Science.gov

Sample records for high energy shock

  1. [High energy shock wave treatment of the painful heel spur].

    PubMed

    Perlick, L; Boxberg, W; Giebel, G

    1998-12-01

    Extracorporal shock wave application (ESWA) has been used in the treatment of stones located in kidneys, bile, pancreas and the glandula parotis. In the last 2 years several studies have shown the benefit of the ESWA on the treatment of soft tissue disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of high energy extracorporal shock waves in patients with painful calcaneus spurs. 83 patients who underwent medicophysical treatment without benefit were treated with 3000 impulses of 0.30 mj/mm2. Follow-ups after 12 weeks and 12 months showed that 51 of 83 patients became pain-free and 20 patients improved from the treatment. The results are showing the benefit of the high energy extracorporal shock wave application in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.

  2. SCATTTERING OF HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES AT A COLLISIONLESS SHOCK FRONT: DEPENDENCE ON THE SHOCK ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Gedalin, M.; Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.

    2015-07-10

    Many shock acceleration theories deal with gyrophase-averaged particle distributions that depend only on the energy and pitch angle of the particles. Diffusive shock acceleration includes shock crossing as a necessary component. As long as the shock width is much smaller than the mean free path of a particle, the crossing is governed by the macroscopic fields inside the transition layer. The dynamics of high-energy particles in these fields is non-adiabatic and gyrophase dependent. The magnetic moment is not conserved in a wide range of shock angles, nor is the condition of reflection determined by the magnetic bottle relation. Instead, for a pitch angle and unknown gyrophase of an incident particle there is a finite probability of reflection. This probability varies between zero and unity in a wide range of pitch angles. In this work we investigate how the matching conditions at the shock front could be modified with the gyrophase dependence taken into account, e.g., in the form of the scattering probabilities.

  3. Development of Ultra Small Shock Tube for High Energy Molecular Beam Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Nobuya; Nagata, Shuhei; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Takagi, Shu

    2008-12-31

    A molecular beam source exploiting a small shock tube is described for potential generation of high energy beam in a range of 1-5 eV without any undesirable impurities. The performance of a non-diaphragm type shock tube with an inner diameter of 2 mm was evaluated by measuring the acceleration and attenuation process of shock waves. With this shock tube installed in a molecular beam source, we measured the time-of-flight distributions of shock-heated beams, which demonstrated the ability of controlling the beam energy with the initial pressure ratio of the shock tube.

  4. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  5. Shock-induced decomposition of high energy materials: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Subodh; Mishra, Ankit; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    Atomistic simulations of shock-induced detonation provide critical information about high-energy (HE) materials such as sensitivity, crystallographic anisotropy, detonation velocity, and reaction pathways. However, first principles methods are unable to handle systems large enough to describe shock appropriately. We report reactive-force-field ReaxFF simulations of shock-induced decomposition of 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 3, 6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,1-diamino 2-2-dinitroethane (FOX-7) crystal. A flyer acts as mechanical stimuli to introduce a shock, which in turn initiated chemical reactions. Our simulation showed a shock speed of 9.8 km/s and 8.23 km/s for TATB and FOX-7, respectively. Reactivity analysis proves that FOX-7 is more reactive than TATB. Chemical reaction pathways analysis revealed similar pathways for the formation of N2 and H2O in both TATB and FOX-7. However, abundance of NH3 formation is specific to FOX-7. Large clusters formed during the reactions also shows different compositions between TATB and FOX-7. Carbon soot formation is much more pronounced in TATB. Overall, this study provides a detailed comparison between shock induced reaction pathway between FOX-7 and TATB. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant No. N000014-12-1-0555.

  6. HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO AND GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM TRANS-RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Gao, Shan; Meszaros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2013-05-20

    Trans-relativistic shocks that accompany some supernovae (SNe) produce X-ray burst emissions as they break out in the dense circumstellar medium around the progenitors. This phenomenon is sometimes associated with peculiar low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (LL GRBs). Here, we investigate the high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray counterparts of such a class of SNe. Just beyond the shock breakout radius, particle acceleration in the collisionless shock starts to operate in the presence of breakout photons. We show that protons may be accelerated to sufficiently high energies and produce high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays via the photomeson interaction. These neutrinos and gamma rays may be detectable from {approx}< 10 Mpc away by IceCube/KM3Net as multi-TeV transients almost simultaneously with the X-ray breakout, and even from {approx}< 100 Mpc away with follow-up observations by the Cherenkov Telescope Array using a wide-field sky monitor like Swift as a trigger. A statistical technique using a stacking approach could also be possible for the detection, with the aid of the SN optical/infrared counterparts. Such multi-messenger observations offer the possibility to probe the transition of trans-relativistic shocks from radiation-mediated to collisionless ones, and would also constrain the mechanisms of particle acceleration and emission in LL GRBs.

  7. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-07-01

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  8. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-10-25

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines--infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to the projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  9. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-05-15

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  10. Electron acceleration to high energies at quasi-parallel shock waves in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves are generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections. They manifest themselves in solar type 2 radio bursts appearing as emission stripes with a slow drift from high to low frequencies in dynamic radio spectra. Their nonthermal radio emission indicates that electrons are accelerated to suprathermal and/or relativistic velocities at these shocks. As well known by extraterrestrial in-situ measurements supercritical, quasi-parallel, collisionless shocks are accompanied by so-called SLAMS (short large amplitude magnetic field structures). These SLAMS can act as strong magnetic mirrors, at which charged particles can be reflected and accelerated. Thus, thermal electrons gain energy due to multiple reflections between two SLAMS and reach suprathermal and relativistic velocities. This mechanism of accelerating electrons is discussed for circumstances in the solar corona and may be responsible for the so-called 'herringbones' observed in solar type 2 radio bursts.

  11. Immediate Dose-Response Effect of High-Energy Versus Low-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Cutaneous Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Knobloch, Karsten; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kisch, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Elucidation of the precise mechanisms and therapeutic options of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is only at the beginning. Although immediate real-time effects of ESWT on cutaneous hemodynamics have recently been described, the dose response to different ESWT energies in cutaneous microcirculation has never been examined. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups that received either focused high-energy shock waves (group A: total of 1000 impulses, 10 J) to the lower leg of the hind limb, focused low-energy shock waves (group B: total of 300 impulses, 1 J) or placebo shock wave treatment (group C: 0 impulses, 0 J) using a multimodality shock wave delivery system (Duolith SD-1 T-Top, Storz Medical, Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Immediate microcirculatory effects were assessed with the O2C (oxygen to see) system (LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany) before and for 20 min after application of ESWT. Cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation increased significantly higher after high-energy ESWT than after low-energy and placebo ESWT (A: 29.4% vs. B: 17.3% vs. C: 3.3%; p = 0.003). Capillary blood velocity was significantly higher after high-energy ESWT and lower after low-energy ESWT versus placebo ESWT (group A: 17.8% vs. group B: -22.1% vs. group C: -5.0%, p = 0.045). Post-capillary venous filling pressure was significantly enhanced in the high-energy ESWT group in contrast to the low-energy ESWT and placebo groups (group A: 25% vs. group B: 2% vs. group C: -4%, p = 0.001). Both high-energy and low-energy ESWT affect cutaneous hemodynamics in a standard rat model. High-energy ESWT significantly increases parameters of cutaneous microcirculation immediately after application, resulting in higher tissue oxygen saturation, venous filling pressure and blood velocity, which suggests higher tissue perfusion with enhanced oxygen saturation, in contrast to low-energy as well as placebo ESWT. Low-energy ESWT also increased tissue oxygen

  12. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of High-energy Protons in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 105) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ˜2 × 103, similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20-W90) SEP events.

  13. High-Energy-Density Laboratory Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. M.; Wilde, B. H.; Rosen, P. A.; Williams, R. J. R.; Blue, B. E.; Coker, R. F.; Drake, R. P.; Frank, A.; Keiter, P. A.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Knauer, J. P.; Perry, T. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the interaction of supersonic jets/outflows with an ambient medium. Our experiments were conducted on the Omega laser facility, a large Inertial Confinement Fusion facility. In our experiments, a laser pulse drives a supersonic jet into foam. High-resolution X-ray radiography reveals the resulting highly structured bow shock. These are the first laboratory astrophysics experiments to capture the behavior of both the jet and the bow shock. We discuss the astrophysical relevance of the flow processes that we observe in the experiments and in the accompanying numerical models. Scaling arguments suggest that our experiments are most directly relevant to active galactic nucleus jets and planetary nebula outflows, while future work may allow our experiments to extend into regimes relevant to radiative outflows from young stellar objects. Contains material © British Crown Copyright 2005/MOD, reprinted with permission.

  14. Richtmyer-Meshkov evolution under steady shock conditions in the high-energy-density regime

    DOE PAGES

    Di Stefano, C. A.; Malamud, G.; Kuranz, C. C.; ...

    2015-03-17

    This work presents direct experimental evidence of long-predicted nonlinear aspects of the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) process, in which new modes first arise from the coupling of initially-present modes, and in which shorter-wavelength modes are eventually overtaken by longer-wavelength modes. This is accomplished using a technique we developed employing a long driving laser pulse to create a strong (Mach ~ 8) shock across a well-characterized material interface seeded by a two-mode sinusoidal perturbation. Furthermore, this technique further permits the shock to be sustained, without decay of the high-energy-density flow conditions, long enough for the system to evolve into the nonlinear phase.

  15. High-Energy-Density, Laboratory-Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J M; Wilde, B H; Rosen, P A; Perry, T S; Khokhlov, A M; Coker, R F; Frank, A; Keiter, P A; Blue, B E; Drake, R P; Knauer, J P; Williams, R R

    2005-01-24

    Large-scale directional outflows of supersonic plasma, also known as ''jets'', are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics [1]. The interaction of such jets with surrounding matter often results in spectacular bow shocks, and intense radiation from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The traditional approach to understanding such phenomena is through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. However, such numerical simulations have limited resolution, often assume axial symmetry, do not include all relevant physical processes, and fail to scale correctly in Reynolds number and perhaps other key dimensionless parameters. Additionally, they are frequently not tested by comparison with laboratory experiments. Recent advances in high-energy-density physics using large inertial-confinement-fusion devices now allow controlled laboratory experiments on macroscopic volumes of plasma of direct relevance relevant to astrophysics [2]. In this Letter we report the first results of experiments designed to study the evolution of supersonic plasma jets and the bow shocks they drive into a surrounding medium. Our experiments reveal both regular and highly complex flow patterns in the bow shock, thus opening a new window--complementary to computer simulations--into understanding the nature of three-dimensional astrophysical jets.

  16. The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, S. V. E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Grouchy, P. de; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J. D.; Kalmoni, N.; Niasse, N.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burgess, D.; Clemens, A.; Ciardi, A.; Sheng, L.; Yuan, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface of a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.

  17. On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin; Kotera, Kumiko; Pétri, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are outstanding accelerators in Nature, in the sense that they accelerate electrons up to the radiation reaction limit. Motivated by this observation, this paper examines the possibility that young pulsar wind nebulae can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We consider here powerful PWNe, fed by pulsars born with ~ millisecond periods. Assuming that such pulsars exist, at least during a few years after the birth of the neutron star, and that they inject ions into the wind, we find that protons could be accelerated up to energies of the order of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off, for a fiducial rotation period P ~ 1 msec and a pulsar magnetic field Bstar ~ 1013 G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity Lp ~ 1045 erg/s and a spin-down time tsd ~ 3× 107 s. The main limiting factor is set by synchrotron losses in the nebula and by the size of the termination shock; ions with Z>= 1 may therefore be accelerated to even higher energies. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. For a proton-dominated composition, our maximum flux lies slightly below the 5-year sensitivity of IceCube-86 and above the 3-year sensitivity of the projected Askaryan Radio Array. It might thus become detectable in the next decade, depending on the exact level of contribution of these millisecond pulsar wind nebulae to the ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux.

  18. On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, Martin; Kotera, Kumiko; Pétri, Jérôme E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2015-07-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are outstanding accelerators in Nature, in the sense that they accelerate electrons up to the radiation reaction limit. Motivated by this observation, this paper examines the possibility that young pulsar wind nebulae can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We consider here powerful PWNe, fed by pulsars born with ∼ millisecond periods. Assuming that such pulsars exist, at least during a few years after the birth of the neutron star, and that they inject ions into the wind, we find that protons could be accelerated up to energies of the order of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off, for a fiducial rotation period P ∼ 1 msec and a pulsar magnetic field B{sub *} ∼ 10{sup 13} G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity L{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 45} erg/s and a spin-down time t{sub sd} ∼ 3× 10{sup 7} s. The main limiting factor is set by synchrotron losses in the nebula and by the size of the termination shock; ions with Z≥ 1 may therefore be accelerated to even higher energies. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. For a proton-dominated composition, our maximum flux lies slightly below the 5-year sensitivity of IceCube-86 and above the 3-year sensitivity of the projected Askaryan Radio Array. It might thus become detectable in the next decade, depending on the exact level of contribution of these millisecond pulsar wind nebulae to the ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux.

  19. A high energy density shock driven Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Bono, M. J.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2009-05-15

    Radiographic data from a novel and highly successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability experiment is presented along with synapses of the theory and simulation behind the target design. Data on instability growth are compared to predictions from simulation and theory. The key role played by baroclinic vorticity production in the functioning of the target and the key design parameters are also discussed. The data show the complete evolution of large distinct KH eddies, from formation to turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low density bubbles comparable to the vortex size are observed forming in the free-stream region above each vortex at late time. These bubbles have the appearance of localized shocks, possibly supporting a theoretical fluid dynamics conjecture about the existence of supersonic bubbles over the vortical structure [transonic convective Mach numbers, D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, J. Fluid Mech. 197, 453 (1988)] that support localized shocks (shocklets) not extending into the free stream (P. E. Dimotakis, Proceedings of the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Conference, 1991, Paper No. AIAA 91-1724). However, it is also possible that these low density bubbles are the result of a cavitationlike effect. Hypothesis that may explain the appearance of low density bubbles will be discussed.

  20. Hot electron generation and energy coupling in planar experiments with shock ignition high intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M. S.; Krauland, C.; Alexander, N.; Zhang, S.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Borwick, E.; Ren, C.; Yan, R.; Haberberger, D.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Hot electrons produced in nonlinear laser plasma interactions are critical issues for shock ignition (SI) laser fusion. We conducted planar target experiments to characterize hot electron and energy coupling using the high energy OMEGA EP laser system at SI high intensities. Targets were multilayered foils consisting of an ablator (either plastic or lithium) and a Cu layer to facilitate hot electron detection via fluorescence and bremsstrahlung measurements. The target was first irradiated by multi-kJ, low-intensity UV beams to produce a SI-relevant mm-scale hot ( 1 keV) preformed plasma. The main interaction pulse, either a kJ 1-ns UV pulse with intensity 1.6x1016 Wcm-2 or a kJ 0.1-ns IR pulse with intensity up to 2x1017 Wcm-2was injected at varied timing delays. The high intensity IR beam was found to strongly interact with underdense plasmas breaking into many filaments near the quarter critical density region followed by propagation of those filaments to critical density, producing hot electrons with Thot 70 keV in a well-contained beam. While the high intensity UV beam showed poor energy coupling. Details of the experiments and the complementary PIC modeling results will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE under contracts DE-NA0002730 (NLUF) and DE-SC0014666 (HEDLP).

  1. High Energy-Density Materials with Fast Energy Release: Molecular Scale Shock Response of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    ORGANIZATION. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives”, presented by S. D. McGrane 2012 LANL Advanced Thermometry Workshop, “Femtosecond...condensed phases using femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering”, presented by Nhan Dang Poster presentations: 2010 LANL Chemistry Capabilities

  2. Damage Free Particle Removal from Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Layers by High Energy Laser Shock Wave Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Gon; Yoo, Young-Sam; Kim, Tae-Geun; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Jong-Myoung; Choi, Jae-Sung; Busnaina, Ahmed A.; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-06-01

    Plasma shock waves induced by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a maximum energy of 1.8 J in air were characterized by a laser beam deflection method and were applied to 50 nm silica particle removal from a Al2O3/TaN/Ru/MoSi 40 pairs as the extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask layers on silicon wafer. A high energy laser induced shock wave effectively removed 50 nm silica particles from the EUVL mask layers. The change of sample topography before and after laser shock cleaning was measured by an atomic force microscope. Surface damage was observed at a gap distance of 1.5 mm. The dimensions of the plasma plume were characterized as a function of the laser energy and focus-to-surface gap distance. The plasma plume was the main source for damaging the surface. A high energy laser induced shock wave with a gap distance of over 3 mm achieved damage-free sub-100 nm particle removal.

  3. Electronic energy gap of molecular hydrogen from electrical conductivity measurements at high shock pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Erskine, D. J.; Weir, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical conductivities were measured for liquid D2 and H2 shock compressed to pressures of 10-20 GPa (100-200 kbar), molar volumes near 8 cu cm/mol, and calculated temperatures of 2900-4600 K. The semiconducting energy gap derived from the conductivities is 12 eV, in good agreement with recent quasi-particle calculations and with oscillator frequencies measured in diamond-anvil cells.

  4. Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Merritt, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Coherent emergent structures have been observed in a high-energy-density supersonic mixing layer experiment. A millimeter-scale shock tube uses lasers to drive Mbar shocks into the tube volume. The shocks are driven into initially solid foam (60 mg /cm3 ) hemicylinders separated by an Al or Ti metal tracer strip; the components are vaporized by the drive. Before the experiment disassembles, the shocks cross at the tube center, creating a very fast (Δ U > 200 km/s) shear-unstable zone. After several nanoseconds, an expanding mixing layer is measured, and after 10+ ns we observe the appearance of streamwise-periodic, spanwise-aligned rollers associated with the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of mixing layers. We additionally image roller pairing and spanwise-periodic streamwise-aligned filaments associated with secondary instabilities. New closures are derived to connect length scales of these structures to estimates of fluctuating velocity data otherwise unobtainable in the high-energy-density environment. This analysis indicates shear-induced specific turbulent energies 103-104 times higher than the nearest conventional experiments. Because of difficulties in continuously driving systems under these conditions and the harshness of the experimental environment limiting the usable diagnostics, clear evidence of these developing structures has never before been observed in this regime.

  5. A High Energy Density Shock Driven Kelvin-Helmholtz Shear Layer Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, Omar

    2008-11-01

    In 2002, a high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability experiment was designed (O.A. Hurricane, High Energy Density Phys., 2008) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Early Light experiment. However, the long backlighter delay, required for the experiments success, could not be accommodated by NIF at that time. In early 2008, this experiment proposal was resurrected by our team, the target was fabricated at Livermore with final assembly at the University of Michigan, and then fielded at the Omega laser facility. The data return from the four shots of the experiment series exceeded expectation. In this paper, we describe the theory and simulation behind the experiment design, the unusual target construction, and present the radiographic data from the Omega experiment in raw form and a preliminary analysis of the data. Discussion of the target design theory and simulations focuses on the key role played by baroclinic vorticity production in the functioning of the target and also illuminates the key design parameters. The data shows the complete evolution of large distinct KH eddies, from formation to turbulent break-up. The data appears to graphically confirm a theoretical fluid dynamics conjecture about the existence of supersonic bubbles over the vortical structure [transonic convective Mach numbers (D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, J. Fluid Mech., 197, 1988)] that support localized shocks (shocklets) not extending into the free-stream^ (P.E. Dimotakis, AIAA 91-1724, Proc. 22^nd Fluid Dyn., Plasma Dyn., & Lasers Conf., 1991). The consequences of these observations on understanding the turbulent transition, growth-rates and mixing in compressible supersonic turbulent shear layers will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. A National Laser Users Facility grant also supported this work. Collaborators: J.F. Hansen, E.C. Harding , R

  6. Vibrational energy transfer in shocked molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Joe

    2010-01-07

    We consider the process of establishing thermal equilibrium behind an ideal shock front in molecular crystals and its possible role in initiating chemical reaction at high shock pressures. A new theory of equilibration via multiphonon energy transfer is developed to treat the scattering of shock-induced phonons into internal molecular vibrations. Simple analytic forms are derived for the change in this energy transfer at different Hugoniot end states following shock compression. The total time required for thermal equilibration is found to be an order of magnitude or faster than proposed in previous work; in materials representative of explosive molecular crystals, equilibration is predicted to occur within a few picoseconds following the passage of an ideal shock wave. Recent molecular dynamics calculations are consistent with these time scales. The possibility of defect-induced temperature localization due purely to nonequilibrium phonon processes is studied by means of a simple model of the strain field around an inhomogeneity. The specific case of immobile straight dislocations is studied, and a region of enhanced energy transfer on the order of 5 nm is found. Due to the rapid establishment of thermal equilibrium, these regions are unrelated to the shock sensitivity of a material but may allow temperature localization at high shock pressures. Results also suggest that if any decomposition due to molecular collisions is occurring within the shock front itself, these collisions are not enhanced by any nonequilibrium thermal state.

  7. Mechanical effects induced by shock waves generated by high energy laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J.; Ballard, P.; Merrien, P.; Barralis, J.; Castex, L.; Fabbro, R.

    1991-09-01

    Specimens made of low alloy and non alloyed medium carbon steels were subjected to high energy laser pulses. Direct ablation and confined plasma procedures were both investigated. An optimum impulse momentum transfer to the material is attained with a pulse duration of 30 ns and a power density of 10 GW .cm^2. Fatigue testing shows that the fatigue strengths of the selected materials are significantly increased. This can be related to the fact that laser shock processing generates an appropriate residual compressive stress field in a sufficiently thick layer and does not alter the initial surface roughness. In addition, the use of cumulative laser impacts and of dual treatment combining thermal and mechanical effects of the laser beam have been investigated and shown to result in an enhanced fatigue strength. Des échantillons d'acier éventuellement faiblement allié sont irradiés par un ou plusieurs pulses laser ayant une intensité comprise entre 1 et 100 GW/cm^2 et une durée d'émission laser de 3 ou 30 ns, les deux configurations d'ablation directe ou de plasma confiné étant utilisées. Les contraintes résiduelles résultant du passage de l'onde de choc sont analysées à l'aide de la technique de diffraction de rayons X. D'après cette étude, il apparaît clairement que les valeurs d'intensité et de durée d'émission laser les plus appropriées sont respectivement 10 GW/cm^2 et 30 ns. Ces valeurs correspondent à l'optimum de transfert d'impulsion. De plus, l'influence du nombre d'impacts laser utilisés est discuté et un essai de fatigue montre que ce traitement mécanique de surface augmente de manière significative la limite d'endurance du matériau étudié.

  8. Three- and Two- Dimensional Simulations of Re-shock Experiments at High Energy Densities at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Stephan; Huntington, Channing; Nagel, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of recent high-energy-density (HED) re-shock experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability growth that occurs after successive shocks transit a sinusoidally-perturbed interface between materials of different densities. The shock tube is driven at one or both ends using indirect-drive laser cavities or hohlraums. X-ray area-backlit imaging is used to visualize the growth at different times. Our simulations are done with the three-dimensional, radiation hydrodynamics code ARES, developed at LLNL. We show the instabilitygrowth rate, inferred from the experimental radiographs, agrees well with our 2D and 3D simulations. We also discuss some 3D geometrical effects, suggested by our simulations, which could deteriorate the images at late times, unless properly accounted for in the experiment design. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE- AC52-06NA27279. LLNL-ABS-680789.

  9. Measurement of Richtmyer-Meshkov mode coupling under steady shock conditions and at high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, C. A.; Malamud, G.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present experiments observing Richtmyer-Meshkov mode coupling and bubble competition in a system arising from well-characterized initial conditions and driven by a strong (Mach ~ 8) shock. These measurements and the analysis method developed to interpret them provide an important step toward the possibility of observing self-similarity under such conditions, as well as a general platform for performing and analyzing hydrodynamic instability experiments. A key feature of these experiments is that the shock is sustained sufficiently long that this nonlinear behavior occurs without decay of the shock velocity or other hydrodynamic properties of the system, which facilitates analysis and allows the results to be used in the study of analytic models.

  10. Measurement of Richtmyer–Meshkov mode coupling under steady shock conditions and at high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Di Stefano, Carlos A.; Malamud, G.; Kuranz, C. C.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Here, we present experiments observing Richtmyer–Meshkov mode coupling and bubble competition in a system arising from well-characterized initial conditions and driven by a strong (Mach ~ 8) shock. These measurements and the analysis method developed to interpret them provide an important step toward the possibility of observing self-similarity under such conditions, as well as a general platform for performing and analyzing hydrodynamic instability experiments. A key feature of these experiments is that the shock is sustained sufficiently long that this nonlinear behavior occurs without decay of the shock velocity or other hydrodynamic properties of the system, which facilitates analysis andmore » allows the results to be used in the study of analytic models.« less

  11. Measurement of Richtmyer–Meshkov mode coupling under steady shock conditions and at high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Carlos A.; Malamud, G.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-10-19

    Here, we present experiments observing Richtmyer–Meshkov mode coupling and bubble competition in a system arising from well-characterized initial conditions and driven by a strong (Mach ~ 8) shock. These measurements and the analysis method developed to interpret them provide an important step toward the possibility of observing self-similarity under such conditions, as well as a general platform for performing and analyzing hydrodynamic instability experiments. A key feature of these experiments is that the shock is sustained sufficiently long that this nonlinear behavior occurs without decay of the shock velocity or other hydrodynamic properties of the system, which facilitates analysis and allows the results to be used in the study of analytic models.

  12. High-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave for Early Stage Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Single-Center Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Li, Zirong; Guo, Wanshou; Wang, Weiguo; Cheng, Liming; Wang, Bailiang

    2015-01-01

    Our retrospective study assessed the effects of treatment of early stage ONFH with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. 335 patients (528 hips) were treated with shockwave therapy in our institution. Each patient underwent two sessions. The hips were divided into two groups according to whether the lateral pillar of the femoral head (LPFH) was preserved: LPFH and non-LPFH groups. Patients were followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. Most of the patients (83.9% hips) demonstrated pain reduction and improved mobility of the treated joint (visual analogue scale score, P = 0.00006; Harris hip score, P = 0.00091). During the follow-up period, 16 hips failed following femoral head collapse and required hip arthroplasty (2 hips in LPFH group and 14 hips in non-LPFH group). The lesion size decreased after ESWT. However, the differences were statistically not significant (LPFH group, P = 0.091; non-LPFH group, P = 0.087). A significant reduction in bone marrow edema was observed after treatment (LPFH group, P = 0.007; non-LPFH group, P = 0.016). High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy resulted in considerable improvement in early stage ONFH, which can effectively relieve pain and improve the function of the hip. PMID:26609311

  13. The High Energy Density science instrument at the European XFEL, Hamburg, Germany: a new platform for shock compression research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Karen; Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki; Priebe, Gerd; Pelka, Alexander; Thorpe, Ian; Tschentscher, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The High Energy Density science instrument (HED) at the European XFEL, Hamburg, Germany will provide unique experimental possibilities for the investigation of near solid material driven to extreme states and will also establish a new platform to study materials response to shock compression. HED is located at the SASE2 undulator, which provides up to 27000 pulses per second with about 1012 photons per pulse, photon energies between 3 and 24 keV and pulse lengths of 2 - 100 fs. Self-seeding is foreseen, as well as natural bandwidth (BW) SASE radiation. In addition, energy BW of 10-4 and 10-6 will be available through monochromators. Focussing is based on CRL optics, which will allow to provide beam sizes of 2 μm, 10-20 μm and 150 - 260 μm at the sample position. Samples will be driven to extreme states by different types of optical lasers (either 200 kHz/3 mJ/15 fs, 10 Hz/100 TW/30 fs or 10 Hz/100J/ns), the pump-probe FEL beam (delays of up to 2 -23 ps for 5 -20 keV using a split-and-delay unit) and pulsed magnetic fields (up to 50 T). Pump probe experiments can be performed at adapted repetition rates (4.5 MHz, 1 - 10 Hz, single shot). X-ray techniques comprise diffraction, imaging and spectroscopic methods. User operation is planned for fall 2017. We will present the science case of HED, the current layout and present ideas on first shock compression experiments.

  14. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 τc , where τc is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  15. Strong shock generation by fast electron energy deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T. E.; Pasley, J.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2013-12-15

    It has been suggested that fast electrons may play a beneficial role in the formation of the ignitor shock in shock ignition owing to the high areal density of the fuel at the time of the ignitor pulse. In this paper, we extend previous studies which have focused on monoenergetic electron sources to populations with extended energy distributions. In good agreement with analytic scalings, we show that strong shocks can be produced with peak pressures of a few hundred Mbar to over 1 Gbar using fast electron intensities of 1–10 PW/cm{sup 2} in a uniform deuterium-tritium plasma at 10 g/cm{sup 3}. However, the length required for shock formation increases with fast electron temperature. As this shock formation distance becomes comparable to the target size, the shock is not able to fully develop, and this implies a limit on the ability of fast electrons to aid shock formation.

  16. Prospects for detection of very high-energy emission from GRB in the context of the external shock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Piro, L.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The detection of the 100 GeV-TeV emission by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the nature of the central engine and the interaction between the relativistic flow and the environment of the burst's progenitor. Aims: In this paper we show that there are exciting prospects of detecting from the burst by MAGIC high-energy (HE) emission during the early X-ray flaring activity and, later, during the normal afterglow phase. We also identify the best observational strategy: trigger conditions and time period of observation. Methods: We determine the expected HE emission from the flaring and afterglow phases of GRBs in the context of the external shock scenario and compare them with the MAGIC threshold. Results: We find that an X-ray flare with the average properties of the class can be detected in the 100 GeV range by MAGIC, provided that z ≲ 0.7. The requested observational window with MAGIC should then start from 10-20 s after the burst and cover about 1000-2000 s. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are solid prospects of detecting the late afterglow emission in the same energy range for most of the bursts with z ≲ 0.5 if the density of the external medium is n ≳ a few cm-3. In this case, the MAGIC observation shall extend to about 10-20 ks. We provide recipes for tailoring this prediction to the observational properties of each burst, in particular the fluence in the prompt emission and the redshift, thus allowing an almost real time decision procedure to decide whether to continue the follow-up observation of a burst at late times.

  17. Energy spectral property in an isolated CME-driven shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yan, Yi-Hua; Ding, Ming-De; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Observations from multiple spacecraft show that there are energy spectral “breaks” at 1-10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. However, numerical models can hardly simulate this property due to high computational expense. The present paper focuses on analyzing these energy spectral “breaks” by Monte Carlo particle simulations of an isolated CME-driven shock. Taking the 2006 Dec 14 CME-driven shock as an example, we investigate the formation of this energy spectral property. For this purpose, we apply different values for the scattering time in our isolated shock model to obtain the highest energy “tails,” which can potentially exceed the “break” energy range. However, we have not found the highest energy “tails” beyond the “break” energy range, but instead find that the highest energy “tails” reach saturation near the range of energy at 5 MeV. So, we believe that there exists an energy spectral “cut off” in an isolated shock. If there is no interaction with another shock, there would not be formation of the energy spectral “break” property.

  18. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Josyula, Eswar Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-12-15

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream.

  19. Mechanochemistry for shock wave energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, William L.; Ren, Yi; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    Using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus to launch 75 μm thick Al flyers up to 2.8 km/s, we developed a technique for detecting the attenuation of shock waves by mechanically-driven chemical reactions. The attenuating sample was spread on an ultrathin Au mirror deposited onto a glass window having a known Hugoniot. As shock energy exited the sample and passed through the mirror, into the glass, photonic Doppler velocimetry monitored the velocity profile of the ultrathin mirror. Knowing the window Hugoniot, the velocity profile could be quantitatively converted into a shock energy flux or fluence. The flux gave the temporal profile of the shock front, and showed how the shock front was reshaped by passing through the dissipative medium. The fluence, the time-integrated flux, showed how much shock energy was transmitted through the sample. Samples consisted of microgram quantities of carefully engineered organic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative-volume chemistry. Post mortem analytical methods were used to confirm that shock dissipation was associated with shock-induced chemical reactions.

  20. Microphysics of a multidimensional high beta low Mach number shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally thought that a high beta shock is weak so that its structre is relatively laminar and stationary. Such low Mach number shocks have not been paid much attention in terms of particle acceleration. However, Voyager spacecraft revealed that the fluxes of not only the non-thermal ions, which are called as the termination shock particles, but also of the non-thermal electrons are enhanced at the crossings of the termination shock. The heliospheric termination shock has a high effective beta due to the presence of pickup ions which are the component having rather high thermal energy. Radio synchrotron emissions from relics of galaxy cluster mergers imply the presence of relativistic electrons accelerated in merger shocks. A plasma beta of such a merger shock is also thought to be rather high so that the merger shocks are usually assumed to have low Mach numbers. These observational facts imply that even a low Mach number shock can be a good accelerator of non-thermal particles. Here, we perform two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation to study microstructure of a high beta low Mach number shock and the associated electron acceleration process. Although the effective magnotosonic Mach number is rather low, ~2.6, the structure of the transition region is highly complex. Ion and electron scale structures coexist. Furthermore, some electrons are accelerated to high energy. We will discuss the mechanisms of producing those two-dimensional microstructures and high energy electrons.

  1. Experimental Comparison of Shock and Bubble Heave Energies from Underwater Explosion of Ideal HE and Explosive Composite Mixtures Highly Enriched with Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, P. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Sokolov, G. N.; Lavrov, V. V.

    Experimental data on shock wave and bubble heave energies at underwater explosion of charges based on highly enriched with aluminium explosive mixtures are reported. Al/O ratios of the mixtures used are varied from 1.31 to 2.36. Al-rich charges up to 30 g were exploded in basin of 2 m in diameter and 5 m in depth. As a result, Al-rich mixtures used are demonstrates overall specific energies of underwater explosion up to twice higher than conventional high explosives.

  2. High spatial resolution, high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction characterization of residual strains and stresses in laser shock peened Inconel 718SPF alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Amrinder S.; Zhou, Zhong; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Lahrman, David F.; Mannava, S. R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique used to enhance the fatigue strength of metal parts by imparting deep compressive residual stresses. In the present study, LSP was performed on IN718 SPF alloy, a fine grained nickel-based superalloy, with three different power densities and depth resolved residual strain and stress characterization was conducted using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction in beam line 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National laboratory. A fine probe size and conical slits were used to non-destructively obtain data from specific gauge volumes in the samples, allowing for high-resolution strain measurements. The results show that LSP introduces deep compressive residual stresses and the magnitude and depth of these stresses depend on the energy density of the laser. The LSP induced residual stresses were also simulated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis, with employment of the Johnson-Cook model for describing the nonlinear materials constitutive behavior. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data was obtained. These various results are presented and discussed.

  3. The Trapping of Low-Energy Particles by Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Dayeh, M.; Dwyer, J.; Rassoul, H.; Mason, G.; Mazur, J.; Desai, M.

    2007-12-01

    Using ~0.045-10 MeV/nucleon ion data from ACE/ULEIS, we have found that a substantial number of shock- associated solar energetic particle events (20 events) have significant delays in the arrival of the low-energy component beyond what is expected from the travel time of energetic particles from the sun to the earth at 1 AU. Indeed, for some events, after correcting for the velocity dispersion, the low energy component (E < 0.1 MeV/nucleon) is almost completely absent while the high-energy component (E > 1 MeV/nucleon) has very large enhancements. SEP events with the most dramatic initial depletion of low-energy particles are accompanied by large proton fluxes and have large enhancements of the low-energy particles later, in coincidence with the arrival of the interplanetary shock, a day or two after the start of the event. In addition, these events show Fe/O enhancements during the periods in which the low-energy component is depleted and lower Fe/O values once the shock arrives. These new observations appear to be explained by the trapping of particles with low energy-to-charge (E/Q) ratios in the vicinity of the shock by magnetohydrodynamic waves, possibly generated by high energy protons streaming along the magnetic field lines.

  4. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    DOE PAGES

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; ...

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Inmore » conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.« less

  5. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). In conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  6. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  7. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, N.; Zhong, Z.; Ghose, S.; Kirk, H. G.; Trung, L.-P.; McDonald, K. T.; Kotsina, Z.; Nocera, P.; Assmann, R.; Redaelli, S.; Bertarelli, A.; Quaranta, E.; Rossi, A.; Zwaska, R.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Mokhov, N.

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5 ×1020 p /cm2 . The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF) selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (˜5 ×1018 p cm-2 ). In addition, the

  8. [Physical and biophysical aspects of high-energy intracardiac electric discharges. III. Correlation between physical and electric effects for the use of supraliminal shocks].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, G; Aldakar, M; Iwa, T; Grosgogeat, Y

    1990-10-01

    Using the same methods as for the measurement of electrical parameters by means of an oscilloscope with a wave shape calculator to determine at all points the energy and impedance values, as well as high speed cinematography, the analysis of the behavior of these parameters for shocks with energies close to those used in clinical medicine can be carried out. It shows namely an important decrease in the impedance at the current peak due to an important ionization of the fulguration bubble. It underlines the different behavior of the anode and cathode bubbles, in relation with the size of the bubbles obtained thanks to rapid cinematography. Comparative measurements concerning the polarity, the size of the indifferent electrode, the medium used in vitro and in vivo have supplied the elements to enable the precise determination of the adequate electrical parameters for the good use of fulguration.

  9. Regimes of high-energy shock emission from the Be star/pulsar system PSR 1259-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco; Arons, Jonathan; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1994-01-01

    PSR B1259-63 is a 47 ms radio pulsar in a wide, eccentric orbit with a Be star. We study the shock interaction between the pulsar and the companion's mass outflow and investigate the time evolution of radiative shock regimes. We find that for small values of the Be star's mass-loss rate, inverse-Compton scattering is likely to dominate the shock emission. Alternately, for a large mass-loss rate, synchrotron emission will dominate. Multifrequency X-ray and gamma-ray observations near periastron can distinguish between these cases and yield unique constraints on the pulsar and Be star winds. The PSR B1259-63 system provides a unique laboratory to study the time-dependent interaction of a pulsar wind with the circumbinary material from its companion star.

  10. Symmetry of spherically converging shock waves through reflection, relating to the shock ignition fusion energy scheme.

    PubMed

    Davie, C J; Evans, R G

    2013-05-03

    We examine the properties of perturbed spherically imploding shock waves in an ideal fluid through the collapse, bounce, and development into an outgoing shock wave. We find broad conservation of the size and shape of ingoing and outgoing perturbations when viewed at the same radius. The outgoing shock recovers the velocity of the unperturbed shock outside the strongly distorted core. The results are presented in the context of the robustness of the shock ignition approach to inertial fusion energy.

  11. Macroeconomic impacts of energy shocks: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-23

    Through a comparison of existing models of the US economy, this study evaluates the likely short- to medium-term effects of energy price changes on inflation, unemployment, and economic growth. It focuses on the impacts during the four years immediately following the energy price change. During this period, the economy's adjustment may still be unfolding and not yet complete. The working group studied 10 scenarios simulated by 14 participating modelers. We identified several prominent conclusions relating to the impacts of a shock, the efficacy of different economic policies, energy policy considerations, and key characteristics of the participating models.

  12. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  13. Nonthermal Electrons at High Mach Number Shocks: Electron Shock Surfing Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.; Shimada, N.

    2002-06-01

    We study the suprathermal electron acceleration mechanism in a perpendicular magnetosonic shock wave in a high Mach number regime by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We find that shock surfing/surfatron acceleration producing suprathermal electrons occurs in the shock transition region, where a series of large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are excited by Buneman instability under the interaction between the reflected ions and the incoming electrons. It is shown that the electrons are likely to be trapped by ESWs, and during the trapping phase they can be effectively accelerated by the shock motional/convection electric field. We discuss that suprathermal electrons can be accelerated up to mic2(v0/c), where mic2 is the ion rest mass energy and v0 is the shock upstream flow velocity. Furthermore, some of these suprathermal electrons may be effectively trapped for an infinitely long time when the Alfvén Mach number MA exceeds several tens, and they are accelerated up to the shock potential energy determined by the global shock size.

  14. Gamma-ray emission from globular clusters. Shock high energy emission from the Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63. Echoes in x-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1995-01-01

    This grant covers work on the Compton phase 3 investigation, 'Shock High Energy Emission from the Be- Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63' and cycle 4 investigations 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' and 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae'. Work under the investigation 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' has lead to the publication of a paper (attached), describing gamma-ray emissivity variations in the northern galactic hemisphere. Using archival EGRET data, we have found a large irregular region of enhanced gamma-ray emissivity at energies greater 100 MeV. This is the first observation of local structure in the gamma-ray emissivity. Work under the investigation 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae' is proceeding with analysis of data from OSSE from the transient source GRO J1655-40. The outburst of this source last fall triggered this Target of Opportunity investigation. Preliminary spectral analysis shows emission out to 600 keV and a pure power low spectrum with no evidence of an exponential cutoff. Work is complete on the analysis of BATSE data from the Be-Star/Pulsar Sustem PSR 1259-63.

