers of low density (5.7×10(11)particles cm(-2)) on glass surfaces. These nanoparticle surfaces offered a 2-fold improvement in analytical performance of the molecular beacons when compared to other nanoparticle sizes investigated. The principles developed

  1. Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites in the Common Surface-density Dark Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Yusuke; Chiba, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the growth histories of dark matter halos associated with dwarf satellites in Local Group galaxies and the resultant evolution of the baryonic component. Our model is based on the recently proposed property that the mean surface density of a dark halo inside a radius at maximum circular velocity {V}{{\\max }} is universal over a large range of {V}{{\\max }}. Given that a surface density of 20 M ⊙ pc-2 well explains dwarf satellites in the Milky Way and Andromeda, we find that the evolution of the dark halo in this common surface-density scale is characterized by the rapid increase of the halo mass assembled by the redshift {z}{{TT}} of the tidal truncation by its host halo, at early epochs of {z}{{TT}}≳ 6 or {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s-1. This mass growth of the halo is slow at lower {z}{{TT}} or larger {V}{{\\max }}. Taking into account the baryon content in this dark halo evolution, under the influence of the ionizing background radiation, we find that the dwarf satellites are divided into roughly two families: those with {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s-1 having high star formation efficiency and those with larger {V}{{\\max }} having less efficient star formation. This semianalytical model is in agreement with the high-resolution numerical simulation for galaxy formation and with the observed star formation histories for Fornax and Leo II. This suggests that the evolution of a dark halo may play a key role in understanding star formation histories in dwarf satellites.

  2. Effect of drugs on high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    McKenney, James M

    2007-03-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III found evidence for raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) events supports use of HDL-C to help modify low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering goals, but not to establish new HDL-C-focused treatment recommendations. However, the HDL-C-raising clinical trials provide important lessons to help guide clinical management of dyslipidemic patients. The fibrate outcome trials demonstrate that these drugs reduce CAD events, but not death. Their greatest benefit is in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by high triglycerides, small LDL particles, and low HDL-C. Unfortunately, there is no information on whether these drugs extend risk reduction when added to a statin. The niacin outcome trials also demonstrate a reduction in CAD events, both with niacin monotherapy and in combination with a statin. Unfortunately, most of the trials are too small to address the impact of niacin on mortality. In the clinic, statins are most useful for their LDL-C-lowering efficacy, although their modest HDL-C-raising effects can be important in CAD risk reduction. In most cases, other therapies will need to be added to a statin to augment HDL-C-raising, and the most effective drug for achieving this is niacin. The greatest challenge with the use of niacin is managing the vasodilatory side effects, but this can be effectively done in the majority of patients. Fibrates can also be added to a statin for management of atherogenic dyslipidemia. These drugs are among the most effective triglyceride-lowering drugs, and they also increase HDL-C levels, but not as much as niacin. The biggest concern with combining a fibrate with a statin is the enhanced risk of severe muscle toxicity, but this appears to be a problem unique to gemfibrozil, and not fenofibrate. In the research center, new approaches are under development for enhancing the availability of

  3. Effect of linker structure on surface density of aptamer monolayers and their corresponding protein binding efficiency.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Subramanian; Obubuafo, Anne; McCarley, Robin L; Soper, Steven A; Spivak, David A

    2008-12-15

    A systematic study is reported on the effect of linker size and its chemical composition toward ligand binding to a surface-immobilized aptamer, measured using surface plasmon resonance. The results, using thrombin as the model system, showed that as the number of thymidine (T) units in the linker increases from 0 to 20 in four separate increments (T(0), T(5), T(10), T(20)), the surface density of the aptamer decreased linearly from approximately 25 to 12 pmol x cm(-2). The decrease in aptamer surface density occurred due to the increased size of the linker molecules. In addition, thrombin binding capacity was shown to increase as the linker length increased from 0 to 5 thymidine nucleotides and then decreased as the number of thymidine residues increased to 20 due to a balance between two different effects. The initial increase was due to increased access of thrombin to the aptamer as the aptamer was moved away from the surface. For linkers greater in length than T(5), the overall decrease in binding capacity was primarily due to a decrease in the surface density. Incorporation of a hexa(ethylene glycol) moiety into the linker did not affect the surface density but increased the amount of thrombin bound. In addition, the attachment of the linker at the 3'- versus the 5'-end of the aptamer resulted in increased aptamer surface density. However, monolayers formed with equal surface densities showed similar amounts of thrombin binding irrespective of the point of attachment.

