Science.gov

Sample records for high energy telescope

  1. ANTARES: a high energy neutrino undersea telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. J.

    1999-07-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented.

  2. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  3. The Telescope Array Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Obsrevatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  4. The Cherenkov Telescope Array For Very High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2015-08-01

    The field of very high energy (VHE) astrophysics had been revolutionized by the results from ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, including the current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope (IACT) arrays: HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS. A worldwide consortium of scientists from 29 countries has formed to propose the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) that will capitalize on the power of this technique to greatly expand the scientific reach of ground-based gamma-ray telescopes. CTA science will include key topics such as the origin of cosmic rays and cosmic particle acceleration, understanding extreme environments in regions close to neutron stars and black holes, and exploring physics frontiers through, e.g., the search for WIMP dark matter, axion-like particles and Lorentz invariance violation. CTA is envisioned to consist of two large arrays of Cherenkov telescopes, one in the southern hemisphere and one in the north. Each array will contain telescopes of different sizes to provide a balance between cost and array performance over an energy range from below 100 GeV to above 100 TeV. Compared to the existing IACT arrays, CTA will have substantially better angular resolution and energy resolution, will cover a much wider energy range, and will have up to an order of magnitude better sensitivity. CTA will also be operated as an open observatory and high-level CTA data will be placed into the public domain; these aspects will enable broad participation in CTA science from the worldwide scientific community to fully capitalize on CTA's potential. This talk will: 1) review the scientific motivation and capabilities of CTA, 2) provide an overview of the technical design and the status of prototype development, and 3) summarize the current status of the project in terms of its proposed organization and timeline. The plans for access to CTA data and opportunities to propose for CTA observing time will be highlighed.Presented on behalf of the CTA Consortium.

  5. The proposed high-energy telescope (HET) for EXIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Cook, W.; Harrison, F.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The hard X-ray sky now being studied by INTEGRAL and Swift and soon by NuSTAR is rich with energetic phenomena and highly variable non-thermal phenomena on a broad range of timescales. The High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission will repeatedly survey the full sky for rare and luminous hard X-ray phenomena at unprecedented sensitivities. It will detect and localize (<20", at 5σ threshold) X-ray sources quickly for immediate followup identification by two other onboard telescopes - the Soft X-ray imager (SXI) and Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). The large array (4.5 m2) of imaging (0.6 mm pixel) CZT detectors in the HET, a coded-aperture telescope, will provide unprecedented high sensitivity (~0.06 mCrab Full Sky in a 2 year continuous scanning survey) in the 5 - 600 keV band. The large field of view (90° × 70°) and zenith scanning with alternating-orbital nodding motion planned for the first 2 years of the mission will enable nearly continuous monitoring of the full sky. A 3y followup pointed mission phase provides deep UV-Optical-IR-Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy for thousands of sources discovered in the Survey. We review the HET design concept and report the recent progress of the CZT detector development, which is underway through a series of balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope experiments, ProtoEXIST. We carried out a successful flight of the first generation of fine pixel large area CZT detectors (ProtoEXIST1) on Oct 9, 2009. We also summarize our future plan (ProtoEXIST2 & 3) for the technology development needed for the HET.

  6. High Energy Telescope With Neutron Detection Capabilities (HETn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Böhm, E.; Böttcher, s.; Connell, J. J.; Dröge, W.; Hassler, D. M.; Heber, B.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Steigies, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    The High-Energy Telescope with neutron detection capabilities (HETn) for the Solar Orbiter will measure and resolve energetic charged particles, in particular electrons, proton, and heavy ions up to Fe including selected isotopes up to energies equivalen to the penetration depth of 100 MeV protons. The full active anti-coincidence encloses detectors sensitive to 1-30 MeV neutrons and 0.5-5 MeV X-/gamma-rays. The sensor consists of the angle-detecting inclined sensors (ADIS) solid-state detector detector telescope utilizing a shared calorimeter for total energy and X-/gamma-ray measurement. A separate plastic detector provides sensitivity to neutrons via the recoil process. HETn will open a new window on solar eruptive events with its neutron detection capability and allows determination of high-energy close to the Sun. Timing and spectral information on neutral particles (neutrons and X-/gamma rays ), on relativistic electrons and high-energy heavy ions will provide new insights into the processes which accelerate particles to high energies at the sun and into transport processes between the source and the spacecraft in the near-Sun environment.

  7. The High Energy Telescopes for the STEREO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, T.T.; Cummings, A.C.; Leske, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.; Reames, D.V.; Stone, E.C.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.