  15. Generation of laser plasma bunches with a high efficiency of energy concentration for laboratory simulation of collisionless shock waves in magnetised cosmic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu P.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Antonov, V. M.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Prokopov, P. A.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of first experiments on the formation of collisionless shock waves (CSWs) in background plasma by injecting laser plasma bunches transverse to the magnetic field (as a piston) with a maximum energy up to 100 J per unit of solid angle and with a high enough degree of ion magnetisation. With this aim in view, on a unique KI-1 facility at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP), a plastic (polyethylene) target irradiated by a CO2 laser in the most energy-efficient regime (near the plasma formation threshold) and a highly ionised hydrogen plasma with a high concentration in a large volume (not less than 1 m3) have been employed. As a result of model experiments performed on the basis of a model of collisionless interaction of plasma flows, developed at the VNIIEF and being adequate to the problem under consideration, not only an intensive, background-induced, deceleration of a super-Alfven laser plasma flow, but also the formation in that flow of a strong perturbation having the properties of a subcritical CSW and propagating transverse to the magnetic field, have been first registered in the laboratory conditions.

  16. Mechanochemistry for Shock Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, William; Ren, Yi; Su, Zhi; Moore, Jeffrey; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Using our laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus we have developed a technique for detecting mechanically driven chemical reactions that attenuate shock waves. In these experiments 75 μm laser-driven flyer-plates travel at speeds of up to 2.8 km/s. Photonic Doppler velocimetry is used to monitor both the flight speed and the motions of an embedded mirror behind the sample on the supporting substrate. Since the Hugoniot of the substrate is known, mirror motions can be converted into the transmitted shock wave flux and fluence through a sample. Flux shows the shock profile whereas fluence represents the total energy transferred per unit area, and both are measured as a function of sample thickness. Targets materials are micrograms of carefully engineered organic and inorganic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative volume, endothermic reactions. In situ fluorescence measurements and a suite of post mortem analytical methods are used to detect molecular chemical reactions that occur due to impact.

  17. Energy Dissipation at a Shock Front in Diamond: Simulation and Comparison with Phase Contrast Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Martha; Schropp, Andreas; Ping, Yuan; Swift, Damian; Collins, Gilbert

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of carbon at high pressures and temperatures is essential for predicting the structure and evolution of giant planets, such as Uranus and Neptune. Shock compression experiments on pure carbon materials, such as diamond, can provide insight into their behavior at the extreme temperatures and pressures of the giant planets. Phase contrast imaging and hydrodynamic simulations were used to examine the propagation of a shock front in diamond. As the shock front propagates through the sample, a decrease in the shock amplitude and an increase in the shock width are observed, indicating that energy dissipative processes, such as viscosity, are apparent. In addition, fractures are observed in the diamond sample behind the shock, which could also contribute to the energy dissipation at the shock front. Work at LLNL performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.

    1960-01-26

    A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

  19. Heliospheric shocks: From low- to high-Mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedalin, Michael

    Collisionless shocks have been studied for more than five decades. From time to time it seems that most of the questions are answered and the shock physics is essentially understood. Each time this impression is broken due to the progress in observations and numerical simulations, which brings about the necessity to update our views and develop theory. Recent advances posed a number of new questions related to the transition from the low- to high-Mach number regime. These include the deviation of the shock front from planar shape (rippling), non-stationarity, and effects of high energy particles. The three issues are inter-connected and have a potential to change our understanding of how high-Mach number shocks work.

  20. Stability of shock waves in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Madhusmita; Bhattacharya, Chandrani; Menon, S. V. G.

    2011-10-15

    The Dyakov-Kontorovich criteria for spontaneous emission of acoustic waves behind shock fronts are investigated for high temperature aluminum and beryllium plasmas. To this end, the Dyakov and critical stability parameters are calculated from Rankine-Hugoniot curves using a more realistic equation of state (EOS). The cold and ionic contributions to the EOS are obtained via scaled binding energy and mean field theory, respectively. A screened hydrogenic model, including l-splitting, is used to calculate the bound electron contribution to the electronic EOS. The free electron EOS is obtained from Fermi-Dirac statistics. Predictions of the model for ionization curves and shock Hugoniot are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. It is observed that the electronic EOS has significant effect on the stability of the planar shock front. While the shock is stable for low temperatures and pressures, instability sets in as temperature rises. The basic reason is ionization of electronic shells and consequent increase in electronic specific heat. The temperatures and densities of the unstable region correspond to those where electronic shells get ionized. With the correct modeling of bound electrons, we find that shock instability for Al occurs at a compression ratio {approx}5.4, contrary to the value {approx}3 reported in the literature. Free electrons generated in the ionization process carry energy from the shock front, thereby giving rise to spontaneously emitted waves, which decay the shock front.

  1. Detonation in shocked homogeneous high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.; Souers, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied shock-induced changes in homogeneous high explosives including nitromethane, tetranitromethane, and single crystals of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) by using fast time-resolved emission and Raman spectroscopy at a two-stage light-gas gun. The results reveal three distinct steps during which the homogeneous explosives chemically evolve to final detonation products. These are (1) the initiation of shock compressed high explosives after an induction period, (2) thermal explosion of shock-compressed and/or reacting materials, and (3) a decay to a steady-state representing a transition to the detonation of uncompressed high explosives. Based on a gray-body approximation, we have obtained the CJ temperatures: 3800 K for nitromethane, 2950 K for tetranitromethane, and 4100 K for PETN. We compare the data with various thermochemical equilibrium calculations. In this paper we will also show a preliminary result of single-shot time-resolved Raman spectroscopy applied to shock-compressed nitromethane.

  2. Proton shock acceleration using a high contrast high intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; Kim, Jongjin; Aurand, Bastian; Curry, Chandra; Goede, Sebastian; Propp, Adrienne; Goyon, Clement; Pak, Art; Kerr, Shaun; Ramakrishna, Bhuvanesh; Ruby, John; William, Jackson; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration is a field of intense research due to the interesting characteristics of this novel particle source including high brightness, high maximum energy, high laminarity, and short duration. Although the ion beam characteristics are promising for many future applications, such as in the medical field or hybrid accelerators, the ion beam generated using TNSA, the acceleration mechanism commonly achieved, still need to be significantly improved. Several new alternative mechanisms have been proposed such as collisionless shock acceleration (CSA) in order to produce a mono-energetic ion beam favorable for those applications. We report the first results of an experiment performed with the TITAN laser system (JLF, LLNL) dedicated to the study of CSA using a high intensity (5x1019W/cm2) high contrast ps laser pulse focused on 55 μm thick CH and CD targets. We show that the proton spectrum generated during the interaction exhibits high-energy mono-energetic features along the laser axis, characteristic of a shock mechanism.

  3. Laser energy deposition in crossing shock interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Knight, D.; Elliott, G.

    A combined computational and experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of a single laser energy pulse on the transition from a Mach Reflection (MR) to a Regular Reflection (RR) in the Dual Solution Domain (DSD). The freestream Mach number is 3.45 and two oblique shock waves are formed by two symmetric 22° wedges. These conditions correspond to a point midway within the DSD wherein either an MR or an RR is possible. A steady MR was first obtained experimentally and numerically, then a single laser pulse was deposited above the horizontal center plane. The experiment showed that the Mach stem height decreased to 30% of its original height due to the interaction with the thermal spot generated by the laser pulse and then returned to its original height by 300μs. That the Mach stem returned to its original height was most likely due to freestream turbulence in the wind tunnel. The numerical simulation successfully predicted the reverse transition from a stable MR to a stable RR and the stable RR persisted across the span. This study showed the capability of a laser energy pulse to control the reverse transition of MR → RR within the Dual Solution Domain.

  4. Molecular processes in a high temperature shock layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Models of the shock layer encountered by an Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle require as input accurate cross sections and rate constants for the atomic and molecular processes that characterize the shock radiation. From the estimated atomic and molecular densities in the shock layer and the expected residence time of 1 m/s, it can be expected that electron-ion collision processes will be important in the shock model. Electron capture by molecular ions followed by dissociation, e.g., O2(+) + e(-) yields 0 + 0, can be expected to be of major importance since these processes are known to have high rates (e.g., 10 to the -7th power cu/cm/sec) at room temperature. However, there have been no experimental measurements of dissociative recombination (DR) at temperatures ( 12000K) that are expected to characterize the shock layer. Indeed, even at room temperature, it is often difficult to perform experiments that determine the dependence of the translational energy and quantum yields of the product atoms on the electronic and vibrational state of the reactant molecular ions. Presented are ab initio quantum chemical studies of DR for molecular ions that are likely to be important in the atmospheric shock layer.

  5. Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular shocks: Application to planetary and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular shocks depends on the shock front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma shock, the dissipation and micro-structure of the shock font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of shocks, e.g., planetary and interplanetary shocks, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the shock boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the shock can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the shock can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular shocks depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities γ chosen in the R-H relations. The main goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at shocks observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.

  6. Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium.

    PubMed

    Daraio, C; Nesterenko, V F; Herbold, E B; Jin, S

    2006-02-10

    We report the first experimental observation of impulse confinement and the disintegration of shock and solitary waves in one-dimensional strongly nonlinear composite granular materials. The chains consist of alternating ensembles of beads with high and low elastic moduli (more than 2 orders of magnitude difference) of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" sections of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and precompression.

  7. Very High Mach Number Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholer, M.; Comisel, H.

    2011-12-01

    A high Mach number quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock is studied with one-dimensional (1-D) full particle simulations. The Alfven Mach number is M_A=22, the shock normal-magnetic field angle is Θ=85 and the ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic pressure) is 0.5. We have used in the simulations a large value for the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the gyrofrequency of ω_pe/Ω_ce=20, and a high value of the ion to electron mass ratio, (m_i/m_e=1500). The shock is highly non-stationary but does not exhibit the reformation pattern seen in previous simulations of lower Mach number perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. The magnetic field profiles flattens and steepens with a time period of 1.4-1.5 inverse ion gyrofrequencies while the ions are specular reflected from the steepened ramp and finally return downstream just at the subsequent steepening of the ramp. The scale of the ramp varies between ~ 10 to ~ 20 electron inertial lengths corresponding to the changes from a steep to a flat profile. By tracing all trajectories of the reflected ions in the simulation box we have determined the absolute reflection rate as well as an average energy gain related to the non-stationarity of the shock ramp. The reflection rate varies between almost zero percent during flat profiles and ~ 100 percent during steep profiles.

  8. Acceleration of low-energy ions at parallel shocks with a focused transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-03-19

    Here we present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by parallel shocks with a focused transport model. The focused transport equation contains all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoids the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) that requires a small pitch angle anisotropy. This simulation verifies that the particles with speeds of a fraction of to a few times the shock speed can indeed be directly injected and accelerated into the DSA regime by parallel shocks. At higher energies starting from a few times the shock speed, the energy spectrum of accelerated particles is a power law with the same spectral index as the solution of standard DSA theory, although the particles are highly anisotropic in the upstream region. The intensity, however, is different from that predicted by DSA theory, indicating a different level of injection efficiency. It is found that the shock strength, the injection speed, and the intensity of an electric cross-shock potential (CSP) jump can affect the injection efficiency of the low-energy particles. A stronger shock has a higher injection efficiency. In addition, if the speed of injected particles is above a few times the shock speed, the produced power-law spectrum is consistent with the prediction of standard DSA theory in both its intensity and spectrum index with an injection efficiency of 1. CSP can increase the injection efficiency through direct particle reflection back upstream, but it has little effect on the energetic particle acceleration once the speed of injected particles is beyond a few times the shock speed. Finally, this test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection.

  9. Acceleration of low-energy ions at parallel shocks with a focused transport model

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-03-19

    Here we present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by parallel shocks with a focused transport model. The focused transport equation contains all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoids the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) that requires a small pitch angle anisotropy. This simulation verifies that the particles with speeds of a fraction of to a few times the shock speed can indeed be directly injected and accelerated into the DSA regime by parallel shocks. At higher energies starting from a few times the shock speed, the energy spectrum of acceleratedmore » particles is a power law with the same spectral index as the solution of standard DSA theory, although the particles are highly anisotropic in the upstream region. The intensity, however, is different from that predicted by DSA theory, indicating a different level of injection efficiency. It is found that the shock strength, the injection speed, and the intensity of an electric cross-shock potential (CSP) jump can affect the injection efficiency of the low-energy particles. A stronger shock has a higher injection efficiency. In addition, if the speed of injected particles is above a few times the shock speed, the produced power-law spectrum is consistent with the prediction of standard DSA theory in both its intensity and spectrum index with an injection efficiency of 1. CSP can increase the injection efficiency through direct particle reflection back upstream, but it has little effect on the energetic particle acceleration once the speed of injected particles is beyond a few times the shock speed. Finally, this test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection.« less

  10. Energy Spectrum of Nonthermal Electrons Accelerated at a Plane Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung

    2011-04-01

    We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic ray (CR) protons and electrons at a plane shock with quasi-parallel magnetic fields,using time-dependent, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) simulations,including energy losses via synchrotron emission and Inverse Compton (IC) scattering. A thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm type diffusion coefficient are adopted. The electron spectrum at the shock becomes steady after the DSA energy gains balance the synchrotron/IC losses, and it cuts off at the equilibrium momentum p_{eq}.In the postshock region the cutoff momentum of the electron spectrum decreases with the distance from the shock due to the energy losses and the thickness of the spatial distribution of electrons scales as p^{-1}. Thus the slope of the downstream integrated spectrum steepens by one power of p for p_{br}shock age as p_{br}∝ t^{-1}. In a CR modified shock, both the proton and electron spectrum exhibit a concave curvature and deviate from the canonical test-particle power-law, and the upstream integrated electron spectrum could dominate over the downstream integrated spectrum near the cutoff momentum. Thus the spectral shape near the cutoff of X-ray synchrotron emission could reveal a signature of nonlinear DSA.

  11. Low energy internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation resistant to transthoracic shocks.

    PubMed Central

    Sopher, S. M.; Murgatroyd, F. D.; Slade, A. K.; Blankoff, I.; Rowland, E.; Ward, D. E.; Camm, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of internal cardioversion using low energy shocks delivered with a biatrial electrode configuration in chronic atrial fibrillation resistant to transthoracic shocks. METHODS: Low energy internal cardioversion was attempted in 11 patients who had been in atrial fibrillation for 233 (SD 193) days and had failed to cardiovert with transthoracic shocks of 360 J in both apex-base and anterior-posterior positions. Synchronised biphasic shocks of up to 400 V (approximately 6 J) were delivered, usually with intravenous sedation only, between high surface area electrodes in the right atrium and the left atrium (coronary sinus in nine, left pulmonary artery in one, left atrium via patent foramen ovale in one). RESULTS: Sinus rhythm was restored in 8/11 patients. The mean leading edge voltage of successful shocks was 363 (46) V [4.9 (1.2) J]. Higher energy shocks induced transient bradycardia [time to first R wave 1955 (218) ms]. No proarrhythmia or other acute complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Low energy internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation can restore sinus rhythm in patients in whom conventional transthoracic shocks have failed. Images PMID:8697172

  12. High resolution Broadband CARS of laser shocked materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Bruce; Maddox, Brian

    2013-06-01

    We will present preliminary data and methods detailing experiments scheduled later this year using Janus at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL to obtain Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectra (CARS) of materials under shock conditions. High resolution (~1 cm-1) CARS of the pre-shocked materials will demonstrate the feasibility and high precision of the methods involved. Pressures as high as 200 GPa have been previously achieved. Initially, our experiments will focus on quartz and diamond and should subsequently lead to hydrogen, deuterium and other constituents of the giant gas planets. This work has been supported under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Note: A high Mach number arc-driven shock tube for turbulence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, J. B.; Alexander, A. B.; Johnson, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    A high Mach arc-driven shock tube has been built at the Center for Plasma Science and Technology of Florida A&M University to study shock waves. A larger apparatus with higher voltage was built to study more stable shock waves and subsequent plasmas. Initial measurements of the apparatus conclude that the desired Mach numbers can be reached using only two-thirds the maximum possible energy that the circuit can provide.

  14. Rate of energy gain and maximum energy in diffusive shock acceleration. [astrophysical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of diffusive shock acceleration of fast charged particles is reexamined with emphasis on the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy which can be attained in a given circumstance. The direction of the average magnetic field at the shock is shown to have a large effect. If the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is much smaller than the parallel coefficient, particles can gain much more energy if the shock is quasi-perpendicular than if it is quasi-parallel. The maximum energy attainable can be substantially higher (by a factor of 100 or more) than previous discussions would predict, in cases where the shock is quasi-perpendicular. The energy gain increases as kappa-perpendicular decreases. The principal limitation comes from the requirement that diffusion be a valid approximation to the particle motion, and that the particle be able to diffuse fast enough to encounter the shock many times.

  15. Shock Energy in Merging Systems: The Elephant in the Room.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between shocks, star formation and the evolution of merging galaxies is not well understood. We are now poised to gain major insight in this area, thanks to the high resolution narrow-band imaging capabilities of WFC3 and recent major advances in theoretical shock and and photoionization models. Shocks and star formation in merging galaxies are regulated by fundamental physical properties of the ISM such as dust, gas density, ionized gas structure, and the presence of galactic winds and outflows. We aim to uncover the relationship between shocks, galactic winds, and the fundamental ISM properties in two famous mergers NGC 6240 and Arp 220. These two galaxies are currently transitioning from disk galaxies into spheroids and they are close enough to achieve the spatial scales required to resolve individual supernova remnants with WFC3 imaging. We propose to image NGC 6240 and Arp 220 in key shock and photoionization sensitive diagnostic lines [OII], [OIII], H-beta, [NII]+H-alpha, [SII], and {where possible} [OI] to {1} resolve the source of the ionizing radiation field {shocks versus photoionization by hot stars} at spatial scales of 25-35 pc, and {2} map the distribution of the star formation and ionized gas to search for links with merger-driven shocks and large-scale gas flows.

  16. Can cellulite be treated with low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Kuhn, Christoph; Voss, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of low-energy defocused extracorporeal generated shock waves on collagen structure of cellulite afflicted skin. Cellulite measurement using high-resolution ultrasound technology was performed before and after low-energy defocused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in 21 female subjects. ESWT was applied onto the skin at the lateral thigh twice a week for a period of six weeks. Results provide evidence that low-energy defocused ESWT caused remodeling of the collagen within the dermis of the tested region. Improving device-parameters and therapy regimes will be essential for future development of a scientific based approach to cellulite treatment. PMID:18225463

  17. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-04-30

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ≤1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

  18. Enhanced ion beam energy by relativistic transparency in laser-driven shock ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of relativistic transparency (RT) on electrostatic shock ion acceleration. Penetrating portion of the laser pulse directly heats up the electrons to a very high temperature in backside of the target, resulting in a condition of high shock velocity. The reflected portion of the pulse can yield a fast hole boring and density compression in near-critical density plasma to satisfy the electrostatic shock condition; 1.5 high speed electrostatic shock reflects upstream ions up to velocity ~2vsh. In 1D PIC simulation, we have clearly observed RT-based shock acceleration which generates significantly higher ion beam energy in comparison to that in a purely opaque plasma. In multi-dimensional systems, various instabilities should be considered such as Weibel-like instability, which causes filamentation during the laser penetration. From series of comparisons of linearly polarized and circularly polarized pulses for the RT-based shock, we observed the circularly polarized pulse is usually more advantageous in reducing the instability, possibly leading to better RT-based shock acceleration. The Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant number NRF- 2013R1A1A2006353).

  19. Operation of High-Voltage Transverse Shock Wave Ferromagnetic Generator in the Open Circuit and Charging Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    FMGs are based on the transverse (when the shock wave propagates across the magnetization vector M) shock demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B hard...generators based on the transverse (when the shock wave propagates across the magnetization vector M) shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B hard...and photo of a high-voltage transverse FMG are shown in Fig. 1. It contains a hollow hard ferromagnetic cylindrical Nd2Fe14B energy-carrying

  20. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  1. Dense plasma heating and Gbar shock formation by a high intensity flux of energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeyre, X.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Gus'kov, S.

    2013-06-15

    Process of shock ignition in inertial confinement fusion implies creation of a high pressure shock with a laser spike having intensity of the order of a few PW/cm{sup 2}. However, the collisional (Bremsstrahlung) absorption at these intensities is inefficient and a significant part of laser energy is converted in a stream of energetic electrons. The process of shock formation in a dense plasma by an intense electron beam is studied in this paper in a planar geometry. The energy deposition takes place in a fixed mass target layer with the areal density determined by the electron range. A self-similar isothermal rarefaction wave of a fixed mass describes the expanding plasma. Formation of a shock wave in the target under the pressure of expanding plasma is described. The efficiency of electron beam energy conversion into the shock wave energy depends on the fast electron energy and the pulse duration. The model is applied to the laser produced fast electrons. The fast electron energy transport could be the dominant mechanism of ablation pressure creation under the conditions of shock ignition. The shock wave pressure exceeding 1 Gbar during 200–300 ps can be generated with the electron pulse intensity in the range of 5–10 PW/cm{sup 2}. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations with a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled with a fast electron transport module.

  2. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 1.; Analysis Techniques and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A.W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed outline and discussion of the analysis techniques used to compare the relevance of different energy dissipation mechanisms at collisionless shock waves. We show that the low-frequency, quasi-static fields contribute less to ohmic energy dissipation, (-j · E ) (minus current density times measured electric field), than their high-frequency counterparts. In fact, we found that high-frequency, large-amplitude (greater than 100 millivolts per meter and/or greater than 1 nanotesla) waves are ubiquitous in the transition region of collisionless shocks. We quantitatively show that their fields, through wave-particle interactions, cause enough energy dissipation to regulate the global structure of collisionless shocks. The purpose of this paper, part one of two, is to outline and describe in detail the background, analysis techniques, and theoretical motivation for our new results presented in the companion paper. The companion paper presents the results of our quantitative energy dissipation rate estimates and discusses the implications. Together, the two manuscripts present the first study quantifying the contribution that high-frequency waves provide, through wave-particle interactions, to the total energy dissipation budget of collisionless shock waves.

  3. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  4. Low-energy shock waves enhance the susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wanner, S; Gstöttner, M; Meirer, R; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Stöckl, B

    2011-06-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in wounds or on implants are difficult to treat. Eradication of the bacteria is nearly always impossible, despite the use of specific antibiotics. The bactericidal effects of high-energy extracorporeal shock waves on Staphylococcus aureus have been reported, but the effect of low-energy shock waves on staphylococci and staphylococcal biofilms has not been investigated. In this study, biofilms grown on stainless steel washers were examined by electron microscopy. We tested ten experimental groups with Staph. aureus-coated washers and eight groups with Staph. epidermidis. The biofilm-cultured washers were exposed to low-energy shock waves at 0.16 mJ/mm(2) for 500 impulses. The washers were then treated with cefuroxime, rifampicin and fosfomycin, both alone and in combination. All tests were carried out in triplicate. Viable cells were counted to determine the bactericidal effect. The control groups of Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis revealed a cell count of 6 × 10(8) colony-forming units/ml. Complete eradication was achieved using the combination of antibiotic therapy (single antibiotic in Staph. aureus, a combination in Staph. epidermidis) and shock wave application (p < 0.01). We conclude that shock waves combined with antibiotics could be tested in an in vitro model of infection.

  5. Performance of Low Dissipative High Order Shock-Capturing Schemes for Shock-Turbulence Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandham, N. D.; Yee, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and efficient direct numerical simulation of turbulence in the presence of shock waves represents a significant challenge for numerical methods. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of high order compact and non-compact central spatial differencing employing total variation diminishing (TVD) shock-capturing dissipations as characteristic based filters for two model problems combining shock wave and shear layer phenomena. A vortex pairing model evaluates the ability of the schemes to cope with shear layer instability and eddy shock waves, while a shock wave impingement on a spatially-evolving mixing layer model studies the accuracy of computation of vortices passing through a sequence of shock and expansion waves. A drastic increase in accuracy is observed if a suitable artificial compression formulation is applied to the TVD dissipations. With this modification to the filter step the fourth-order non-compact scheme shows improved results in comparison to second-order methods, while retaining the good shock resolution of the basic TVD scheme. For this characteristic based filter approach, however, the benefits of compact schemes or schemes with higher than fourth order are not sufficient to justify the higher complexity near the boundary and/or the additional computational cost.

  6. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many organs can be damaged as a result. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly. As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it. Considerations The main types ...

  7. Stability of shocks relating to the shock ignition inertial fusion energy scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, C. J. Bush, I. A.; Evans, R. G.

    2014-08-15

    Motivated by the shock ignition approach to improve the performance of inertial fusion targets, we make a series of studies of the stability of shock waves in planar and converging geometries. We examine stability of shocks moving through distorted material and driving shocks with non-uniform pressure profiles. We then apply a fully 3D perturbation, following this spherically converging shock through collapse to a distorted plane, bounce and reflection into an outgoing perturbed, broadly spherical shock wave. We find broad shock stability even under quite extreme perturbation.

  8. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    SciTech Connect

    Batani, D.; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Nicolai, Ph.; Ribeyre, X.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A.; Badziak, J.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rosinski, M.; Baffigi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; and others

    2014-03-15

    An experiment was performed using the PALS laser to study laser-target coupling and laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime ≤10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, relevant for the “shock ignition” approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion. A first beam at low intensity was used to create an extended preformed plasma, and a second one to create a strong shock. Pressures up to 90 Megabars were inferred. Our results show the importance of the details of energy transport in the overdense region.

  9. Microinstabilities associated with a high Mach number, perpendicular bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Winske, D.; Tanaka, M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Akimoto, K.; Goodrich, C. C.; Zhou, Y. M.; Tsai, S. T.; Rodriguez, P.; Lin, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Instability analyses incorporating insights gained through ISEE observations and hybrid simulations are used in an examination of the instabilities associated with a high Mach number perpendicular shock akin to the earth's bow shock. In the regions in front of, and at, the shock transition the cross-field instabilities are subdivided into the ion-ion streaming, kinetic cross-field streaming, and drift lower hybrid instability low frequency modes, as well as the electron cyclotron drift, ion sound, and electron whisker instability high frequency modes. Further downstream, ion ring-like and anisotropy-driven instabilities are considered. The implications of these results for wave signatures, plasma heating and acceleration are noted.

  10. Viscous hypersonic shock-shock interaction on a blunt body at high altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Keith A.; Chapman, Dean R.; Maccormack, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    The shock interaction produced when an incident oblique shock impinges on a blunt body, such as an engine inlet cowl lip of a hypersonic vehicle, is investigated for high altitude flight conditions. A perfect gas, Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of this problem at various altitudes representing continuum through transitional conditions is performed using the modified flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming (1979). Two series of solutions are produced. First, a number-of-shock-positions are studied at a particular altitude and Mach number. Second, given a fixed shock position and Mach number, the interaction is investigated at several altitudes ranging from continuum to transitional flow conditions. It is shown that the interaction becomes fundamentally different as the density is lowered, and its effect on the overheating problem is progressively diminished. The maximum stagnation point heating at the highest altitude is reached only when the incident shock misses the cowl lip completely, and any interaction with the cowl bow shock that does occur takes place downstream and thus has little effect on the conditions at the stagnation point.

  11. [Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with low energy internal electric shock].

    PubMed

    Ricard, P; Socas, A G; Taramasco, V; Guenoun, M; Lévy, S

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of low internal cardioversion for the reduction of atrial fibrillation was assessed prospectively in 104 consecutive patients. Sixty-two patients had chronic atrial fibrillation (Group I). 16 patients had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Group II) and 26 patients had induced atrial fibrillation (Group III). The average duration of the current episode of atrial fibrillation was 9 +/- 19 months in Group I, 4 +/- 2 days in Group II and 18 +/- 7 minutes in Group III. Two intracardiac defibrillation catheters were used, one (the cathode) in the right atrium and the other in the coronary sinus or left branch of the pulmonary artery (anode). These catheters were connected to an external defibrillator delivering biphasic 3/3 ms shocks with a voltage which could be programmed from 10 to 400 volts. The shocks were synchronised on the R wave. Sinus rhythm was restored in 44 of the 62 patients in Group I (70%), 12 of the 16 patients in Group II (75%) and 20 of the 26 patients in Group III (77%). The average voltages and energies restoring sinus rhythm were 300 +/- 68 volts and 3.5 +/- 1.5 joules respectively in Group I, 245 +/- 72 volts and 2.0 +/- 2.9 joules in Group II, and 270 +/- 67 volts and 2.6 +/- 1.2 joules in Group III. These results show that the energy required to restore sinus rhythm is significantly greater in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation than in patients with paroxysmal or induced atrial fibrillation. There were no ventricular proarrhythmic effects in the 686 shocks synchronised on the R wave. This study shows that internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation is feasible with low energies under simple sedation. These results support the concept of an implantable atrial defibrillator.

  12. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  13. Mechanisms of shock-induced reactions in high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which shock waves initiate chemical reactions in explosives is key to understanding their unique and defining property: the ability to undergo rapid explosive decomposition in response to mechanical stimulus. Although shock-induced reactions in explosives have been studied experimentally and computationally for decades, the nature of even the first chemical reactions that occur in response to shock remain elusive. To predictively understand how explosives respond to shock, the detailed sequence of events that occurs - mechanical deformation, energy transfer, bond breakage, and first chemical reactions - must be understood at the quantum-mechanical level. This paper reviews recent work in this field and ongoing experimental and theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories in this important area of explosive science.

  14. Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I. G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Wilson, L. B., III; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E > 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L ≈ 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of ≈250 keV to ≈900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  15. Prompt Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons to Ultrarelativistic Energies by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Wilson, L. B. III

    2016-01-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E greater than 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L approximately equals 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of approximately equals 250 keV to approximately equals 900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  16. Collisionless shock waves in space - A very high beta structure. [solar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formisano, V.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J. D.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Neugebauter, M.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements from six OGO-5 particle and field experiments are used to examine the structure of the earth's bow shock during a period of extremely high beta (the ratio of plasma thermal to magnetic energy density), as determined from simultaneous measurements of the upstream plasma on board the HEOS satellite. Even though the interplanetary field is nearly perpendicular to the shock normal, the shock is extremely turbulent. Large field increases are observed up to a factor of 20 above the upstream values. Ahead of these large enhancements, smaller magnetic effects accompanied by electrostatic noise, electron heating, and ion deflection are observed for several minutes. These observations suggest that a steady-state shock may not be able to form at very high beta. Further, they show that while the magnetic energy density may be relatively unimportant in the upstream flow, it can become very significant within the shock structure, and hence the magnetic field should not be ignored in theoretical treatments of very high beta shocks.

  17. [Research on Energy Distribution During Osteoarthritis Treatment Using Shock Wave Lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shinian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and effective treatment modality for patients suffering from osteoarthritis. The major objective of current works is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Firstly, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on Comsol software in the present study. Then, high-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles with the presence of mimic bone. On the basis of comparing experimental with simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified. Finally, the energy distribution during extracorporeal shock wave treatment was predicted. The results showed that the shock wave field was deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles could be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to shock wave geometric focus. Combining MRI/CT scans to FEM modeling is helpful for better standardizing the treatment dosage and optimizing treatment protocols in the clinic.

  18. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm-3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm-3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  19. The Very High Alfvén Mach Number Bow Shock of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves are ubiquitous in the universe and fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. The interplay between particles (ions and electrons) and fields (electromagnetic) introduces a variety of both physical and geometrical parameters such as Mach numbers (e.g. MA, Mf), β, and θbn. These vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics of shocks. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. It is not clear what happens in the higher MA regime. Here we show the parameter space of MA for all bow shock crossings from 2004-2012 as measured by the Cassini spacecraft. We found that the Saturnian bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we estimated the θbn­ of each crossing and were able to further constrain the sample into categories of similar features. Our results demonstrate how MA plays a central role in controlling the onset of physical mechanisms in collisionless shocks, particularly instabilities, non-time stationarity and electron acceleration. We anticipate our comprehensive assessment to give deeper insight to high MA collisionless shocks and provide a broader scope for understanding the structures and mechanisms of collisionless shocks. This can potentially bridge the gap between more modest MA observed in near-Earth space and more exotic astrophysical regimes where shock

  20. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density.

    PubMed

    Betti, R; Zhou, C D; Anderson, K S; Perkins, L J; Theobald, W; Solodov, A A

    2007-04-13

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy.

  1. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  2. A Novel Low-Energy Electrotherapy That Terminates Ventricular Tachycardia With Lower Energy than a Biphasic Shock When Anti-Tachycardia Pacing Fails

    PubMed Central

    Janardhan, Ajit H.; Li, Wenwen; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Yeung, Michael; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a low-energy electrotherapy that terminates ventricular tachycardia (VT) when anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) fails. Background High-energy ICD shocks are associated with device failure, significant morbidity and increased mortality. A low-energy alternative to ICD shocks is desirable. Methods Myocardial infarction (MI) was created in 25 dogs. Sustained, monomorphic VT was induced by programmed stimulation. Defibrillation electrodes were placed in the RV apex, and coronary sinus (CS) and LV epicardium (LVP). If ATP failed to terminate sustained VT, the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of standard versus experimental electrotherapies were measured. Results Sustained VT ranged from 276–438 bpm (mean 339 bpm). The RV-CS shock vector had lower impedance than RV-LVP (54.4±18.1 Ω versus 109.8±16.9, Ω p<0.001). A single shock required between 0.3±0.2 J to 5.9±2.5 J (mean 2.64±3.22 J; p=0.008) to terminate VT, and varied depending upon the phase of the VT cycle at which it was delivered. In contrast, multiple shocks delivered within 1 VT cycle length were not phase-dependent and achieved lower DFT compared to a single shock (0.13±0.09 J for 3 shocks, 0.08±0.04 J for 5 shocks, 0.09±0.07 J for 7 shocks; p<0.001). Finally, a multi-stage electrotherapy (MSE) achieved significantly lower DFT compared to a single biphasic shock (0.03±0.05 J versus 2.37±1.20 J, respectively, p<0.001). At a peak shock amplitude of 20 V, MSE achieved 91.3% of terminations versus 10.5% for a biphasic shock (p<0.001). Conclusions MSE achieved a major reduction in DFT compared to a single biphasic shock for ATP-refractory monomorphic VT, and represents a novel electrotherapy to reduce high-energy ICD shocks. PMID:23141483

  3. Electron Acceleration in a Nonrelativistic Shock with Very High Alfvén Mach Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.

    2013-11-01

    Electron acceleration associated with various plasma kinetic instabilities in a nonrelativistic shock with very high Alfvén Mach number (MA˜45) is revealed by means of a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. Electromagnetic (ion Weibel) and electrostatic (ion-acoustic and Buneman) instabilities are strongly activated at the same time in different regions of the two-dimensional shock structure. Relativistic electrons are quickly produced predominantly by the shock surfing mechanism with the Buneman instability at the leading edge of the foot. The energy spectrum has a high-energy tail exceeding the upstream ion kinetic energy accompanying the main thermal population. This gives a favorable condition for the ion-acoustic instability at the shock front, which in turn results in additional energization. The large-amplitude ion Weibel instability generates current sheets in the foot, implying another dissipation mechanism via magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional shock structure in the very-high-MA regime.

  4. Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Gates, Sean; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).

  5. Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph; Gates, Sean

    2015-03-01

    We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).

  6. Stationary shocks in periodic highly nonlinear granular chains.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Alain; Daraio, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    We study the existence of stationary shock waves in uniform and periodic heterogeneous highly nonlinear granular chains governed by a power-law contact interaction, comparing discrete and continuum approaches, as well as experiments. We report the presence of quasisteady shock fronts without the need for dissipative effects. When viscous effects are neglected, the structure of the leading front appears to be solely the result of dispersive effects related to the lattice wave dispersion and, for heterogeneous bead chains, to the impedance mismatch between material domains. We report analytically and numerically the shock-width scaling with the variation in the particles periodicity (cell size) and compare the obtained results with experiments. We check the state (-) behind the shock front via quasistatic compression analysis and report a very good agreement between theory and numerical data.

  7. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  8. Shock-wave processes evolution in fused quartz under intense energy action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper considers gas-dynamical processes evolving as a result of laser action in fused quartz. A conventional approach is used to construct a model for equation of state which provides an adequate description of the silica state at high densities of energy typical for local optical silica damage. Shock-wave processes generated in the medium due to the local laser energy deposition are calculated using fully conservative numerical technique. The obtained results provide relatively accurate description of the process in a wide range of parameters and allow further research to get clear interpretation of high-speed propagation of the laser absorbing front through the silica optical fiber.

  9. Periodic Architecture for High Performance Shock Absorbing Composites

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Abha; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    A novel composite architecture consisting of a periodic arrangement of closely-spaced spheres of a stiff material embedded in a soft matrix is proposed for extremely high damping and shock absorption capacity. Efficacy of this architecture is demonstrated by compression loading a composite, where multiple steel balls were stacked upon each other in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, at a low strain-rate of 0.05 s−1 and a very high strain-rate of >2400 s−1. The balls slide over each other upon loading, and revert to their original position when the load is removed. Because of imposition of additional strains into the matrix via this reversible, constrained movement of the balls, the composite absorbs significantly larger energy and endures much lesser permanent damage than the monolithic PDMS during both quasi-static and impact loadings. During the impact loading, energy absorbed per unit weight for the composite was ~8 times larger than the monolithic PDMS. PMID:23792699

  10. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  11. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 2; Waves and Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A. W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first quantified measure of the energy dissipation rates, due to wave-particle interactions, in the transition region of the Earth's collision-less bow shock using data from the Time History of Events and Macro-Scale Interactions during Sub-Storms spacecraft. Our results show that wave-particle interactions can regulate the global structure and dominate the energy dissipation of collision-less shocks. In every bow shock crossing examined, we observed both low-frequency (less than 10 hertz) and high-frequency (approximately or greater than10 hertz) electromagnetic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The low-frequency waves were consistent with magnetosonic-whistler waves. The high-frequency waves were combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. The high-frequency waves had the following: (1) peak amplitudes exceeding delta B approximately equal to 10 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 300 millivolts per meter, though more typical values were delta B approximately equal to 0.1-1.0 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 10-50 millivolts per meter (2) Poynting fluxes in excess of 2000 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter) (typical values were approximately 1-10 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter); (3) resistivities greater than 9000 omega meters; and (4) associated energy dissipation rates greater than 10 microWm(sup -3) (micro-waves per cubic meter). The dissipation rates due to wave-particle interactions exceeded rates necessary to explain the increase in entropy across the shock ramps for approximately 90 percent of the wave burst durations. For approximately 22 percent of these times, the wave-particle interactions needed to only be less than or equal to 0.1 percent efficient to balance the nonlinear wave steepening that produced the shock waves. These results show that wave

  12. Dispersive Nature of High Mach Number Collisionless Plasma Shocks: Poynting Flux of Oblique Whistler Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Bale, S. D.; Schwartz, S. J.; Soucek, J.; Mozer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.

  13. Vacuum high-harmonic generation and electromagnetic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhl, P.; King, B.; Ruhl, H.

    2016-04-01

    > When one takes into account the presence of virtual charged states in the quantum vacuum, a nonlinear self-interaction can arise in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. This self-interaction is often referred to as `real photon-photon scattering'. When the centre-of-mass energy of colliding photons is much lower than the rest energy of an electron-positron pair, this quantum effect can be included in the classical field equations of motion as a vacuum current and charge density using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Using analytical and numerical methods for subcritical fields, the intrinsic solution to Maxwell's equations has been found for counterpropagating probe and pump plane waves in the presence of vacuum four- and six-wave mixing. In the corresponding all-order solution for the scattered probe, a route to vacuum high-harmonic generation is identified in which a long phase length can compensate for the weakness of interacting fields. The resulting shocks in the probe carrier wave and envelope are studied for different parameter regimes and polarisation set-ups. In this special issue, we study two additional set-ups: that of a slowly varying single-cycle background to highlight the effect of an oscillating background on the probe harmonic spectrum, and that of a few-cycle probe to highlight the smoothing of the harmonic peaks produced by a wider spectrum of probe photons. We also correct sign errors in an earlier publication.

  14. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  15. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  16. The Energy Spectrum of Energetic Particles Downstream of Turbulent Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacalone, Joe; Neugebauer, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Using simple analytic considerations, numerical simulations, and data analysis, we discuss the physics of charged-particle acceleration by turbulent, rippled, collisionless shocks. The standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration predicts that the energetic-particle energy spectrum, in the region of shocked plasma, is a function of the plasma density jump. But because of the interaction of the shock with plasma turbulence, the jump in plasma density varies in time and from place to place on the shock front. Here we show that for reasonable parameters, the shape of the energetic-particle energy spectra downstream of any given shock is nearly independent of location along the shock front, even though the density jump varies. This is because energetic particles are mobile and sample many turbulent fluctuations during their acceleration. This result holds for shocks having smaller scale ripples than the large-scale radius of curvature (Dc) of the shock. Thus, it applies to the interpretation of spacecraft observations of traveling interplanetary shocks provided the spacecraft separation is less than Dc. This result is confirmed with simple analytic considerations and numerical simulations that solve the combined magnetohydrodynamic equations for a plasma and energetic test particles using the well-known Parker transport equation. This conclusion is further supported by our analysis of ACE and Geotail observations of a few interplanetary shocks.