  4. Effect of Linker Structure on Surface Density of Aptamer Monolayers and their Corresponding Protein Binding Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Subramanian; Obubuafo, Anne; McCarley, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study is reported on the effect of linker size and its chemical composition toward ligand binding to a surface-immobilized aptamer, measured using surface plasmon resonance. The results, using thrombin as the model system, showed that as the number of thymidine (T) units in the linker increases from 0 to 20 in four separate increments (T0, T5, T10, T20), the surface density of the aptamer decreased linearly from approximately 25 to 12 pmol•cm-2. The decrease in aptamer surface density occurred due to the increased size of the linker molecules. In addition, thrombin binding capacity was shown to increase as the linker length increased from 0 to 5 thymidine nucleotides; and then, decreased as the number of thymidine residues increased to 20 due to a balance between two different effects. The initial increase was due to increased access of thrombin to the aptamer as the aptamer was moved away from the surface. For linkers greater in length than T5, the overall decrease in binding capacity was primarily due to a decrease in the surface density. Incorporation of a hexa(ethylene glycol) moiety into the linker did not affect the surface density, but increased the amount of thrombin bound. In addition, the attachment of the linker at the 3′ versus the 5′-end of the aptamer resulted in increased aptamer surface density. However, monolayers formed with equal surface densities showed similar amounts of thrombin binding irrespective of the point of attachment. PMID:18989937

  5. Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-11-02

    Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

  6. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  7. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici; Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian

    2016-03-15

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  8. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, PengFei; Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian; Qiu, Aici

    2016-03-01

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the "QiangGuang-I" accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (˜4 × 1021/cm3), with an expansion velocity of ˜0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  9. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards.

    PubMed

    Díez, Concepción M; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems ("Arbequina," Arbequina IRTA-i·18, "Arbosana," "Fs-17," and "Koroneiki") and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha(-1) for the cultivar "Arbequina." Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha(-1). Only "Fs-17" did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha(-1)) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for "Arbequina," both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha(-1) for the lowest density (780 trees ha(-1)) to 29.9 t ha(-1) for the highest (2254 trees ha(-1)). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  10. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  11. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  12. Emerging strategies for increasing high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Forrester, James S; Shah, Prediman K

    2006-12-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a potent and independent epidemiologic risk factor and is a proved antiatherosclerotic agent in animal models of atherosclerosis, acting through the principal mechanisms of accelerating cholesterol efflux and inhibiting oxidation and inflammation. Lifestyle modification increases serum levels by 5% to 15%, whereas niacin, the drug most widely used to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increases it by 25% to 35% at the highest doses. This review examines the potent methods of increasing high-density lipoprotein and/or enhancing reverse cholesterol transport, including cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors, apolipoprotein A-I Milano, D4F, the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, and rimonabant, that are now in clinical trials. In conclusion, these new agents, used alone or in combination with existing therapies, carry the potential to markedly reduce the incidence of new coronary disease and cardiac events in this decade.

  13. Effects of High-Density Impacts on Shielding Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are shielded from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts to meet requirements for crew safety and/or mission success. In the past, orbital debris particles have been considered to be composed entirely of aluminum (medium-density material) for the purposes of MMOD shielding design and verification. Meteoroids have been considered to be low-density porous materials, with an average density of 1 g/cu cm. Recently, NASA released a new orbital debris environment model, referred to as ORDEM 3.0, that indicates orbital debris contains a substantial fraction of high-density material for which steel is used in MMOD risk assessments [Ref.1]. Similarly, an update to the meteoroid environment model is also under consideration to include a high-density component of that environment. This paper provides results of hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations on typical spacecraft MMOD shields using steel projectiles. It was found that previous ballistic limit equations (BLEs) that define the protection capability of the MMOD shields did not predict the results from the steel impact tests and hydrocode simulations (typically, the predictions from these equations were too optimistic). The ballistic limit equations required updates to more accurately represent shield protection capability from the range of densities in the orbital debris environment. Ballistic limit equations were derived from the results of the work and are provided in the paper.