    We describe the High Energy Telescopes (HETs), which are part of the IMPACT investigation for the STEREO mission (Principal Investigator: Janet Luhmann, University of California at Berkeley). The two STEREO spacecraft were launched from Cape Canaveral, FL on October 25, 2006. High energy electrons (~ 0.7 -6 MeV) and nuclei from hydrogen to iron (~ 13 - 200 MeV/nucleon) are detected by the HETs, one on each spacecraft. Observations from one pass through the Earth’s magnetosphere and from four X-class solar events in December, 2006 are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the HETs. The HET observations are also compared with observations from other spacecraft. The event of December 13th was the first Ground Level Event in almost two years. We will compare the elemental composition of this event with that of the previous Ground Level Event on January 20, 2005. This work was supported by NASA (at Caltech and JPL under contract NAS5-00133 and grant NAG5-12929).

  8. The High Energy Telescopes for the STEREO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, T.; Cummings, A.; Cohen, C.; Leske, R.; Mewaldt, R.; Stone, E.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2007-05-01

    The High Energy Telescopes (HETs) described in this paper are part of the IMPACT investigation for the STEREO mission (Principal Investigator: Janet Luhmann, University of California at Berkeley). The two STEREO spacecraft were launched from Cape Canaveral, FL on October 25, 2006. High energy electrons (~ 0.7 -6 MeV) and nuclei from hydrogen to iron (~ 13 - 200 MeV/nucleon) are detected by the HETs, one on each spacecraft. The HET design, the associated electronics, and the on-board software are described in some detail. Observations from one pass through the Earth's magnetosphere and from four X-class solar events in December, 2006 are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the HETs. The event of December 13th was a Ground Level Event. We will compare the elemental composition of this event with that of a previous Ground Level Event on January 20, 2005. This work was supported by NASA (at Caltech and JPL under contract NAS5-00133).

  9. Very-High-Energy Astrophysics with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Reshmi

    2016-04-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a new gamma-ray observatory in the energy band ~30 GeV to ~100 TeV, designed to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over the currently operating imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. CTA will probe known sources with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution, and spectral coverage, with the potential of detecting hundreds of new sources. The CTA Consortium will also conduct a number of Key Science Projects, including a Galactic Plane survey and a survey of one quarter of the extragalactic sky. Data taken by CTA will be accessible by members of the wider astronomical community, for the first time in this energy band. This presentation will give an overview of CTA, and its proposed key science program.Submitted with the CTA Consortium

  10. SST-GATE: an innovative telescope for very high energy astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Philippe; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Boisson, Catherine; Chadwick, Paula; Dumas, Delphine; Fasola, Gilles; de Frondat, Fatima; Greenshaw, Tim; Hervet, Olivier; Hinton, James; Horville, David; Huet, Jean-Michel; Jégouzo, Isabelle; Schmoll, Jürgen; White, Richard; Zech, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international collaboration that aims to create the world's largest (ever) Very High Energy gamma-ray telescope array, consisting of more than 100 telescopes covering an area of several square kilometers to observe the electromagnetic showers generated by incoming cosmic gamma-rays with very high energies (from a few tens of GeV up to over 100 TeV). Observing such sources requires - amongst many other things - a large FoV (Field of View). In the framework of CTA, SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) aims to investigate and to build one of the two first CTA prototypes based on the Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optical design that delivers a FoV close to 10 degrees in diameter. To achieve the required performance per unit cost, many improvements in mirror manufacturing and in other technologies are required. We present in this paper the current status of our project. After a brief introduction of the very high energy context, we present the opto-mechanical design, discuss the technological tradeoffs and explain the electronics philosophy that will ensure the telescopes cost is minimised without limiting its capabilities. We then describe the software nedeed to operate the telescope and conclude by presenting the expected telescope performance and some management considerations.

  11. Silicon photomultipliers for next generation high-energy space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, K.; Knödlseder, J.; Delaigue, S.; Galliano, M.; Houret, B.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Virmontois, C.