  17. The Guitar Nebula, Bow Shocks From High Velocity Pulsars, and Companions of Recycled Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, S. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Romani, R. W.

    1992-12-01

    We report results of optical studies of neutron star interactions with companion objects and the surrounding medium. In Hα observations of 11 high velocity, high spindown energy pulsars we have discovered one spectacular bow shock nebula, the Guitar Nebula, produced by the motion of the pulsar, PSR 2224+65, through partially neutral gas. One other pulsar, PSR 0136+57, has a faint feature near the pulsar position with a nonstellar morphology. We discuss the possibility that this is another shock and give upper limits on shock emission for the rest of the pulsars. Further, we consider possible scaling of shock emission with pulsar spindown energy and velocity, and detectability of shocks in other pulsars. Shocks may even reveal the existence of neutron stars not detectable as pulsars due to beaming or lack of pulsed radio emission. Our observations of several binary millisecond pulsars show some intriquing counterparts in some cases and allow strong limits to be placed on the magnitude of any counterparts in others. In pulsars 1534+12 and 1953+29 optical counterparts near the pulsar position are most likely chance coincidence with foreground stars. We imaged PSR 1257+12 in the hope of seeing the remnants of the disk which resulted in formation of planets or another pulsar wind driven shock nebula. We place upper limits on optical emission from nebulosity in the vicinity of the pulsar. This work was supported by grants from NSF, NASA and the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center which operates Arecibo Observatory under contract with the NSF.

  18. Electron Energy Distributions at Relativistic Shock Sites: Observational Constraints from the Cygnus A Hotspots

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    We report new detections of the hotspots in Cygnus A at 4.5 and 8.0 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Together with detailed published radio observations and synchrotron self-Compton modeling of previous X-ray detections, we reconstruct the underlying electron energy spectra of the two brightest hotspots (A and D). The low-energy portion of the electron distributions have flat power-law slopes (s {approx} 1.5) up to the break energy which corresponds almost exactly to the mass ratio between protons and electrons; we argue that these features are most likely intrinsic rather than due to absorption effects. Beyond the break, the electron spectra continue to higher energies with very steep slopes s>3. Thus, there is no evidence for the 'canonical' s=2 slope expected in 1st order Fermi-type shocks within the whole observable electron energy range. We discuss the significance of these observations and the insight offered into high-energy particle acceleration processes in mildly relativistic shocks.

  19. Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS), Description and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    see Reference 39), • force, moment, pressure, heat transfer and skin friction measurements as well as flowfield surveys on simple and complex...eight over that of a conventional non-reflected shock tunnel. This increase in running time effectively extended the potential of the shock tunnel...durations of 2 to 27 milliseconds. All nozzles are calibrated using pitot-pressure survey rakes over the Mach number range indicated. •The shock

  20. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvénic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagates in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvén waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.

  1. High-pressure high-temperature equations of state of shocked bcc vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodets, A. M.; Golyshev, A. A.; Shakhray, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    The semiempirical free-energy relation for hydrostatically compressed isotropic solid was written for body-centered-cubic (bcc) vanadium as a function of the specific volume and temperature with the phonon component and the contribution of the electronic subsystem. According to the thermodynamic rules the thermal as well as caloric equations of state are defined through the partial derivatives of free energy. A thermal equation of state gives the pressure as a function of volume and temperature. Caloric equation of state specifies the energy as a function of volume and temperature also. The proposed equations of state of bcc vanadium have been verified by comparison of calculated high-pressure isotherms, heat capacity, volume thermal expansion coefficient and Hugoniot with experimental data. The developed equations of state allow to calculate thermal properties of compressed bcc vanadium under static pressure and shock pressures 0-70 GPa and temperatures 100-1000 K.

  2. Ignition relevant ablator response of boron carbide and high-density carbon driven by multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Baker, Kevin; Celliers, Peter; Dittrich, Tom; Moore, Alastair; Wu, Kuang Jen; Kervin, Peggy; Hurricane, Omar

    2013-10-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The current ablation material, a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile. In an effort to evaluate the performance of other possible ablators that could be suitable for achieving self-propagating fusion burn we have inferred the ablation performance of two possible ablators, boron carbide and high-density carbon, by measuring the shock speed of induced shocks while subjecting the ablators to a multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. We present the platform used, velocity measurements used to infer the ablation response, and matching simulations to show the relative performance of boron carbide and high-density carbon with a general comparison to current performance of the currently used glow-discharge polymer ablator. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-640519.

  3. Body-Fitted Detonation Shock Dynamics and the Pseudo-Reaction-Zone Energy Release Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Chad; Quirk, James; Short, Mark; Chqiuete, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Programmed-burn methods are a class of models used to propagate a detonation wave, without the high resolution cost associated with a direct numerical simulation. They separate the detonation evolution calculation into two components: timing and energy release. The timing component is usually calculated with a Detonation Shock Dynamics model, a surface evolution representation that relates the normal velocity of the surface (Dn) to its local curvature. The energy release component must appropriately capture the degree of energy change associated with chemical reaction while simultaneously remaining synchronized with the timing component. The Pseudo-Reaction-Zone (PRZ) model is a reactive burn like energy release model, converting reactants into products, but with a conversion rate that is a function of the DSD surface Dn field. As such, it requires the DSD calculation produce smooth Dn fields, a challenge in complex geometries. We describe a new body-fitted approach to the Detonation Shock Dynamics calculation which produces the required smooth Dn fields, and a method for calibrating the PRZ model such that the rate of energy release remains as synced as possible with the timing component. We show results for slab, rate-stick and arc geometries.

  4. High-pressure phases in shock-induced melt of the unique highly shocked LL6 chondrite Northwest Africa 757

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    Northwest Africa 757 is unique in the LL chondrite group because of its abundant shock-induced melt and high-pressure minerals. Olivine fragments entrained in the melt transform partially and completely into ringwoodite. Plagioclase and Ca-phosphate transform to maskelynite, lingunite, and tuite. Two distinct shock-melt crystallization assemblages were studied by FIB-TEM analysis. The first melt assemblage, which includes majoritic garnet, ringwoodite plus magnetite-magnesiowüstite, crystallized at pressures of 20-25 GPa. The other melt assemblage, which consists of clinopyroxene and wadsleyite, solidified at ~15 GPa, suggesting a second veining event under lower pressure conditions. These shock features are similar to those in S6 L chondrites and indicate that NWA 757 experienced an intense impact event, comparable to the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body at 470 Ma.

  5. Ion Beam Driven Shock Device Using Accelerated High Density Plasmoid by Phased Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchida, Minoru

    1997-07-01

    Different from three methods to generate high shock pressure by acceleration of high density plasma or particles (intense ion beams, plasma gun and rail gun) having their intrinsic deficiencies, new frontier is proposed to propel the shock physics and chemistry by using the high density plasma. In the present paper, new scheduled Z-pinch method is developed as a new device to generate high shock pressure. In the present method, plasma density can be compressed to the order of 10^18 to 10^19 cm-3, and high density plasma can be accelerated by zippering together with axial shock pressure, resulting in high-velocity launching of flyer. In the present paper, systematic experimental works are performed to demonstrate that high energy plasma flow can be electro-magnetically driven by the scheduled capillary Z-pinch, and to characterize the ion velocity and its current density. The estimated value of ion speed from the plasma-measurement reaches to 7 x 10^7 cm/s corresponding to 70 to 100 KeV for Ar. Copper flyer can be shot with the velocity range from 1km/s to 3km/s in the standard condition.

  6. On Convergence of High Order Shock Capturing Difference Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V.

    2010-11-01

    A convergence of high order shock capturing difference schemes is analyzed. Notions of weak finite difference approximations which conserve a sense on discontinuous solutions are introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions of these approximations are obtained. It is shown that among the explicit two-layer in time conservative difference schemes there are no schemes which can have high order of weak approximation. A compact scheme of the same third order of classical and weak approximations is constructed. There is demonstrated an advantage of this scheme in comparison to TVD scheme at shock-capturing computations. A difference approximation of ɛ Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) conditions is investigated. It is shown that TVD type schemes (in contrast to non-TVD schemes, whose numerical fluxes are smooth enough) can approximate ɛ RH-conditions at most with the first order. Given examples show that non-TVD schemes (in contrast to TVD schemes) can have the second order of integral convergence through the smearing shocks and as a result can conserve a higher accuracy in the post shock regions.

  7. Shock.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David A; Winters, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock are complex and challenging cases in the ED. A systematic approach to assessment and management is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The simplified, systematic approach described in this article focuses on determining the presence of problems with cardiac function (the pump), intravascular volume (the tank), or systemic vascular resistance (the pipes). With this approach, the emergency physician can detect life-threatening conditions and implement time-sensitive therapy.

  8. Shock Features in L6 Chondrite NWA 091: Search for Evidence of Very High Shock Pressure in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Sharp, T. G.; Weirich, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many L chondrites are thought to be highly shocked by the giant impact event on L chondrite parent body at 500Ma. Such a hypervelocity impact on the L chondrite parent body would generate very high pressures and abundant melting. However, the high-pressure phases in shock veins of L chondrites constrain the shock pressure up to a maximum of ~26GPa (Hu et al., 2012). NWA 091 is a L6 shock-melt breccia from the 500Ma event that is highly blackened (Welrich et al., 2012). It was originally classified as shock stage S4, based on the presence of plagioclase rather than maskelynite. We used Raman spectroscopy, field-emission SEM and analytical TEM to investigate the mineralogy and microstructure in NWA 091 to better estimate its shock pressure. Olivine and pyroxene in NWA 091 are laced with metal and sulfide veins and droplets, suggesting these fragments are highly shocked. The silicate melt veins and pockets include very fine-grained crystals with compositions of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase. No high-pressure phases have been found in the veins. Plagioclase in this sample is poikilitic with inclusions of metal, sulfide and chromite. We will characterize the microstructure of plagioclase to determine if it is primary or has transformed from a high pressure phases after pressure release. Based on the microstructures observed so far, we interpret NWA091 as a very highly shocked (S6-7) chondrite that was annealed at high temperature after decompression. Thus the high-pressure polymorphs of rock-forming minerals are not preserved. Such post-shock annealing can explain why mineralogical evidence for pressure above 26GPa is lacking in L chondrites.

  9. Influence of deposited energy on shock wave induced by underwater pulsed current discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Dong; Liu, Yi; Liu, Si-Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhou, Gu-Yue; Li, Hua; Lin, Fu-Chang; Pan, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated experimental system is established to study the influence of deposited energy on the intensity of the shock wave induced by underwater pulse discharge. Considering the time varying behavior of the arc, the calculation methods of the deposited energy into the plasma channel and the average arc resistance are proposed and presented. The effect of the breakdown process on the deposited energy and the shock wave is analyzed. It can be concluded that the shock wave intensity can be improved by depositing more energy in the first half oscillation period and increasing the arc resistance. It is also found that the energy deposition and the shock wave intensity are significantly influenced by the breakdown time delay and the shape of the initial plasma channel.

  10. A diaphragmless shock tube for high temperature kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tranter, Robert S.; Giri, Binod R.

    2008-09-15

    A novel, diaphragmless shock tube (DFST) has been developed for use in high temperature chemical kinetic studies. The design of the apparatus is presented along with performance data that demonstrate the range and reproducibility of reaction conditions that can be generated. The ability to obtain data in the fall off region, confined to much narrower pressure ranges than can be obtained with a conventional shock tube is shown, and results from laser schlieren densitometry experiments on the unimolecular dissociation of phenyl iodide (P{sub 2}=57{+-}9 and 122{+-}7 torr, T{sub 2}=1250-1804 K) are presented. These are compared with results similar to those that would be obtained from a classical shock tube and the implications for extrapolation by theoretical methods are discussed. Finally, the use of the DFST with an online mass spectrometer to create reproducible experiments that can be signal averaged to improve signal/noise and the quality of mass peaks is demonstrated; something that is not possible with a conventional shock tube where each experiment has to be considered unique.

  11. High energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p{anti p}), lepton (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed.

  12. Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

  13. High strength and high ductility behavior of 6061-T6 alloy after laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencalp Irizalp, Simge; Saklakoglu, Nursen

    2016-02-01

    The plastic deformation behavior of 6061-T6 alloy which was subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) at high strain rates during laser shock processing (LSP) was researched. In LSP-treated materials, the near surface microstructural change was examined by TEM and fracture surfaces after tensile testing were examined by SEM. An increase in strength of metallic materials brings about the decrease in ductility. In this study, the results showed that LSP-treated 6061-T6 alloy exhibited both high strength and high ductility. TEM observation showed that stacking fault (SF) ribbon enlarged, deformation twins formed and twin boundary increased in LSP-treated 6061-T6 alloy. This observation was an indication of stacking fault energy (SFE) decrease. Work hardening capability was recovered after LSP impacts.

  14. On high explosive launching of projectiles for shock physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Forest, Charles A.; Clark, David A.; Buttler, William T.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Rightley, Paul

    2007-06-01

    The hydrodynamic operation of the "Forest Flyer" type of explosive launching system for shock physics projectiles was investigated in detail using one and two dimensional continuum dynamics simulations. The simulations were numerically converged and insensitive to uncertainties in the material properties; they reproduced the speed of the projectile and the shape of its rear surface. The most commonly used variant, with an Al alloy case, was predicted to produce a slightly curved projectile, subjected to some shock heating and likely exhibiting some porosity from tensile damage. The curvature is caused by a shock reflected from the case; tensile damage is caused by the interaction of the Taylor wave pressure profile from the detonation wave with the free surface of the projectile. The simulations gave only an indication of tensile damage in the projectile, as damage is not understood well enough for predictions in this loading regime. The flatness can be improved by using a case of lower shock impedance, such as polymethyl methacrylate. High-impedance cases, including Al alloys but with denser materials improving the launching efficiency, can be used if designed according to the physics of oblique shock reflection, which indicates an appropriate case taper for any combination of explosive and case material. The tensile stress induced in the projectile depends on the relative thickness of the explosive, expansion gap, and projectile. The thinner the projectile with respect to the explosive, the smaller the tensile stress. Thus if the explosive is initiated with a plane wave lens, the tensile stress is lower than that for initiation with multiple detonators over a plane. The previous plane wave lens designs did, however, induce a tensile stress close to the spall strength of the projectile. The tensile stress can be reduced by changes in the component thicknesses. Experiments verifying the operation of explosively launched projectiles should attempt to measure

  15. The influence of electron temperature on cosmic ray injection in high Mach number magnetosonic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2001-08-01

    Electron pre-acceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfv´enic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities which in turn can accelerate ions, see eg (M. E. Dieckmann et al., Astron. Astrophys. 356, 377 (2000)). However in astrophysical plasmas the value of β - the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure - is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration. Previous simulations at low values of β (N. Shimada and M. Hoshino, Astrophys. J. 543, L67 (2000)) showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, the electron temperature and magnetic field strength upstream.

  16. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  17. Optical observation of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in high intensity laser-induced shock processes.

    PubMed

    Martí-López, L; Ocaña, R; Porro, J A; Morales, M; Ocaña, J L

    2009-07-01

    We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.

  18. Development of a shock noise prediction code for high-speed helicopters - The subsonically moving shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.; Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang

    1991-01-01

    A previously defined airfoil subsonic shock-noise prediction formula whose result depends on a mapping of the time-dependent shock surface to a time-independent computational domain is presently coded and incorporated in the NASA-Langley rotor-noise prediction code, WOPWOP. The structure and algorithms used in the shock-noise prediction code are presented; special care has been taken to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy. Numerical examples of shock-noise prediction are presented for hover and forward flight. It is confirmed that shock noise is an important component of the quadrupole source.

  19. Optical observation of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in high intensity laser-induced shock processes

    SciTech Connect

    Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Ocana, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.

  20. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  1. Particle Acceleration and Wave Excitation in Quasi-parallel High-Mach-number Collisionless Shocks: Particle-in-cell Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.

    2015-04-01

    We herein investigate shock formation and particle acceleration processes for both protons and electrons in a quasi-parallel high-Mach-number collisionless shock through a long-term, large-scale, particle-in-cell simulation. We show that both protons and electrons are accelerated in the shock and that these accelerated particles generate large-amplitude Alfvénic waves in the upstream region of the shock. After the upstream waves have grown sufficiently, the local structure of the collisionless shock becomes substantially similar to that of a quasi-perpendicular shock due to the large transverse magnetic field of the waves. A fraction of protons are accelerated in the shock with a power-law-like energy distribution. The rate of proton injection to the acceleration process is approximately constant, and in the injection process, the phase-trapping mechanism for the protons by the upstream waves can play an important role. The dominant acceleration process is a Fermi-like process through repeated shock crossings of the protons. This process is a “fast” process in the sense that the time required for most of the accelerated protons to complete one cycle of the acceleration process is much shorter than the diffusion time. A fraction of the electrons are also accelerated by the same mechanism, and have a power-law-like energy distribution. However, the injection does not enter a steady state during the simulation, which may be related to the intermittent activity of the upstream waves. Upstream of the shock, a fraction of the electrons are pre-accelerated before reaching the shock, which may contribute to steady electron injection at a later time.

  2. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND WAVE EXCITATION IN QUASI-PARALLEL HIGH-MACH-NUMBER COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS: PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.

    2015-04-01

    We herein investigate shock formation and particle acceleration processes for both protons and electrons in a quasi-parallel high-Mach-number collisionless shock through a long-term, large-scale, particle-in-cell simulation. We show that both protons and electrons are accelerated in the shock and that these accelerated particles generate large-amplitude Alfvénic waves in the upstream region of the shock. After the upstream waves have grown sufficiently, the local structure of the collisionless shock becomes substantially similar to that of a quasi-perpendicular shock due to the large transverse magnetic field of the waves. A fraction of protons are accelerated in the shock with a power-law-like energy distribution. The rate of proton injection to the acceleration process is approximately constant, and in the injection process, the phase-trapping mechanism for the protons by the upstream waves can play an important role. The dominant acceleration process is a Fermi-like process through repeated shock crossings of the protons. This process is a “fast” process in the sense that the time required for most of the accelerated protons to complete one cycle of the acceleration process is much shorter than the diffusion time. A fraction of the electrons are also accelerated by the same mechanism, and have a power-law-like energy distribution. However, the injection does not enter a steady state during the simulation, which may be related to the intermittent activity of the upstream waves. Upstream of the shock, a fraction of the electrons are pre-accelerated before reaching the shock, which may contribute to steady electron injection at a later time.

  3. Study of hot electron spatial energy deposition in spherical targets relevant to shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Wei, M. S.; Krauland, C.; Reynolds, H.; Hoppe, M.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Borwick, E.; Li, J.; Ren, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Betti, R.; Campbell, M.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding hot electron generation and coupling is important for the high-intensity shock ignition (SI) inertial confinement fusion concept. Recent hard x-ray experimental data from a SI-relevant platform on OMEGA-60 suggest that <100 keV hot electrons may augment shock pressure by depositing their energy in the solid density region behind the ablation front. These results deduced from simulation are convincing support for electron assisted SI. To further investigate beneficial hot electron characteristics from both high intensity UV and IR lasers in this relevant regime, we performed a joint OMEGA-60/OMEGA EP experiment in the spherical geometry. 60 UV laser beams (18 kJ, 1.8 ns, up to 1015 W/cm2) irradiated a low-density Cu foam ball target with a CH ablator followed by a single IR short pulse laser (2.6 kJ, 100 ps, 1017 W/cm2) at various delays. The electron spatial energy deposition was diagnosed via imaging Cu K α emission with a spherical crystal imager; total K α photon yield and bremsstrahlung radiation were also measured to infer electron spectra. Experimental results are compared with radiation hydrodynamic modeling and will be presented at the meeting. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under contracts DE-NA0002730 (NLUF) and DE-SC0014666.

  4. Shock experiments and numerical simulations on low energy portable electrically exploding foil accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A. K.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2010-03-15

    Two low energy (1.6 and 8 kJ) portable electrically exploding foil accelerators are developed for moderately high pressure shock studies at small laboratory scale. Projectile velocities up to 4.0 km/s have been measured on Kapton flyers of thickness 125 {mu}m and diameter 8 mm, using an in-house developed Fabry-Perot velocimeter. An asymmetric tilt of typically few milliradians has been measured in flyers using fiber optic technique. High pressure impact experiments have been carried out on tantalum, and aluminum targets up to pressures of 27 and 18 GPa, respectively. Peak particle velocities at the target-glass interface as measured by Fabry-Perot velocimeter have been found in good agreement with the reported equation of state data. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on realistic models of equation of state and electrical resistivity has been developed to numerically simulate the flyer velocity profiles. The developed numerical scheme is validated against experimental and simulation data reported in literature on such systems. Numerically computed flyer velocity profiles and final flyer velocities have been found in close agreement with the previously reported experimental results with a significant improvement over reported magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Numerical modeling of low energy systems reported here predicts flyer velocity profiles higher than experimental values, indicating possibility of further improvement to achieve higher shock pressures.

  5. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  6. Shock Formation and Energy Dissipation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    We study the shock formation and energy dissipation of slow magnetosonic waves in coronal plumes. The wave parameters and the spreading function of the plumes as well as the base magnetic field strength are given by empirical constraints mostly from SOHO/UVCS. Our models show that shock formation occurs at low coronal heights, i.e., within 1.3 bun, depending on the model parameters. In addition, following analytical estimates, we show that scale height of energy dissipation by the shocks ranges between 0.15 and 0.45 Rsun. This implies that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is relevant at most heights, even though this type of waves is apparently not a solely operating energy supply mechanism.

  7. Conduction of thermal energy in the neighborhood of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Rankine-Hugoniot equations for MHD shocks are generalized by the addition of a term to the energy conservation equation representing a nonzero heat flow in the plasma in the neighborhood of the shock. This generalization is found to be compatible with the assumption of infinite electrical conductivity. The effects of plasma waves in this treatment are of the order of the reciprocal Alfvenic Mach number squared and hence are neglected. The effect of alpha particles in the solar wind is discussed. Seven crossings of the earth's bow shock by Explorer 35 in lunar orbit are analyzed. Sufficient data are available so that the determination of a dimensionless parameter, psi, characterizing the heat-flow difference across the bow shock is possible. The values of psi indicate energy-flux densities due to heat flow which are a nonnegligible fraction of the total energy flux. Two possible interpretations of psi are discussed.

  8. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) contract team during the six months during the reporting period (10/95 - 3/96) and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science, Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed-by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA); X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE); X-ray Spectrometer (XRS); Astro-E; High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  10. Studying counterstreaming high velocity plasma flows relevant to astrophysical collisionless shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, James Steven; Amendt, Peter; Divol, Laurent; Pollock, Brad; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; rozmus, Wojciech; Turnbull, David; Froula, Dustin; morita, taichi; Sakawa, Youichi; Takabe, Hideke; Drake, R. Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Gregori, Gianluca; Meinecke, Jena; Koenig, Michel; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Park, Hye-Sook

    2015-08-01

    In a broad range of low-density astrophysical plasmas the flow has a high Mach number, making the ion-ion collisional mean free path very large compared to the scale lengths of various observed astrophysical shocks. These shocks are believed to be “collisionless,” driven by plasma instabilities and self-generated magnetic fields. A series of experiments at the NIF and Omega laser facilities is underway to study the formation of collisionless shocks under scaled laboratory conditions, using high velocity counterstreaming and interpenetrating plasma flows. Double CH2, and CH/CD planar foils have been irradiated with a laser intensity of ~1016 W/cm2. The laser-ablated plasma between the two foils was characterized using a suite of diagnostics, including Thomson scattering and x-ray radiography. On the Omega laser facility clear interpenetration and instability growth are observed, although our experimental conditions reached only ~50 ion skin depths (c/wpi) and were insufficient to fully form a collisionless shock. Initial NIF experimental results using 50x more laser energy than the Omega experiments will be presented.

  11. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J; Betti, R; Schurtz, G P; Craxton, R S; Dunne, A M; LaFortune, K N; Schmitt, A J; McKenty, P W; Bailey, D S; Lambert, M A; Ribeyre, X; Theobald, W R; Strozzi, D J; Harding, D R; Casner, A; Atzemi, S; Erbert, G V; Andersen, K S; Murakami, M; Comley, A J; Cook, R C; Stephens, R B

    2010-04-12

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term ({approx}3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of {approx}60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around {approx}0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R&D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  12. Diffusive Particle Acceleration in Shocked, Viscous Accretion Disks: Green's Function Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Das, Santabrata; Le, Truong

    2011-12-01

    The acceleration of relativistic particles in a viscous accretion disk containing a standing shock is investigated as a possible explanation for the energetic outflows observed around radio-loud black holes. The energy/space distribution of the accelerated particles is computed by solving a transport equation that includes the effects of first-order Fermi acceleration, bulk advection, spatial diffusion, and particle escape. The velocity profile of the accreting gas is described using a model for shocked viscous disks recently developed by the authors, and the corresponding Green's function distribution for the accelerated particles in the disk and the outflow is obtained using a classical method based on eigenfunction analysis. The accretion-driven, diffusive shock acceleration scenario explored here is conceptually similar to the standard model for the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova-driven shocks. However, in the disk application, the distribution of the accelerated particles is much harder than would be expected for a plane-parallel shock with the same compression ratio. Hence the disk environment plays a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the shock acceleration process. The presence of the shock helps to stabilize the disk by reducing the Bernoulli parameter, while channeling the excess binding energy into the escaping relativistic particles. In applications to M87 and Sgr A*, we find that the kinetic power in the jet is {\\sim}0.01\\,\\dot{M} c^2, and the outflowing relativistic particles have a mean energy ~300 times larger than that of the thermal gas in the disk at the shock radius. Our results suggest that a standing shock may be an essential ingredient in accretion onto underfed black holes, helping to resolve the long-standing problem of the stability of advection-dominated accretion disks.

  13. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  14. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  15. The Guitar nebula - A bow shock from a slow-spin, high-velocity neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, James M.; Romani, Roger W.; Lundgren, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery is reported of a prominent nebula produced by the motion of a high-velocity pulsar, PSR 2224 + 65, through partially neutral gas. The pulsar's transverse speed of over about 800 km/s makes it arguably the fastest known star in the Galaxy and guarantees that it will ultimately escape the Galactic potential well. A deep H-alpha image reveals a bright head and a giant limb-brightened 'body' whose variable width suggests that the ambient interstellar gas has density variations on length scales less than 0.1 pc. Thermalization of shock energy occurs at a rate of about 0.01 times the pulsar's spindown loss rate. These observations provide some insights into the likelihood of finding shocks around other pulsars and the use of nebulae to find high-velocity neutron stars either not acting as pulsars or with their radiation beamed away from the earth.

  16. Magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in high Mach number shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2015-11-01

    The amplification of magnetic fields is a central ingredient in understanding particle acceleration in supernova remnant shocks. I will present results from multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of shock formation and particle acceleration for different magnetization levels. These first principles simulations, for unprecedented temporal and spatial scales, help bridge the gap between fully kinetic and hybrid modeling. The results show that depending on the magnetization the turbulence responsible for particle injection and acceleration is determined by different processes, which include Weibel and Bell-type instabilities, but also magnetic reconnection. At high Mach numbers both electrons and ions are shown to be efficiently injected and accelerated. I will discuss the importance of these results for current astrophysical models and the possibility of studying these magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration processes in near future high energy density laboratory experiments.

  17. The Guitar nebula - A bow shock from a slow-spin, high-velocity neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, James M.; Romani, Roger W.; Lundgren, Scott C.

    1993-03-01

    The discovery is reported of a prominent nebula produced by the motion of a high-velocity pulsar, PSR 2224 + 65, through partially neutral gas. The pulsar's transverse speed of over about 800 km/s makes it arguably the fastest known star in the Galaxy and guarantees that it will ultimately escape the Galactic potential well. A deep H-alpha image reveals a bright head and a giant limb-brightened 'body' whose variable width suggests that the ambient interstellar gas has density variations on length scales less than 0.1 pc. Thermalization of shock energy occurs at a rate of about 0.01 times the pulsar's spindown loss rate. These observations provide some insights into the likelihood of finding shocks around other pulsars and the use of nebulae to find high-velocity neutron stars either not acting as pulsars or with their radiation beamed away from the earth.

  18. High-Resolution Shock-Capturing Schemes For A Real Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, L. L.; Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents comparative study of several high-resolution explicit numerical-simulation schemes capturing shocks in one-dimensional flows of real gas. One-dimensional schemes compared with respect to: ability to capture shocks, resolution of shocks, overall accuracy, and computational efficiency.

  19. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  20. High thermal shock resistance of the hot rolled and swaged bulk W-ZrC alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z. M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Yang, X. D.; Zhang, T.; Fang, Q. F.; Wang, X. P.; Liu, C. S.; Lian, Y. Y.; Liu, X.; Luo, G. N.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal shock (single shot) resistance and mechanical properties of the W-0.5wt% ZrC (WZC) alloys manufactured by ordinary sintering followed by swaging or rolling process were investigated. No cracks or surface melting were detected on the surface of the rolled WZC alloy plates after thermal shock at a power density of 0.66 GW/m2 for 5 ms, while primary intergranular cracks appear on the surface of the swaged WZC samples after thermal shock at a power density of 0.44 GW/m2 for 5 ms. Three point bending tests indicate that the rolled WZC alloy has a flexural strength of ˜2.4 GPa and a total strain of 1.8% at room temperature, which are 100% and 260% higher than those of the swaged WZC, respectively. The fracture energy density of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 107 J/m3, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC (2.9 × 106 J/m3). The high thermal shock resistance of the rolled WZC alloys can be ascribed to their extraordinary ductility and plasticity.

  1. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Stephen A; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Stahl, David B; Gibson, L. Lee; Bartram, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  2. Equation of state for titanium at high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    A caloric equation-of-state model, which represents the relation of pressure with density and internal energy, is applied for titanium in the bcc and liquid phases. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold-compression curve at T = 0 and Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with available data from shock-wave experiments at high energy densities.

  3. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  4. High energy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce; Canizares, Claude; Catura, Richard C.; Clark, George W.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Friedman, Herbert; Giacconi, Riccardo; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Helfand, David J.; Holt, Stephen S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) important scientific problems for high energy astrophysics (stellar activity, the interstellar medium in galaxies, supernovae and endpoints of stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, relativistic plasmas and matter under extreme conditions, nature of gamma-bursts, identification of black holes, active nuclei, accretion physics, large-scale structures, intracluster medium, nature of dark matter, and the X- and gamma-ray background); (2) the existing experimental programs (Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), U.S. participation in foreign missions, and attached Shuttle and Space Station Freedom payloads); (3) major missions for the 1990's; (4) a new program of moderate missions; (5) new opportunities for small missions; (6) technology development issues; and (7) policy issues.

  5. High energy transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    A meeting was convened on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz during the two-week interval July 11 through July 22, 1983. Roughly 100 participants were chosen so as to give broad representation to all aspects of high energy transients. Ten morning review sessions were held in which invited speakers discussed the current status of observations and theory of the above subjects. Afternoon workshops were also held, usually more than one per day, to informally review various technical aspects of transients, confront shortcomings in theoretical models, and to propose productive courses for future research. Special attention was also given to the instrumentation used to study high energy transient and the characteristics and goals of a dedicated space mission to study transients in the next decade were determined. A listing of articles written by various members of the workshop is included.

  6. The Serendipitous Discovery of High-Velocity Shocks in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with Spitzer have shown that the Galactic Center (GC) contains widespread (although of low abundance) lines from high-excitation gas, such as [O IV] (ionization potential IP = 55 eV), even though most of its diffuse ionized interstellar medium is low excitation, dominated by singly ionized species like Ne+ or doubly ionized species whose singly ionized IP is below the 13.6 eV needed to ionize hydrogen, like S++. Because of the O3+, the GC cannot be considered a normal H II region, which is ionized by massive O and B stars whose extreme ultraviolet spectra essentially cut off at 54 eV, owing to the high opacity of the helium and metals in their atmospheres. The consequence is that highly ionized species, like He++, O3+, etc, with IP > 54 are not seen in Milky Way H II regions, whereas such gas is commonly found in AGN with their hard radiation fields. In order to investigate the energy inputs to the Galactic Center, we have reduced all the Infrared Spectrograph data in the Spitzer archive with positions in the GC. We find that the highest excitation gas isn't uniformly distributed over the GC but is concentrated in compact clumps, unlike the low-excitation gas. Ten of these highly-excited regions have [Ne V] (IP = 97 eV) lines. Such high-energy gas cannot be excited by the OB stars that ionize H II regions, but is found only in high-velocity shocks and high-excitation planetary nebulae (PNe). The shocks could be due to outflows from massive young stellar objects or red supergiants. Analysis of the emission lines reveals that the energies of the clumped gas range from 1036 to 1037 erg/s for assumed GC distances of 8 kpc if the high-excitation regions are shocks with velocities of order several hundred km/s and similar energies if the regions are excited by the hot stars required for PNe. We will show examples of the high-excitation regions, which range from the bubble surrounding the Sgr B1-C ultra-compact H II region to several high

  7. IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.

  8. Characteristics of a piezoresistive accelerometer in high frequency, high shock environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Davie, N.T.; Brown, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    The characteristics of a piezoresistive accelerometer in shock environments are being studied at Sandia National Laboratories in the Mechanical Shock Testing Laboratory. A Hopkinson bar capability has been developed to extend our understanding of the piezoresistive accelerometer with and without mechanical isolation in the high frequency, high shock environments where measurements are being made. Two different Hopkinson bar materials are being used: titanium and beryllium. The characteristics of the piezoresistive accelerometer for frequencies of DC-10 kHz and shock magnitudes of up to 4,000 g as determined from measurements with a titanium Hopkinson bar are presented. The SNL uniaxial shock isolation technique has demonstrated acceptable characteristics for a temperature range of {minus}50{degree}F to +186{degree}F and a frequency bandwidth of DC to 10 kHz. These characteristics have been verified by the calibration of the Hopkinson bar used for accelerometer testing. The beryllium Hopkinson bar configuration is described. Preliminary characteristics of the piezoresistive accelerometer at a nominal shock level of 17,000 g for a frequency range of DC-50 kHz are presented.

  9. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  10. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  11. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  12. Experimental study of highly compressed iron user laser driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Huser, Gael; Koenig, Michel; Grandjouan, Nicolas; Faral, Bernard; Batani, Dimitri; Henry, Emeric; Tomasini, Michaela; Hall, Thomas; Romain, Jp; Resseguier, Thibault; Hallouin, Martine; Guyot, François

    2001-06-01

    Experiments with lasers have recently provided important improvements in our knowledge of highly compressed matter (in particular, Equation Of State). We present recent results on iron which are relevant to planetary physics1. We measured the free surface velocity of the compressed iron by using a VISAR diagnostic2, and the shock velocity through step targets on the same shot3. An absolute EOS is then deduced for the lower pressures (1-3 Mbar). For higher pressures (3-7 Mbar), we compared release wave in vacuum with calculassions based on SESAME EOS . With a iron+LiF window, we also determined a release wave in iron for the transmitted shock in the window. The experiments have been performed at the LULI laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique. References 1 W. Anderson, et al., J. Geophys. Research 99, 4273 (1994). 2 P. M. Celliers, et al., Applied Phys. Lett. 73, 1320 (1998). 3 M. Koenig, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2260 (1995).

  13. High-efficiency shock-wave generator for extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Broyer, P; Cathignol, D; Theillère, Y; Mestas, J L

    1996-09-01

    In extracorporeal lithotripsy, the electro-acoustic efficiency of electrohydraulic generators is limited by the inductance of the electrical discharge circuit. A new shock-wave generator is described that uses a coaxial discharge line enabling electro-acoustic efficiency to be greatly increased. The line is built using a para-electric ceramic with a relative dielectric constant of 1700, manufactured for use in high-voltage impulse mode. A coaxial spark gap, with minimal inductance, has been developed to obtain the triggered breakdown of the discharge line. Shock waves are created with a coaxial electrode plugged directly into the spark gap and immersed in an electrolyte of degassed saline. Electrode gap and electrolyte resistivity are adjusted to match the resistivity of the electrolyte volume between the underwater electrodes to the characteristic impedance of the line. The discharge line generates in the medium a rectangular current pulse with an amplitude of about 6000 A and a rise time of 50 ns. Compared with conventional generators, measurements of the expansive peak pressure pulse show an increase of 105% at 10 kV, 86.5% at 12 kV and 34.5% at 14 kV charging voltage. Electro-acoustic efficiency is found to be 11% instead of 5.5% for a conventional discharge circuit.

  14. Evaluation of Euler fluxes by a high-order CFD scheme: shock instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Guohua; Zhao, Xiaohui; Mao, Meiliang; Chen, Jianqiang; Deng, Xiaogang; Liu, Huayong

    2014-05-01

    The construction of Euler fluxes is an important step in shock-capturing/upwind schemes. It is well known that unsuitable fluxes are responsible for many shock anomalies, such as the carbuncle phenomenon. Three kinds of flux vector splittings (FVSs) as well as three kinds of flux difference splittings (FDSs) are evaluated for the shock instability by a fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme. The three FVSs are Steger-Warming splitting, van Leer splitting and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS). The three FDSs are Roe's splitting, advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) type splitting and Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) type splitting. Numerical results indicate that FVSs and high dissipative FDSs undergo a relative lower risk on the shock instability than that of low dissipative FDSs. However, none of the fluxes evaluated in the present study can entirely avoid the shock instability. Generally, the shock instability may be caused by any of the following factors: low dissipation, high Mach number, unsuitable grid distribution, large grid aspect ratio, and the relative shock-internal flow state (or position) between upstream and downstream shock waves. It comes out that the most important factor is the relative shock-internal state. If the shock-internal state is closer to the downstream state, the computation is at higher susceptibility to the shock instability. Wall-normal grid distribution has a greater influence on the shock instability than wall-azimuthal grid distribution because wall-normal grids directly impact on the shock-internal position. High shock intensity poses a high risk on the shock instability, but its influence is not as much as the shock-internal state. Large grid aspect ratio is also a source of the shock instability. Some results of a second-order scheme and a first-order scheme are also given. The comparison between the high-order scheme and the two low-order schemes indicates that high-order schemes are at a higher risk of the shock

  15. High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Reinhart, William Dodd; Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth

    2011-10-01

    Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

  16. A high-voltage cardiac stimulator for field shocks of a whole heart in a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, David N.; Hinkson, Stephen J.; Woods, Marcella C.; Gilligan, Jonathan M.; Holcomb, Mark R.; Wikswo, John P.

    2007-10-01

    Defibrillators are a critical tool for treating heart disease; however, the mechanisms by which they halt fibrillation are still not fully understood and are the subject of ongoing research. Clinical defibrillators do not provide the precise control of shock timing, duration, and voltage or other features needed for detailed scientific inquiry, and there are few, if any, commercially available units designed for research applications. For this reason, we have developed a high-voltage, programmable, capacitive-discharge stimulator optimized to deliver defibrillation shocks with precise timing and voltage control to an isolated animal heart, either in air or in a bath. This stimulator is capable of delivering voltages of up to 500V and energies of nearly 100J with timing accuracy of a few microseconds and with rise and fall times of 5μs or less and is controlled only by two external timing pulses and a control computer that sets the stimulation parameters via a LABVIEW interface. Most importantly, the stimulator has circuits to protect the high-voltage circuitry and the operator from programming and input-output errors. This device has been tested and used successfully in field shock experiments on rabbit hearts as well as other protocols requiring high voltage.

  17. Shock response of the commercial high explosive Detasheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay, B. W.; Ramsay, J. B.; Anderson, M. U.; Graham, R. A.

    1994-12-01

    The mechanical and chemical response of the flexible commercial high explosive DetasheetR is studied under controlled impact and plane-wave, high explosive loading. Results on nonreactive material behavior, sound speed, shock-initiation sensitivity and detonation pressure are presented. The material is found to respond in a viscous manner reminiscent of viscoelastic response of polymeric materials. Time-resolved pressure and pressure-rate measurements with PVDF piezoelectric polymer gauges are presented along with Manganin pressure and plate-dent test measurements of detonation pressure. Detonation pressures of 18GPa are indicated. Pressure measurements show initiation of reaction between 3 and 8 mm for an impact stress of 3.1 GPa. Plane wave loading wedge tests show run distances to detonation consistent with the pressure measurements, and with behavior like that of XTX8003 (80 % PETN/20 % Sylgard 182R).

  18. Shock propagation and attenuation in high-power excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, Achim; Berger, Peter; Huegel, Helmut

    1993-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the propagation, reflection, and attenuation of shock waves as they occur in excimer lasers have been performed. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a two-dimensional, unsteady finite difference scheme. The experimental setup is a piston driven shock tube with a rectangular cross section working in air at atmospheric pressure. The shocks were detected interferometrically as well as by means of pressure transducers. This shock tube allows us to investigate basic phenomena of shock diffraction which can be used to confirm the computational results in the range of weak shock waves. In particular, the influence of the shape of the wall contour on the reflection of shock waves has been investigated theoretically. The decay time of pressure and density perturbations differs for various wall configurations in such a way that short electrodes accelerate the attenuation as well as does a strong area increase in the vicinity of them. After each laser pulse there is a shock travelling into the laser channel. Experiments have been carried out on the reflection of this shock at a specially formed bend that is able to focus the shock into a muffling element.