  14. High-Density Amorphous Ice, the Frost on Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Blake, D. F.; Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most water ice in the universe is in a form which does not occur naturally on Earth and of which only minimal amounts have been made in the laboratory. We have encountered this 'high-density amorphous ice' in electron diffraction experiments of low-temperature (T less than 30 K) vapor-deposited water and have subsequently modeled its structure using molecular dynamics simulations. The characteristic feature of high-density amorphous ice is the presence of 'interstitial' oxygen pair distances between 3 and 4 A. However, we find that the structure is best described as a collapsed lattice of the more familiar low-density amorphous form. These distortions are frozen in at temperatures below 38 K because, we propose, it requires the breaking of one hydrogen bond, on average, per molecule to relieve the strain and to restructure the lattice to that of low-density amorphous ice. Several features of astrophysical ice analogs studied in laboratory experiments are readily explained by the structural transition from high-density amorphous ice into low-density amorphous ice. Changes in the shape of the 3.07 gm water band, trapping efficiency of CO, CO loss, changes in the CO band structure, and the recombination of radicals induced by low-temperature UV photolysis all covary with structural changes that occur in the ice during this amorphous to amorphous transition. While the 3.07 micrometers ice band in various astronomical environments can be modeled with spectra of simple mixtures of amorphous and crystalline forms, the contribution of the high-density amorphous form nearly always dominates.

  15. Constraining cloud parameters using high density gas tracers in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, M. V.; Pelupessy, I.; Meijerink, R.; Israel, F. P.; Coppola, C. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Spaans, M.

    2016-11-01

    Far-infrared molecular emission is an important tool used to understand the excitation mechanisms of the gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of star-forming galaxies. In the present work, we model the emission from rotational transitions with critical densities n ≳ 104 cm-3. We include 4-3 < J ≤ 15-14 transitions of CO and 13CO , in addition to J ≤ 7-6 transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCO+ on galactic scales. We do this by re-sampling high density gas in a hydrodynamic model of a gas-rich disk galaxy, assuming that the density field of the ISM of the model galaxy follows the probability density function (PDF) inferred from the resolved low density scales. We find that in a narrow gas density PDF, with a mean density of 10 cm-3 and a dispersion σ = 2.1 in the log of the density, most of the emission of molecular lines, even of gas with critical densities >104 cm-3, emanates from the 10-1000 cm-3 part of the PDF. We construct synthetic emission maps for the central 2 kpc of the galaxy and fit the line ratios of CO and 13CO up to J = 15-14, as well as HCN, HNC, and HCO+ up to J = 7-6, using one photo-dissociation region (PDR) model. We attribute the goodness of the one component fits for our model galaxy to the fact that the distribution of the luminosity, as a function of density, is peaked at gas densities between 10 and 1000 cm-3, with negligible contribution from denser gas. Specifically, the Mach number, ℳ, of the model galaxy is 10. We explore the impact of different log-normal density PDFs on the distribution of the line-luminosity as a function of density, and we show that it is necessary to have a broad dispersion, corresponding to Mach numbers ≳30 in order to obtain significant (>10%) emission from n> 104 cm-3 gas. Such Mach numbers are expected in star-forming galaxies, luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGS), and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGS). This method provides a way to constrain the global PDF of the ISM of galaxies from observations of

  16. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    properties and anorthosites are lighter in color. The field tests have confirmed the positive effect of a light-colored road surface or a light- colored...possibilities of using some light-colored rock materials that could not previously have been recommended, 7 including anorthosites and quartzites. The former...values (%) with a reflect: i meter on wet agregate specimens, size fraction 0.149 - 0.2 ,7 mm. Aggregate Luminosity (% of MgO white) Anorthosite 45

  17. Surface charge dynamics and OH and H number density distributions in near-surface nanosecond pulse discharges at a liquid / vapor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Caroline; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Yin, Zhiyao; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides insight into surface charge dynamics and kinetics of radical species reactions in nanosecond pulse discharges sustained at a liquid-vapor interface, above a distilled water surface. The near-surface plasma is sustained using two different discharge configurations, a surface ionization wave discharge between two exposed metal electrodes and a double dielectric barrier discharge. At low discharge pulse repetition rates (~100 Hz), residual surface charge deposition after the discharge pulse is a minor effect. At high pulse repetition rates (~10 kHz), significant negative surface charge accumulation over multiple discharge pulses is detected, both during alternating polarity and negative polarity pulse trains. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and two-photon absorption LIF (TALIF) line imaging are used for in situ measurements of spatial distributions of absolute OH and H atom number densities in near-surface, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas. Both in a surface ionization wave discharge and in a double dielectric barrier discharge, peak measured H atom number density, [H] is much higher compared to peak OH number density, due to more rapid OH decay in the afterglow between the discharge pulses. Higher OH number density was measured near the regions with higher plasma emission intensity. Both OH and especially H atoms diffuse out of the surface ionization wave plasma volume, up to several mm from the liquid surface. Kinetic modeling calculations using a quasi-zero-dimensional H2O vapor / Ar plasma model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results demonstrate the experimental capability of in situ radical species number density distribution measurements in liquid-vapor interface plasmas, in a simple canonical geometry that lends itself to the validation of kinetic models.