  19. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  20. Modeling of dissociation and energy transfer in shock-heated nitrogen flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafò, A.; Liu, Y.; Panesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This work addresses the modeling of dissociation and energy transfer processes in shock heated nitrogen flows by means of the maximum entropy linear model and a newly proposed hybrid bin vibrational collisional model. Both models aim at overcoming two of the main limitations of the state of the art non-equilibrium models: (i) the assumption of equilibrium between rotational and translational energy modes of the molecules and (ii) the reliance on the quasi-steady-state distribution for the description of the population of the internal levels. The formulation of the coarse-grained models is based on grouping the energy levels into bins, where the population is assumed to follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at its own temperature. Different grouping strategies are investigated. Following the maximum entropy principle, the governing equations are obtained by taking the zeroth and first-order moments of the rovibrational master equations. The accuracy of the proposed models is tested against the rovibrational master equation solution for both flow quantities and population distributions. Calculations performed for free-stream velocities ranging from 5 km/s to 10 km/s demonstrate that dissociation can be accurately predicted by using only 2-3 bins. It is also shown that a multi-temperature approach leads to an under-prediction of dissociation, due to the inability of the former to account for the faster excitation of high-lying vibrational states.

  1. Modeling of dissociation and energy transfer in shock-heated nitrogen flows

    SciTech Connect

    Munafò, A.; Liu, Y.; Panesi, M.

    2015-12-15

    This work addresses the modeling of dissociation and energy transfer processes in shock heated nitrogen flows by means of the maximum entropy linear model and a newly proposed hybrid bin vibrational collisional model. Both models aim at overcoming two of the main limitations of the state of the art non-equilibrium models: (i) the assumption of equilibrium between rotational and translational energy modes of the molecules and (ii) the reliance on the quasi-steady-state distribution for the description of the population of the internal levels. The formulation of the coarse-grained models is based on grouping the energy levels into bins, where the population is assumed to follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at its own temperature. Different grouping strategies are investigated. Following the maximum entropy principle, the governing equations are obtained by taking the zeroth and first-order moments of the rovibrational master equations. The accuracy of the proposed models is tested against the rovibrational master equation solution for both flow quantities and population distributions. Calculations performed for free-stream velocities ranging from 5 km/s to 10 km/s demonstrate that dissociation can be accurately predicted by using only 2-3 bins. It is also shown that a multi-temperature approach leads to an under-prediction of dissociation, due to the inability of the former to account for the faster excitation of high-lying vibrational states.

  2. Radiative effects in radiative shocks in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. P.; Doss, F. W.; McClarren, R. G.; Adams, M. L.; Amato, N.; Bingham, D.; Chou, C. C.; DiStefano, C.; Fidkowski, K.; Fryxell, B.; Gombosi, T. I.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Holloway, J. P.; van der Holst, B.; Huntington, C. M.; Karni, S.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Larsen, E.; van Leer, B.; Mallick, B.; Marion, D.; Martin, W.; Morel, J. E.; Myra, E. S.; Nair, V.; Powell, K. G.; Rauchwerger, L.; Roe, P.; Rutter, E.; Sokolov, I. V.; Stout, Q.; Torralva, B. R.; Toth, G.; Thornton, K.; Visco, A. J.

    2011-09-01

    Using modern high-energy-density facilities it is straightforward to produce radiative shock waves in which the transfer of energy by radiation controls the hydrodynamic structure of the system. Some of these experiments use shock tubes. This paper discusses such experiments, with an emphasis on the simple physical relations that determine the primary features of such shocks and on the details and impact of radiative energy transfer in such systems. Notable aspects include the creation of high-density shocked layers, the flow of radiative energy toward regions of higher energy density, and the creation of secondary shocks by ablation of the tube walls ahead of the primary shock front. Simulations of one such experimental system are also shown.

  3. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  4. High-order shock-fitted detonation propagation in high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romick, Christopher M.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-03-01

    A highly accurate numerical shock and material interface fitting scheme composed of fifth-order spatial and third- or fifth-order temporal discretizations is applied to the two-dimensional reactive Euler equations in both slab and axisymmetric geometries. High rates of convergence are not typically possible with shock-capturing methods as the Taylor series analysis breaks down in the vicinity of discontinuities. Furthermore, for typical high explosive (HE) simulations, the effects of material interfaces at the charge boundary can also cause significant computational errors. Fitting a computational boundary to both the shock front and material interface (i.e. streamline) alleviates the computational errors associated with captured shocks and thus opens up the possibility of high rates of convergence for multi-dimensional shock and detonation flows. Several verification tests, including a Sedov blast wave, a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) detonation wave, and Taylor-Maccoll supersonic flow over a cone, are utilized to demonstrate high rates of convergence to nontrivial shock and reaction flows. Comparisons to previously published shock-capturing multi-dimensional detonations in a polytropic fluid with a constant adiabatic exponent (PF-CAE) are made, demonstrating significantly lower computational error for the present shock and material interface fitting method. For an error on the order of 10 m /s, which is similar to that observed in experiments, shock-fitting offers a computational savings on the order of 1000. In addition, the behavior of the detonation phase speed is examined for several slab widths to evaluate the detonation performance of PBX 9501 while utilizing the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model, which is commonly used in HE modeling. It is found that the thickness effect curve resulting from this equation of state and reaction model using published values is dramatically more steep than observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the present fitting

  5. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David; Scholer, Manfred; Masters, Adam; Sulaiman, Ali H.

    2017-02-01

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  6. Relationships among Energy Price Shocks, Stock Market, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market “underreacting.” The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  7. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market.

  8. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  9. Shock compression of organic polymers and proteins: Ultrafast structural relaxation dynamics and energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Hambir, S.A.; Dlott, D.D.

    2000-05-04

    The response of organic polymers and proteins including poly(methyl methacrylate) and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a short duration 4.5 GPa shock pulse, termed a nanoshock, is studied using ultrafast coherent Raman spectroscopy (CARS) to monitor density-dependent vibrational frequency shifts of a dye molecule probe. In conventional shock compression experiments, a two-part response of PMMA to fast compression is usually explained with a phenomenological viscoelastic model. The molecular basis for this two-part response is discussed here using an energy landscape model to describe large-amplitude structural relaxation of shocked supercooled liquids. The polymers and the protein show an instantaneous response to the steeply rising shock front, viewed as a vertical transition to a new region of the energy landscape with radically different topography. A slower {approximately}300 ps response is also observed, attributed to large-amplitude structural relaxation along the rugged shocked energy landscape. A viscoelastic model is used to determine an effective shock viscosity {eta} {approx} 3 Pa{center_dot}s for the solid samples. This extremely small value (compared to {eta} > 10{sup 12} Pa{center_dot}s expected for supercooled liquids) is explained as a result of the very large strain rate and the extensive plastic deformation, which causes even seemingly rigid solids to flow. After the short duration ({approximately}2 ns) nanoshock unloads and the samples become frozen, for at least tens of nanoseconds, in a state where the dye vibrational shift indicates a negative pressure of about {minus}1 GPa. The negative pressure means the local density near the dye has decreased, the sample has become more permeable, and the sample is unstable to spontaneous expansion of the polymer chains. The energy landscape model provides a framework for understanding the fast cycle of compression and expansion and how to optimize the generation and detection of large

  10. Sub-adiabatic perpendicular electron heating across high-Mach number collisionless shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Mozer, F.

    2012-12-01

    Spacecraft observations of a high Mach number quasi-perpendicular bow shock with high plasma beta have revealed electrons that were sub-adiabatic through the shock ramp because they were less heated than expected from conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. This stands out in contrast to existing theories of electron heating at collisionless shocks in which the electrons are adiabatically heated through compression or more-than-adiabatically heated due to additional effects such as anomalous resistivity induced by microinstabilites.

  11. Material response mechanisms are needed to obtain highly accurate experimental shock wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2017-01-01

    The field of shock wave compression of matter has provided a simple set of equations relating thermodynamic and kinematic parameters that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and energy across a steady plane shock wave with one-dimensional flow. Well-known condensed matter shock wave experimental results will be reviewed to see whether the assumptions required for deriving these simple R-H equations are satisfied. Note that the material compression model is not required for deriving the 1-D conservation flow equations across a steady plane shock front. However, this statement is misleading from a practical experimental viewpoint since obtaining small systematic errors in shock wave measured parameters requires the material compression and release mechanisms to be known. A review will be presented on errors in shock wave data from common experimental techniques for elastic-plastic solids. Issues related to time scales of experiments, steady waves with long rise times and detonations will also be discussed

  12. The adiabatic energy change of plasma electrons and the frame dependence of the cross-shock potential at collisionless magnetosonic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.

  13. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, Eric Larsson, Johan Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2010-02-20

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  14. High Energy Astrophysics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Ormes, Jonathan F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The nature of gravity and its relationship to the other three forces and to quantum theory is one of the major challenges facing us as we begin the new century. In order to make progress we must challenge the current theories by observing the effects of gravity under the most extreme conditions possible. Black holes represent one extreme, where the laws of physics as we understand them break down. The Universe as whole is another extreme, where its evolution and fate is dominated by the gravitational influence of dark matter and the nature of the Cosmological constant. The early universe represents a third extreme, where it is thought that gravity may somehow be unified with the other forces. NASA's "Cosmic Journeys" program is part of a NASA/NSF/DoE tri-agency initiative designed to observe the extremes of gravity throughout the universe. This program will probe the nature of black holes, ultimately obtaining a direct image of the event horizon. It will investigate the large scale structure of the Universe to constrain the location and nature of dark matter and the nature of the cosmological constant. Finally it will search for and study the highest energy processes, that approach those found in the early universe. I will outline the High Energy Astrophysics part of this program.

  15. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks as potential shock absorbers: the case of the highly flexible MIL-53(Al).

    PubMed

    Yot, Pascal G; Boudene, Zoubeyr; Macia, Jasmine; Granier, Dominique; Vanduyfhuys, Louis; Verstraelen, Toon; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Devic, Thomas; Serre, Christian; Férey, Gérard; Stock, Norbert; Maurin, Guillaume

    2014-08-28

    The mechanical energy absorption ability of the highly flexible MIL-53(Al) MOF material was explored using a combination of experiments and molecular simulations. A pressure-induced transition between the large pore and the closed pore forms of this solid was revealed to be irreversible and associated with a relatively large energy absorption capacity. Both features make MIL-53(Al) the first potential MOF candidate for further use as a shock absorber.

  17. Transmembrane potentials during high voltage shocks in ischemic cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Holley, L K; Knisley, S B

    1997-01-01

    Transmembrane, voltage sensitive fluorescent dye (TMF) recording techniques have shown that high voltage shocks (HVS), typically used in defibrillation, produce either hyper- or depolarization of the transmembrane potential (TMP) when delivered in the refractory period of an action potential (AP) in normal cardiac tissue (NT). Further, HVS produce an extension of the AP, which has been hypothesized as a potential mechanism for electrical defibrillation. We examined whether HVS modify TMP of ischemic tissue (IT) in a similar manner. In seven Langendorff rabbit hearts, recordings of APs were obtained in both NT and IT with TMF using di-4-ANEPPS, and diacetylmonoxime (23 microM) to avoid motion artifacts. Local ischemia was produced by occlusion of the LAD, HVS of either biphasic (5 + 5 ms) or (3 + 2 ms) or monophasic shapes (5 ms) were delivered at varying times (20%-90%) of the paced AP. Intracardiac ECG and TMF recordings of the TMP were each amplified, recorded, and digitized at a frequency of 1 kHz. The paced AP in IT was triangular in shape with no obvious phase 3 plateau, typically seen in NT. There was normally a reduced AP amplitude (expressed as fractional fluorescence) in IT (2.6% +/- 1.79%) compared to 3.8% +/- 0.66% in NT, and shortened AP duration (137 +/- 42 vs 171 +/- 11 ms). One hundred-Volt HVS delivered during the refractory period of paced AP in IT in five rabbits, elicited a depolarization response of the TMP with an amplitude up to three times greater than the paced AP. This is in contrast to NT where the 100-V HVS produced hyperpolarization in four hearts, and only a slight depolarization response in one heart. These results suggest that HVS, typically delivered by a defibrillation shock, modify TMPs in a significantly different manner for ischemic cells, which may influence success in defibrillation.

  18. Shock to the system: How catastrophic events and institutional relationships impact Japanese energy policymaking, resilience, and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklarew, Jennifer F.

    External shocks do not always generate energy system transformation. This dissertation examines how government relationships with electric utilities and the public impact whether shocks catalyze energy system change. The study analyzes Japanese energy policymaking from the oil crises through the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Findings reveal that policymakers' cooperation with and clout over electric utilities and the public can enable shocks to transform energy systems. When electric utilities wield clout, public trust in and influence on the government determine the existing system's resilience and the potential for a new system to emerge. Understanding this effect informs energy policy design and innovation.

  19. Computational Study of 3-D Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. The interplay of these physical phenomena in realistic condensed energetic materials is currently lacking. A multiscale computational framework is developed investigating hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of an insensitive HE, TATB. Atomistic MD simulations are performed to provide the key chemical reactions and these reaction rates are used in 3-D multiphysics simulations. The multiphysics code, ALE3D, is linked to the chemistry software, Cheetah, and a three-way coupled approach is pursued including hydrodynamics, thermal and chemical analyses. A single spherical air bubble is embedded in the insensitive HE and its collapse due to shock initiation is evolved numerically in time; while the ignition processes due chemical reactions are studied. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a ``secondary'' jet. Results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth will be discussed for various pore sizes and different shock pressures. LLNL-ABS-471438. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Energy and pitch angle dependence of impact of interplanetary shock on ions in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, H.; Ebihara, Y.; Omura, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-12-01

    An interplanetary (IP) shock has a large impact on magnetosphereic ions. Cluster satellite observations have shown that, soon after arrival of the IP shock, overall intensity of trapped ions rapidly increases and multiple energy dispersion appears in an energy-time spectrogram of ions with small equatorial pitch angles [Zong et al., 2012]. We have investigated the impact on the trapped ions and its dependence on the pitch angle. We have performed test particle simulation under the electric and magnetic fields provided by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. The solar wind speed is increased from 372 to 500 km/s in order to reproduce the IP shock. The number density in the solar wind was set to a constant to be 5 cm-3, and the Z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was turned from +5 to -5 nT. Just after the arrival of the IP shock, a fast mode wave propagates tailward in the magnetosphere. The amplitude of the electric field exceeds 20 mV/m. To reconstruct an energy-time spectrogram of the oxygen ions at (7, 0, 0) Re in the GSM coordinates, we started to trace trajectories of ions the backward in time starting at (7, 0, 0) Re just after arrival of the fast mode wave. Knowing initial and final positions in 6-dimensional space, we mapped phase space density f, according to Liouville's theorem. The phase space density f' before the arrival shock is assumed to be isotropic Maxwellian. The result shows that a multiple energy-time dispersion appears in the simulated spectrogram of the ions with small equatorial pitch angles. The multiple energy-time dispersion is not present in the spectrogram of the ions with equatorial pitch angle of 90 deg. This is consistent with the Cluster satellite observations. We will discuss the generation mechanism of the multiple dispersion in terms of gyro-betatron and drift-betatron acceleration.

  1. Evidence for confinement of low-energy cosmic rays ahead of interplanetary shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Short-lived (about 15 min), low-energy proton increases associated with the passage of interplanetary shock waves have been previously reported. In the present paper, we have examined in a fine time scale (about 1 min) the concurrent particle and magnetic field data, taken by detectors on Explorer 34, for four of these events. Our results further support the view that these impulsive events are due to confinement of the solar cosmic-ray particles in the region just ahead (about 1,000,000 km) of the advancing shock front.

  2. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  3. Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction: Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, M.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles (cosmic rays) in space. While most of the past studies about particle acceleration assume the presence of a single shock, in space two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. Hietala et al. [2011] observed the collision of an interplanetary shock and the earth's bow shock and the associated acceleration of energetic ions. The kinetic natures of a shock-shock collision has not been well understood. Only the work done by using hybrid simulation was reported by Cargill et al. [1986], in which they focus on a collision of two supercritical shocks and the resultant ion acceleration. We expect similarly that electron acceleration can also occur in shock-shock collision. To investigate the electron acceleration process in a shock-shock collision, we perform one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the simulation energetic electrons are observed between the two approaching shocks before colliding. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). The reflected electrons create a temperature anisotropy and excite large amplitude waves upstream via the electron fire hose instability. The large amplitude waves can scatter the energetic electrons in pitch angle so that some of them gain large pitch angles and are easily reflected when they encounter the shocks subsequently. The reflected electrons can sustain, or probably even strengthen, them. We further discuss observational results of an interaction of interplanetary shocks and the earth's bow shock by examining mainly Cluster data. We focus on whether or not electrons are accelerated in the shock-shock interaction.

  4. Recent development and future perspectives of low energy laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalainathan, S.; Prabhakaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    The first part of the review involves the parameters controlling and optimization of low energy laser shock peening process. The second part presents the effect of laser peening without coating on ferrous, aluminum and titanium alloys. Therefore, the recently developed techniques and challenges on it are discussed. Opportunities to tackle the current challenges are overviewed. Finally, in the third part, the future perspectives of low energy laser peening on metal matrix composites and single crystals for several typical applications are deliberated.

  5. Particles Acceleration in Converged Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Observations show that there is a proton spectral ``break" with E_{break} at 1-10MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. However, the understanding of this energy spectral ``break" from the diffusive shock acceleration theory still remains uncertain. Although previous numerical methods can hardly predict this ``break" from current theoretical models due to high computational expense, the present paper focuses on simulating this energy spectrum in converged two shocks by Monte Carlo numerical method. Considering the Dec 13 2006 CME-driven shock interaction with an Earth bow shock, we examine whether the energy spectral ``break" could occur on an interaction between two shocks. As result, we indeed obtain the maximum proton energy up to 10MeV, and we further find a proton spectral ``break" appears distinctly at the energy ˜5MeV.

  6. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  7. Investigations of Compression Shocks and Boundary Layers in Gases Moving at High Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J.; Feldmann, F.; Rott, N.

    1947-01-01

    The mutual influences of compression shocks and friction boundary layers were investigated by means of high speed wind tunnels.Schlieren optics provided a clear picture of the flow phenomena and were used for determining the location of the compression shocks, measurement of shock angles, and also for Mach angles. Pressure measurement and humidity measurements were also taken into consideration.Results along with a mathematical model are described.

  8. Simulation of transient flow in a shock tunnel and a high Mach number nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    A finite volume Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate the shock reflection and nozzle starting processes in an axisymmetric shock tube and a high Mach number nozzle. The simulated nozzle starting processes were found to match the classical quasi-1-D theory and some features of the experimental measurements. The shock reflection simulation illustrated a new mechanism for the driver gas contamination of the stagnated test gas.

  9. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  10. Temperature in molybdenum at high shock pressure: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-lu; Liu, Zhong-li; Gu, Yun-jun; Cai, Ling-cang; Jing, Fu-qian

    2008-09-01

    Shock temperature of molybdenum is deduced to be 7853±813 K from release temperature at 374 GPa via pyrometry experiment. Theoretically, temperatures along the Hügoniot are calculated up to pressures of 500 GPa, over the shock melting pressure region, with contributions from electrons considered. At low pressures, the calculated results are consistent with NRS temperature measurements and pyrometry measurements, and accord with SESAME EOS and theoretical calculations taking the strength of the sample into account. At pressures above 100 GPa the results are much different from calculations without the contribution from the electrons, but consistent with the shock temperature deduced from experimental results in this work.

  11. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  12. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  13. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  14. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  15. Thermal Shock Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited Using Low-Energy Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been frequently used as a thermal protective layer on the metal or alloy component surfaces. In the present study, ZrO2-7%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were successfully deposited by DC (direct current) plasma spray process under very low pressure conditions (less than 1 mbar) using low-energy plasma guns F4-VB and F100. The experiments were performed to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of different TBC specimens which were heated to 1373 K at a high-temperature cycling furnace and held for 0.5 h, followed by air cooling at room temperature for 0.2 h. For comparison, a corresponding atmospheric plasma spray (APS) counterpart was also elaborated to carry out the similar experiments. The results indicated that the very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) coatings displayed better thermal shock resistance. Moreover, the failure mechanism of the coatings was elucidated.

  16. Effect of Laser Wavelength and Ablator Material on Hot Electron Generation in High Power Laser Plasma Interaction at Shock Ignition High Intensity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M. S.; Alexander, N. B.; Krauland, C. M.; Zhang, S.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Betti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Hot electrons with energies <100 keV have been found to augment ablation pressure leading to Gbar shocks in strong spherical shock experiments on OMEGA*. To study this potential benefit at shock ignition-relevant high intensities (~1016 W/cm2) , we have conducted an experiment using the high-energy OMEGA EP laser system to examine the effect of laser wavelength, intensity and ablator material on hot electron generation and energy coupling. Targets are multilayered planar foils consisting of Cu and Al layers with an ablator made of either plastic (CH) or lithium. The target is first irradiated by multi-kJ UV beams at low intensity to produce a long scalelength, hot plasma, as is the case in the shock ignition regime. Correspondingly, this is followed by the injection of the high intensity UV or IR main interaction pulse. The resultant energy, spectrum and angular distributions of the hot electrons are measured via their induced Cu fluorescence emission and the bremsstrahlung radiation. Details of the experiment and results will be presented. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA under Contract DE-NA0002730 (NLUF).

  17. Observational Evidence for High-Mach Number Regime of Coronal Shock Waves During Powerful Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Illya, P.; Zucca, P.; Tylka, A. J.; Vainio, R. O.; Vourlidas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong shock waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar physics and astrophysical contexts via various acceleration mechanisms. The proposed processes rely on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high MA). Using recent imaging of the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecraft, we provide the first observations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and MA of a coronal shock wave. These observations show that the high-energy particles measured near Earth are produced at the time of the sharp rise in the shock Mach number (>10) magnetically connected to Earth. These findings provide direct evidence to energetic particles being accelerated during the formation of a strong coronal shock. Using our new technique, we study the longitudinal spread and timing of a number of other energetic particle events during cycle 24.

  18. Structure in Radiating Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Forrest

    2010-11-01

    The basic radiative shock experiment is a shock launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-shock material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite shock, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide shock tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 μm and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a shock as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the shock, launching a new converging shock ahead of the main shock - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating shocks, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring shocked layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.

  19. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging of ignition through a shock tube end-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, V. A.; Strand, C. L.; Campbell, M. F.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Miller, V. A.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2016-03-01

    A high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging diagnostic was developed to image the structure and homogeneity of combustion events behind reflected shock waves in the Stanford Constrained Reaction Volume Shock Tube. An intensified high-repetition-rate imaging system was used to acquire images of OH* chemiluminescence (near 308 nm) through a fused quartz shock tube end-wall window at 10-33 kHz during the combustion of n-heptane (21 % O2/Ar, φ = 0.5). In general, the imaging technique enabled observation of the main ignition event in the core of the shock tube that corresponded to typical markers of ignition (e.g., pressure rise), as well as localized ignition near the wall that preceded the main core ignition event for some conditions. Case studies were performed to illustrate the utility of this novel imaging diagnostic. First, by comparing localized wall ignition events to the core ignition event, the temperature homogeneity of the post-reflected shock gas near the end-wall was estimated to be within 0.5 % for the test condition presented (T=1159 hbox {K}, P=0.25 hbox {MPa}). Second, the effect of a recession in the shock tube wall, created by an observation window, on the combustion event was visualized. Localized ignition was observed near the window, but this disturbance did not propagate to the core of the shock tube before the main ignition event. Third, the effect of shock tube cleanliness was investigated by conducting tests in which the shock tube was not cleaned for multiple consecutive runs. For tests after no cleaning was performed, ignition events were concentrated in the lower half of the shock tube. In contrast, when the shock tube was cleaned, the ignition event was distributed around the entire circumference of the shock tube; validating the cleaning procedure.

  20. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    A new third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme for scalar and vector linear hyperbolic equations with piecewise continuous initial conditions is developed. The new scheme is proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions. In contrast to the existing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes, no assumption that the reconstruction should be total variation bounded (TVB) is explicitly required to prove stability of the new scheme. A rigorous truncation error analysis is presented showing that the accuracy of the 3rd-order ESWENO scheme is drastically improved if the tuning parameters of the weight functions satisfy certain criteria. Numerical results show that the new ESWENO scheme is stable and significantly outperforms the conventional third-order WENO finite difference scheme of Jiang and Shu in terms of accuracy, while providing essentially nonoscillatory solutions near strong discontinuities.

  1. High Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Gallardo, J. C.

    INTRODUCTION PHYSICS CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL REQUIRED LUMINOSITY FOR LEPTON COLLIDERS THE EFFECTIVE PHYSICS ENERGIES OF HADRON COLLIDERS HADRON-HADRON MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST CIRCULAR e^{+}e^- MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST e^{+}e^- LINEAR COLLIDERS LUMINOSITY CONVENTIONAL RF SUPERCONDUCTING RF AT HIGHER ENERGIES γ - γ COLLIDERS μ ^{+} μ^- COLLIDERS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES DESIGN STUDIES STATUS AND REQUIRED R AND D COMPARISION OF MACHINES CONCLUSIONS DISCUSSION

  2. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. A Search for Early High-Energy Afterglows in BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this project was to perform a detailed search for the early high-energy afterglow component of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE GRB data archive. GRBs are believed to be the product of shock waves generated in a relativistic outflow from the demise of extremely massive stars and/or binary neutron star mergers. The outflow undeniably encounters the ambient medium of the progenitor object and another shock wave is set up. A forward shock propagates into the medium and a reverse shock propagates through the ejecta. This "external" shock dissipates the kinetic energy of the ejecta in the form of radiation via synchrotron losses and slows the outflow eventually to a non-relativistic state. Radiation from the forward external shock is therefore expected to be long-lived, lasting days, weeks, and even months. This radiation is referred to as the 'afterglow'.

  4. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A. III

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions.

  5. Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

  6. Imaging the propagation of shock waves with both high temporal and high spatial resolution using XFELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of x-ray sources of the fourth generation, so called x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), comes along with completely new research opportunities in various scientific fields. During the last year we developed an x-ray microscope based on beryllium compound refractive lenses (Be-CRLs), which is especially optimized for the XFEL environment and provides focusing capabilities down to 100nm and even below. Based on magnified x-ray phase contrast imaging, this new setup enables us to pursue high-resolution x-ray imaging experiments with single XFEL-pulses. In a first experiment, carried out at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the LCLS, the performance of the instrument was investigated by direct imaging of shock waves in different materials. The shock wave was induced by an intense 150 ps optical laser pulse. The evolution of the shock wave was then monitored with the XFEL-beam. In this contribution we report on first analysis results of phase contrast imaging of shock waves in matter. In collaboration with Brice Arnold, Eric Galtier, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler, Jerome Hastings, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA; Damian Hicks, Yuan Ping, Gilbert Collins, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, USA; and Robert Hoppe, Vivienne Meier, Jens Patommel, Frank Seiboth, Christian Schroer, Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.

  7. High-energy emission from transients.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J A; Starling, R L C

    2013-06-13

    Cosmic explosions dissipate energy into their surroundings on a very wide range of time scales: producing shock waves and associated particle acceleration. The historical culprits for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova remnants: explosions on approximately 10(4) year time scales. Increasingly, however, time-variable emission points to rapid and efficient particle acceleration in a range of different astrophysical systems. Gamma-ray bursts have the shortest time scales, with inferred bulk Lorentz factors of approximately 1000 and photons emitted beyond 100 GeV, but active galaxies, pulsar wind nebulae and colliding stellar winds are all now associated with time-variable emission at approximately teraelectron volt energies. Cosmic photons and neutrinos at these energies offer a powerful probe of the underlying physical mechanisms of cosmic explosions, and a tool for exploring fundamental physics with these systems. Here, we discuss the motivations for high-energy observations of transients, the current experimental situation, and the prospects for the next decade, with particular reference to the major next-generation high-energy observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  8. Internal shocks at the origin of the flat spectral energy distribution of compact jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzac, Julien

    2013-02-01

    An internal shock model is proposed to interpret the radio to infrared (IR) emission of the compact jets observed in the hard spectral state of X-ray binaries. Assuming that the specific bulk Lorentz factor of the jet at its base varies with a flicker noise power spectrum [i.e. P(f) ∝ 1/f], we estimate the energy dissipation profile along the jet and the resulting partially self-absorbed synchrotron emission. For this type of velocity fluctuations, and a conical jet geometry, the shock dissipation at large distance from the black hole balances exactly the adiabatic losses. This leads to a flat radio to IR spectral energy distribution similar to that observed in compact jets.

  9. Surprisingly high-pressure shocks in the supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The intensities of several lines of molecular hydrogen have been measured from two regions of the supernova-remnant/molecular-cloud shock in IC 443. The lines measured have upper-state energies ranging from 7000 K to 23,000 K. Their relative intensities differ in the two regions, but are consistent with those predicted from the post-shock regions of simple jump-type shocks of different pressure. The pressures so derived are far higher than the pressure in the supernova remnant itself, and a possible reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  10. On the importance of commodity and energy price shocks for the macroeconomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Paul S.

    Although higher commodity prices are commonly thought to presage higher rates of inflation, the existing literature suggests that the predictive power of commodity prices for inflation has waned since the 1980s. In the first chapter, I show that this result can be overturned using state-of-the-art forecast combination methods. Moreover, commodity prices are shown to contain predictive information not contained in the leading principal components of a broad set of macroeconomic and financial variables. These improved inflation forecasts are of little value, however, for predicting actual Fed policy decisions. The remaining two chapters study the effect of energy price shocks on U.S. consumer and business expenditures. In the second chapter, I show that there is no statistical support for the presence of asymmetries in the response of real consumption to energy price increases and decreases. This finding has important implications for empirical and theoretical models of the transmission of energy price shocks. I then quantify the direct effect on real consumption of (1) unanticipated changes in discretionary income, (2) shifts in precautionary savings, and (3) changes in the operating cost of energy-using durables. Finally, I trace the declining importance of energy price shocks relative to the 1970s to changes in the composition of U.S. automobile production and the declining overall importance of the U.S. automobile sector. An alternative source of asymmetry is the response of nonresidential fixed investment to energy price shocks. In the third chapter, I show that the apparent asymmetry in the estimated responses of business fixed investment in equipment and structures is largely an artifact (1) of the aggregation of mining-related expenditures by the oil, natural gas, and coal mining industry and all other expenditures, and (2) of ignoring an exogenous shift in investment caused by the 1986 Tax Reform Act. Once symmetry is imposed and miningrelated expenditures

  11. Simple Model for Vibration-Translation Exchange at High Temperatures: Effects of Multiquantum Transitions on the Relaxation Of A N2 Gas Flow Behind a Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    relaxation of a N2 gas flow behind a shock A. Aliat,1,* P. Vedula,1,* and E. Josyula2 1School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of...influence on the relaxation of the macroscopic parameters of the gas flow behind the shock, especially on vibrational distributions of high levels. All...simulate hypersonic gas flows are based on the assumption of quasistationary distributions (Boltzmann or Treanor) over vibrational energies [2–5]. These

  12. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) transport were accumulated. These quantities will be used to calculate the components of TKE-like production, dissipation, transport, and dilatation. Correlations of these terms will be presented to study the growth and interaction between various terms. A comparison with its RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) counterpart will also be presented.

  13. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  14. The Influence of Electron Temperature and Magnetic Field Strength on Cosmic-Ray Injection in High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2002-05-01

    Electron preacceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfvénic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities, which in turn can accelerate ions. However, in astrophysical plasmas, the value of β-the ratio of kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure-is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration (assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the undisturbed plasma, β=βi=βe). Previous simulations at low values of β showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space, and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic-ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, on the electron temperature normalized to the magnetic field upstream.

  15. High power cold shock phenomena in Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitkin, Michael N.; Bienert, Walter B.

    2001-02-01

    DCI's most recent experiments with a wide range of the LHP configurations (from kilowatt systems with parallel condensers for deployable radiators to miniature few-watts-LHPs for cooling electronics) have discovered a new, interesting phenomenon that we called the ``cold shock.'' Initially, the cold shock behavior was discovered during routine acceptance tests of large LHPs with large-volume condensers. Traditional power-up steps appeared to lead to unexplainable temperature instabilities and significant temperature overshoots when the condenser was initially very cold. After the occurrence of these anomalies we performed hundreds of experiments on dozens of typical LHPs, trying to understand the overshoots and find ways to avoid them. .

  16. [Pathogenic role of intracellular energy insufficiency (hypoenergy) in the development of circulatory collapse (hemodynamic shock)].

    PubMed

    Kovac, Z

    1995-06-01

    Hemodynamic shock syndrome represents an acute circulatory failure due to a decrease of arteriovenous pressure gradient. Three unrelated groups of processes, cardiogenic, vasohypotonic and hypovolemic mechanisms, are possible starting points of the shock syndrome pathogenesis. The basic features of those principal pathogenic steps are outlined in the paper. In addition, clinical practice very often encounters a complex forms of the syndrome, which include two or all three basic pathogenic mechanisms simultaneously. Direct consequence of arteriovenous pressure gradient loss is diminishing perfusion of tissues. Tissue hypoperfusion causes a progressive depletion of cellular energy rich compounds. Such lowering of cellular ATP concentration (cellular hypoenergosis), very often less than 0.1 mmol/L, plays an important pathogenic role in the conversion of homeostatic regulation processes from a negative into a positive feedback mode. Positive feedback regulation amplifies deterioration of arteriovenous blood pressure gradient loss, which reversely intensifies the degree of energy depletion in tissues. Individual cell death decreases a tissue adjustment capacity to hypoperfusion. The critical step leading to a decompensation (systemic failure) or progressive phase of the shock is the reversal of the homeostasis into the positive feedback mode of action. Final outcome of the syndrome reflects a degree of compensation capacity loss as well as irreversible tissue alterations. Clinical manifestations correlate with the underlying pathogenic processes. Short summary of clinical correlative relations with the pathogenic processes, at the cellular, molecular and/or energy level, is given in the paper.

  17. High shock, high frequency characteristics of a mechanical isolator for a piezoresistive accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Davie, N.T.

    1995-07-01

    A mechanical isolator has been developed for a piezoresistive accelerometer. The purpose of the isolator is to mitigate high frequency shocks before they reach the accelerometer because the high frequency shocks may cause the accelerometer to resonate. Since the accelerometer is undamped, it often breaks when it resonates. The mechanical isolator was developed in response to impact test requirements for a variety of structures at Sandia National Laboratories. An Extended Technical Assistance Program with the accelerometer manufacturer has resulted in a commercial isolator that will be available to the general public. This mechanical isolator has ten times the bandwidth of any other commercial isolator and has acceptable frequency domain performance from DC to 10 kHz ({plus_minus} 10%) over a temperature range of -65{degrees}F to +185{degrees}F as demonstrated in this paper.

  18. Heat flux and shock shape measurements on an Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gai, S. L.; Mudford, N. R.; Hackett, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of heat flux and shock shapes made on a 2.08 percent scale model of the proposed Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel T3 at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. The enthalpy and Reynolds number range covered were 7.5 MJ/kg to 20 MJ/kg and 150,000 to 270,000 per meter respectively. The test Mach number varied between 7.5 and 8. Two test gases, air and nitrogen, were used and the model angle of attack varied from -10 deg to +10 deg to the free stream. The results are discussed and compared to the Mach 10 cold hypersonic air data as obtained in the Langley 31 inch Mach 10 Facility as well as the perfect gas CFD calculations of NASA LaRC.

  19. Finite element modeling of acoustic wave propagation and energy deposition in bone during extracorporeal shock wave treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Matula, Thomas J.; Ma, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

    2013-06-01

    It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and relatively pain free alternative treatment modality for patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders but do not respond well to conservative treatments. The major objective of current work is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Here, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on linear elasticity and acoustic propagation equations to examine SW propagation and deflection near a mimic musculoskeletal bone. High-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles generated in SW field with the presence of mimic bone. By comparing experimental and simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified and strain energy distributions in the bone were also predicted according to numerical simulations. The results show that (1) the SW field will be deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles can be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to SW geometric focus (F2 focus); (2) SW deflection angels predicted by the FEM model agree well with experimental results obtained from high-speed photographs; and (3) temporal evolutions of strain energy distribution in the bone can also be evaluated based on FEM model, with varied vertical distance between F2 focus and intended target point on the bone surface. The present studies indicate that, by combining MRI/CT scans and FEM modeling work, it is possible to better understand SW propagation characteristics and energy deposition in musculoskeletal structure during extracorporeal shock wave treatment, which is important for standardizing the treatment dosage, optimizing treatment protocols, and even providing patient-specific treatment guidance in clinic.

  20. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  1. Shocks in the solar wind between 1 and 8.5 AU: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of all interplanetary shocks detected by the plasma science experiment aboard the Voyager 1 spacecraft between 1.2 and 8.5 AU. Shock normals and shock velocities are determined. The variation of shock frequency and various shock parameters with heliocentric distance is discussed. The results indicate that beyond 1.2 AU, the vast majority of shocks were associated with interaction regions between high and low speed streams; of 95 events, only 1 was clearly associated with a transient event. Forward shocks were more numerous and seemed to form closer to the sun than reverse shocks. Forward shocks were stronger than reverse shocks. The energy balance of three shocks is examined. A close agreement is found between the measured and the predicted pressure ratios across these shocks. The contribution of shocks to the global energy balance is discussed. Shocks are found to have a significant effect in heating the solar wind.

  2. Properties of planetary fluids at high shock pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C.

    1991-03-01

    Models of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune are discussed. Pressures and temperatures in the interiors can be achieved in representative constituent molecular fluids by shock compression. Experimental techniques are described and recent results for synthetic Uranus and hydrogen are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Energy spectra of high energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, K.; Minorikawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on high energy neutrinos ( or = 1 TeV), a new calculation of atmospheric neutrino intensities was carried out taking into account EMC effects observed in P-A collisions by accelerator, recent measurement of primary cosmic ray spectrum and results of cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio. Other features of the present calculation are (1) taking into account kinematics of three body decays of kaons and charm particles in diffusion equations and (2) taking into account energy dependence of kaon production.

  4. Ion heating and energy partition at the heliospheric termination shock: hybrid simulations and analytical model

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S Peter; Winske, Dan; Wu, Pin; Schwadron, N A; Lee, M

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos hybrid simulation code is used to examine heating and the partition of dissipation energy at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock in the presence of pickup ions. The simulations are one-dimensional in space but three-dimensional in field and velocity components, and are carried out for a range of values of pickup ion relative density. Results from the simulations show that because the solar wind ions are relatively cold upstream, the temperature of these ions is raised by a relatively larger factor than the temperature of the pickup ions. An analytic model for energy partition is developed on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and a polytropic energy equation. The polytropic index {gamma} used in the Rankine-Hugoniot relations is varied to improve agreement between the model and the simulations concerning the fraction of downstream heating in the pickup ions as well as the compression ratio at the shock. When the pickup ion density is less than 20%, the polytropic index is about 5/3, whereas for pickup ion densities greater than 20%, the polytropic index tends toward 2.2, suggesting a fundamental change in the character of the shock, as seen in the simulations, when the pickup ion density is large. The model and the simulations both indicate for the upstream parameters chosen for Voyager 2 conditions that the pickup ion density is about 25% and the pickup ions gain the larger share (approximately 90%) of the downstream thermal pressure, consistent with Voyager 2 observations near the shock.

  5. On the Concordance of Static High Pressure Phase Transformation Data on Minerals With Shock Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carli, P. S.; El Goresy, A.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    . In other samples, constrained to the same pressure range, long-duration (> 0.1 s) shock pressures are inferred from constant high-pressure mineralogy across wide (>1mm) veins and diaplectic glass is found throughout the meteorite. Evidence for kinetic effects may also be inferred from studies of samples from large impact craters. Pressure estimates based on shock recovery experiments imply post-shock temperatures that are too high for the survival of metastable high-pressure phases, such as stishovite, present in the samples. Release adiabat measurements on quartz also account for the presence of coesite in association with stishovite and diaplectic glass. Release wave velocitie slow below about 7 GPa, providing a relatively long period for the growth of coesite in its stability field from shock heated silica. Studies of high-pressure phases of olivine and pyroxene in meteorites are also concordant with both static high pressure data and inferences from Hugoniot and release measurements. These phases are not found in microsecond duration shock recovery experiments. Finally experiments on the shock synthesis of diamond are in complete accord with evidence for shock synthesized diamond in large impact craters and with static high pressure data on the direct uncatalyzed transition of graphite to diamond.

  6. Pseudo-shock waves and their interactions in high-speed intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.

    2016-04-01

    In an air-breathing engine the flow deceleration from supersonic to subsonic conditions takes places inside the isolator through a gradual compression consisting of a series of shock waves. The wave system, referred to as a pseudo-shock wave or shock train, establishes the combustion chamber entrance conditions, and therefore influences the performance of the entire propulsion system. The characteristics of the pseudo-shock depend on a number of variables which make this flow phenomenon particularly challenging to be analysed. Difficulties in experimentally obtaining accurate flow quantities at high speeds and discrepancies of numerical approaches with measured data have been readily reported. Understanding the flow physics in the presence of the interaction of numerous shock waves with the boundary layer in internal flows is essential to developing methods and control strategies. To counteract the negative effects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions, which are responsible for the engine unstart process, multiple flow control methodologies have been proposed. Improved analytical models, advanced experimental methodologies and numerical simulations have allowed a more in-depth analysis of the flow physics. The present paper aims to bring together the main results, on the shock train structure and its associated phenomena inside isolators, studied using the aforementioned tools. Several promising flow control techniques that have more recently been applied to manipulate the shock wave/boundary layer interaction are also examined in this review.

  7. Shock and Vibration Testing of an AMB Supported Energy Storage Flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Lawrence; Murphy, Brian; Zierer, Joseph; Hayes, Richard

    Shock and vibration testing of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported energy storage flywheel is presented. The flywheel is under development at the University of Texas-Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) for application in a transit bus. The flywheel is gimbal mounted to reduce the gyroscopic forces transmitted to the magnetic bearings during pitching and rolling motions of the bus. The system was placed on a hydraulic terrain simulator and driven through pitch, roll and shock motions equivalent to 150% of maximum expected bus frame values. Although the AMB control approach was originally developed specifically to ensure rotordynamic stability, relative rotor/housing motion was typically less than half of the backup bearing clearance under all tested conditions. Test results are presented and compared to analytical predictions for the 35000rpm nominal operating speed. The impact of the AMB control algorithm is discussed relative to the input forcing function.

  8. High energy fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.H.

    1983-07-19

    A high density liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition is disclosed, singularly suited for propelling turbojet limited volume missile systems designed for shipborne deployment. The contemplated fuels are basically composed of the saturated analogues of dimers of methyl cyclopentadiene and of dicyclopentadiene and optionally include the saturated analogues of the co-trimers of said dienes or the trimers of cyclopentadiene. The various dimers and trimers are combined in a relative relationship to provide optimal performing fuels for the indicated purpose.

  9. Terrestrial effects of high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra

    On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere, initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles and photons. Increased ionization leads to changes in atmospheric chemistry, resulting in ozone depletion. This increases the flux of solar UVB radiation at the surface, which is potentially harmful to living organisms. Increased ionization affects the global electrical circuit, which could enhance the low-altitude cloud formation rate. Secondary particles such as muons and thermal neutrons produced as a result of hadronic interactions of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere are able to reach the ground, enhancing the biological radiation dose. The muon flux dominates the radiation dose from cosmic rays causing damage to DNA and an increase in mutation rates and cancer, which can have serious biological implications for surface and sub-surface life. Using CORSIKA, we perform massive computer simulations and construct lookup tables for 10 GeV - 1 PeV primaries, which can be used to quantify these effects from enhanced cosmic ray exposure to any astrophysical source. These tables are freely available to the community and can be used for other studies. We use these tables to study the terrestrial implications of galactic shock generated by the infall of our galaxy toward the Virgo cluster. Increased radiation dose from muons could be a possible mechanism explaining the observed periodicity in biodiversity in paleobiology databases.

  10. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOEpatents

    Scott, F.R.; Josephson, V.

    1960-02-01

    >A device for producing a high-energy ionized gas region comprises an evacuated tapered insulating vessel and a substantially hemispherical insulating cap hermetically affixed to the large end of the vessel, an annular electrode having a diameter equal to and supported in the interior wall of the vessel at the large end and having a conductive portion inside the vessel, a second electrode supported at the small end of the vessel, means connected to the vessel for introducing a selected gas therein, a source of high potential having two poles. means for connecting one pole of the high potential source to the annular electrode, and means for connecting the other pole of the potential source to the second electrode.

  11. High energy cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.

    Cosmic rays are understood to result from energetic processes in the galaxy, probably from supernova explosions. However, cosmic ray energies extend several orders of magnitude beyond the limit thought possible for supernova blast waves. Over the past decade several ground-based and space-based investigations were initiated to look for evidence of a limit to supernova acceleration in the cosmic-ray chemical composition at high energies. These high-energy measurements are difficult because of the very low particle fluxes in the most interesting regions. The space-based detectors must be large enough to collect adequate statistics, yet stay within the weight limit for space flight. Innovative approaches now promise high quality measurements over an energy range that was not previously possible. The current status of high energy cosmic-ray composition measurements and planned future missions are discussed in this paper.

  12. Molecular and planetary fluids at high shock pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.

    1998-07-01

    Shock-compression experiments on liquids using a two-stage gun are described. Results for H{sub 2}, He, H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and a mixture of H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O (synthetic Uranus) are discussed and related to explosive reaction products, giant planets, laser-driven fusion, and metallic hydrogen. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  14. Shock fitting applied to the prediction of high-speed rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A shock fitting method applied to the transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential equation is described. This method is then applied to a simple, two dimensional (2-D) rotating disturbance which is analogous to a shock radiating from the tip of a rotor blade in high speed hover. A comparison is made between the results of this method and the more standard shock capturing method. This comparison makes it clear that the effect of the results on the acoustic signature of the 2-D model is significant, and similar results can be expected when the method is extended to the three dimensional (3-D) case.

  15. Characterization of mechanical shock waves in aluminum 6061-T6 using a high power laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Romero, J. R.; García-Torales, G.; Gómez Rosas, G.; Ocaña, J. L.; Flores, Jorge L.

    2016-09-01

    Strengthening techniques allows enhance metal physical properties. Laser shock peening (LSP) technique consist in a surface treatment which a high power laser pulse induces a compressive residual stress field through mechanical shock waves, increasing hardness, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance. In comparison with the shot peening technique, LSP is a method that allows precision controlling the laser incidence on the surface under treatment increasing the surface quality in the surface under treatment. In this work, mechanical shock waves are induced in aluminum and measure using two different experimental approaches. First, using a PVDZ sensors and secondly, strain gauges are used. Experimental results are presented.

  16. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z[degrees] resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s] for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  17. High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  18. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z{degrees} resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}{gamma}. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R&D work on BaF{sub 2} by joining the GEM collaboration.

  20. Future of high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e/sup -/ colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place.

  1. Shear wave measurements in shock-induced, high-pressure phases

    SciTech Connect

    Aidun, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural phase transformations under shock loading are of considerable interest for understanding the response of solids under nonhydrostatic stresses and at high strain-rates. Examining shock-induced transformations from continuum level measurements is fundamentally constrained by the inability to directly identify microscopic processes, and also by the limited number of material properties that can be directly measured. ne latter limitation can be reduced by measuring both shear and compression waves using Lagrangian gauges in combined, compression and shear loading. The shear wave serves as an important, real-time probe of the shocked state and unloading response. Using results from a recent study of CaCO[sub 3], the unique information obtained from the shear wave speed and the detailed structure of the shear wave are shown to be useful for distinguishing the effects of phase transformations from yielding, as well as in characterizing the high-pressure phases and the yielding process under shock loading.

  2. Shear wave measurements in shock-induced, high-pressure phases

    SciTech Connect

    Aidun, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Structural phase transformations under shock loading are of considerable interest for understanding the response of solids under nonhydrostatic stresses and at high strain-rates. Examining shock-induced transformations from continuum level measurements is fundamentally constrained by the inability to directly identify microscopic processes, and also by the limited number of material properties that can be directly measured. ne latter limitation can be reduced by measuring both shear and compression waves using Lagrangian gauges in combined, compression and shear loading. The shear wave serves as an important, real-time probe of the shocked state and unloading response. Using results from a recent study of CaCO{sub 3}, the unique information obtained from the shear wave speed and the detailed structure of the shear wave are shown to be useful for distinguishing the effects of phase transformations from yielding, as well as in characterizing the high-pressure phases and the yielding process under shock loading.

  3. Use of Z-pinch sources for high-pressure shock wave studies

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, C.H.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss the use of z-pinch sources for shock wave studies at multi-Mbar pressures. Experimental plans to use the technique for absolute shock Hugoniot measurements are discussed. Recent developments have demonstrated the use of pulsed power techniques for producing intense radiation sources (Z pinches) for driving planar shock waves in samples with spatial dimensions significantly larger than possible with other radiation sources. Initial indications are that using Z pinch sources for producing Planckian radiation sources in secondary hohlraums can be used to drive shock waves in samples with diameters to a few millimeters and thickness approaching one millimeter in thickness. These dimensions provides the opportunity to measure both shock velocity and the particle velocity behind the shock front with accuracy comparable to that obtained with gun launchers. In addition, the peak hohlraum temperatures of nearly 150 eV that are now possible with Z pinch sources result in shock wave pressures approaching 45 Mbar in high impedance materials such as tungsten and 10-15 Mbar in low impedance materials such as aluminum and plastics. In this paper, we discuss the use of Z pinch sources for making accurate absolute EOS measurements in the megabar pressure range.

  4. The spectral energy distribution of compact jets powered by internal shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzac, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity are likely to power the radio-to-IR emission of the compact jets of X-ray binaries. The dynamics of internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) of the jet are very sensitive to the time-scales and amplitudes of the velocity fluctuations injected at the base of the jet. I present a new code designed to simulate the synchrotron emission of a compact jet powered by internal shocks. I also develop a semi-analytical formalism allowing one to estimate the observed SED of the jet as a function of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the Lorentz factor. I discuss the cases of a sine modulation of the Lorentz factor and Lorentz factor fluctuations with a power-law PSD shape. Independently of the details of the model, the observed nearly flat SEDs are obtained for PSDs of Lorentz factor fluctuations that are close to a flicker noise spectrum (i.e. P(f ) ∝ 1/f ). The model also presents a strong wavelength-dependent variability that is similar to that observed in these sources.

  5. Energy convergence effect and jet phenomenon of shock-heavy spherical bubble interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, LiYong; Zhai, ZhiGang; Liu, JinHong; Wang, YanPing; Liu, CangLi

    2015-12-01

    We present computational results on the evolution of the shock-accelerated heavy bubbles surrounded by nitrogen with the Atwood number A t = 0.497-0.677 and the emphasis is on the jet phenomenon caused by the shock focusing. The multi-fluid Eulerian equation is solved by a finite volume method based on MUSCL-Hancock approach. Based on the numerical schlieren and the distributions of density and pressure, it is found that there are three typical jet structures (outward jet, no jet, inward jet) for different combinations of gas mixture inside the bubble which determine the position of shock focusing relative to the downstream pole of the heavy bubble (upstream of the pole, at the pole, downstream the pole). Compared with the inward jet, the velocity of outward jet is obviously larger. As A t increases, the moment of jet formation is postponed, and the maximal values and magnifications of pressure and density increase distinctly. Therefore, the energy convergence effects are heavily enhanced with the increase of bubble gas density.

  6. Anomalous Transport of High Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Nasser F.

    2014-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays may exhibit anomalous transport as they traverse and are accelerated by a collection of supernovae explosions in a galactic superbubble. Signatures of this anomalous transport can show up in the particles' evolution and their spectra. In a continuous-time-random- walk (CTRW) model assuming standard diffusive shock acceleration theory (DSA) for each shock encounter, and where the superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks, acceleration and transport in the superbubble can be shown to be sub-diffusive. While the sub-diffusive transport can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These CTRW simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

  7. High Pressure Shock Tube Ignition Delay Time Measurements During Oxy-Methane Combustion With High Levels of CO 2 Dilution

    DOE PAGES

    Pryor, Owen; Barak, Samuel; Lopez, Joseph; ...

    2017-03-30

    For this study, ignition delay times and methane species time-histories were measured for methane/O2 mixtures in a high CO2 diluted environment using shock tube and laser absorption spectroscopy. The experiments were performed between 1300 K and 2000 K at pressures between 6 and 31 atm. The test mixtures were at an equivalence ratio of 1 with CH4 mole fractions ranging from 3.5% -5% and up to 85% CO2 with a bath of argon gas as necessary. The ignition delay times and methane time histories were measured using pressure, emission, and laser diagnostics. Predictive ability of two literature kinetic mechanisms (GRImore » 3.0 and ARAMCO Mech 1.3) was tested against current data. In general, both mechanisms performed reasonably well against measured ignition delay time data. The methane time-histories showed good agreement with the mechanisms for most of the conditions measured. A correlation for ignition delay time was created taking into the different parameters showing that the ignition activation energy for the fuel to be 49.64 kcal/mol. Through a sensitivity analysis, CO2 is shown to slow the overall reaction rate and increase the ignition delay time. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first shock tube data during ignition of methane/CO2/O2 under these conditions. In conclusion, current data provides crucial validation data needed for development of future kinetic mechanisms.« less

  8. High presure shock tube ignition delay time measurements during oxy-methane combustion with high levels of CO2 dilution

    DOE PAGES

    Pryor, Owen; Barak, Samuel; Lopez, Joseph; ...

    2017-03-16

    For this study, ignition delay times and methane species time-histories were measured for methane/O2 mixtures in a high CO2 diluted environment using shock tube and laser absorption spectroscopy. The experiments were performed between 1300 K and 2000 K at pressures between 6 and 31 atm. The test mixtures were at an equivalence ratio of 1 with CH4 mole fractions ranging from 3.5% -5% and up to 85% CO2 with a bath of argon gas as necessary. The ignition delay times and methane time histories were measured using pressure, emission, and laser diagnostics. Predictive ability of two literature kinetic mechanisms (GRImore » 3.0 and ARAMCO Mech 1.3) was tested against current data. In general, both mechanisms performed reasonably well against measured ignition delay time data. The methane time-histories showed good agreement with the mechanisms for most of the conditions measured. A correlation for ignition delay time was created taking into the different parameters showing that the ignition activation energy for the fuel to be 49.64 kcal/mol. Through a sensitivity analysis, CO2 is shown to slow the overall reaction rate and increase the ignition delay time. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first shock tube data during ignition of methane/CO2/O2 under these conditions. In conclusion, current data provides crucial validation data needed for development of future kinetic mechanisms.« less

  9. Achieving High Pressure Shock Hugoniot Measurements in Cylindrical Geometry Utilizing a High-Explosive Pulsed Power Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    to conduct high velocity material experiments and measure shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator ... Explosive Magnetic Generator ) will be able to achieve extremely high currents with as much as 70 MA usable for driving a z-pinch experiment. In this...shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator ) is used to drive a >60MA current that accelerates an aluminum

  10. A Study of Fundamental Shock Noise Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation in shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled numerically by examining the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. This numerical approach is validated by comparison with results obtained by linear theory for a small-disturbance case. Analysis of the perturbation energy with Myers' energy corollary demonstrates that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction of acoustic disturbances with shocks. This analysis suggests that shock motion generates acoustic and entropy disturbance energy. Shock deformation is modeled numerically by examining the interaction of a vortex ring with a shock. These numerical simulations demonstrate the generation of both an acoustic wave and contact surfaces. The acoustic wave spreads cylindrically. The sound intensity is highly directional and the sound pressure increases with increasing shock strength. The numerically determined relationship between the sound pressure and the Mach number is found to be consistent with experimental observations of shock noise. This consistency implies that a dominant physical process in the generation of shock noise is modeled in this study.

  11. 32-channel pyrometer with high dynamic range for studies of shocked nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    A 32-channel optical pyrometer has been developed for studying temperature dynamics of shock-initiated reactive materials with one nanosecond time resolution and high dynamic range. The pyrometer consists of a prism spectrograph which directs the spectrally-resolved emission to 32 fiber optics and 32 photomultiplier tubes and digitizers. Preliminary results show shock-initiated reactions of a nanothermite composite, nano CuO/Al in nitrocellulose binder, consists of three stages. The first stage occurred at 30 ns, right after the shock unloaded, the second stage at 100 ns and the third at 1 μs, and the temperatures ranged from 2100K to 3000K. Time-resolved emission spectra suggest hot spots formed during shock unloading, which initiated the bulk thermite/nitrocellulose reaction.

  12. Particle acceleration due to shocks in the interplanetary field: High time resolution data and simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, R. L.; Armstrong, T. P.; Nuber, R.; Bandle, J.

    1985-01-01

    Data were examined from two experiments aboard the Explorer 50 (IMP 8) spacecraft. The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Lab Charged Particle Measurement Experiment (CPME) provides 10.12 second resolution ion and electron count rates as well as 5.5 minute or longer averages of the same, with data sampled in the ecliptic plane. The high time resolution of the data allows for an explicit, point by point, merging of the magnetic field and particle data and thus a close examination of the pre- and post-shock conditions and particle fluxes associated with large angle oblique shocks in the interplanetary field. A computer simulation has been developed wherein sample particle trajectories, taken from observed fluxes, are allowed to interact with a planar shock either forward or backward in time. One event, the 1974 Day 312 shock, is examined in detail.

  13. A High Order Finite Difference Scheme with Sharp Shock Resolution for the Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerritsen, Margot; Olsson, Pelle

    1996-01-01

    We derive a high-order finite difference scheme for the Euler equations that satisfies a semi-discrete energy estimate, and present an efficient strategy for the treatment of discontinuities that leads to sharp shock resolution. The formulation of the semi-discrete energy estimate is based on a symmetrization of the Euler equations that preserves the homogeneity of the flux vector, a canonical splitting of the flux derivative vector, and the use of difference operators that satisfy a discrete analogue to the integration by parts procedure used in the continuous energy estimate. Around discontinuities or sharp gradients, refined grids are created on which the discrete equations are solved after adding a newly constructed artificial viscosity. The positioning of the sub-grids and computation of the viscosity are aided by a detection algorithm which is based on a multi-scale wavelet analysis of the pressure grid function. The wavelet theory provides easy to implement mathematical criteria to detect discontinuities, sharp gradients and spurious oscillations quickly and efficiently.

  14. Non-thermal Electron Acceleration in Low Mach Number Collisionless Shocks. I. Particle Energy Spectra and Acceleration Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Sironi, Lorenzo; Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (Ms <~ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with Ms = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ~= 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  15. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. I. Particle energy spectra and acceleration mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-20

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ≅ 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  16. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P. Doucet, M.; Resseguier, T. de

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  17. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.; de Resseguier, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  18. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  19. High-Pressure Minerals in Meteorites: Constraints on Shock Conditions and Duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to better understand the conditions and duration of shock metamorphism in meteorites through microstructural and microanalytical characterization of high-pressure minerals. A) Continue to investigate the mineralogy and microstructures of melt-veins in a suite of chondritic samples ranging from shock grades S3 through S6 to determine how the mineral assemblages that crystallize at high-pressure and are related to shock grade. B) Investigate the chemical, mineralogical, and microstructural heterogeneities that occur across melt veins to interpret crystallization histories. C) Use static high-pressure experiments to simulate crystallization of melt veins for mineralogical and textural comparisons with the melt veins of naturally shocked samples. D) Characterize the compositions and defect microstructures of polycrystalline ringwoodite, wadsleyite, majorite, (Mg,Fe)Si03-ilmenite and (Mg,Fe)SiO3-perovskite in S6 samples to understand the mechanisms of phase transformations that occur during shock. These results will combined with kinetic data to constrain the time scales of kinetic processes. E) Investigate the transformations of metastable high-pressure minerals back to low- pressure forms to constrain post-shock temperatures and estimates of the peak shock pressure. Of these objectives, we have obtained publishable data on A, B and D. I am currently doing difficult high-pressure melting and quench experiments on an L chondrite known as Mbale. These experiments will provide additional constraints on the mineral assemblages that are produced during rapid quench of an L chondrite at pressures of 16 to 25 GPa. Results from published or nearly published research is presented below. Lists of theses, dissertations and publications are given below.

  20. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  1. High-energy neutrino astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The chargeless, weakly interacting neutrinos are ideal astronomical messengers as they travel through space without scattering, absorption or deflection. But this weak interaction also makes them notoriously di cult to detect, leading to neutrino observatories requiring large-scale detectors. A few years ago, the IceCube experiment discovered neutrinos originating beyond the Sun with energies bracketed by those of the highest energy gamma rays and cosmic rays. I discuss how these high-energy neutrinos can be detected and what they can tell us about the origins of cosmic rays and about dark matter.

  2. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  3. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  4. Metallization of aluminum hydride AlH3 at high multiple-shock pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodets, A. M.; Shakhray, D. V.; Khrapak, A. G.; Fortov, V. E.

    2009-05-01

    A study of electrophysical and thermodynamic properties of alane AlH3 under multishock compression has been carried out. The increase in specific electroconductivity of alane at shock compression up to pressure 100 GPa has been measured. High pressures and temperatures were obtained with an explosive device, which accelerates the stainless impactor up to 3 km/s. A strong shock wave is generated on impact with a holder containing alane. The impact shock is split into a shock wave reverberating in alane between two stiff metal anvils. This compression loads the alane sample by a multishock manner up to pressure 80-90 GPa, heats alane to the temperature of about 1500-2000 K, and lasts 1μs . The conductivity of shocked alane increases in the range up to 60-75 GPa and is about 30(Ωcm)-1 . In this region the semiconductor regime is true for shocked alane. The conductivity of alane achieves approximately 500(Ωcm)-1 at 80-90 GPa. In this region, conductivity is interpreted in frames of the conception of the “dielectric catastrophe,” taking into consideration significant differences between the electronic states of isolated molecule AlH3 and condensed alane.

  5. Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars.III.The High Resolution Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; van Buren, Dave; Dgani, Ruth

    1997-02-01

    In a recent survey for bow shock structures around OB runaway stars using the ISSA/IRAS archival data and excess maps at 60 \\mum, 58 candidates were found. These objects are surrounded by extended infrared emission at 60 \\mum, characteristic of warm dust heated by ultraviolet photons, a signature of wind bow shocks. High resolution IRAS (HiRes) images have been produced for these 58 objects and some of those spatially resolved are presented in this study. The images were used to distinguish between multiple confused IR sources, possible artifacts and unambiguous bow shocks, as the sources of the extended 60 \\mum emission. Six new bow shocks have been identified using this method, and three have been rejected. Twenty two of the targets, however, remain spatially unresolved even at the nominal HiRes resolution of ~ 1arcmin . For the larger and better defined bow shocks some internal substructure is discernible. The length of these features suggest that they arise as the result of a subtle dynamical instability. It can not be ruled out, however, that some of the bow shock morphology could be imprinted by the surrounding medium.

  6. [Effects of cold-shock on tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Li; Xia, Ya-Zhen; Liu, Jin; Shi, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    High temperature stress (HTS) is one of the major limiting factors that affect the quality of intensively cultured seedlings in protected facilitates during hot season. Increasing the cross adaptive response of plant induced by temperature stress is an effective way to improve plant stress resistance. In order to explore the alleviating effect of cold-shock intensity on tomato seedlings under HTS, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treatments every day with 5 °C, 10 °C, and 15 °C for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min, respectively, in an artificial climate chamber. The effect of single appropriate cold-shock on the gene expression of small heat shock proteins LeHSP 23.8 and CaHSP18 was investigated. The results showed that hypocotyl elongation and plant height of tomato seedlings were restrained by cold-shock treatment before HTS was met. The alleviating effect of tomato seedlings under HTS by cold-shock varied greatly with levels and durations of temperature. The membrane lipids in the leaf of tomato seedlings were subjected to peroxidation injury in the cold-shock treatment at 5 °C, in which the penetration of cell membrane was increased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme was inhibited. The alleviating effect to HTS by cold-shock was decreased with the increasing cold-shock duration at 10 °C, however, a reverse change was found at 15 °C. The results indicated that cross adaptive response of tomato seedling could be induced with a moderate cold-shock temperature for a proper duration before HTS was met. The optimum cold-shock treatment was at 10 °C for 10 min per day, under which, the dry mass, healthy index, activities of protective enzymes (including SOD, POD and CAT) in leaves of tomato seedlings were significantly increased, the contents of proline and soluble protein were enhanced, relative conductivity and malondialdehyde concentration were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of Le-HSP23.8 and CaHSP18 were increased compared

  7. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  8. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  10. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  11. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  12. On the generation of magnetosheath high speed jets by bow shock ripples (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietala, H.; Plaschke, F.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial magnetosheath is embedded with coherent high speed jets of about 1 RE in scale, predominantly during quasi-radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). When these high dynamic pressure (Pdyn) jets hit the magnetopause, they cause large indentations and further magnetospheric effects. The source of these jets has remained controversial. One of the proposed mechanisms is based on ripples of the quasi-parallel bow shock. In this paper, we combine for the first time four years of subsolar magnetosheath observations from the THEMIS mission and corresponding NASA/OMNI solar wind conditions with model calculations of a rippled bow shock. Concentrating on the magnetosheath close to the shock during low IMF cone-angles, we find that (1) 97% of the observed jets can be produced by local ripples of the shock under the observed upstream conditions; (2) the coherent jets form a significant fraction of the high Pdyn tail of the magnetosheath flow distribution; (3) the magnetosheath Pdyn distribution matches the flow from a bow shock with ripples that have a dominant amplitude to wavelength ratio of about 9% (~ 0.1 RE/1 RE) and are present ~12% of the time at any given location.

  13. Pyroxenes and olivines: Structural implications of shock-wave data for high pressure phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the shock-induced, high-pressure phases of olivine and pyroxene rocks is examined in the light of data for the densities of a new class of perovskite-related silicate structures. Also examined are some new Hugoniot and release adiabat data for bronzite. Reexamining available shock data for magnesian pyroxenes and olivines leads to the conclusion that they define a mixed phase (or disequilibrium) region to about the 100 GPa range, related to the kinetics of phase transformation in these silicates. By recognizing this point, certain discrepancies in previous interpretations of shock data can be explained. A set of theoretical Hugonoits for pyroxene and olivine stoichiometry, perovskite-bearing assemblages was constructed based on their properties deduced from high-pressure work, showing that the shock data is compatible with transformations to perovskites in the 45-7GPa region. Finally, the shock data indicate very similar properties for olivine and pyroxene at high pressures making them both equally likely candidates for the lower mantle.

  14. Study of shock shape and strength as a function of plasma energy using background oriented schlieren and shadowgraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhavini; Rajendran, Lalit; Giarra, Matthew; Bane, Sally; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-11-01

    The formation of a spark is a random, chaotic process. The flow field generated by this spark can be used in flow control and plasma assisted combustion applications. In order to understand the flow field some time after spark discharge (approximately 1 microsecond), it is important to observe the shape and strength of the shockwave immediately following the plasma discharge. It is also important to understand the effect that the energy deposited in the spark gap has on the shock strength and shock shape. We therefore propose a background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to measure density gradients associated with the spark discharge and hence quantify shock strength. Simultaneous shadowgraph measurements will be used to observe the shape of the shock and compare it with the reconstructed density gradients obtained from BOS measurements.

  15. Predictive value of low tube voltage and dual-energy CT for successful shock wave lithotripsy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Largo, Remo; Stolzmann, Paul; Fankhauser, Christian D; Poyet, Cédric; Wolfsgruber, Pirmin; Sulser, Tullio; Alkadhi, Hatem; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the capabilities of low tube voltage computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) for predicting successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) of urinary stones in vitro. A total of 33 urinary calculi (six different chemical compositions; mean size 6 ± 3 mm) were scanned using a dual-source CT machine with single- (120 kVp) and dual-energy settings (80/150, 100/150 Sn kVp) resulting in six different datasets. The attenuation (Hounsfield Units) of calculi was measured on single-energy CT images and the dual-energy indices (DEIs) were calculated from DECT acquisitions. Calculi underwent SWL and the number of shock waves for successful disintegration was recorded. The prediction of required shock waves regarding stone attenuation/DEI was calculated using regression analysis (adjusted for stone size and composition) and the correlation between CT attenuation/DEI and the number of shock waves was assessed for all datasets. The median number of shock waves for successful stone disintegration was 72 (interquartile range 30-361). CT attenuation/DEI of stones was a significant, independent predictor (P < 0.01) for the number of required shock waves with the best prediction at 80 kVp (β estimate 0.576) (P < 0.05). Correlation coefficients between attenuation/DEI and the number of required shock waves ranged between ρ = 0.31 and 0.68 showing the best correlation at 80 kVp (P < 0.001). The attenuation of urinary stones at low tube voltage CT is the best predictor for successful stone disintegration, being independent of stone composition and size. DECT shows no added value for predicting the success of SWL.

  16. Shock Surface Undulation and Particle Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Li, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Considering the average Parker spiral magnetic field configuration, CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks within 1 AU should have oblique portions over much of their domain. Indeed, CME-driven shocks observed close to Earth are often oblique. However, it is well known that the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which relies on self-consistent wave generation via upstream propagating ions and their scattering, becomes increasingly inefficient with greater shock normal angle. Not only is a higher threshold energy required for the ions to leave the shock upstream, but also, approximately-parallel propagating waves are more quickly convected back into the shock, and the growth rate for waves propagating normal to the shock (the ones with the largest convective growth) decreases. As a result, typical, small-scale hybrid simulations of oblique shocks only show a dilute upstream beam, similar to what is often observed at the oblique Earth's bow shock - and no scattered, highly-energized ions. On the other hand, there are many "energetic storm particle" (ESP) events associated with oblique shocks that have significant fluxes of energetic ions. Recently, we have found that when run for a long time, our hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, electron fluid) show that the initial, weak beam is sufficient to generate compressive, steepening upstream waves. These waves are capable of disturbing the shock surface, resulting in an undulation that is propagating along the surface and growing in amplitude over time. The process is akin to that of the well-known reformation occurring at sufficiently strong quasi-parallel shocks. However, here the perturbations require at least two dimensions, show a strong spatial correlation, and travel along the shock surface. This process not only leads to enhanced ion acceleration, but also means that the shock characteristics are difficult to pinpoint, observationally: both the local jumps and the shock normal angle are highly variable

  17. Stochastic shock response spectrum decomposition method based on probabilistic definitions of temporal peak acceleration, spectral energy, and phase lag distributions of mechanical impact pyrotechnic shock test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Duran, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Most of the times pyrotechnic shock design and test requirements for space systems are provided in Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) without the input time history. Since the SRS does not describe the input or the environment, a decomposition method is used to obtain the source time history. The main objective of this paper is to develop a decomposition method producing input time histories that can satisfy the SRS requirement based on the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from a mechanical impact test apparatus. At the heart of this decomposition method is the statistical representation of the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) designed Universal Pyrotechnic Shock Simulator (UPSS). Each pyrotechnic shock test data measured at the interface of a test unit has been analyzed to produce the temporal peak acceleration, Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration, and the phase lag at each band center frequency. Maximum SRS of each filtered time history has been calculated to produce a relationship between the input and the response. Two new definitions are proposed as a result. The Peak Ratio (PR) is defined as the ratio between the maximum SRS and the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency. The ratio between the maximum SRS and the RMS acceleration is defined as the Energy Ratio (ER) at each band center frequency. Phase lag is estimated based on the time delay between the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency and the peak acceleration at the lowest band center frequency. This stochastic process has been applied to more than one hundred pyrotechnic shock test data to produce probabilistic definitions of the PR, ER, and the phase lag. The SRS is decomposed at each band center frequency using damped sinusoids with the PR and the decays obtained by matching the ER of the damped sinusoids to the ER of the test data. The final step in this stochastic SRS decomposition process is the Monte Carlo (MC

  18. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity.

  19. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

  20. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  1. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  2. Robust and Accurate Shock Capturing Method for High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Harold L.; Pampell, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    A simple yet robust and accurate approach for capturing shock waves using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented. The method uses the physical viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as suggested by others; however, the proposed formulation of the numerical viscosity is continuous and compact by construction, and does not require the solution of an auxiliary diffusion equation. This work also presents two analyses that guided the formulation of the numerical viscosity and certain aspects of the DG implementation. A local eigenvalue analysis of the DG discretization applied to a shock containing element is used to evaluate the robustness of several Riemann flux functions, and to evaluate algorithm choices that exist within the underlying DG discretization. A second analysis examines exact solutions to the DG discretization in a shock containing element, and identifies a "model" instability that will inevitably arise when solving the Euler equations using the DG method. This analysis identifies the minimum viscosity required for stability. The shock capturing method is demonstrated for high-speed flow over an inviscid cylinder and for an unsteady disturbance in a hypersonic boundary layer. Numerical tests are presented that evaluate several aspects of the shock detection terms. The sensitivity of the results to model parameters is examined with grid and order refinement studies.

  3. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  4. CRYSTALLINE BEAMS AT HIGH ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; OKAMOTO, H.; YURI, Y.; SESSLER, A.; MACHIDA, S.

    2006-06-23

    Previously it was shown that by crystallizing each of the two counter-circulating beams, a much larger beam-beam tune shift can be tolerated during the beam-beam collisions; thus a higher luminosity can be reached for colliding beams [1]. On the other hand, crystalline beams can only be formed at energies below the transition energy ({gamma}{sub T}) of the accelerators [2]. In this paper, we investigate the formation of crystals in a high-{gamma}{sub T} lattice that also satisfies the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam [3].

  5. A Class of High-Resolution Explicit and Implicit Shock-Capturing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of shock-capturing finite difference methods for hyperbolic conservation laws has been a rapidly growing area for the last decade. Many of the fundamental concepts, state-of-the-art developments and applications to fluid dynamics problems can only be found in meeting proceedings, scientific journals and internal reports. This paper attempts to give a unified and generalized formulation of a class of high-resolution, explicit and implicit shock capturing methods, and to illustrate their versatility in various steady and unsteady complex shock waves, perfect gases, equilibrium real gases and nonequilibrium flow computations. These numerical methods are formulated for the purpose of ease and efficient implementation into a practical computer code. The various constructions of high-resolution shock-capturing methods fall nicely into the present framework and a computer code can be implemented with the various methods as separate modules. Included is a systematic overview of the basic design principle of the various related numerical methods. Special emphasis will be on the construction of the basic nonlinear, spatially second and third-order schemes for nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws and the methods of extending these nonlinear scalar schemes to nonlinear systems via the approximate Riemann solvers and flux-vector splitting approaches. Generalization of these methods to efficiently include real gases and large systems of nonequilibrium flows will be discussed. Some perbolic conservation laws to problems containing stiff source terms and terms and shock waves are also included. The performance of some of these schemes is illustrated by numerical examples for one-, two- and three-dimensional gas-dynamics problems. The use of the Lax-Friedrichs numerical flux to obtain high-resolution shock-capturing schemes is generalized. This method can be extended to nonlinear systems of equations without the use of Riemann solvers or flux

  6. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound.

  7. High-Order Shock-Capturing Methods for Modeling Dynamics of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kosovichev, Alexander; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We use one-dimensional high-order central shock capturing numerical methods to study the response of various model solar atmospheres to forcing at the solar surface. The dynamics of the atmosphere is modeled with the Euler equations in a variable-sized flux tube in the presence of gravity. We study dynamics of the atmosphere suggestive of spicule formation and coronal oscillations. These studies are performed on observationally-derived model atmospheres above the quiet sun and above sunspots. To perform these simulations, we provide a new extension of existing second- and third- order shock-capturing methods to irregular grids. We also solve the problem of numerically maintaining initial hydrostatic balance via the introduction of new variables in the model equations and a careful initialization mechanism. We find several striking results: all model atmospheres respond to a single impulsive perturbation with several strong shock waves consistent with the rebound-shock model. These shock waves lift material and the transition region well into the initial corona, and the sensitivity of this lift to the initial impulse depends non-linearly on the details of the atmosphere model. We also reproduce an observed 3-minute coronal oscillation above sunspots compared to 5-minute oscillations above the quiet sun.

  8. High-energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Neutrino astronomy, conceptually conceived four decades ago, has entered an exciting phase for providing results on the quest for the sources of the observed highest energy particles. IceCube and ANTARES are now completed and are scanning in space and time possible signals of high energy neutrinos indicating the existence of such sources. DeepCore, inside IceCube, is a playground for vetoed neutrino measurement with better potential below 1 TeV. A larger and denser detector is now being discussed. ARA, now in test phase, will be composed by radio stations that could cover up to ~ 100 km2 and aims at the highest energy region of cosmogenic neutrinos. The non observation of cosmic events is on one side a source of disappointment, on the other it represents by itself an important result. If seen in the context of a multi-messenger science, the combination of photon and cosmic ray experiment results brings invaluable information. The experimental upper bounds of the cubic-kilometer telescope IceCube are now below the theoretical upper bounds for extragalactic fluxes of neutrinos from optically thin sources. These are responsible for accelerating the extragalactic cosmic rays. Such limits constrain the role of gamma-ray bursts, described by the fireball picture, as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Neutrino telescopes are exciting running multi-task experiments that produce astrophysics and particle physics results some of which have been illustrated at this conference and are summarized in this report.

  9. High-resolution shock-capturing schemes for inviscid and viscous hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Montagne, J.-L.

    1990-01-01

    Hypersonic computations are presently conducted with an extension of a class of high-resolution implicit TVD algorithms suited to transonic multidimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. These conservative shock-capturing schemes, which are spatially second- and third-order, may be first- and second-order accurate in time and suitable for either steady or unsteady calculations. Attention is given to the enhancement of hypersonic flows' convergence rate and stability; accuracy and efficiency is achieved by these means for very complex two-dimensional hypersonic viscous and inviscid shock interactions.

  10. Ordered and Highly Scalable Granular Media for Shock Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    added absorption. Additionally, there is evidence (30) that nitinol (a nickel-titanium alloy) may be a better material to choose for the spheres and...Optimal Transmission of Kinetic Energy. Phys. Rev. E 2001, 63 (021505), 1–9. 30. Jackson, C. M.; Wagner, H. J.; Wasilewski, R. J. 55- Nitinol —The

  11. High energy density aluminum battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  12. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  13. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    problems studied in this project involve numerically solving partial differential equations with either discontinuous or rapidly changing solutions ...REPORT Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, for solving partial differential equations with discontinuous or rapidly changing solutions . Algorithm

  15. High energy overcurrent protective device

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  16. Shock compression response of highly reactive Ni + Al multilayered thin foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Sean C.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2016-03-01

    The shock-compression response of Ni + Al multilayered thin foils is investigated using laser-accelerated thin-foil plate-impact experiments over the pressure range of 2 to 11 GPa. The foils contain alternating Ni and Al layers (parallel but not flat) of nominally 50 nm bilayer spacing. The goal is to determine the equation of state and shock-induced reactivity of these highly reactive fully dense thin-foil materials. The laser-accelerated thin-foil impact set-up involved combined use of photon-doppler-velocimetry to monitor the acceleration and impact velocity of an aluminum flyer, and VISAR interferometry was used to monitor the back free-surface velocity of the impacted Ni + Al multilayered target. The shock-compression response of the Ni + Al target foils was determined using experimentally measured parameters and impedance matching approach, with error bars identified considering systematic and experimental errors. Meso-scale CTH shock simulations were performed using real imported microstructures of the cross-sections of the multilayered Ni + Al foils to compute the Hugoniot response (assuming no reaction) for correlation with their experimentally determined equation of state. It was observed that at particle velocities below ˜150 m/s, the experimentally determined equation of state trend matches the CTH-predicted inert response and is consistent with the observed unreacted state of the recovered Ni + Al target foils from this velocity regime. At higher particle velocities, the experimentally determined equation of state deviates from the CTH-predicted inert response. A complete and self-sustained reaction is also seen in targets recovered from experiments performed at these higher particle velocities. The deviation in the measured equation of state, to higher shock speeds and expanded volumes, combined with the observation of complete reaction in the recovered multilayered foils, confirmed via microstructure characterization, is indicative of the occurrence

  17. Effectiveness of Lower Energy Density Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in the Early Stage of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of lower energy flux density (EFD) extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the early stage of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Methods Nineteen patients and 30 hips were enrolled. All subjects received 4 weekly sessions of ESWT, at different energy levels; group A (n=15; 1,000 shocks/session, EFD per shock 0.12 mJ/mm2) and group B (n=15; 1,000 shocks/session, EFD per shock 0.32 mJ/mm2). We measured pain by using the visual analog scale (VAS), and disability by using the Harris hip score, Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). To determine the effect of the lower EFD ESWT, we assessed the VAS, Harris hip score, HOOS, WOMAC of the subjects before and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results In both groups, the VAS, Harris hip score, HOOS, and WOMAC scores improved over time (p<0.05). Conclusion Lower EFD ESWT may be an effective method to improve the function and to relieve pain in the early stage of AVN. PMID:27847717

  18. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    DOE PAGES

    Guthrie, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment.more » For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.« less

  19. Low Energy Building for High Energy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The Huston Huffman Center at the University of Oklahoma's Norman campus has a jogging track as well as facilities for exercise and court games that are fully accessible to the handicapped. The building is set eight feet in the ground both to reduce its bulk and to conserve energy. (Author/MLF)

  20. Generation of Gigabar Pressures for High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Mangino, D.; Casner, A.; Beg, F. N.; Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Wei, M. S.; Schoff, M. E.; Florido, R.; Mancini, R. C.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on the OMEGA laser were performed to study gigabar pressures in small (50- μm-diam) Ti and Cu target samples for high-energy-density plasma applications. The samples were precisely placed (better than 10 μm) at the center of a spherical plastic matrix that is irradiated at incident laser intensities of 5 ×1015 W /cm2 . The laser launches a spherical shock wave that converges in the center in order to reach Gbar pressures in the sample. The shock convergence produces a short burst ( 30ps) of x-ray emission. Time-resolved and time-integrated x-ray spectroscopy provides the means to diagnose the plasma conditions in the sample. The time-resolved spectra are compared to predictions from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to infer the material conditions at Gbar pressures. A second x-ray flash delayed by 600ps caused by the breakout of the rebounded shock through the outer surface of the compressed plastic was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and by the Fusion Science Center under Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER54789.