  18. Periodic harvesting of microalgae from calcium alginate hydrogels for sustained high-density production.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, Scott C; Riordon, Jason; Nguyen, Brian; Ooms, Matthew D; Sinton, David

    2017-09-01

    High-density biomass production is currently only realized in biofilm-based photobioreactors. Harvest yields of whole biofilms are self-limited by daughter-upon-parent cell growth that hinders light and leads to respiratory biomass losses. In this work, we demonstrate a sustainable multi-harvest approach for prolonged generation of high-density biomass. Calcium-alginate hydrogel cultures loaded with Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 achieved production densities comparable to that of biofilms (10(9)  cells/mL) and optimal total productivity in harvest periods of 2 or 3 days that allowed high-density surface growth without self-limiting cell buildup or surface death. Cross-linking calcium concentration had a strong influence on surface growth and harvest yields, especially in the first harvests. Subsequent harvests achieved more uniform biomass yields and distributions, unaffected by bulk respiration or light penetration. Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of sustained, high-density biomass production by periodic harvesting within microalgal hydrogel cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2023-2031. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Is the bulk mode conversion important in high density helicon plasma?

    SciTech Connect

    Isayama, Shogo; Hada, Tohru; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao

    2016-06-15

    In a high-density helicon plasma production process, a contribution of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) wave for surface power deposition is widely accepted. The TG wave can be excited either due to an abrupt density gradient near the plasma edge (surface conversion) or due to linear mode conversion from the helicon wave in a density gradient in the bulk region (bulk mode conversion). By numerically solving the boundary value problem of linear coupling between the helicon and the TG waves in a background with density gradient, we show that the efficiency of the bulk mode conversion strongly depends on the dissipation included in the plasma, and the bulk mode conversion is important when the dissipation is small. Also, by performing FDTD simulation, we show the time evolution of energy flux associated with the helicon and the TG waves.

  20. A density functional theory study on the acetylene cyclotrimerization on Pd-modified Au(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bohua; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua

    2017-10-01

    Calculations based on the first-principle density functional theory were carried out to study the possible acetylene cyclotrimerization reactions on Pd-Au(111) surface and to investigate the effect of Au atom alloying with Pd. The adsorption of C2H2, C4H4, C6H6 and the PDOS of 4d orbitals of surface Pd and Au atoms were studied. The comparison of d-band center of Pd and Au atom before and after C2H2 or C4H4 adsorption suggests that these molecules affect the activity of Pd-Au(111) surface to some degree due to the high binding energy of the adsorption. In our study, the second neighboring Pd ensembles on Pd-Au(111) surface can adsorb two acetylene molecules on parallel-bridge site of two Au atoms and one Pd atom, respectively. Csbnd C bonds are parallel to each other and two acetylenes are adsorbed face to face to produce four-membered ring C4H4 firstly. The geometric effect and electronic effect of Pd-Au(111) surface with the second neighboring Pd ensembles both help to reduce this activation barrier.

  1. Crystallization Studies of Blends of Low Density Polyethylene and High Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, C.; Gomez, S.; Castañeda, R.

    1997-03-01

    The incorporation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) segments within the high density polyethylene (HDPE) lamellae on cooling from the molten state is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Rich LDPE blends (>80%) on quenching from the melt exhibited partial cocrystallization. Two endotherms on heating are observed, the LDPE is the main component of the low melting endotherm whereas the HDPE is the main component of the high melting endotherm. A depression in the high melting temperature peak is observed. In addition, on subsequent treatment the crystallization behaviour under controlled conditions of the low melting component in quenched blends is studied and it shows a shift in the crystallization temperature when compared with pure LDPE. After reheating a depression in the low melting temperature with increasing HDPE content in the blend is observed. The effect of cooling conditions used from the melt on the cocrystallization between the two polymers is studied.

  2. Optimization towards high density quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Sharma, G.; Fimland, B. O.; Thomassen, S. F.; Reenaas, T. W.