  1. Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.

  2. Inactivation of Aspergillus niger in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization combined with heat shock.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Franchi, Mark A; Cristianini, Marcelo; de Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the inactivation of a heat-resistant Aspergillus niger conidia in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with heat shock. A. niger were inoculated in mango nectar (10(6) conidia mL(-1)) and subjected to HPH (300 to 100 MPa) and heat shock (80 degrees C for 5 to 20 min) before or after HPH. Processes were evaluated according to number of decimal reductions reached by each isolated or combined process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe conidia wall after pressure treatment. Pressures below 150 MPa did not inactivate A. niger while pressures of 200 and 300 MPa resulted in 2 and more than 6 log reductions, respectively. D(80 degrees C) of A. niger was determined as 5.03 min. A heat shock of 80 degrees C/15 min, reaching 3 decimal conidia reductions, was applied before or after a 200 MPa pressure treatment to improve the decimal reduction to 5 log cycles. Results indicated that HPH inactivated A. niger in mango nectar at 300 MPa (>6.24 log cycles) and that, with pressure (200 MPa) combined with post heat shock, it was possible to obtain the same decimal reduction, showing a synergistic effect. On the other hand, pre heat shock associated with HPH resulted in an additive effect. The observation of A. niger conidia treated by HPH at 100 and 200 MPa by scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPH promoted intense cell wall damage, which can sensitize the conidia to post heat shock and possibly explain the synergistic effect observed. Practical Application: The results obtained in this paper are relevant to elucidate the mechanism of conidia inactivation in order to develop the application of HPH as an alternative pasteurization process for the fruit nectar industry.

  3. Pion exchange at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    The state of Regge pion exchange calculations for high-energy reactions is reviewed. Experimental evidence is summarized to show that (i) the pion trajectory has a slope similar to that of other trajectories; (ii) the pion exchange contribution can dominate contributions of higher trajectories up to quite a large energy; (iii) many two-body cross sections with large pion contributions can be fit only by models which allow for kinematical conspiracy at t=0. The theory of kinematic conspiracy is reviewed for two-body amplitudes, and calculations of the conspiring pion--Pomeron cut discussed. The author then summarizes recent work on pion exchange in Reggeized Deck models for multiparticle final states, with emphasis on the predictions of various models (with and without resonances) for phases of the partial wave amplitudes.

  4. On the hyperbolic nature of the equations of alluvial river hydraulics and the equivalence of stable and energy dissipating shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanraea, D. D. L.; Needham, D. J.

    The depth-averaged hydraulic equations augmented with a suitable bed-load sediment transport function form a closed system which governs the one-dimensional flow in an alluvial river or channel. In this paper, it is shown that this system is hyperbolic and yields three families of shock-wave solutions. These are determined to be temporally stable in restricted regions of the (H, F0)-plane, via the Lax shock inequalities. Further, it is demonstrated that this criterion is equivalent to the energy dissipation criterion developed by Needham and Hey (1991).

  5. Half a century of continuous shock interaction investigations in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenova, T. V.; Golub, V. V.; Gvozdeva, L. G.; Kotelnikov, A. L.

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the history of the investigations of shock wave interactions at the Physical Gasdynamic Department, starting from the early 50s of the last century, when the first research related to missile reentry was made. The review focuses on a number of topics studied over more than 50 years and includes the study of strong shock waves, where it is necessary to take into account the physicochemical transformations in gases, shock wave reflection, diffraction, interaction with the boundary layer and with the nozzle, as well as detonation wave formation and interactions. The investigation of shock wave interactions is a current topic at the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Some new results are observed: the formation of impulse jets and the self-ignition of a cold hydrogen jet, diffraction of 3D shock waves, and the effect of an impulse jet and diffracted shock wave on an obstacle.

  6. A high-order WENO-Z finite difference based particle-source-in-cell method for computation of particle-laden flows with shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Don, Wai-Sun

    2009-03-01

    A high-order particle-source-in-cell (PSIC) algorithm is presented for the computation of the interaction between shocks, small scale structures, and liquid and/or solid particles in high-speed engineering applications. The improved high-order finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) method for solution of the hyperbolic conservation laws that govern the shocked carrier gas flow, lies at the heart of the algorithm. Finite sized particles are modeled as points and are traced in the Lagrangian frame. The physical coupling of particles in the Lagrangian frame and the gas in the Eulerian frame through momentum and energy exchange, is numerically treated through high-order interpolation and weighing. The centered high-order interpolation of the fluid properties to the particle location is shown to lead to numerical instability in shocked flow. An essentially non-oscillatory interpolation (ENO) scheme is devised for the coupling that improves stability. The ENO based algorithm is shown to be numerically stable and to accurately capture shocks, small flow features and particle dispersion. Both the carrier gas and the particles are updated in time without splitting with a third-order Runge-Kutta TVD method. One and two-dimensional computations of a shock moving into a particle cloud demonstrates the characteristics of the WENO-Z based PSIC method (PSIC/WENO-Z). The PSIC/WENO-Z computations are not only in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations with a third-order Rusanov based PSIC and physical experiments in [V. Boiko, V.P. Kiselev, S.P. Kiselev, A. Papyrin, S. Poplavsky, V. Fomin, Shock wave interaction with a cloud of particles, Shock Waves, 7 (1997) 275-285], but also show a significant improvement in the resolution of small scale structures. In two-dimensional simulations of the Mach 3 shock moving into forty thousand bronze particles arranged in the shape of a rectangle, the long time accuracy of the high-order method is demonstrated

  7. A high-order WENO-Z finite difference based particle-source-in-cell method for computation of particle-laden flows with shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Gustaaf B. Don, W.-S.

    2009-03-20

    A high-order particle-source-in-cell (PSIC) algorithm is presented for the computation of the interaction between shocks, small scale structures, and liquid and/or solid particles in high-speed engineering applications. The improved high-order finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) method for solution of the hyperbolic conservation laws that govern the shocked carrier gas flow, lies at the heart of the algorithm. Finite sized particles are modeled as points and are traced in the Lagrangian frame. The physical coupling of particles in the Lagrangian frame and the gas in the Eulerian frame through momentum and energy exchange, is numerically treated through high-order interpolation and weighing. The centered high-order interpolation of the fluid properties to the particle location is shown to lead to numerical instability in shocked flow. An essentially non-oscillatory interpolation (ENO) scheme is devised for the coupling that improves stability. The ENO based algorithm is shown to be numerically stable and to accurately capture shocks, small flow features and particle dispersion. Both the carrier gas and the particles are updated in time without splitting with a third-order Runge-Kutta TVD method. One and two-dimensional computations of a shock moving into a particle cloud demonstrates the characteristics of the WENO-Z based PSIC method (PSIC/WENO-Z). The PSIC/WENO-Z computations are not only in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations with a third-order Rusanov based PSIC and physical experiments in [V. Boiko, V.P. Kiselev, S.P. Kiselev, A. Papyrin, S. Poplavsky, V. Fomin, Shock wave interaction with a cloud of particles, Shock Waves, 7 (1997) 275-285], but also show a significant improvement in the resolution of small scale structures. In two-dimensional simulations of the Mach 3 shock moving into forty thousand bronze particles arranged in the shape of a rectangle, the long time accuracy of the high-order method is demonstrated

  8. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Lewis, Jay; Thomas, David

    2010-10-01

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures. We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  9. Impact of Shock Front Nonstationarity on the Acceleration of Heavy Ions by Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Lembege, B.; Lu, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Both hybrid /full particle simulations and recent experimental results have clearly evidenced that the front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock can be nonstationary and corresponds to the self-reformation of the front itself being due to the accumulation of reflected ions. Not only the amplitude but also the spatial scales of fields components at the front (ramp and foot) are strongly varying within each cycle of the self- reformation. On the other hand, several studies have been made on the acceleration and heating of heavy ions but most have been restricted to a stationary shock profile only. Herein, one-dimensional test particle simulations with fields components issued from self-consistent 1D PIC simulation are performed in order to investigate the impact of shock front non-stationarity on heavy ion acceleration (He, O, Fe). Reflection and acceleration mechanisms of heavy ions with different initial thermal velocities and different charge-mass ratios interacting with a non-stationary shock front (self-reformation) are analyzed in detail. Present preliminary results show that: (i) the heavy ions suffer shock drift acceleration (SDA) and shock surfing acceleration (SSA) mechanisms and will be compared with previous works; (ii) the fraction of reflected heavy ions increases with initial kinetic energy, charge-mass ratio and decreasing shock front width at both stationary shock (situation equivalent to fixed shock regime) and non-stationary shocks (situation equivalent to a continously time-evolving shock regime); (iii) the shock front non-stationarity facilitates the reflection of heavy ions for broad (rather than narrow) shock profiles; (iv) high energy part of Fe/O ratio spectra at a non-stationary shock decreases with shock ramp width. The impact of the shock front non-stationarity on the heavy ions spectra within the shock front region and the downstream region will be also discussed.

  10. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  11. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  12. Prompt injections of highly relativistic electrons induced by interplanetary shocks: A statistical study of Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jian, L. K.; Li, X.; Jones, A.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a statistical study on the sudden response of outer radiation belt electrons due to interplanetary (IP) shocks during the Van Allen Probes era, i.e., 2012 to 2015. Data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes are used to investigate the highly relativistic electron response (E > 1.8 MeV) within the first few minutes after shock impact. We investigate the relationship of IP shock parameters, such as Mach number, with the highly relativistic electron response, including spectral properties and radial location of the shock-induced injection. We find that the driving solar wind structure of the shock does not affect occurrence for enhancement events, 25% of IP shocks are associated with prompt energization, and 14% are associated with MeV electron depletion. Parameters that represent IP shock strength are found to correlate best with highest levels of energization, suggesting that shock strength may play a key role in the severity of the enhancements. However, not every shock results in an enhancement, indicating that magnetospheric preconditioning may be required.

  13. Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking

    SciTech Connect

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Adams, W.J. . Environmental Sciences Center); Camel, V. )

    1993-06-01

    Immobilized bacteria technology (IBT) utilizes inert biocarriers to support high concentrations of chemical-degrading bacteria in reactors designed to provide optimal conditions for microbial activity. This study evaluated IBT performance inpacked bed reactors (PBRs) using a porous inorganic biocarrier (diatomaceous earth), nonporous biocarriers (glass beads), and organic biocarriers having carbon adsorption properties (granular activated carbon) with different porosity. Each reactor was challenged with high chemical loading, acid, dryness, and heat shock conditions. Benchtop PBSs inoculated with a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading Pseudomonas sp. and fed a synthetic waste containing 100 to 1,300 mg/L of PNP showed removal of PNP from effluents within 24 h of start-up. Chemical loading studies showed maximum PNP removal rates of 6.45 to 7.35 kg/m[sup 3]/d for bacteria in PBRs containing diatomaceous earth beads, glass beads, and activated coconut carbon. A lower PNP removal rate of 1.47 kg/m[sup 3]/d was determined for the activated anthracite carbon, and this PBR responded more slowly to increases in chemical loading. The PBR containing bacteria immobilized on activated coconut carbon showed exceptional tolerance to acid shocking, drying, and heat shocking by maintaining PNP removal rates > 85% throughout the entire study. The other biocarriers showed nearly complete loss of PNP degradation during the perturbations, but all recovered high rates of PNP degradation (> 98% removal) within 48 h after an acid shock at pH2, within 8 d after an acid shock at pH 1.0, within 24 h after drying for 72 h, and within 48 h of heat shocking. The resiliency and high chemical removal efficiency demonstrated by immobilized bacteria in this study support the concept of using IBT for the biotreatment of industrial wastes..

  14. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  15. Molecular processes in a high temperature shock layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The development of techniques for the calculation of electron capture widths, electronic wave functions, cross sections and rates needed for the description of the dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions with electrons were described. The cross sections and rates were calculated by using harmonic oscillator wave functions for the ion and a delta function approximation for the continuum vibrational wave function in the repulsive dissociative channel. In order to obtain DR cross sections of quantitative accuracy, a computer program which solves the one dimensional nuclear motion wave equation was revised to calculate the cross sections and rates. The program and the new results are described. Included is a discussion of large windows found in the dissociative recombination cross sections from excited ion vibrational levels. These windows have not been previously reported in the literature. The magnitude of the DR cross sections for several dissociative routes are sensitive to the location of the crossing of the neutral and ion potential curves. Studies of the effects of basis set and CI wave function size on vertical excitation energies are described. Preliminary studies on N2 and O2 using large scale wave functions are also reported.

  16. Magnetospheric Effects on High Energy Solar Particles: PAMELA Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Ryan, J. M.; Christian, E. R.; Stochaj, S.; Bruno, A.; Mergè, M.; Martucci, M.; Ricci, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Bazilevskaya, G.; Bravar, U.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are thought to be accelerated at the Sun by solar flares or by the shocks formed by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Even more elusive is the origin of the highest energy SEPs in so-called Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). At these energies, the effects of transport are often minimal, providing an opportunity to investigate the problem of particle acceleration. However, the effects of transport en route to Earth often obscure the acceleration process(es). The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument provides new data that aid in separating the effects of acceleration and transport. Furthermore, PAMELA bridges a critical gap in energy between the low-energy space-based and highest-energy ground-based measurements. We report on recent PAMELA observations of high-energy SEPs and illustrate some of the governing effects of acceleration and transport with the first GLE of solar cycle 24, i.e., 2012 May 17. The PAMELA data of 2012 May 17 reveal two distinct spectral components, a low-energy SEP component that exhibits significant scattering or redistribution, accompanied by a high-energy component that reaches the Earth relatively unaffected by dispersive transport effects. We postulate that the scattering or redistribution at low energies takes place locally providing one of the first opportunities to witness the effects of SEP transport in the Earth's magnetosheath.

  17. On the acceleration of ions by interplanetary shock waves. 3: High time resolution observations of CIR proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesses, M. E.; Vanallen, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Observations within + or - 3 hours of corotating interaction region (CIR) shock waves of proton intensities, pitch angle distribution and crude differential energy spectra of the range of 0.6 E sub p 3.4 MeV are presented. The principle result is the evidence for the persistent flow of particles away from the shock. The observations are found to be in good agreement with the hypothesis of local interplanetary shock acceleration by the shock drift and compression mechanisms. The same set of observations strongly suggest that transit time damping does not play an important role in the acceleration of protons to 1 MeV in the immediate vicinity of CIR shocks.

  18. A PFV2 accelerometer for high shock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tise, Bert; Smith, Talbot

    1989-08-01

    The development, fabrication, and testing of a high-g piezoelectric accelerometer that uses polyvinlylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric transducer is described. The accelerometer is designed to continuously measure accelerations up to 1000,000 g. The device is packages in a 3/8 inch hex head bolt and can include a built-in hybrid buffer to provide a low output impedance analog signal. Included are fabrication procedures, mechanical drawings, and software listings for test data analysis programs.

  19. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  20. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  1. The influence of the energy emitted by solar flare soft X-ray bursts on the propagation of their associated interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinter, S.; Dryer, M.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the thermal energy released from 29 solar flares and the propagation features of their associated interplanetary shock waves that were detected at 1 AU is investigated. The 29 interplanetary shock waves were identified unambiguously and their tracking from each solar flare was deduced by tracking their associated interplanetary type-II radio emission. The thermal energy released in the solar flares was estimated from the time-intensity profiles of 1-8 A soft X-ray bursts from each flare. A good relationship is found between the flares' thermal energy with the IP shock-waves' transient velocity and arrival time at the earth - that is, the largest flare energy released is associated with the faster shock waves. Finally, a possible scenario of formation of a shock wave during the early phase of the flare and its propagation features is discussed.

  2. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. Klingsporn

    2005-11-14

    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  3. Engineering approach to the prediction of shock patterns in bounded high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azevedo, D. J.; Liu, Ching Shi

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional symmetric wedge configuration representative of a single high-speed intake in steady flow was investigated. The analysis presented here is intended as an engineering approach for estimating certain features of the internal shock system. The primary interest here is the prediction of the size and location of the almost-normal shock wave that develops when the leading-edge shocks intersect at angles above a certain critical value that is less than the wedge detachment angle. The almost-normal shock wave is frequently referred to as the 'Mach stem', Parametric studies enabled the sensitivity of the Mach stem height to various flowfield parameters to be examined, thus indicating how accurately these parameters must be measured in a given experiment. Results of these predictions were compared with those of a steady-flow experiment performed at nominal freestream Mach numbers from 2.8 to 5. The predicted stem heights were consistently lower than the mean experimental values, attributable both to experimental uncertainties and to certain simplifying assumptions used in the analysis. Modification of these assumptions to better represent the test environment improved the analytical results.

  4. Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2010-11-01

    Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.

  5. Value of focal applied energy quotient in treatment of ureteral lithiasis with shock waves.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Palao-Yago, Francisco; Mijan-Ortiz, Jose Luis; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of ureteral lithiasis by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is progressively being abandoned owing to advances in endoscopic lithotripsy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causes as to why ESWL is less effective-with a measurable parameter: focal applied energy quotient (FAEQ) that allows us to apply an improvement project in ESWL results for ureteral lithiasis. A prospective observational cohort study with 3-year follow-up and enrollment period was done with three groups of cases. In Group A, 83 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by endoscopic lithotripsy using Holmiun:YAG laser. In Group B, 81 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by ESWL using Doli-S device (EMSE 220F-XXP). In Group C, 65 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by ESWL using Doli-S device (EMSE 220F-XXP) (FAEQ >10). Statistical study and calculation of RR, NNT, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were done. Efficiency quotient (EQ) and focal applied energy quotient [FAEQ = (radioscopy seconds/number of shock waves) × ESWL session J] were analyzed. From the results, the success rate of the treatment using Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy and ESWL is found to be 94 and 48%, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Success rate of endoscopic laser lithotripsy for lumbar ureteral stones was 82% versus 57% of ESWL (p = 0.611). In Group B, FAEQ was 8.12. In Group C, success rate was 93.84% with FAEQ of 10.64%. When we compare results from endoscopic lithotripsy with Holmium:YAG laser in Group B with results from ESWL with FAEQ >10, we do not observe absolute benefit choosing one or the other. In conclusion, the application of ESWL with FAEQ >10, that is, improving radiologic focalization of the calculus and increasing the number of Joules/SW, makes possible a treatment as safe and equally efficient as Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy in ureteral lithiasis less than 13 mm.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of the angiogenic effects of low-energy shock wave therapy: roles of mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Ito, Kenta; Shindo, Tomohiko; Kagaya, Yuta; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Eguchi, Kumiko; Kurosawa, Ryo; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low-energy extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW) therapy improves myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and in patients with refractory angina pectoris. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms for the SW-induced angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we thus examined the effects of SW irradiation on intracellular signaling pathways in vitro. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 800 shots of low-energy SW (1 Hz at an energy level of 0.03 mJ/mm(2)). The SW therapy significantly upregulated mRNA expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The SW therapy also enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and Akt. Furthermore, the SW therapy enhanced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and the expression of HUTS-4 that represents β1-integrin activity. These results suggest that caveolin-1 and β1-integrin are involved in the SW-induced activation of angiogenic signaling pathways. To further examine the signaling pathways involved in the SW-induced angiogenesis, HUVECs were transfected with siRNA of either β1-integrin or caveolin-1. Knockdown of either caveolin-1 or β1-integrin suppressed the SW-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt and upregulation of VEGF and eNOS. Knockdown of either caveolin-1 or β1-integrin also suppressed SW-induced enhancement of HUVEC migration in scratch assay. These results suggest that activation of mechanosensors on cell membranes, such as caveolin-1 and β1-integrin, and subsequent phosphorylation of Erk and Akt may play pivotal roles in the SW-induced angiogenesis.

  7. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.

    2017-01-01

    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  8. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlmann, Marcus

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 GeV for a Z

  9. Shock temperatures in anorthite glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.; Mitchell, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures of CaAl2Si2O8 (anorthite glass) shocked to pressures between 48 and 117 GPa were measured in the range from 2500 to 5600 K, using optical pyrometry techniques. The pressure dependence of the shock temperatures deviates significantly from predictions based on a single high pressure phase. At least three phase transitions, at pressures of about 55, 85, and 100 GPa and with transition energies of about 0.5 MJ/kg each (approximately 1.5 MJ/kg total) are required to explain the shock temperature data. The phase transition at 100 GPa can possibly be identified with the stishovite melting transition. Theoretical models of the time dependence of the thermal radiation from the shocked anorthite based on the geometry of the experiment and the absorptive properties of the shocked material yields good agreement with observations, indicating that it is not necessary to invoke intrinsic time dependences to explain the data in many cases.

  10. A particle image velocimeter for measuring the output of high energy detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael J; Adrian, Ronald J; Clarke, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Results from feasibility experiments are presented to confirm that tracer-particle motion resulting from mass-velocity fields created by driving high-energy detonator output into dynamic witness plates can be successfully measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experimental results, application challenges, and PIV system development are presented. In shock mechanics research, the ability to quantitatively measure the state of compression of shocked materials in two and three dimensions based on particle tracer methods is of extreme importance since such measurements provide precise temporal snapshots of two and three-dimensional shock-induced velocity fields. This is especially true in the science of detonation physics where such measurements provide enormous insight into fundamental. questions for understanding shock-loading processes, effects of shock-front curvature, and mechanisms of energy conversion from stimulus to shock output. As an example, answering such questions is paramount to the understanding and development of newer, safer detonators. To date, few attempts have been made to develop and implement standard particle tracer techniques to measure shock-induced flows resulting from explosive devices. The experimental challenge lies in developing a methodology wherein a tracer particle's inertia does not hinder its ability to accurately move with the rapidly changing flow field. We have recently developed the ability to characterize the output of unloaded explosive initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foils, laser-driven plasmas, etc.) using an optically-based diagnostic consisting of an ultra-high speed, time-resolved PIV system and inert, transparent polymers serving as dynamic witness plates. Initiator output is directed into a witness plate, and measurements of shock and mass velocities are made in a two-dimensional plane aligned with the initiator centerline. The results allow initiator output to be quantified in any in

  11. FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J.; Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    2010-08-10

    Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

  12. Hot-spot contributions in shocked high explosives from mesoscale ignition models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, G.; Vitello, P.; Howard, W. M.

    2013-06-01

    High explosive performance and sensitivity is strongly related to the mesoscale defect densities. Bracketing the population of mesoscale hot spots that are active in the shocked ignition of explosives is important for the development of predictive reactive flow models. By coupling a multiphysics-capable hydrodynamics code (ale3d) with a chemical kinetics solver (cheetah), we can parametrically analyze different pore sizes undergoing collapse in high pressure shock conditions with evolving physical parameter fields. Implementing first-principles based decomposition kinetics, burning hot spots are monitored, and the regimes of pore sizes that contribute significantly to burnt mass faction and those that survive thermal conduction on the time scales of ignition are elucidated. Comparisons are drawn between the thermal explosion theory and the multiphysics models for the determination of nominal pore sizes that burn significantly during ignition for the explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene.

  13. High energy beam lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Sterne, P.A.; Hartley, J.; Cowan, T.E.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a positron lifetime defect analysis capability based on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator. The high energy beam lifetime spectrometer is operational with a 60 mCi {sup 22}Na source providing a current of 7 10{sup 5} positrons per second. Lifetime data are derived from a thin plastic transmission detector providing an implantation time and a BaF{sub 2} detector to determine the annihilation time. Positron lifetime analysis is performed with a 3 MeV positron beam on thick sample specimens at counting rates in excess of 2000 per second. The instrument is being used for bulk sample analysis and analysis of samples encapsulated in controlled environments for in situ measurements.

  14. High energy femtosecond pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Philippe; Mironov, Sergey; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Payeur, Stéphane; Khazanov, Efim; Sergeev, Alexander; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Mourou, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    An original method for retrieving the Kerr nonlinear index was proposed and implemented for TF12 heavy flint glass. Then, a defocusing lens made of this highly nonlinear glass was used to generate an almost constant spectral broadening across a Gaussian beam profile. The lens was designed with spherical curvatures chosen in order to match the laser beam profile, such that the product of the thickness with intensity is constant. This solid-state optics in combination with chirped mirrors was used to decrease the pulse duration at the output of a terawatt-class femtosecond laser. We demonstrated compression of a 33 fs pulse to 16 fs with 170 mJ energy.

  15. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  16. An Investigation of High-Order Shock-Capturing Methods for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Baysal, Oktay

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered include: Low-dispersion scheme for nonlinear acoustic waves in nonuniform flow; Computation of acoustic scattering by a low-dispersion scheme; Algorithmic extension of low-dispersion scheme and modeling effects for acoustic wave simulation; The accuracy of shock capturing in two spatial dimensions; Using high-order methods on lower-order geometries; and Computational considerations for the simulation of discontinuous flows.

  17. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  18. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  19. Pre-plasma effect on energy transfer from laser beam to shock wave generated in solid target

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarczyk, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Folpini, G.; Maheut, Y.; Baffigi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Krousky, E.; and others

    2014-01-15

    Efficiency of the laser radiation energy transport into the shock wave generated in layered planar targets (consisting of massive Cu over coated by thin CH layer) was investigated. The targets were irradiated using two laser pulses. The 1ω pulse with the energy of ∼50 J produced a pre-plasma, imitating the corona of the pre-compressed inertial confinement fusion target. The second main pulse used the 1ω or 3ω laser harmonics with the energy of ∼200 J. The influence of the pre-plasma on parameters of the shock wave was determined from the crater volume measurements and from the electron density distribution measured by 3-frame interferometry. The experimental results show that the energy transport by fast electrons provides a definite contribution to the dynamics of the ablative process, to the shock wave generation, and to the ablation pressure in dependence on the target irradiation conditions. The strong influence of the pre-plasma on the investigated process was observed in the 1ω case. Theoretical analysis supports the explanation of experimental results.

  20. Riata silicone defibrillation lead with normal electrical measures at routine ambulatory check: The role of high-voltage shock testing

    PubMed Central

    De Maria, Elia; Borghi, Ambra; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pier Luigi; Cappelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe our experience with shock testing for the evaluation of patients with Riata™ leads. METHODS Among 51 patients with normal baseline electrical parameters, 20 died during follow-up. Of the remaining 31 patients, 15 underwent the test: In 10 cases a defibrillation testing with ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction and in 5 cases a R-wave-synchronized shock (> 20 J, without inducing VF). The test was performed under sedation with Midazolam. RESULTS Twelve patients (80%) had a normal behavior during shock testing: In 8 cases induced VF was correctly detected and treated; in 4 cases of R-wave-synchronized shock electrical parameters remained stable and normal. Three patients (20%) failed the test. One patient with externalized conductors showed a sudden drop of high-voltage impedance (< 10 Ohm) after a 25 J R-wave-synchronized shock. Two other patients with externalized conductors, undergoing defibrillation testing, showed a short-circuit during shock delivery and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator was unable to interrupt VF. CONCLUSION In Riata™ leads the delivery of a low current during routine measurement of high-voltage impedance may not reveal a small short circuit, that can only be evident by attempting to deliver a true shock, either for spontaneous arrhythmias or in the context of a shock testing. PMID:27957252

  1. The High Cadence Transient Survey (HITS). I. Survey Design and Supernova Shock Breakout Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; San Martín, J.; Hamuy, M.; Martínez, J.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Galbany, L.; de Jaeger, Th.; González–Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Kunkarayakti, H.; Pignata, G.; Bufano, F.; Littín, J.; Olivares, F.; Medina, G.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, A. K.; Estévez, P. A.; Muñoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first results of the High Cadence Transient Survey (HiTS), a survey for which the objective is to detect and follow-up optical transients with characteristic timescales from hours to days, especially the earliest hours of supernova (SN) explosions. HiTS uses the Dark Energy Camera and a custom pipeline for image subtraction, candidate filtering and candidate visualization, which runs in real-time to be able to react rapidly to the new transients. We discuss the survey design, the technical challenges associated with the real-time analysis of these large volumes of data and our first results. In our 2013, 2014, and 2015 campaigns, we detected more than 120 young SN candidates, but we did not find a clear signature from the short-lived SN shock breakouts (SBOs) originating after the core collapse of red supergiant stars, which was the initial science aim of this survey. Using the empirical distribution of limiting magnitudes from our observational campaigns, we measured the expected recovery fraction of randomly injected SN light curves, which included SBO optical peaks produced with models from Tominaga et al. (2011) and Nakar & Sari (2010). From this analysis, we cannot rule out the models from Tominaga et al. (2011) under any reasonable distributions of progenitor masses, but we can marginally rule out the brighter and longer-lived SBO models from Nakar & Sari (2010) under our best-guess distribution of progenitor masses. Finally, we highlight the implications of this work for future massive data sets produced by astronomical observatories, such as LSST.

  2. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  3. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  4. Unsteady triple-shock configurations and vortex contact structures initiated by the interaction of an energy source with a shock layer in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarova, O. A.; Gvozdeva, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of physical and chemical properties of the gaseous medium on the formation of triple Mach configurations and vortex contact structures and on the stagnation pressure and drag force dynamics has been studied for supersonic flows with external energy sources. For the ratio of specific heats that varies in a range of 1.1-1.4, a significant (up to 51.8%) difference has been obtained for the angles of triple-shock configurations in flows at Mach 4 past a cylindrically blunted plate. When studying the dynamics of the decreases in the stagnation pressure and drag force, it has been revealed that these effects are amplified and the vortex mechanism of drag reduction starts to prevail as the adiabatic index decreases.

  5. Effects of High Volume Haemodiafiltration on Inflammatory Response Profile and Microcirculation in Patients with Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Tamme, Kadri; Kruusat, Rein; Ehrlich, Hans-Erik; Viirelaid, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Background. High volumes of haemofiltration are used in septic patients to control systemic inflammation and improve patient outcomes. We aimed to clarify if extended intermittent high volume online haemodiafiltration (HVHDF) influences patient haemodynamics and cytokines profile and/or has effect upon sublingual microcirculation in critically ill septic shock patients. Methods. Main haemodynamic and clinical variables and concentrations of cytokines were evaluated before and after HVHDF in 19 patients with septic shock requiring renal replacement therapy due to acute kidney injury. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed in 9 patients. Results. The mean (SD) time of HVHDF was 9.4 (1.8) hours. The median convective volume was 123 mL/kg/h. The mean (SD) dose of norepinephrine required to maintain mean arterial pressure at the target range of 70–80 mmHg decreased from 0.40 (0.43) μg/kg/min to 0.28 (0.33) μg/kg/min (p = 0.009). No significant changes in the measured cytokines or microcirculatory parameters were observed before and after HVHDF. Conclusions. The single-centre study suggests that extended HVHDF results in decrease of norepinephrine requirement in patients with septic shock. Haemodynamic improvement was not associated with decrease in circulating cytokine levels, and sublingual microcirculation was well preserved. PMID:26064875

  6. Very High Pressure Single Pulse Shock Tube Studies of Aromatic Species

    SciTech Connect

    Brezinsky, K.

    2006-11-28

    The principal focus of this research program is aimed at understanding the oxidation and pyrolysis chemistry of primary aromatic molecules and radicals with the goal of developing a comprehensive kinetic model at conditions that are relevant to practical combustion devices. A very high pressure single pulse shock tube is used to obtain experimental data over a wide pressure range in the high pressure regime, 5-1000 bars, at pre-flame temperatures for fuel pyrolysis and oxidation over a broad spectrum of equivalence ratios. Stable species sampled from the shock tube are analyzed using standard chromatographic techniques using GC/MS-PDD and GC/TCD-FID. Experimental data from the HPST (stable species profiles) and data from other laboratories (if available) are simulated using kinetic models (if available) to develop a comprehensive model that can describe aromatics oxidation and pyrolysis over a wide range of experimental conditions. The shock tube has been heated (1000C) recently to minimize effects due to condensation of aromatic, polycyclic and other heavy species. Work during this grant period has focused on 7 main areas summarized in the final technical report.

  7. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Methods: Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. Findings: During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). Conclusion: High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies. PMID:27162802

  8. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.

    PubMed

    Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.

  9. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  10. High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's challenge on advanced concept activity in the propulsion area, we initiated a new program entitled "High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion Studies" within the current cooperative agreement in 1998. The goals of this work are to gain further understanding of the engine of the AIMStar spacecraft, a concept which was developed at Penn State University, and to develop a prototype concept for the engine. The AIMStar engine concept was developed at Penn State University several years ago as a hybrid between antimatter and fusion technologies. Because of limited amounts of antimatter available, and concurrently the demonstrated ability for antiprotons to efficiently ignite nuclear fusion reactions, it was felt that this was a very good match. Investigations have been made concerning the performance of the reaction trap. This is a small Penning-like electromagnetic trap, which is used to simultaneously confine antiprotons and fusion fuels. Small DHe3 or DT droplets, containing a few percent molar of a fissile material, are injected into the trap, filled with antiprotons. We have found that it is important to separate the antiprotons into two adjacent wells, to inject he droplet between them and to simultaneously bring the antiprotons to the center of the trap, surrounding the droplet. Our previous concept had the droplet falling onto one cloud of antiprotons. This proved to be inefficient, as the droplet tended to evaporate away from the cloud as it interacted on its surface.

  11. High-energy thermal synchrotron emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Epstein, R. I.; Petrosian, V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the thermal synchrotron emission spectrum is modified when the photon energy is greater than the mean energy of the radiating particles. The effect if applying this energy conservation constraint is to produce spectra which have less high-energy photon emission than had been previously estimated. The thermal synchrotron spectra provide satisfactory fits to recently observed very high energy gamma ray spectra of certain burst sources.

  12. High energy devices versus low energy devices in orthopedics treatment modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheiss, Reiner

    2003-10-01

    The orthopedic consensus group defined in 1997 the 42 most likely relevant parameters of orthopedic shock wave devices. The idea of this approach was to correlate the different clinical outcomes with the physical properties of the different devices with respect to their acoustical waves. Several changes in the hypothesis of the dose effect relationship have been noticed since the first orthopedic treatments. The relation started with the maximum pressure p+, followed by the total energy, the energy density; and finally the single treatment approach using high, and then the multiple treatment method using low energy. Motivated by the reimbursement situation in Germany some manufacturers began to redefine high and low energy devices independent of the treatment modality. The OssaTron as a high energy, single treatment electro hydraulic device gained FDA approval as the first orthopedic ESWT device for plantar fasciitis and, more recently, for lateral epicondylitis. Two low energy devices have now also gained FDA approval based upon a single treatment. Comparing the acoustic data, differences between the OssaTron and the other devices are obvious and will be elaborated upon. Cluster analysis of the outcomes and the acoustical data are presented and new concepts will be suggested.

  13. High transcript levels of heat-shock genes are associated with shorter lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Manière, X; Krisko, A; Pellay, F X; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Matic, I

    2014-12-01

    Individual lifespans of isogenic organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, fruit flies, and mice, vary greatly even under identical environmental conditions. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for such variability, we used an assay based on the measurement of post-reproductive nematode movements stimulated by a moderate electric field. This assay allows for the separation of individual nematodes based on their speed. We show that this phenotype could be used as a biomarker for aging because it is a better predictor of lifespan than chronological age. Fast nematodes have longer lifespans, fewer protein carbonyls, higher heat-shock resistance, and higher transcript levels of the daf-16 and hsf-1 genes, which code for the stress response transcription factors, than slow nematodes. High transcript levels of the genes coding for heat-shock proteins observed in slow nematodes correlate with lower heat-shock resistance, more protein carbonyls, and shorter lifespan. Taken together, our data suggests that shorter lifespan results from early-life damage accumulation that causes subsequent faster age-related deterioration.

  14. A class of high resolution explicit and implicit shock-capturing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to give a unified and generalized formulation of a class of high resolution, explicit and implicit shock capturing methods, and to illustrate their versatility in various steady and unsteady complex shock wave computations. Included is a systematic review of the basic design principle of the various related numerical methods. Special emphasis is on the construction of the basis nonlinear, spatially second and third order schemes for nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws and the methods of extending these nonlinear scalar schemes to nonlinear systems via the approximate Riemann solvers and the flux vector splitting approaches. Generalization of these methods to efficiently include equilibrium real gases and large systems of nonequilibrium flows are discussed. Some issues concerning the applicability of these methods that were designed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws to problems containing stiff source terms and shock waves are also included. The performance of some of these schemes is illustrated by numerical examples for 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional gas dynamics problems.

  15. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration at oblique shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Jones, Frank C.

    1994-01-01

    The Fermi shock acceleration mechanism may be responsible for the production of high-energy cosmic rays in a wide variety of environments. Modeling of this phenomenon has largely focused on plane-parallel shocks, and one of the most promising techniques for its study is the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in shocked fluid flows. One of the principal problems in shock acceleration theory is the mechanism and efficiency of injection of particles from the thermal gas into the accelerated population. The Monte Carlo technique is ideally suited to addressing the injection problem directly, and previous applications of it to the quasi-parallel Earth bow shock led to very successful modeling of proton and heavy ion spectra, as well as other observed quantities. Recently this technique has been extended to oblique shock geometries, in which the upstream magnetic field makes a significant angle Theta(sub B1) to the shock normal. Spectral resutls from test particle Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique, nonrelativistic shocks are presented. The results show that low Mach number shocks have injection efficiencies that are relatively insensitive to (though not independent of) the shock obliquity, but that there is a dramatic drop in efficiency for shocks of Mach number 30 or more as the obliquity increases above 15 deg. Cosmic-ray distributions just upstream of the shock reveal prominent bumps at energies below the thermal peak; these disappear far upstream but might be observable features close to astrophysical shocks.

  17. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos from semirelativistic hypernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangyu; Razzaque, Soebur; Meszaros, Peter; Dai Zigao

    2007-10-15

    The origin of the ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) from the second knee ({approx}6x10{sup 17} eV) above in the CR spectrum is still unknown. Recently, there has been growing evidence that a peculiar type of supernovae, called hypernovae, are associated with subenergetic gamma-ray bursts, such as SN1998bw/GRB980425 and SN2003lw/GRB031203. Such hypernovae appear to have high (up to mildly relativistic) velocity ejecta, which may be linked to the subenergetic gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a continuous distribution of the kinetic energy of the hypernova ejecta as a function of its velocity E{sub k}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup -{alpha}} with {alpha}{approx}2, we find that (1) the external shock wave produced by the high-velocity ejecta of a hypernova can accelerate protons up to energies as high as 10{sup 19} eV; (2) the cosmological hypernova rate is sufficient to account for the energy flux above the second knee; and (3) the steeper spectrum of CRs at these energies can arise in these sources. In addition, hypernovae would also give rise to a faint diffuse UHE neutrino flux, due to p{gamma} interactions of the UHE CRs with hypernova optical-UV photons.

  18. On the high Mach number shock structure singularity caused by overreach of Maxwellian molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Myong, R. S.

    2014-05-15

    The high Mach number shock structure singularity arising in moment equations of the Boltzmann equation was investigated. The source of the singularity is shown to be the unbalanced treatment between two high order kinematic and dissipation terms caused by the overreach of Maxwellian molecule assumption. In compressive gaseous flow, the high order stress-strain coupling term of quadratic nature will grow far faster than the strain term, resulting in an imbalance with the linear dissipation term and eventually a blow-up singularity in high thermal nonequilibrium. On the other hand, the singularity arising from unbalanced treatment does not occur in the case of velocity shear and expansion flows, since the high order effects are cancelled under the constraint of the free-molecular asymptotic behavior. As an alternative method to achieve the balanced treatment, Eu's generalized hydrodynamics, consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, was revisited. After introducing the canonical distribution function in exponential form and applying the cumulant expansion to the explicit calculation of the dissipation term, a natural platform suitable for the balanced treatment was derived. The resulting constitutive equation with the nonlinear factor was then shown to be well-posed for all regimes, effectively removing the high Mach number shock structure singularity.

  19. [Mechanism of dwarfing effect of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seedlings induced by cold-shock treatment under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Bi, Ming-ming; Chen, Fei; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2015-07-01

    To explore the dwarfing mechanism of tomato seedlings induced by cold-shock treatment followed by high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treatment once a day at 8:00 with temperature of 5, 10 and 15 °C for 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively, and ethylene production rate was measured. Plant height, ethylene production and gibberellin (GA3) content of the seedlings treated with T10 °C D10 min (cold-shock with 10 °C for 10 min), coupled with utilization of growth regulators, were also evaluated. The results showed that the release of ethylene was increased with the decrease of cold-shock temperature and extension of treatment time. The cold-shock treatment of 5 °C and 30 min had the highest ethylene production rate of 60.3 nL h-1 . g-1, which was 6.5 times of the control. None of ethephon (ETH), silver thiosulphate (STS), GA, or paclobutrazol (PP333) could completely block high ethylene production induced by cold-shock treatment. Tomato seedlings with cold-shock treatment (T10 °C D10 min ) resulted in reduction in GA3 content by 38.1% compared with the value of control (130.6 µg . g-1). Neither ethephon nor STS had significant effect on the dwarfing induced by cold-shock. However, GA3 weakened the dwarfing effect induced by cold-shock treatment (T10 °C D10 min), while PP333 greatly enhanced it. The dwarfing effect by cold-shock treatment of T10 °C D10 min was equivalent to that of application of 4.0 mg . L-1 PP333 based on the seedling height as an evaluation indicator. It was concluded that cold-shock treatment stimulated shoot ethylene production and blocked GA3 synthesis. GA3 played a vital role in dwarfing effect on tomato seedling induced by cold-shock treatment. Cold-shock with 10 °C and duration of 10 min could promote the growth of tomato seedlings with shorter stem and higher dry mass accumulation.

  20. Metabolic and Biomechanical Measures of Gait Efficiency of Three Multi-Axial, Vertical Shock and Energy Storing-Return Prosthetic Feet During Simple and Complex Mobility Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    three different multi-function prosthetic feet (vertical shock, torsion control, multiaxial and energy storing). At this time, the study is still...function prosthetic feet (vertical shock, torsion control, multiaxial and energy storing). Subjects will be recruited based on a history of active...bioenergetic differences exist between feet conditions during the performance of a field Obstacle Course in total and per obstacle. Aim 5: To

  1. A new relativistic hydrodynamics code for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Akamatsu, Yukinao; Nonaka, Chiho

    2016-10-01

    We construct a new Godunov type relativistic hydrodynamics code in Milne coordinates, using a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation which is stable under the existence of large shock waves. We check the correctness of the numerical algorithm by comparing numerical calculations and analytical solutions in various problems, such as shock tubes, expansion of matter into the vacuum, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution, and propagation of fluctuations around Bjorken flow and Gubser flow. We investigate the energy and momentum conservation property of our code in a test problem of longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion with an initial condition for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We also discuss numerical viscosity in the test problems of expansion of matter into the vacuum and conservation properties. Furthermore, we discuss how the numerical stability is affected by the source terms of relativistic numerical hydrodynamics in Milne coordinates.

  2. States of high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O/sup 16/ and S/sup 32/ incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O/sup 16/ on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dsigmadN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dsigmadE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations.

  3. High-Energy Astrophysics: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics is the study of objects and phenomena in space with energy densities much greater than that found in normal stars and galaxies. These include black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, hypernovae and gamma-ray bursts. A history and an overview of high-energy astrophysics will be presented, including a description of the objects that are observed. Observing techniques, space-borne missions in high-energy astrophysics and some recent discoveries will also be described. Several entirely new types of astronomy are being employed in high-energy astrophysics. These will be briefly described, along with some NASA missions currently under development.

  4. High Shock, High Frequency Characteristics of a Mechanical Isolator for a Piezoresistive Accelerometer, the ENDEVCO 7270AM6*

    SciTech Connect

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.

    2000-07-01

    A mechanical isolator has been developed for a piezoresistive accelerometer. The purpose of the isolator is to mitigate high frequency shocks before they reach the accelerometer because the high frequency shocks may cause the accelerometer to resonate. Since the accelerometer is undamped, it often breaks when it resonates. The mechanical isolator was developed in response to impact test requirements for a variety of structures at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). An Extended Technical Assistance Program (ETAP) with the accelerometer manufacturer has resulted in a commercial mechanically isolated accelerometer that is available to the general public, the ENDEVCO 7270AM6*, for three shock acceleration ranges of 6,000 g, 20,000 g, and 60,000 g. The in-axis response shown in this report has acceptable frequency domain performance from DC to 10 kHz and 10(XO)over a temperature range of {minus}65 F to +185 F. Comparisons with other isolated accelerometers show that the ENDEVCO 7270AM6 has ten times the bandwidth of any other commercial isolator. ENDEVCO 7270AM6 cross-axis response is shown in this report.

  5. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  6. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  7. Impact of an Elevated Temperature Environment on Sn-Ag-Cu Interconnect Board Level High-G Mechanical Shock Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Baty, Greg; Bieler, Thomas R.; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-12-01

    The mechanical stability of Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects with low and high silver content against mechanical shock at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. With a heating element-embedded printed circuit board design, a test temperature from room temperature to 80°C was established. High impact shock tests were applied to isothermally pre-conditioned ball-grid array interconnects. Under cyclic shock testing, degradation and improved shock performances were identified associated with test temperature variation and non-solder mask defined and solder-mask defined pad design configuration differences. Different crack propagation paths were observed, induced by the effect of the elevated temperature test conditions and isothermal aging pre-conditions.

  8. Observations of low-energy electrons upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of electron fluxes with a lunar-based electron spectrometer when the moon was upstream of the earth have shown that a subset of observed fluxes are strongly controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field direction. The fluxes occur only when the IMF lines connect back to the earth's bow shock. Observed densities and temperatures were in the ranges 2-4 x 0,001/cu cm and 1.7-2.8 x 1,000,000 K. It is shown that these electrons can account for increases in effective solar wind electron temperatures on bow-shock connected field lines which have been observed previously by other investigators. It is further shown that if a model of the bow shock with an electrostatic potential barrier is assumed, the potential can be estimated to be 500 volts.

  9. Electron Accelerations at High Mach Number Shocks: Two-dimensional Particle-in-cell Simulations in Various Parameter Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yosuke; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfvén Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron β e (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA ~ 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and β e = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.

  10. Electron Accelerations at High Mach Number Shocks: Two-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulations in Various Parameter Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.

    2012-12-01

    Electron accelerations at high Mach number collision-less shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron βe (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We found electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA ~ 30) with a mass ratio of M/m=100 and βe=0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with the large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely-high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low. Matsumoto et al., Astrophys. J., 755, 109, 2012.

  11. ELECTRON ACCELERATIONS AT HIGH MACH NUMBER SHOCKS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS IN VARIOUS PARAMETER REGIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yosuke; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2012-08-20

    Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.

  12. Surfing the High Energy Output Branch of Nonlinear Energy Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Mallick, D; Amann, A; Roy, S

    2016-11-04

    Hysteresis and multistability are fundamental phenomena of driven nonlinear oscillators, which, however, restrict many applications such as mechanical energy harvesting. We introduce an electrical control mechanism to switch from the low to the high energy output branch of a nonlinear energy harvester by exploiting the strong interplay between its electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom. This method improves the energy conversion efficiency over a wide bandwidth in a frequency-amplitude-varying environment using only a small energy budget. The underlying effect is independent of the device scale and the transduction method and is explained using a modified Duffing oscillator model.

  13. Surfing the High Energy Output Branch of Nonlinear Energy Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, D.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-11-01

    Hysteresis and multistability are fundamental phenomena of driven nonlinear oscillators, which, however, restrict many applications such as mechanical energy harvesting. We introduce an electrical control mechanism to switch from the low to the high energy output branch of a nonlinear energy harvester by exploiting the strong interplay between its electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom. This method improves the energy conversion efficiency over a wide bandwidth in a frequency-amplitude-varying environment using only a small energy budget. The underlying effect is independent of the device scale and the transduction method and is explained using a modified Duffing oscillator model.

  14. High energy resolution plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Feng, Patrick; Markosyan, Gary; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Doty, Patrick; Shah, Kanai S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on a novel tin-loaded plastic scintillator. We will show that this particular plastic scintillator has a light output similar to that of BGO, a fast scintillation decay (< 10 ns), exhibits good neutron/gamma PSD with a Figure-of-Merit of 1.3 at 2.5 MeVee cut-off energy, and excellent energy resolution of about 12% (FWHM) at 662 keV. Under X-ray excitation, the radioluminescence spectrum exhibits a broad band between 350 and 500 nm peaking at 420 nm which is well-matched to bialkali photomultiplier tubes and UV-enhanced photodiodes.

  15. PAMELA's Measurements of Magnetospheric Effects on High Energy Solar Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, Georgia; Boezio, M.; Bravar, Ulisse; Bruno, A.; Christian, Eric R.; Martucci, M.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, James Michael; Stochaj, Steven; Thakur, N.

    2015-04-01

    Whether solar energetic particles (SEP) attain energies in excess of a GeV through flare reconnection or through CME-driven shocks is still in debate today. Observations of the properties of SEPs relate both to the acceleration mechanisms at play but also to the influences experienced during transport. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument, provides new observations of SEPs that uniquely set apart the affects of acceleration from those of transport. PAMELA detects the composition and the angular distribution of the particles about the magnetic field, i.e. pitch angle distribution, over a broad energy range (from ~80 MeV to beyond one GeV) -- bridging a critical gap between space-based measurements and ground-based. We report on the observation of high-energy SEP data from PAMELA acquired during the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement (GLE). These data exhibit differential anisotropies and thus transport features over the instrument rigidity range. SEP protons exhibit two distinct pitch angle distributions; a low-energy population that extends to 90° and a population that is beamed at high energies (> 1 GeV), consistent with neutron monitor measurements. The arrival of SEPs over a broad range in energy at Earth within 20 minutes sets strong constraints on the pitch angle distribution of SEPs originating at the Sun. To explain a low-energy SEP population that exhibits significant scattering or redistribution accompanied by a high-energy population that reaches the Earth relatively unaffected by dispersive transport effects, we postulate that the scattering or redistribution takes place locally. We believe these are the first comprehensive measurements of the effects of solar energetic particle transport in the Earth's magnetosheath.

  16. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  17. On the deficit problem of mass and energy of solar coronal mass ejections connected with interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanchuk, V. I.; Pishkalo, N. I.

    1995-01-01

    Mean values of a number of parameters of the most powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary shocks generated by these ejections are estimated using an analysis of data obtained by the cosmic coronagraphs and spacecrafts, and geomagnetic storm measurements. It was payed attention that the shock mass and mechanical energy, averaging 5 x 10(exp 16) grm and 2 x 10(exp 32) erg respectively, are nearly 10 times larger than corresponding parameters of the ejections. So, the CME energy deficit problem seems to exist really. To solve this problem one can make an assumption that the process of the mass and energy growth of CMEs during their propagation out of the Sun observed in the solar corona is continued in supercorona too up to distances of 10-30 solar radii. This assumption is confirmed by the data analysis of five events observed using zodiacal light photometers of the HELIOS- I and HELIOS-2 spacecrafts. The mass growth rate is estimated to be equal to (1-7) x 10(exp 11) grm/sec. It is concluded that the CME contribution to mass and energy flows in the solar winds probably, is larger enough than the value of 3-5% adopted usually.

  18. High-temperature shock formation of N2 and organics on primordial Titan.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Scattergood, T W; Pollack, J B; Borucki, W J; Van Ghyseghem, H T

    1988-04-07

    Titan's atmosphere is composed primarily of N2 with a little methane and other organic molecules. But theoretical models suggest that the initial form of nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere may have been NH3. We have investigated the possible importance of strong shocks produced during high-velocity impacts accompanying the late states of accretion as a method for converting NH3 to N2. To simulate the effects of an impact in Titan's atmosphere we have used the focused beam of a high-power laser, a method that has been shown to simulate shock phenomena. For mixtures of 10%, 50% and 90% NH3 (balance CH4) we obtained yields of 0.25, 1, and 6 x 10(17) molecules of N2 per joule, respectively. We also find that the yield of HCN is comparable to that for N2. In addition, several other hydrocarbons are produced, many with yields in excess of theoretical high-temperature-equilibrium models. The above yields, when combined with models of the satellite's accretion, result in a total N2 production comparable to that present in Titan's atmosphere and putative ocean.

  19. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. PMID:27877617

  20. Assessment of Aerothermal Heating Augmentation Attributed to Surface Catalysis in High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M.; Holden, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gas/surface interaction in making CFD predictions of convective heating has been considered with application to ground tests performed in high enthalpy shock tunnels where additional heating augmentation attributable to surface recombination has been observed for nitrogen, air and carbon dioxide flows. For test articles constructed of stainless steel and aluminum, measurements have been made with several types of heat transfer instrumentation including thin- film, calorimeter, and coaxial thermocouple sensors. These experiments have been modeled by computations made with the high quality, chemically reacting, Navier- Stokes solver, DPLR and the heating results compared. Some typical cases considered include results on an axisymmetric sphere-cone, axisymmetric spherical capsule, spherical capsule at angle of attack, and two- dimensional cylinder. In nitrogen flows, cases considered show a recombination probability on the order of 10-3, which agrees with published data. In many cases in air and CO2, measurements exceeding the predicted level of convective heating have been observed which are consistent with approximately complete recombination (to O2/N2 or CO2) on the surface of the model (sometimes called a super-catalytic wall). It has been recognized that the conclusion that this behavior is tied to an excessively high degree of catalytic efficiency is dependent on the current understanding of the freestream and shock-layer state of the gas.

  1. Theory and High-Energy-Density Laser Experiments Relevant to Accretion Processes in Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauland, Christine; Drake, R.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Busschaert, C.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Pelka, A.; Koenig, M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Plewa, T.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Villete, B.; Young, R.; Keiter, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    We present results from high-energy-density (HED) laboratory experiments that explore the contribution of radiative shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) systems in which they reside. CVs can be classified under two main categories, non-magnetic and magnetic. In the process of accretion, both types involve strongly radiating shocks that provide the main source of radiation in the binary systems. This radiation can cause varying structure to develop depending on the optical properties of the material on either side of the shock. The ability of high-intensity lasers to create large energy densities in targets of millimeter-scale volume makes it feasible to create similar radiative shocks in the laboratory. We provide an overview of both CV systems and their connection to the designed and executed laboratory experiments preformed on two laser facilities. Available data and accompanying simulations will likewise be shown. Funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Prog. in High-Energy-Density Lab. Plasmas, by the Nat. Laser User Facility Prog. in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sci. Acad. Alliances Prog. in NNSA-ASC, under grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  2. Thermal Shock Behavior of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High Temperatures Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been considered as refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermal mechanical reliability of the oxide components in severe thermal environments during space mission sun/shade transitions is of great concern. In this paper, critical mechanical properties of these oxide crystals are determined by the indentation technique. Thermal shock resistance of the oxides is evaluated using a high power CO, laser under high temperature-high thermal gradients. Thermal stress fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated under various temperature and heating conditions.

  3. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard`s High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops.

  4. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops.

  5. Shock finding on a moving-mesh - II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Kevin; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star-forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below mathcal {M}≈ 10 contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in sharp contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a large part of the difference arises due to strong black hole radio-mode feedback in Illustris. We also provide an overview of the large diversity of shock morphologies, which includes complex networks of halo-internal shocks, shocks on to cosmic sheets, feedback shocks due to black holes and galactic winds, as well as ubiquitous accretion shocks. In high-redshift systems more massive than 1012 M⊙, we discover the existence of a double accretion shock pattern in haloes. They are created when gas streams along filaments without being shocked at the outer accretion shock, but then forms a second, roughly spherical accretion shock further inside.

  6. Acceleration of positrons in supernova shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.

    1992-01-01

    During this project we investigated the acceleration of leptons (electrons and positrons) in collisionless shock waves. In particular, we were interested in how leptons are accelerated in the blast waves existing in the remnants of supernova explosions. Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been considered as the most likely source of galactic cosmic rays but no definite connection between SNRs and the cosmic rays seen at earth can be made. Only by understanding lepton acceleration in shocks can the rich SNR data base be properly used to understand cosmic ray origins. Our project was directed at the neglected aspects of lepton acceleration. We showed that the efficiency of lepton acceleration depended critically on the lepton injection energy. We showed that, even when infection effects are not important, that proton and lepton distribution functions produced by shocks are quite different in the critical energy range for producing the observed synchrotron emission. We also showed that transrelativistic effects produced proton spectra that were not in agreement with standard results from radio observations, but that the lepton spectra were, in fact, consistent with observations. We performed simulations of relativistic shocks (shocks where the flow speed is a sizable fraction of the speed of light) and discovered some interesting effects. We first demonstrated the power of the Monte Carlo technique by determining the shock jump conditions in relativistic shocks. We then proceeded to determine how relativistic shocks accelerate particles. We found that nonlinear relativistic shocks treat protons and leptons even more differently than nonrelativistic shocks. The transrelativistic effects on the shock structure from the heavy ion component reduces the lepton acceleration to a tiny fraction of the ion acceleration. This effect is dramatic even if high energy leptons (many times thermal energy) are injected, and was totally unexpected. Our results have important

  7. Higher Energy Plasma Ions found near the Termination Shock: Analyses of Voyager 2 Data in the Heliosheath and in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Intriligator, James; Miller, W. David; Webber, William R.; Decker, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We have found in the Voyager 2 (V2) plasma science data in the heliosheath (HS) near the termination shock (TS) high-energy ions (HEIs) in addition to the bulk plasma convective flow ions. The HEI detections temporally coincide with increased V2 plasma wave subsystem (PWS) activity in "event A"h of Gurnett and Kurth. Maxwellian fits to HEI detections indicate the HEIs are moving radially anti -Sunward with a proton speed of 600 km/s, a density of 10(exp -4) (exp -3), and a thermal speed of 10 km/s. The heliosheath bulk convective protons have a speed of 204 km/s, a density of 0.0029 cm(exp -3), and a thermal speed of 26.7 km/s. The HEI flux and ram pressure are approximately 10% and 30% of those of the bulk HS flow. Since the HEI speed is both close to twice the solar wind speed and independent of the heliosheath bulk plasma speed, the HEIs may be detections of pickup protons formed in the solar wind and convected through the TS. The HEIs also are reminiscent of the pickup protons upstream of the Mars bow shock where their energy also was independent of the bulk plasma speed and attributed to multiple reflections off the Mars bow shock. Gurnett and Kurth 's (2008) event A enhanced PWS activity may be generated by a two ]stream instability from the interaction of these HEIs with the heliosheath bulk plasma ions. We present our findings, discuss their implications, and also present alternative interpretations.

  8. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  9. Accretion, jets and winds: High-energy emission from young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.

    2011-06-01

    This article summarizes the processes of high-energy emission in young stellar objects. Stars of spectral type A and B are called Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars in this stage, all later spectral types are termed classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Both types are studied by high-resolution X-ray and UV spectroscopy and modeling. Three mechanisms contribute to the high-energy emission from CTTS: 1) CTTS have active coronae similar to main-sequence stars, 2) the accreted material passes through an accretion shock at the stellar surface, which heats it to a few MK, and 3) some CTTS drive powerful outflows. Shocks within these jets can heat the plasma to X-ray emitting temperatures. Coronae are already well characterized in the literature; for the latter two scenarios models are shown. The magnetic field suppresses motion perpendicular to the field lines in the accretion shock, thus justifying a 1D geometry. The radiative loss is calculated as optically thin emission. A mixture of shocked and coronal gas is fitted to X-ray observations of accreting CTTS. Specifically, the model explains the peculiar line-ratios in the He-like triplets of Ne IX and O VII. All stars require only small mass accretion rates to power the X-ray emission. In contrast, the HAeBe HD 163296 has line ratios similar to coronal sources, indicating that neither a high density nor a strong UV-field is present in the region of the X-ray emission. This could be caused by a shock in its jet. Similar emission is found in the deeply absorbed CTTS DG Tau. Shock velocities between 400 and 500 km s-1 are required to explain the observed spectrum. Doctoral Thesis Award Lecture 2010

  10. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  11. Shock adhesion test for composite bonded assembly using a high pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, E.; Berthe, L.; Buzaud, E.; Boustie, M.; Arrigoni, M.

    2013-07-01

    In a context of the rising use of composite assemblies in aeronautic or defense fields, the assessment of their strength is a key issue. The method developed in this study attempts to provide solutions. A shock adhesion test based on short compressive loads, obtained by a high pulsed power generator, is proposed as a proof test to ensure the quality of composite bonded assemblies. A calibrated load induces a local tensile stress able to damage the bond interface. The high pulsed power source is the GEnerateur de Pression Isentropique device (Isentropic Pressure Generator), used to generate the required stresses, with a 450 ns pulse duration to test assemblies above the mm thickness range. The understanding of the mechanisms of wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these multilayer assemblies are scientific challenges. The ability of the technique to induce a tensile stress able to disbond the laminates and the assemblies is demonstrated. This paper details the response of carbon epoxy laminates and their bonded assemblies to a shock loading near the damage threshold.

  12. Impact angle control of interplanetary shock geoeffectiveness: A statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Raeder, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of interplanetary (IP) shocks using Wind and ACE satellite data from January 1995 to December 2013 to study how IP shock geoeffectiveness is controlled by IP shock impact angles. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. The yearly number of IP shocks is found to correlate well with the monthly sunspot number. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index, an enhanced version of the familiar AL index, is used in our statistical analysis. The jumps of the SML index triggered by IP shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere are investigated in terms of IP shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong (high speed) and almost frontal (small impact angle) shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The strongest correlation (correlation coefficient R = 0.78) occurs for fixed IP shock speed and for varied IP shock impact angle. We attribute this result, predicted previously with simulations, to the fact that frontal shocks compress the magnetosphere symmetrically from all sides, which is a favorable condition for the release of magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail, which in turn can produce moderate to strong auroral substorms, which are then observed by ground-based magnetometers.

  13. The spermatozoa of the dasyurid marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata, are highly susceptible to cold shock.

    PubMed

    Czarny, N A; Rodger, J C

    2010-01-01

    Since the late 1970s research has suggested that marsupial spermatozoa did not suffer cold shock. We have re-examined cold shock to investigate problems with freezing of spermatozoa from a dasyurid marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata). Epididymal spermatozoa were rapidly cooled to 0.5 degrees C in a pre-cooled tube held in an iced-water slurry. Upon re-warming all spermatozoa were immotile and the addition of 10% or 20% egg yolk to the sperm medium had no beneficial effect. Spermatozoa that were rapidly cooled to 4 degrees C maintained only 2% motility when re-warmed but the addition of at least 10% egg yolk was beneficial and upon re-warming greater than 65% of the initial motility was maintained. In order to achieve motile spermatozoa at 0 degrees C, controlled-rate cooling at 0.5 degrees C min(-1) was examined. In the absence of egg yolk there was a significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa below 4 degrees C. However, the inclusion of at least 10% egg yolk resulted in no loss of motility in spermatozoa cooled to 0 degrees C. This is the first experimental study indicating that spermatozoa from a marsupial are highly susceptible to cold shock and that the impact of rapid chilling can be mitigated by the addition of 10% egg yolk. The ability to successfully cool the spermatozoa of S. crassicaudata to 0 degrees C may have an important role in future studies examining dasyurid sperm cryopreservation.

  14. Fundamentals of collisionless shocks for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the theory and properties of nonrelativistic shocks in hot collisionless plasmas—in view of their possible application in astrophysics. Understanding non-relativistic collisionless shocks is an indispensable step towards a general account of collisionless astrophysical shocks of high Mach number and of their effects in dissipating flow-energy, in heating matter, in accelerating particles to high—presumably cosmic-ray—energies, and in generating detectable radiation from radio to X-rays. Non-relativistic shocks have Alfvénic Mach numbers {{fancyscript{M}}_A≪ sqrt{m_i/m_e}(ω_{pe}/ω_{ce})}, where m i / m e is the ion-to-electron mass ratio, and ω pe , ω ce are the electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. Though high, the temperatures of such shocks are limited (in energy units) to T < m e c 2. This means that particle creation is inhibited, classical theory is applicable, and reaction of radiation on the dynamics of the shock can be neglected. The majority of such shocks are supercritical, meaning that non-relativistic shocks are unable to self-consistently produce sufficient dissipation and, thus, to sustain a stationary shock transition. As a consequence, supercritical shocks act as efficient particle reflectors. All these shocks are microscopically thin, with shock-transition width of the order of the ion inertial length λ i = c/ ω pi (with ω pi the ion plasma frequency). The full theory of such shocks is developed, and the different possible types of shocks are defined. Since all collisionless shocks are magnetised, the most important distinction is between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks. The former propagate about perpendicularly, the latter roughly parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Their manifestly different behaviours are described in detail. In particular, although both types of shocks are non-stationary, they have completely different reformation cycles. From numerical

  15. Shock wave reflection induced detonation (SWRID) under high pressure and temperature condition in closed cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Qi, Y.; Liu, H.; Zhang, P.; He, X.; Wang, J.

    2016-09-01

    Super-knock is one of the major obstacles for improving power density in advanced internal combustion engines (ICE). This work studied the mechanism of super-knock initiation using a rapid compression machine that simulated conditions relevant to ICEs and provided excellent optical accessibility. Based on the high-speed images and pressure traces of the stoichiometric iso-octane/oxygen/nitrogen combustion under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, it was observed that detonation was first initiated in the near-wall region as a result of shock wave reflection. Before detonation was initiated, the speed of the combustion wave front was less than that of the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed (around 1840 m/s). In the immediate vicinity of the initiation, the detonation speed was much higher than that of the C-J detonation.

  16. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  17. Energy deposition of quasi-two temperature relativistic electrons in fast-shock ignition scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seyed Abolfazl; Farahbod, Amir Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Previous calculations from Solodov et al. (2008) indicate that classical stopping and scattering dominate electrons energy deposition and transport when the electrons reach the dense plasma in FSI inertial confinement fusion concept [1]. Our calculations show that, by using quasi- two temperature electrons energy distribution function [2] in comparison with exponential [3] or monoenergetic distribution function and also increasing fast electrons energy to about 7 MeV, the ratio of beam blooming to straggling definitely decreases. Our analytical analysis shows that for fuel mass more than 1 mg and for fast ignitor wavelength λif > 0.53 μ m, straggling and beam blooming increases. Meanwhile, by reducing fast ignitor wavelength from 0.53 to 0.35 micron, and for fuel mass about 2 mg, electron penetration into the dense fuel slightly increases. Therefore, reduction of scattering (blooming and straggling) of electrons and enhancement of electron penetration into the dense fuel, can be obtained in relativistic regime with high energy fast electrons of the order of 5 Mev and more. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and PIC simulations of the electron transport in fast ignition scenario.

  18. High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Hadjadj, A.; Wray, A.; Sjögreen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with shocks employing explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) filtering may encounter a loss of accuracy in the vicinity of a shock. In this work we perform a comparative study of different approaches to reduce this loss of accuracy within the framework of the dynamic Germano SGS model. One of the possible approaches is to apply Harten's subcell resolution procedure to locate and sharpen the shock, and to use a one-sided test filter at the grid points adjacent to the exact shock location. The other considered approach is local disabling of the SGS terms in the vicinity of the shock location. In this study we use a canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem for comparison of the considered modifications of the SGS filtering procedure. For the considered test case both approaches show a similar improvement in the accuracy near the shock.

  19. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  20. Shock initiation of nano-Al/Teflon: High dynamic range pyrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-launched flyer plates (25 μm thick Cu) were used to impact-initiate reactive materials consisting of 40 nm Al particles embedded in TeflonAF polymer (Al/Teflon) on sapphire substrates at a stoichiometric concentration (2.3:1 Teflon:Al), as well as one-half and one-fourth that concentration. A high dynamic range emission spectrometer was used to time and spectrally resolve the emitted light and to determine graybody temperature histories with nanosecond time resolution. At 0.5 km s-1, first light emission was observed from Teflon, but at 0.6 km s-1, the emission from Al/Teflon became much more intense, so we assigned the impact threshold for Al/Teflon reactions to be 0.6 (±0.1) km s-1. The flyer plates produced a 7 ns duration steady shock drive. Emission from shocked Al/Teflon above threshold consisted of two bursts. At the higher impact velocities, the first burst started 15 ns after impact, peaked at 25 ns, and persisted for 75 ns. The second burst started at a few hundred nanoseconds and lasted until 2 μs. The 15 ns start time was exactly the time the flyer plate velocity dropped to zero after impact with sapphire. The first burst was associated with shock-triggered reactions and the second, occurring at ambient pressure, was associated with combustion of leftover material that did not react during shock. The emission spectrum was found to be a good fit to a graybody at all times, allowing temperature histories to be extracted. At 25 ns, the temperature at 0.7 km s-1 and the one-fourth Al load was 3800 K. Those temperatures increased significantly with impact velocity, up to 4600 K, but did not increase as much with Al load. A steady combustion process at 2800 (±100) K was observed in the microsecond range. The minimal dependence on Al loading indicates that these peak temperatures arise primarily from Al nanoparticles reacting almost independently, since the presence of nearby heat sources had little influence on the peak temperatures.

  1. High energy physics in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  2. Explicit and implicit compact high-resolution shock-capturing methods for multidimensional Euler equations 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1995-01-01

    Two classes of explicit compact high-resolution shock-capturing methods for the multidimensional compressible Euler equations for fluid dynamics are constructed. Some of these schemes can be fourth-order accurate away from discontinuities. For the semi-discrete case their shock-capturing properties are of the total variation diminishing (TVD), total variation bounded (TVB), total variation diminishing in the mean (TVDM), essentially nonoscillatory (ENO), or positive type of scheme for 1-D scalar hyperbolic conservation laws and are positive schemes in more than one dimension. These fourth-order schemes require the same grid stencil as their second-order non-compact cousins. One class does not require the standard matrix inversion or a special numerical boundary condition treatment associated with typical compact schemes. Due to the construction, these schemes can be viewed as approximations to genuinely multidimensional schemes in the sense that they might produce less distortion in spherical type shocks and are more accurate in vortex type flows than schemes based purely on one-dimensional extensions. However, one class has a more desirable high-resolution shock-capturing property and a smaller operation count in 3-D than the other class. The extension of these schemes to coupled nonlinear systems can be accomplished using the Roe approximate Riemann solver, the generalized Steger and Warming flux-vector splitting or the van Leer type flux-vector splitting. Modification to existing high-resolution second- or third-order non-compact shock-capturing computer codes is minimal. High-resolution shock-capturing properties can also be achieved via a variant of the second-order Lax-Friedrichs numerical flux without the use of Riemann solvers for coupled nonlinear systems with comparable operations count to their classical shock-capturing counterparts. The simplest extension to viscous flows can be achieved by using the standard fourth-order compact or non-compact formula

  3. High-enthalpy shock/boundary-layer interaction on a double wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean-Paul

    1999-11-01

    Interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer at a compression corner can produce a region of separated flow. The length of separation is important in determining aerodynamic forces, and the heat transfer at reattachment is important for the design of thermal protection systems. The effects of high-enthalpy flow on these phenomenon, particularly separation length, are not well known. Experiments to measure separation length and reattachment heating are performed in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel using nitrogen test gas and a double-wedge geometry which allows greater control over local flow conditions at separation and, at high incidence angle, may produce real-gas effects due to dissociation behind the leading shock. Local external flow conditions were found by computational reconstruction of the inviscid nonequilibrium flow field.Application of results from asymptotic theory to a simple model for separation leads to a new scaling parameter which approximately accounts for wall temperature effects on separation length for a laminar nonreacting boundary layer and extends previous results to arbitrary viscosity law. A. classification is introduced which divides mechanisms for real-gas effects into those acting internal and external to viscous regions of the flow, with internal mechanisms further subdivided into those arising upstream and downstream of separation. Application of the ideal dissociating gas model to a scaling law based on local external flow parameters and a nonreacting boundary layer shows that external mechanisms due to dissociation decrease separation length at low incidence but depend on the free-stream dissociation at high incidence, and have only a small effect on peak heating. A limited numerical study of reacting boundary layers shows that internal mechanisms due to recombination in the upstream boundary layer cause a slight decrease in separation length and a large increase in heat flux relative to a nonreacting boundary layer with

  4. Black holes and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.

  5. GEANT4: Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zafar, Abrar Ahmed; Hussain, Talib; Rashid, Haris

    2007-02-14

    GEANT4 is a detector simulation toolkit aimed at studying, mainly experimental high energy physics. In this paper we will give an overview of this software with special reference to its applications in high energy physics experiments. A brief of process methods is given. Object-oriented nature of the simulation toolkit is highlighted.

  6. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  7. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  8. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  9. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  10. Concomitant changes in high temperature tolerance and heat-shock proteins in desert succulents.

    PubMed

    Kee, S C; Nobel, P S

    1986-02-01

    Raising the day/night air temperatures from 30 degrees C/20 degrees C to 50 degrees C/40 degrees C increases the high temperature tolerated by Agave deserti, Carnegiea gigantea, and Ferocactus acanthodes by 6 degrees C to 8 degrees C; the increase is about half completed in 3 days and fully completed in 10 days. A 25 to 27 kilodalton protein concomitantly accumulates for all three desert succulents upon transfer to 50 degrees C/40 degrees C, while accumulation of other heat "heat-shock" proteins is species specific. Some of the induced proteins are more abundant at 3 days, while others (including the 25-27 kilodalton protein) remain after completion of high temperature acclimation.

  11. Effect of high repetition laser shock peening on biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caralapatti, Vinodh Krishna; Narayanswamy, Sivakumar

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium, as a biomaterial has the potential to replace conventional implant materials owing to its numerous advantages. However, high corrosion rate is a major obstacle that has to be addressed for its implementation as implants. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effects of High Repetition Laser Shock Peening (HRLSP) on biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of Mg samples and as well as to analyze the effect of operational parameters such as peening with overlap on corrosion rate. From the results obtained using hydrogen evolution and mass loss methods, it was found that corrosion rates of both 0% overlap and 66% overlap peened samples reduced by more than 50% compared to that of unpeened sample and sample peened with 66% overlap exhibited least corrosion. The biocompatibility of peened Mg samples was also enhanced as there was neither rapid pH variation nor large hydrogen bubble formation around samples.

  12. Computational study of 3-D hot-spot initiation in shocked insensitive high-explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Manaa, M. R.; Nichols, A., III; Levesque, G.

    2012-03-01

    High-explosive (HE) material consists of large-sized grains with micron-sized embedded impurities and pores. Under various mechanical/thermal insults, these pores collapse generating hightemperature regions leading to ignition. A hydrodynamic study has been performed to investigate the mechanisms of pore collapse and hot spot initiation in TATB crystals, employing a multiphysics code, ALE3D, coupled to the chemistry module, Cheetah. This computational study includes reactive dynamics. Two-dimensional high-resolution large-scale meso-scale simulations have been performed. The parameter space is systematically studied by considering various shock strengths, pore diameters and multiple pore configurations. Preliminary 3-D simulations are undertaken to quantify the 3-D dynamics.

  13. Distributive shock due to systemic capillary leak syndrome treated with high-dose immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, James Robert; Keating, Liza; Chan, Antoni; Walden, Andrew

    2013-04-09

    A female patient in her 60s presented with a history of malaise, chills, headache and vomiting. She was in shock on presentation with a high haematocrit and a low albumin with evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Severe limb and truncal oedema developed with worsening hypotension leading to intensive care unit admission for multiple organ support. Extensive radiological, microbiological and immunological work up was negative with the exception of a monoclonal gammopathy. A review of patient investigations led to a diagnosis of Clarkson's disease. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins led to a rapid decline in the creatine kinase (CK) level and vasopressor requirements. The patient was discharged home on long-term terbutaline and has made a good recovery.

  14. Effects and Sustainability of a 13-Day High-Intensity Shock Microcycle in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Güldner, Matthias; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The preseason in soccer is a short period of 6-8 weeks where conditional abilities, technical and tactical elements need to be trained. Therefore, time is lacking to perform long term preparation periods for different abilities, especially endurance training. There is evidence that the implementation of high-intensity shock microcycles in preseason training could be one way to improve physical performance in a short period of time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects and the sustainability of a high-intensity shock microcycle on soccer specific performance. Over 2 weeks, 12 male soccer players (26.1 ± 4.5 years) performed 12 high-intensity training (HIT) sessions in addition to their usual training. Before (pre), 6 days (6d) and 25 days (25d) after training, subjects performed Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Repeated-Sprint Ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIR2). Mean sprint time (RSAMean) (cohen’s d = -1.15), percentage decrement score (RSAIndex) (cohen’s d = -1.99) and YYIR2 (cohen’s d = +1.92) improved significantly from pre to 6d. 25d after, values showed a significant reduction for YYIR2 (cohen’s d = -0.81) and small to moderate but not significant increase for RSAMean (cohen’s d = +0.37) and RSAIndex (cohen’s d = +0.7) compared to 6d values. Small but no significant increases were found for CMJ (cohen’s d = +0.33) and no significant and substantial changes were found for RSABest (cohen’s d = -0.07) from pre to 6d. For competitive soccer players, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to largely improve RSA and YYIR2 in a short period of time. Despite moderate to large decreases in RSAIndex and YYIR2 performance in the 19 day period without HIT, values still remained significantly higher 25d after the last HIT session compared to pre-values. However, it might be necessary to include isolated high-intensity sessions after a HIT training block in order to maintain the

  15. High energy physics at UCR

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  16. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J. Gamboa, E. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Streit, J.

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  17. Nonlinear evolution of Buneman instability and its implication for electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless perpendicular shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Nonlinear evolution of the Buneman instability and its application to electron acceleration in collisionless shocks are discussed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the saturation level of the instability is reduced from one-dimensional simulation results. It is demonstrated that the reduced saturation level is due to the resonant wave-particle interactions with large amplitude obliquely propagating waves. A new estimate for the saturation level is given by considering the interactions with oblique modes. The effects of the large amplitude oblique modes on electron shock surfing acceleration that is mainly controlled by the Buneman instability are also investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the shock transition region are performed by adopting a local model with the periodic boundary condition. The results indicate that the presence of oblique modes introduces a stochastic behavior to the trajectories of energetic electrons. The maximum energy is limited by the finite lifetime of the instability in the present periodic model. However, this will not be the case in the realistic shock transition region. The application to realistic shocks with Mach numbers typical of supernova remnants is also discussed.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of Buneman instability and its implication for electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless perpendicular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Nonlinear evolution of the Buneman instability and its application to electron acceleration in collisionless shocks are discussed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the saturation level of the instability is reduced from one-dimensional simulation results. It is demonstrated that the reduced saturation level is due to the resonant wave-particle interactions with large amplitude obliquely propagating waves. A new estimate for the saturation level is given by considering the interactions with oblique modes. The effects of the large amplitude oblique modes on electron shock surfing acceleration that is mainly controlled by the Buneman instability are also investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the shock transition region are performed by adopting a local model with the periodic boundary condition. The results indicate that the presence of oblique modes introduces a stochastic behavior to the trajectories of energetic electrons. The maximum energy is limited by the finite lifetime of the instability in the present periodic model. However, this will not be the case in the realistic shock transition region. The application to realistic shocks with Mach numbers typical of supernova remnants is also discussed.

  19. Measurement of high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium ice layered capsule implosions on NIF.

    PubMed

    Robey, H F; Moody, J D; Celliers, P M; Ross, J S; Ralph, J; Le Pape, S; Berzak Hopkins, L; Parham, T; Sater, J; Mapoles, E R; Holunga, D M; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Kozioziemski, B J; Dylla-Spears, R J; Krauter, K G; Frieders, G; Ross, G; Bowers, M W; Strozzi, D J; Yoxall, B E; Hamza, A V; Dzenitis, B; Bhandarkar, S D; Young, B; Van Wonterghem, B M; Atherton, L J; Landen, O L; Edwards, M J; Boehly, T R

    2013-08-09

    The first measurements of multiple, high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility have been performed. The strength and relative timing of these shocks must be adjusted to very high precision in order to keep the DT fuel entropy low and compressibility high. All previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011), H. F. Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] have been performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas regions were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. This report presents the first experimental validation of the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  20. Measurement of High-Pressure Shock Waves in Cryogenic Deuterium-Tritium Ice Layered Capsule Implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Moody, J. D.; Celliers, P. M.; Ross, J. S.; Ralph, J.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Parham, T.; Sater, J.; Mapoles, E. R.; Holunga, D. M.; Walters, C. F.; Haid, B. J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Krauter, K. G.; Frieders, G.; Ross, G.; Bowers, M. W.; Strozzi, D. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Dzenitis, B.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Young, B.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Atherton, L. J.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.; Boehly, T. R.

    2013-08-01

    The first measurements of multiple, high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility have been performed. The strength and relative timing of these shocks must be adjusted to very high precision in order to keep the DT fuel entropy low and compressibility high. All previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011), H. F. Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] have been performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas regions were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. This report presents the first experimental validation of the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  1. High-energy cosmic ray interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Ralph; Orellana, Mariana; Reynoso, Matias M.; Vila, Gabriela S.

    2009-04-30

    Research into hadronic interactions and high-energy cosmic rays are closely related. On one hand--due to the indirect observation of cosmic rays through air showers--the understanding of hadronic multiparticle production is needed for deriving the flux and composition of cosmic rays at high energy. On the other hand the highest energy particles from the universe allow us to study the characteristics of hadronic interactions at energies far beyond the reach of terrestrial accelerators. This is the summary of three introductory lectures on our current understanding of hadronic interactions of cosmic rays.

  2. Global Λ polarization in high energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yilong; Wang, Dujuan; Csernai, László P.