    2010-02-08

    We report high density quantum dots (QDs) formation with optimized growth temperature and V/III ratio. At lower growth temperature, QD density is increased, due to smaller surface migration length of In adatoms. With higher V/III, the QD density is higher but it results in large clusters formation and decreases the QD uniformity. The QD solar cell was fabricated and examined. An extended spectral response in contrast to the GaAs reference cell was presented but the external quantum efficiency at energies higher than GaAs band gap is reduced, resulting from the degradation for the emitter above the strained QD layers.

  3. A Safe, High-Power-Density Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    metallated dibenzotetraaza-[14]-annulene (TAA) meets the design requirements for a fully-configured high energy/power density battery. ECO has recently...cell design to meet these goals, ECO has * followed the disk-type electrode design of GTE (4) on the basis *that this design type has cost advantages...AD-Ri55 223 A SAFE HIGH-PaIWER-DENSITY LITHIUM BATTERY<U) ECO ENERGY i/i. CONVERSION NEWTON MR F WALSH MAR 85 N8084-84-C-0724 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 1@/3

  4. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  5. Effect of ion implantation on the corrosion behavior of a high-density sintered tungsten alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.C.; Levy, M.; Lin, S.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effect of chromium, nickel, tantalum, and titanium ion implantation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of a high-density sintered tungsten alloy was investigated in C1/sup -/ -free and chlorine-ion containing aqueous solution buffered to pH values of 4, 9, and 12. A three sweep potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to compare the polarization behavior of unimplanted and implanted surfaces. The surfaces of the ion-implanted tungsten alloy were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) analysis.

  6. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H.; Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y.; Wilson, J.; Allison, R.

    2013-07-22

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  7. High current density stability of ohmic contacts to silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Brian P.

    The materials properties of SiC, such as wide bandgap, high breakdown electric field, and good thermal conductivity, make it an appealing option for high temperature and high power applications. The replacement of Si devices with SiC components could lead to a reduction in device size, weight, complexity, and cooling requirements along with an increase in device efficiency. One area of concern under high temperature or high current operation is the stability of the ohmic contacts. Ohmic contact degradation can cause an increase in parasitic resistance, which can diminish device performance. While contact studies have primarily focused on the high temperature stability of ohmic contacts to SiC, different failure mechanisms may arise under high current density stressing due to the influence of electromigration. In addition, preferential degradation may occur at the anode or cathode due to the directionality of current flow, known as a polarity effect. The failure mechanisms of ohmic contacts to p-type SiC under high current density stressing are explored. Complementary materials characterization techniques were used to analyze contact degradation, particularly the use of cross-sections prepared by focused ion beam for imaging using field emission scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy. Initially the degradation of commonly studied Ni and Al-based contacts was investigated under continuous DC current. The contact metallization included a bond pad consisting of a TiW diffusion barrier and thick Au overlayer. The Ni contacts were found to degrade due to the growth of voids within the ohmic contact layer, which were initially produced during the high temperature Ni/SiC ohmic contact anneal. The Al-based contacts degraded due to the movement of Al from the ohmic contact layer to the surface of the Au bond pad, and the movement of Au into the ohmic contact layer from the bond pad. The inequality of Al and Au fluxes generated

  8. Biomass Accretion and Yield of Erect Leafed and Conventional Sorghum at Low and High Population Densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two sorghum isolines, a wild type (BTx 623) and an erect leaf mutant line (ERL 20) isolated from the wild type were field grown in rectilinear arrays at low (25 plants m-2) and high (12 plants/m-2) densities with sub-surface drip irrigation in an effort to eliminate confounding drought effects. Cano...

  9. Plasma modification of sisal and high-density polyethylene composites : effect on mechanical properties

    Treesearch

    A.R. Martin; S. Manolache; L.H.C. Mattoso; R.M. Rowell; F. Denes

    2000-01-01

    Sisal fibers and finely powdered high-density polyethylene were surface functionalized using dichlorosilane (DS) under R-F plasma conditions to improve interfacial adhesion between the two dissimilar substrates. The functionalized polyethylene (70%) and sisal (30%) were compounded on four different ways using thermokinetic mixer and injected molded into composites...