    2017-03-01

    With a Yang-Mills flux-tube initial state and a high-resolution (3+1)D particle-in-cell relativistic (PICR) hydrodynamics simulation, we calculate the Λ polarization for different energies. The origination of polarization in high energy collisions is discussed, and we find linear impact parameter dependence of the global Λ polarization. Furthermore, the global Λ polarization in our model decreases very quickly in the low energy domain, and the decline curve fits well the recent results of Beam Energy Scan (BES) program launched by the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The time evolution of polarization is also discussed.

  3. High energy collimating fine grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Victor M.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Laferla, Raffaele

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the fabrication of extremely tight tolerance collimating grids using a high-Z material, specifically tungsten. The approach taken was to fabricate grids by a replication method involving the coating of a silicon grid substrate with tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A negative of the desired grid structure was fabricated in silicon using highly wafering techniques developed for the semiconductor industry and capable of producing the required tolerances. Using diamond wafering blades, a network of accurately spaced slots was machined into a single-crystal silicon surface. These slots were then filled with tungsten by CVD, via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Following tungsten deposition, the silicon negative was etched away to leave the tungsten collimating grid structure. The project was divided into five tasks: (1) identify materials of construction for the replica and final collimating grid structures; (2) identify and implement a micromachining technique for manufacturing the negative collimator replicas (performed by NASA/JPL); (3) develop a CVD technique and processing parameters suitable for the complete tungsten densification of the collimator replicas; (4) develop a chemical etching technique for the removal of the collimator replicas after the tungsten deposition process; and (5) fabricate and deliver tungsten collimating grid specimens.

  4. High energy collimating fine grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Victor M.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Laferla, Raffaele

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the fabrication of extremely tight tolerance collimating grids using a high-Z material, specifically tungsten. The approach taken was to fabricate grids by a replication method involving the coating of a silicon grid substrate with tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A negative of the desired grid structure was fabricated in silicon using highly wafering techniques developed for the semiconductor industry and capable of producing the required tolerances. Using diamond wafering blades, a network of accurately spaced slots was machined into a single-crystal silicon surface. These slots were then filled with tungsten by CVD, via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Following tungsten deposition, the silicon negative was etched away to leave the tungsten collimating grid structure. The project was divided into five tasks: (1) identify materials of construction for the replica and final collimating grid structures; (2) identify and implement a micromachining technique for manufacturing the negative collimator replicas (performed by NASA/JPL); (3) develop a CVD technique and processing parameters suitable for the complete tungsten densification of the collimator replicas; (4) develop a chemical etching technique for the removal of the collimator replicas after the tungsten deposition process; and (5) fabricate and deliver tungsten collimating grid specimens.

  5. Passive recovery is superior to active recovery during a high-intensity shock microcycle.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Grosskopf, Christoph; Rossmann, Roman; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of a 2-week high-intensity shock microcycle on maximal oxygen consumption and parameters of exercise performance in junior triathletes on the one hand and to evaluate the long-term effects of active (A) vs. passive (P) recovery on the other hand. Sixteen healthy junior triathletes participated in the study. For the assignment to the A or P group, the subjects were matched according to age and performance. Within 2 weeks, a total of 15 high-intensity interval sessions within three 3-day training blocks were performed. Before and 1 week after the last training session, the athletes performed a ramp test to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, a time trial (TT) and a Wingate test. Furthermore, total hemoglobin (Hb) mass was determined. The results of the whole group, independent of the arrangement of recovery, were analyzed at first; second, the A and P groups were analyzed separately. Peak power output (PPO) during the ramp test and TT performance significantly increased in the whole group. The comparison of the 2 groups revealed increases for the mentioned parameters and for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and power output at VT2 for the P group only. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max did not change. Wingate performance increased in the A group only. The tHb mass slightly decreased. The main finding of this study was that a 14-day shock microcycle is able to improve TT performance and PPO in junior triathletes in a short period of time. Furthermore, not only the intensity but also the arrangement of interval training seems to be important as well, because only the P group showed improvements in endurance performance, despite a slightly lower training volume. These findings might be relevant for future arrangements of high-intensity interval training.

  6. A study of internal energy relaxation in shocks using molecular dynamics based models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng Parsons, Neal; Levin, Deborah A.

    2015-10-14

    Recent potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the N{sub 2} + N and N{sub 2} + N{sub 2} systems are used in molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate rates of vibrational and rotational relaxations for conditions that occur in hypersonic flows. For both chemical systems, it is found that the rotational relaxation number increases with the translational temperature and decreases as the rotational temperature approaches the translational temperature. The vibrational relaxation number is observed to decrease with translational temperature and approaches the rotational relaxation number in the high temperature region. The rotational and vibrational relaxation numbers are generally larger in the N{sub 2} + N{sub 2} system. MD-quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) with the PESs is also used to calculate the V-T transition cross sections, the collision cross section, and the dissociation cross section for each collision pair. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) results for hypersonic flow over a blunt body with the total collision cross section from MD/QCT simulations, Larsen-Borgnakke with new relaxation numbers, and the N{sub 2} dissociation rate from MD/QCT show a profile with a decreased translational temperature and a rotational temperature close to vibrational temperature. The results demonstrate that many of the physical models employed in DSMC should be revised as fundamental potential energy surfaces suitable for high temperature conditions become available.

  7. High-Energy-Density Shear Flow and Instability Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Merritt, E. C.; di Stefano, C. A.; Devolder, B. G.; Kurien, S.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    High-energy-density shear experiments have been performed by LANL at the OMEGA Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments have been simulated using the LANL radiation-hydrocode RAGE and have been used to assess turbulence models' ability to function in the high-energy-density, inertial-fusion-relevant regime. Beginning with the basic configuration of two counter-oriented shock-driven flows of > 100 km/s, which initiate a strong shear instability across an initially solid-density, 20 μm thick Al plate, variations of the experiment to details of the initial conditions have been performed. These variations have included increasing the fluid densities (by modifying the plate material from Al to Ti and Cu), imposing sinusoidal seed perturbations on the plate, and directly modifying the plate's intrinsic surface roughness. Radiography of the unseeded layer has revealed the presence of emergent Kelvin-Helmholtz structures which may be analyzed to infer fluid-mechanical properties including turbulent energy density. This work is conducted by the US DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. Intercomparison of high energy neutron personnel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Akabani, G.; Loesch, R.M.

    1993-03-01

    An intercomparison of high-energy neutron personnel dosimeters was performed to evaluate the uniformity of the response characteristics of typical neutron dosimeters presently in use at US Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities. It was necessary to perform an intercomparison because there are no national or international standards for high-energy neutron dosimetry. The testing that is presently under way for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is limited to the use of neutron sources that range in energy from about 1 keV to 2 MeV. Therefore, the high-energy neutron dosimeters presently in use at DOE accelerator facilities are not being tested effectively. This intercomparison employed neutrons produced by the {sup 9}Be(p,n){sup 9}B interaction at the University of Washington cyclotron, using 50-MeV protons. The resulting neutron energy spectrum extended to a maximum of approximately 50-MeV, with a mean energy of about 20-MeV. Intercomparison results for currently used dosimeters, including Nuclear Type A (NTA) film, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo, and track-etch dosimeters (TEDs), indicated a wide variation in response to identical doses of high-energy neutrons. Results of this study will be discussed along with a description of plans for future work.

  9. Development of a New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel Facility to Investigate Electromagnetic Energy Addition for Flow Control and Basic Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Pereira, A. L.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    2006-05-01

    A new 0.6-m. diameter Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is been designed, fabricated and will be installed at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The brand new hypersonic facility, designated as T3, is primarily intended to be used as an important tool in the investigation of supersonic combustion management and of electromagnetic energy addition for flow control. The design of the runnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for basic supersonic combustion and energy addition by laser experiments. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures of 200 atm. and 5,500 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization and the new facility is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2006.

  10. Suprathermal Electrons at Saturn's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini. The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ˜1 MeV).

  11. High Energy Electron Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) balloon-borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons. The instrument was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN H2 bean-dine in September of 1999. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well.

  12. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  13. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently.

  14. Computing in high-energy physics

    DOE PAGES

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-05-31

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  15. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; Greenwood, Zeno; Wobisch, Marcus

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  16. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  17. High-energy facility development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Roberts, W. T.; Dabbs, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Approaches to the deployment of instruments for the study of high-energy solar emissions alone or in conjunction with other solar instruments are considered. The Space Station has been identified as the preferred mode for the deployment of the Advanced Solar Observatory, and it is suggested that a proposed High-Energy Facility could be on a coorbiting platform. The implementation plan for the High-Energy Facility involves the definition of the interface structures required to mount the facility instruments to the Space Station and the development of hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric instruments.

  18. Elucidation of the Dynamics for Hot-Spot Initiation at Nonuniform Interfaces of Highly Shocked Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-07

    simulation cell with 3695375 independent atoms. For shock velocities of 2.5 and 3.5 km/s it takes ∼10 ps for the shock wave to traverse the interface. Such a...PBX during shock loading at Up = 2.5 km/s (for 6.0 ps ). The shading is based on the total slip in angstroms. This system is 54 nm thick in the shock...and compression strength.21 Each chain contains ten HTPB repeat units connected via one IPDI crosslinking molecule to four terminal HTPB repeat units

  19. Excision methods for high resolution shock capturing schemes applied to general relativistic hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Ian; Loeffler, Frank; Nerozzi, Andrea

    2005-05-15

    We present a simple method for applying excision boundary conditions for the relativistic Euler equations. This method depends on the use of reconstruction-evolution methods, a standard class of high-resolution shock-capturing methods. We test three different reconstruction schemes, namely, total variation diminishing, piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and essentially nonoscillatory. The method does not require that the coordinate system is adapted to the excision boundary. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using tests containing discontinuities, static test fluid solutions with black holes, and full dynamical collapse of a neutron star to a black hole. A modified PPM scheme is introduced because of problems arisen when matching excision with the original PPM reconstruction scheme.

  20. Oblique propagation of ion acoustic shock waves in weakly and highly relativistic plasmas with nonthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the oblique nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic (IA) shock waves for both weakly and highly relativistic plasmas composed of nonthermal electrons and positrons with relativistic thermal ions. The KdVB-like equation, involving dispersive, weakly transverse dispersive, nonlinearity and dissipative coefficients, is derived employing the well known reductive perturbation method. The integration of this equation is carried out by the {tanh} method taking the stable shock formation condition into account. The effects of nonthermal electrons and positrons, nonthermal electrons with isothermal positrons, isothermal electrons with nonthermal positrons, and isothermal electrons and positrons on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in weakly relativistic regime are described. Furthermore, the effects of plasma parameters on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in highly relativistic regime are discussed and compared with weakly relativistic case. It is seen that the plasma parameters within certain limits significantly modify the structures of the IA shock waves in both cases. The results may be useful for better understanding of the interactions of charged particles with extra-galactic jets as well as astrophysical compact objects.

  1. High Energy Flywheel Containment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Trase, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel testing facility is being constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility is to be used for life cycle testing of various flywheel rotors. The lifecycle testing consists of spinning a rotor from a low rpm (approx. 20,000 ) to a high rpm (approx. 60,000) and then back to the low rpm. This spin cycle will model that which the rotor will see during use. To simulate the lifetime of the rotor, the spin cycle will be performed tens of thousands of times. A typical life cycle spin test is expected to last six months. During this time the rotor will be spun through a cycle every five minutes. The test will run continuously for the six month period barring a flywheel failure. Since it is not reasonable to have the surrounding area evacuated of personnel for the duration of the testing, the flywheel facility has to be designed to withstand a flywheel rotor failure and insure that there is no danger to any personnel in the adjacent buildings or surrounding areas. In order to determine if the facility can safely contain a flywheel rotor failure an analysis of the facility in conjunction with possible flywheel failure modes was performed. This analysis is intended as a worst case evaluation of the burst liner and vacuum tank's ability to contain a failure. The test chamber consists of a cylindrical stainless steel vacuum tank, two outer steel containment rings, and a stainless steel burst liner. The stainless steel used is annealed 302, which has an ultimate strength of 620 MPa (90,000 psi). A diagram of the vacuum tank configuration is shown. The vacuum tank and air turbine will be located below ground in a pit. The tank is secured in the pit with 0.3 m (12 in.) of cement along the base and the remaining portion of the tank is surrounded by gravel up to the access ports. A 590 kg (1300 lb.) bulkhead is placed on top of the pit during operation and the complete facility is housed within a concrete structure which has 7.5 cm (3 in.) thick walls. A cutaway

  2. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  3. Relationships among physical properties as indicators of high temperature deformation or post-shock thermal annealing in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Ruzicka, Alex; Macke, Robert J.; Thostenson, James O.; Rudolph, Rebecca A.; Rivers, Mark L.; Ebel, Denton S.

    2017-04-01

    Collisions and attendant shock compaction must have been important for the accretion and lithification of planetesimals, including the parent bodies of chondrites, but the conditions under which these occurred are not well constrained. A simple model for the compaction of chondrites predicts that shock intensity as recorded by shock stage should be related to porosity and grain fabric. To test this model, we studied sixteen ordinary chondrites of different groups (H, L, LL) using X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) to measure porosity and metal fabric, ideal gas pycnometry and 3D laser scanning to determine porosity, and optical microscopy (OM) to determine shock stage. These included a subsample of six chondrites previously studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize microstructures in olivine. Combining with previous data, results support the simple model in general, but not for chondrites with low shock-porosity-foliation (low-SPF chondrites). These include Kernouvé (H6), Portales Valley (H6/7), Butsura (H6), Park (L6), GRO 85209 (L6), Estacado (H6), MIL 99301 (LL6), Spade (H6), and Queen's Mercy (H6), among others. The data for these meteorites are best explained by high ambient heat during or after shock. Low-SPF chondrites tend to have older 40Ar/39Ar ages (∼4435-4526 Ma) than other, non-low-SPF type 6 chondrites in this study. We conclude that the H, L, and LL asteroids all were shock-compacted at an early stage while warm, with collisions occurring during metamorphic heating of the parent bodies. Results ultimately bear on whether chondrite parent bodies have internal structures more akin to a metamorphosed onion shell or metamorphosed rubble pile, and on the nature of accretion and lithification processes for planetesimals.

  4. Colliding Two Shocks: 1-D full Particle-in-Cell Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Hada, T.; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Shock-shock interactions occur on various places in space and the interaction can produce high energy particles. A coronal mass ejection driven shock can collide with the Earth's bow shock [Hietala et al., 2011]. This study reported that ions are accelerated by the first Fermi acceleration between the two shocks before the collision. An electron acceleration through an interplanetary shock-Earth's bow shock interaction was also reported [Terasawa et al., 1997]. Shock-shock interactions can occur in astrophysical phenomena as well as in the heliosphere. For example, a young supernova shock can collide with the wind termination shock of a massive star if they are close to each other [Bykov et al., 2013]. Although hybrid simulations (ions and electrons treated as super-particles and mass-less fluid, respectively) were carried out to understand the kinetic nature of a shock-shock interaction [Cargill et al., 1986], hybrid simulations cannot resolve electron dynamics and non-thermal electrons. We, therefore, use one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to investigate a shock-shock interaction in which two shocks collide head-on. In a case of quasi-perpendicular shocks, electrons are accelerated by the mirror reflection between the two shocks before the collision (Fermi acceleration). On the other hand, because ions cannot go back upstream, the electron acceleration mechanism does not occur for ions. In a case of quasi-parallel shocks, ions can go back upstream and are accelerated at the shocks. The accelerated ions have great effect on the shock structure.

  5. Electron beam control using shock-induced density downramp injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K.; Tsai, H.-E.; Barber, S.; Lehe, R.; Mao, H.-S.; Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    In these experiments, we improve the quality of electrons injected along a shock-induced density downramp. We demonstrate that beam ellipticity and steering are influenced by the shock front tilt, and we present simple models to explain these effects. By adjusting the shock front angle, we minimize the beam's off-axis steering and ellipticity, producing high-quality electron beams over a tunable energy range.

  6. Laser-Driven Magnetized Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Derek

    2016-10-01

    Collisionless shocks - supersonic plasma flows in which the interaction length scale is much shorter than the collisional mean free path - are common phenomena in space and astrophysical systems, including the solar wind, coronal mass ejections, supernovae remnants, and the jets of active galactic nuclei. These systems have been studied for decades, and in many the shocks are believed to efficiently accelerate particles to some of the highest observed energies. Only recently, however, have laser and diagnostic capabilities evolved sufficiently to allow the detailed study in the laboratory of the microphysics of collisionless shocks over a large parameter regime. We present experiments that demonstrate the formation of collisionless shocks utilizing the Phoenix laser laboratory and the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. We also show recent observations of magnetized collisionless shocks on the Omega EP laser facility that extend the LAPD results to higher laser energy, background magnetic field, and ambient plasma density, and that may be relevant to recent experiments on strongly driven magnetic reconnection. Lastly, we discuss a new experimental regime for shocks with results from high-repetition (1 Hz), volumetric laser-driven measurements on the LAPD. These large parameter scales allow us to probe the formation physics of collisionless shocks over several Alfvénic Mach numbers (MA), from shock precursors (magnetosonic solitons with MA < 1) to subcritical (MA < 3) and supercritical (MA > 3) shocks. The results show that collisionless shocks can be generated using a laser-driven magnetic piston, and agree well with both 2D and 3D hybrid and PIC simulations. Additionally, using radiation-hydrodynamic modeling and measurements from multiple diagnostics, the different shock regimes are characterized with dimensionless formation parameters, allowing us to place disparate experiments in a common and predictive framework.

  7. Association of high levels of serum antibody to staphylococcal toxic shock antigen with nasal carriage of toxic shock antigen-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, H L; Kirkland, J J; Bond, G G; Warner, E K; Petty, G P

    1984-01-01

    Forty-four asymptomatic male subjects were examined for their nasal carriage of strains of Staphylococcus aureus capable of producing staphylococcal toxic shock antigen (TSA), an exotoxin implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In addition, the levels of antibody to TSA in sera from these subjects were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. aureus was isolated from the anterior nares of 23 subjects. Of those 23 isolates of S. aureus, 9 were found to produce TSA. All individuals carrying strains of S. aureus capable of producing TSA had high to moderate levels of antibody to TSA. In contrast, those individuals carrying strains not producing TSA had levels of antibody to TSA ranging from high to nondetectable. A second examination of nasal samples from 42 of these subjects revealed that 86% of those carrying S. aureus initially still carried S. aureus after a period of 3 months; all subjects found to carry TSA-producing strains initially and that were examined a second time yielded TSA-producing strains once again. PMID:6698614

  8. Acceleration of heavy ions by perpendicular collisionless shocks: Impact of the shock front nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. W.; LembèGe, B.; Lu, Q. M.

    2011-10-01

    front region and the downstream region are detailed separately. Present results are compared with previous experimental analysis and theoretical models of solar energetic particles (SEP) events. The variations of Fe/O spectra in high energy part have been retrieved, and the nonstationary effects of shock front strongly amplify these variations.

  9. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  10. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  11. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  12. High Energy Astrophysics Research and Programmatic Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angellini, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the three months of the reporting period. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics.

  13. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  14. High efficiency flat plate solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. F.

    1985-04-30

    A concentrating flat plate collector for the high efficiency collection of solar energy. Through an arrangement of reflector elements, incoming solar radiation, either directly or after reflection from the reflector elements, impinges upon both surfaces of a collector element.

  15. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  16. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  17. High Energy Density Film Capacitors (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    capacitor film, and the test of our first generation prototype capacitors . II. HIGH-K POLYMER DIELECTRIC MATERIALS Commercial polypropylene (PP...metallized polypropylene energy storage capacitors ”, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30(5): 1939 (2002). [2] W. Clelland, et al., Paktron Division of...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2127 HIGH ENERGY DENSITY FILM CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) Shihai Zhang, Brian Zellers, Jim Henrish, Shawn Rockey, and Dean

  18. The mechanism of shock wave treatment in bone healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Jen

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological mechanism of shock wave treatment in bone healing in rabbits. A closed fracture of the right femur was created with a three-point bend method and the fracture was stabilized with an intra-medullary pin. Shock waves were applied one week after the fracture. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (the control) received no shock waves; group 2 received low-energy and group 3 high-energy shock waves. The animals were sacrificed at 24 weeks, and a 5-cm segment of the femur bone including the callus was harvested. The specimens were studied with histomorphological examination, biomechanical analysis and immunohistochemical stains. The results showed that high-energy shock waves improved bone healing with significant increases in cortical bone formation and the number neovascularization in histomorphology, better bone strength and bone mass in biomechanics, and increased expressions of angiogenic growth markers including BMP-2, eNOS, VEGF and PCNA than the control and low-energy shock wave groups. The effect of shock wave treatment appears to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, high-energy shock waves promote bone healing associated with ingrowth of neovascularization and increased expressions of angiogenic growth factors.

  19. Organic synthesis in experimental impact shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Borucki, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory simulations of shocks created with a high-energy laser demonstrate that the efficacy of organic production depends on the molecular, not just the elemental composition of the shocked gas. In a methane-rich mixture that simulates a low-temperature equilibrium mixture of cometary material, hydrogen cyanide and acetylene were produced with yields of 5 x 10(17) molecules per joule. Repeated shocking of the methane-rich mixture produced amine groups, suggesting the possible synthesis of amino acids. No organic molecules were produced in a carbon dioxide-rich mixture, which is at odds with thermodynamic equilibrium approaches to shock chemistry and has implications for the modeling of shock-produced organic molecules on early Earth.

  20. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé Caballero Mora, Karen

    2016-10-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray (CR), gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (UHECR ∼ 1020 eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  1. An entropy-residual shock detector for solving conservation laws using high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yu; See, Yee Chee; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript is concerned with the detection of shock discontinuities in the solution of conservation laws for high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods. A shock detector based on the entropy residual is proposed to distinguish smooth and non-smooth parts of the solution. The numerical analysis shows that the proposed entropy residual converges if the true solution is smooth and sufficiently regularized in space and time. To precisely localize discontinuities of different natures, an approach is developed that dynamically sets the threshold on the detection function, such that the detection criterion retains its sensitivity to the characteristics of the local solution. The implementation is conducted in an entropy-bounded discontinuous Galerkin framework, and numerical tests confirm the convergence property of the entropy-residual formulation and the effectiveness of the thresholding procedure. This shock detector is combined with an artificial viscosity scheme for shock stabilization. Comparison with other detectors is performed to demonstrate the excellent performance of the entropy-residual based shock detector for a wide range of problems on regular and triangular grids.

  2. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  3. Cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental high-voltage electric shock in a child.

    PubMed

    Akın, Alper; Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Ayfer; Yavuz, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Electric shock is a condition that may affect various organ systems and potentially cause death. Cardiac findings vary from asymptomatic mild injury to fatal myocardial involvement. Herein we present a five-year-old boy with a cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental electrical shock. Cardiac arrhythmias and evidence of ischemia have been reported after electric shock; we were, however, unable to identify an earlier case report of intracardiac thrombosis related to electric shock. Findings such as elevated cardiac enzymes and systolic dysfunction, which indicate myocardial damage following electric shock, were present in our patient. We think that the cardiac thrombus might have resulted from the myocardial damage and the slowed intracardiac blood flow related to systolic dysfunction. As the thrombus was thought to have been formed through known mechanisms, it was treated traditionally. However, further data regarding the etiology and management of such thrombi is needed.

  4. A novel platform to study magnetized high-velocity collisionless shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, D. P.; Korneev, Ph; Béard, J.; Chen, S. N.; d'Humières, E.; Pépin, H.; Pikuz, S.; Pollock, B.; Riquier, R.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Fuchs, J.

    2014-12-13

    An experimental platform to study the interaction of two colliding high-velocity (0.01–0.2c; 0.05–20 MeV) proton plasmas in a high strength (20 T) magnetic field is introduced. This platform aims to study the collision of magnetized plasmas accelerated via the Target-Normal-Sheath-Acceleration mechanism and initially separated by distances of a few hundred microns. The plasmas are accelerated from solid targets positioned inside a few cubic millimeter cavity located within a Helmholtz coil that provides up to 20 T magnetic fields. Various parameters of the plasmas at their interaction location are estimated. These show an interaction that is highly non-collisional, and that becomes more and more dominated by the magnetic fields as time progresses (from 5 to 60 ps). Particle-in-cell simulations are used to reproduce the initial acceleration of the plasma both via simulations including the laser interaction and via simulations that start with preheated electrons (to save dramatically on computational expense). The benchmarking of such simulations with the experiment and with each other will be used to understand the physical interaction when a magnetic field is applied. In conclusion, the experimental density profile of the interacting plasmas is shown in the case without an applied magnetic magnetic field, so to show that without an applied field that the development of high-velocity shocks, as a result of particle-to-particle collisions, is not achievable in the configuration considered.

  5. Modelling the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries using numerical relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, G.; Lamberts, A.; Fromang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Detailed modelling of the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries has been propounded as a path to pulsar wind physics. Aims: Fulfilling this ambition requires a coherent model of the flow and its emission in the region where the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind of its companion. Methods: We have developed a code that follows the evolution and emission of electrons in the shocked pulsar wind based on inputs from a relativistic hydrodynamical simulation. The code is used to model the well-documented spectral energy distribution and orbital modulations from LS 5039. Results: The pulsar wind is fully confined by a bow shock and a back shock. The particles are distributed into a narrow Maxwellian, emitting mostly GeV photons, and a power law radiating very efficiently over a broad energy range from X-rays to TeV gamma rays. Most of the emission arises from the apex of the bow shock. Doppler boosting shapes the X-ray and very high energy (VHE) lightcurves, constraining the system inclination to i ≈ 35°. There is tension between the hard VHE spectrum and the level of X-ray to MeV emission, which requires differing magnetic field intensities that are hard to achieve with constant magnetisation σ and Lorentz factor Γp of the pulsar wind. Our best compromise implies σ ≈ 1 and Γp ≈ 5 × 103, so respectively higher and lower than the typical values in pulsar wind nebulae. Conclusions: The high value of σ derived here, where the wind is confined close to the pulsar, supports the classical picture that has pulsar winds highly magnetised at launch. However, such magnetisations will require that further investigations are based on relativistic MHD simulations. Movies associated to Figs. A.1-A.4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3: Implications for early planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes, which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesicular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

  7. High stored energy of metallic glasses induced by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Yang, Z. Z.; Ma, T.; Sun, Y. T.; Yin, Y. Y.; Gong, Y.; Gu, L.; Wen, P.; Zhu, P. W.; Long, Y. W.; Yu, X. H.; Jin, C. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Modulating energy states of metallic glasses (MGs) is significant in understanding the nature of glasses and controlling their properties. In this study, we show that high stored energy can be achieved and preserved in bulk MGs by high pressure (HP) annealing, which is a controllable method to continuously alter the energy states of MGs. Contrary to the decrease in enthalpy by conventional annealing at ambient pressure, high stored energy can occur and be enhanced by increasing both annealing temperature and pressure. By using double aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the preserved high energy, which is attributed to the coupling effect of high pressure and high temperature, originates from the microstructural change that involves "negative flow units" with a higher atomic packing density compared to that of the elastic matrix of MGs. The results demonstrate that HP-annealing is an effective way to activate MGs into higher energy states, and it may assist in understanding the microstructural origin of high energy states in MGs.

  8. Experimental validation of a magnetorheological energy absorber design optimized for shock and impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.; Glass, William

    2014-12-01

    A linear stroke adaptive magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m s-1. The performance of the MREA was characterized using dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of maximum on-state MREA force to the off-state MREA force. Design optimization techniques were employed in order to maximize the dynamic range at high impact velocities such that MREA maintained good control authority. Geometrical parameters of the MREA were optimized by evaluating MREA performance on the basis of a Bingham-plastic analysis incorporating minor losses (BPM analysis). Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to verify the performance of passive and controllable MREA force, respectively. Subsequently, high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m s-1 at 0 A) was conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Refinements to the nonlinear BPM analysis were carried out to improve prediction of MREA performance.

  9. High energy mode locked fiber oscillators for high contrast, high energy petawatt laser seed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; An, J; Kim, D; Barty, C J

    2006-06-15

    In a high-energy petawatt laser beam line the ASE pulse contrast is directly related to the total laser gain. Thus a more energetic input pulse will result in increased pulse contrast at the target. We have developed a mode-locked fiber laser with high quality pulses and energies exceeding 25nJ. We believe this 25nJ result is scalable to higher energies. This oscillator has no intra-cavity dispersion compensation, which yields an extremely simple, and elegant laser configuration. We will discuss the design of this laser, our most recent results and characterization of all the key parameters relevant to it use as a seed laser. Our oscillator is a ring cavity mode-locked fiber laser [1]. These lasers operate in a self-similar pulse propagation regime characterized by a spectrum that is almost square. This mode was found theoretically [2] to occur only in the positive dispersion regime. Further increasing positive dispersion should lead to increasing pulse energy [2]. We established that the positive dispersion required for high-energy operation was approximately that of 2m of fiber. To this end, we constructed a laser cavity similar to [1], but with no gratings and only 2m of fiber, which we cladding pumped in order to ensure sufficient pump power was available to achieve mode-locked operation. A schematic of the laser is shown in figure 1 below. This laser produced low noise 25nJ pulses with a broad self similar spectrum (figure 2) and pulses that could be de-chirped to <100fs (figure 3). Pulse contrast is important in peta-watt laser systems. A major contributor to pulse contrast is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which is proportional to the gain in the laser chain. As the oscillator strength is increased, the required gain to reach 1PW pulses is decreased, reducing ASE and improving pulse contrast. We believe these lasers can be scaled in a stable fashion to pulse energies as high as 100nJ and have in fact seen 60nJ briefly in our lab, which is work still

  10. Study on energy loss compensation of back scattering conical cavity high-energy laser energy meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xun; Wang, Hui; Shang, Xiao-yan; Nie, Liang; Liu, Bao-yuan

    2009-05-01

    Because absolute quantity thermal laser energy meter based on conical cavity has some features, for example, wide wavelength adaptation range, high laser damage threshold value, extensive measuring energy range and so on, it is often used as the standard of high-energy laser energy meter, and is used extensively in the domain of high energy laser measurement. But, laser energy will lose because of back scattering of conical absorption cavity. So, only after the loss is compensated and amended, exact measurement of laser energy can be achieved. Aiming at energy loss compensation problem of conical cavity high-energy laser energy meter, we firstly, according to speckle statistics optical theory, analyze the back scattering of the conical absorption cavity in condition of uniform distribution laser incident on diffuse reflection surface, and secondly, we aim at high power laser's output facula shape: round, based on optical principles of interaction of the conical cavity inner face and the incident laser and utilize complexfication Simpson numerical method, the mathematical models of optical power density distribution at open-end of conical cavity and back scattering gross power are established. On this basis, the measured result is compensated and amended. The back scattering energy loss is about 0.5% to 2.5%.High-energy laser energy measuring accuracy is improved effectively.

  11. Characterization of high-molecular-mass heat shock proteins and 42 degrees C-specific heat shock proteins of murine cells.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, T; Yasuda, K; Nishiyama, E

    1994-10-14

    There are two isoforms of high-molecular-mass heat shock protein (HMM-HSP), hsp105A and hsp105B, in murine FM3A cells. To characterize the HMM-HSPs, we here purified hsp105A and hsp105B, as well as 42 degrees C-specific HSPs that are specifically induced by continuous heating at 42 degrees C, from the cytoplasmic extracts of the FM3A cells heat-shocked at 42 degrees C for 8 h. Digestion of the hsp105A, hsp105B, and 42 degrees C-specific HSPs with lysyl endopeptidase generated 17,000-Da polypeptide fragments in common, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the fragments revealed a homology with those of the adenosine binding domain of hsp70 family proteins and actin. Thus, the two isoforms of hsp105 and the 42 degrees C-specific HSPs seemed to be very similar proteins having a ATP binding domain in common, and these HSPs may constitute a HMM-HSP family in murine cells.

  12. Protein synthesis is not required for acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of high foot-shock active avoidance training.

    PubMed

    González-Salinas, Sofía; Medina, Andrea C; Marín-Vignando, Vera; Ruiz-López, Clyo X; Quirarte, Gina L; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    Long-term memory of active avoidance in mice is not disturbed by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) when relatively high levels of training are used, whereas a detrimental effect is produced with lower levels of training. PSIs also disrupt extinction of avoidance behaviors in rodents, but it is not clear whether PSIs also affect this form of learning when the behavior to be extinguished was produced by a high level of training. Experiment 1 demonstrated that rats treated with the PSI cycloheximide (CXM) 30 min before training developed normal acquisition after training with either high or low foot-shock stimulation, but that memory consolidation was hindered only after low foot-shock training. Experiment 2 demonstrated that CXM disrupted extinction when administered before the first of a series of extinction sessions when low foot-shock intensity was used during training; in contrast, after training with a higher foot-shock, the PSI treatment only interfered transiently with extinction. These results indicate that acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of active avoidance learning produced by high aversive stimulation are not dependent on protein synthesis and that these processes are governed by mechanisms different from those underlying moderate forms of learning.

  13. Super-strengthening and stabilizing with carbon nanotube harnessed high density nanotwins in metals by shock loading

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dong; Saei, Mojib; Suslov, Sergey; Jin, Shengyu; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    CNTs reinforced metal composites has great potential due to their superior properties, such as light weight, high strength, low thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity. The current strengthening mechanisms of CNT/metal composite mainly rely on CNTs’ interaction with dislocations and CNT’s intrinsic high strength. Here we demonstrated that laser shock loading the CNT/metal composite results in high density nanotwins, stacking fault, dislocation around the CNT/metal interface. The composites exhibit enhanced strength with excellent stability. The results are interpreted by both molecular dynamics simulation and experiments. It is found the shock wave interaction with CNTs induces a stress field, much higher than the applied shock pressure, surrounding the CNT/metal interface. As a result, nanotwins were nucleated under a shock pressure much lower than the critical values to generate twins in metals. This hybrid unique nanostructure not only enhances the strength, but also stabilize the strength, as the nanotwin boundaries around the CNTs help pin the dislocation movement. PMID:26493533

  14. High interindividual variability in dose-dependent reduction in speed of movement after exposing C. elegans to shock waves

    PubMed Central

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Kiessling, Maren C.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (br-mTBI) little is known about the connections between initial trauma and expression of individual clinical symptoms. Partly due to limitations of current in vitro and in vivo models of br-mTBI, reliable prediction of individual short- and long-term symptoms based on known blast input has not yet been possible. Here we demonstrate a dose-dependent effect of shock wave exposure on C. elegans using shock waves that share physical characteristics with those hypothesized to induce br-mTBI in humans. Increased exposure to shock waves resulted in decreased mean speed of movement while increasing the proportion of worms rendered paralyzed. Recovery of these two behavioral symptoms was observed during increasing post-traumatic waiting periods. Although effects were observed on a population-wide basis, large interindividual variability was present between organisms exposed to the same highly controlled conditions. Reduction of cavitation by exposing worms to shock waves in polyvinyl alcohol resulted in reduced effect, implicating primary blast effects as damaging components in shock wave induced trauma. Growing worms on NGM agar plates led to the same general results in initial shock wave effect in a standard medium, namely dose-dependence and high interindividual variability, as raising worms in liquid cultures. Taken together, these data indicate that reliable prediction of individual clinical symptoms based on known blast input as well as drawing conclusions on blast input from individual clinical symptoms is not feasible in br-mTBI. PMID:25705183

  15. Optimization of magnetically accelerated, ultra-high velocity aluminum flyer plates for use in plate impact, shock wave experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Knudson, Marcus D.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Lemke, Raymond William; Davis, J. P.; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Bliss, David Emery

    2005-05-01

    The intense magnetic field produced by the 20 MA Z accelerator is used as an impulsive pressure source to accelerate metal flyer plates to high velocity for the purpose of performing plate impact, shock wave experiments. This capability has been significantly enhanced by the recently developed pulse shaping capability of Z, which enables tailoring the rise time to peak current for a specific material and drive pressure to avoid shock formation within the flyer plate during acceleration. Consequently, full advantage can be taken of the available current to achieve the maximum possible magnetic drive pressure. In this way, peak magnetic drive pressures up to 490 GPa have been produced, which shocklessly accelerated 850 {micro}m aluminum (6061-T6) flyer plates to peak velocities of 34 km/s. We discuss magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that are used to optimize the magnetic pressure for a given flyer load and to determine the shape of the current rise time that precludes shock formation within the flyer during acceleration to peak velocity. In addition, we present results pertaining to plate impact, shock wave experiments in which the aluminum flyer plates were magnetically accelerated across a vacuum gap and impacted z-cut, {alpha}-quartz targets. Accurate measurements of resulting quartz shock velocities are presented and analyzed through high-fidelity MHD simulations enhanced using optimization techniques. Results show that a fraction of the flyer remains at solid density at impact, that the fraction of material at solid density decreases with increasing magnetic pressure, and that the observed abrupt decrease in the quartz shock velocity is well correlated with the melt transition in the aluminum flyer.

  16. Connecting the high- and low-energy Universe: dust processing inside Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta; Dwek, Eli; Slavin, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The recent detection of large amounts of dust (> 10(7) M_⊙) at very high redshift (z > 6) raises a fundamental question about the origin of such dust. The main dust producers, i. e., the stars populating the Red Giant Branch and the Asymptotic Giant Branch (RGB and AGB stars) did not have time to evolve. From an evolutionary point of view, young supernovae (SNe) could represent a viable source of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, a critical issue still needs to be addressed. While recent observations have demonstrated that supernovae are indeed efficient dust factories, at the same time SNe represent the major agent responsible for dust destruction. Supernova blast waves propagating into the interstellar medium destroy the dust residing there, while the fresh dust produced by the supernova itself is threatened by the reverse shock which propagates through the expanding ejecta towards the center of the remnant. We focus here on this second destruction mechanism, with the aim of quantifying the amount of dust able to survive the heavy processing by the reverse shock and to reach the interstellar medium. We present our results for the textbook supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Using recent X-ray and infrared observations, we have developed a model for the evolution of the remnant and the simultaneous processing of the dust by the reverse shock, and derived the expected amount of surviving dust. In addition, we will briefly illustrate the impact of the capabilities of the Athena mission on the variety of astrophysical problems involving the processing of dust particles in extreme environments characterized by the presence of shocked X-ray emitting gas. These range from individual supernova remnants, to starburst super winds up to AGN outflows and the hot intra-cluster medium. The study of dust processing by a shocked gas truly connects the high-energy Universe with the low-energy Universe, and Athena will play a major role in it.

  17. High energy cosmic ray charge and energy spectra measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, J. H.; Webber, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    In 1976, 1977, and 1978, a series of three balloon flights was conducted to measure the energy spectra of cosmic ray nuclei. A gas Cerenkov detector with different gas thresholds of 8.97, 13.12, and 17.94 GeV/n was employed to extend these measurements to high energies. The total collection factor for these flights is more than 20 sq m ster-hr. Individual charge resolution was achieved over the charge range Z equals 4-26, and overlapping differential spectra were obtained from the three flights up to approximately 100.0 GeV/n.

  18. Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.

  19. Multichannel emission spectrometer for high dynamic range optical pyrometry of shock-driven materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-10-01

    An emission spectrometer (450-850 nm) using a high-throughput, high numerical aperture (N.A. = 0.3) prism spectrograph with stepped fiberoptic coupling, 32 fast photomultipliers and thirty-two 1.25 GHz digitizers is described. The spectrometer can capture single-shot events with a high dynamic range in amplitude and time (nanoseconds to milliseconds or longer). Methods to calibrate the spectrometer and verify its performance and accuracy are described. When a reference thermal source is used for calibration, the spectrometer can function as a fast optical pyrometer. Applications of the spectrometer are illustrated by using it to capture single-shot emission transients from energetic materials or reactive materials initiated by kmṡs-1 impacts with laser-driven flyer plates. A log (time) data analysis method is used to visualize multiple kinetic processes resulting from impact initiation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) or a Zr/CuO nanolaminate thermite. Using a gray body algorithm to interpret the spectral radiance from shocked HMX, a time history of temperature and emissivity was obtained, which could be used to investigate HMX hot spot dynamics. Finally, two examples are presented showing how the spectrometer can avoid temperature determination errors in systems where thermal emission is accompanied by atomic or molecular emission lines.

  20. High-temperature shock formation of N2 and organics on primordial Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, C. P.; Scattergood, T. W.; Pollack, J. B.; Borucki, W. J.; van Ghyseghem, H. T.

    1988-04-01

    Theoretical models suggest that the initial form of nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere may have been NH3. The possible importance of strong shocks produced during high-velocity impacts accompanying the late stages of accretion are investigated as a method for converting NH3 to N2, of which Titan's atmosphere is now primarily composed. The focused beam of a high-power laser is used to simulate the effects of an impact in Titan's atmosphere. For mixtures of 10, 50, and 90 percent NH3, yields of 0.25, 1, and 6 x 20 to the 17th molecules of N2 per joule, respectively, were obtained. It is also found that the yield of HCN is comparable to that for N2. Several other hydrocarbons are produced, many with yields in excess of theoretical high-temperature-equilibrium models. The above yields, when combined with models of the satellite's accretion, result in a total N2 production comparable to that present in TItan's atmosphere and putative ocean.