  10. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p < 0.001), and implant costs ($10,191.0 vs. $13,577.3, p = 0.003) in the LD group. Both low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  11. Study of Volumetrically Heated Ultra-High Energy Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    2016-10-27

    Heating dense matter to millions of degrees is important for applications, but requires complex and expensive methods. The major goal of the project was to demonstrate using a compact laser the creation of a new ultra-high energy density plasma regime characterized by simultaneous extremely high temperature and high density, and to study it combining experimental measurements and advanced simulations. We have demonstrated that trapping of intense femtosecond laser pulses deep within ordered nanowire arrays can heat near solid density matter into a new ultra hot plasma regime. Extreme electron densities, and temperatures of several tens of million degrees were achieved using laser pulses of only 0.5 J energy from a compact laser. Our x-ray spectra and simulations showed that extremely highly ionized plasma volumes several micrometers in depth are generated by irradiation of gold and Nickel nanowire arrays with femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities. We obtained extraordinarily high degrees of ionization (e.g. we peeled 52 electrons from gold atoms, and up to 26 electrons from nickel atoms). In the process we generated Gigabar pressures only exceeded in the central hot spot of highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas.. The plasma created after the dissolved wires expand, collide, and thermalize, is computed to have a thermal energy density of 0.3 GJ cm-3 and a pressure of 1-2 Gigabar. These are pressures only exceeded in highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Scaling these results to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures exceeding those in the center of the sun.

  12. Laser-Plasma Interactions in High-Energy Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, C G; Baldis, H A; Schneider, M B; Hinkel, D E; Langdon, A B; Seka, W; Bahr, R; Depierreaux, S

    2005-08-24

    Laser-plasma interactions (LPI) have been studied experimentally in high-temperature, high-energy density plasmas. The studies have been performed using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY. Up to 10 TW of power was incident upon reduced-scale hohlraums, distributed in three laser beam cones. The hot hohlraums fill quickly with plasma. Late in the laser pulse, most of the laser energy is deposited at the laser entrance hole, where most of the LPI takes place. Due to the high electron temperature, the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectrum extends well beyond {omega}{sub 0}/2, due to the Bohm-Gross shift. This high-temperature, high-energy density regime provides a unique opportunity to study LPI beyond inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions.

  13. High density operation for reactor-relevant power exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    With increasing size of a tokamak device and associated fusion power gain an increasing power flux density towards the divertor needs to be handled. A solution for handling this power flux is crucial for a safe and economic operation. Using purely geometric arguments in an ITER-like divertor this power flux can be reduced by approximately a factor 100. Based on a conservative extrapolation of current technology for an integrated engineering approach to remove power deposited on plasma facing components a further reduction of the power flux density via volumetric processes in the plasma by up to a factor of 50 is required. Our current ability to interpret existing power exhaust scenarios using numerical transport codes is analyzed and an operational scenario as a potential solution for ITER like divertors under high density and highly radiating reactor-relevant conditions is presented. Alternative concepts for risk mitigation as well as strategies for moving forward are outlined.

  14. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  15. Origins and impacts of high-density symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An

    2017-06-01

    What is nuclear symmetry energy? Why is it important? What do we know about it? Why is it so uncertain especially at high densities? Can the total symmetry energy or its kinetic part be negative? What are the effects of three-body and/or tensor force on symmetry energy? How can we probe the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy with terrestrial nuclear experiments? What observables of heavy-ion reactions are sensitive to the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy? How does the symmetry energy affect properties of neutron stars, gravitational waves and our understanding about the nature of strong-field gravity? In this lecture, we try to answer these questions as best as we can based on some of our recent work and/or understanding of research done by others. This note summarizes the main points of the lecture.

  16. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  17. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  18. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  19. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  20. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump.

    PubMed

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, Jan C T; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, Nico F

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-microm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined frit-like structure that connects the pumping channel to side reservoirs, where platinum electrodes are located. Current densities up to 4000 A m(-2) could be obtained without noticeable Joule heating in the system. The pump performance was studied as a function of current density and magnetic field intensity, as well as buffer ionic strength and pH. Bead velocities of up to 1 mm s(-1) (0.5 microL min(-1)) were observed in buffered solutions using a 0.4 T NdFeB permanent magnet, at an applied current density of 4000 A m(-2). This pump is intended for transport of electrolyte solutions having a relatively high ionic strength (0.5-1 M) in a DC magnetic field environment. The application of this pump for the study of biological samples in a miniaturized total analysis system (microTAS) with integrated NMR detection is foreseen. In the 7 T NMR environment, a minimum 16-fold increase in volumetric flow rate for a given applied current density is expected.