    2015-08-01

    Photon detection is a central element of any high-energy astronomy instrumentation. One classical setup that has proven successful in many missions is the combination of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with scintillators, converting incoming high-energy photons into visible light, which in turn is converted in an electrical impulse. Although being extremely sensitive and rapid, PMTs have the drawback of being bulky, fragile, and are requiring a high-voltage power supply of up to several thousand volts. Recent technological advances in the development of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) make them a promising alternative to PMTs in essentially all their applications. We have started an R and D program to assess the possibility of using SiPMs for space-based applications in the domain of high-energy astronomy. We have setup a test bench using a vacuum vessel to reproduce a space-representative environment in our lab. We will present our test bench as well as first results of a characterization campaign of SiPM detectors from 3 different suppliers. We have planned to select after the characterization campaign one baseline detector for which we will design a dedicated front-end electronics and mechanical system. Furthermore, we plan to develop a specific low noise voltage power supply that ensures the stability of the SiPMs. Our ultimate goal is to qualify the system for a Technical Readiness Level of 5.

  12. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  13. An imaging telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, G.; Jenkins, T. L.; Owen, A.; Ramsden, D.; Carter, J. N.; Hall, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent tests of a gamma-ray imaging telescope, which incorporated a coded aperture mask and multiwire proportional counter system produced good images of a tritium target source which was used to generate the 20 MeV protons at a proton Van de Graaff accelerator. This paper indicates what performance might be expected if a large area drift chamber were used in conjunction with a coded aperture mask. The prospects for achieving significant scientific results if such a system were flown on a variety of space vehicles are discussed.

  14. Search for High Energy Neutrino from GRBs with the ANTARES Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornic, D.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere primarily sensitive to astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy. We review the recent results of the searches for high-energy neutrinos from GRB using multi-messenger analysis.

  15. Observation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays by the Telescope Array Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory inhabits about 700 sq km of central Utah desert ~3 hours south of Salt Lake City and is a hybrid cosmic ray detector consisting of fluorescence telescopes observing the sky above an array of scintillator detectors which sample the charged particle density from cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. It is used to study the energy spectrum, chemical composition and anisotropy of cosmic rays. Recently we have extended the energy reach lower so that we observe over more than four decades of energy. We are also in the process of extending the Telescope Array aperture by a factor of 4 to better understand a ``hot spot'' in the northern sky which could turn out be the first observed source of ultra high energy cosmic rays. The experiment and its measurements will be introduced. We appreciate the support of the NSF.

  16. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. Very High Energy Observations of Gamma Ray Bursts with the Whipple/VERITAS Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, D.; Badran, H.M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I.H.; Boyle, P.J.; Bradbury, S.M.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Celik, O.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.K.; Calle Perez, I. de la; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D.J.; Fegan, S.J.; Finley, J.P.; Fortson, L.F.

    2005-02-21

    Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observations at Very High Energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) can impose tight constraints on some GRB emission models. Many GRB after-glow models predict a VHE component similar to that seen in blazars and supernova remnants, in which the GRB spectral energy distribution has a double-peaked shape extending into the VHE regime. Consistent with this afterglow scenario, EGRET detected delayed high energy emission from all five bright BATSE GRBs that occurred within its field of view. GRB observations have had high priority in the observing program at the Whipple 10m Telescope and will continue to be high priority targets when the next generation observatory VERITAS comes online. Upper limits on the VHE emission from ten GRBs observed with the Whipple Telescope are reported here.

  18. The High Energy Telescope on EXIST: Hunting High Red-shift GRBs and Other Exotic Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G. K.; Finger, M. H.; Jernigan, J. G.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The current baseline design of the High Energy Telescope (HET) on EXIST will localize high red-shift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other exotic transients fast (<10 sec) and accurately (<17") in order to allow the rapid (<1-2 min) follow-up onboard optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy. HET employs coded-aperture imaging with 5.5m2 CZT detector and a large hybrid tungsten mask (See also Skinner et al. in this meeting). The wide energy band coverage (5-600 keV) is optimal for capturing these transients and highly obscured AGNs. The continuous scan with the wide field of view ( 45 deg radius at 25% coding fraction) increases the chance of capturing rare elusive events such as soft Gamma-ray repeaters and tidal disruption events of stars by dormant supermassive black holes. Sweeping nearly the entire sky every two orbits (3 hour) will also establish a finely-sampled long-term history of the X-ray variability of many X-ray sources, opening up a new time domain of the variability study. In light of the new EXIST design concept, we review the observing strategy to maximize the science return and report the latest development of the CZT detectors for HET.

  19. Opportunities for Fundamental and New Physics with Very High Energy Gamma-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtol, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical observations with the highest energy gamma rays enable a wide range of fundamental physics measurements as well as searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this presentation, I will discuss indirect dark matter searches, intergalactic magnetic field constraints, and tests of Lorentz invariance with an emphasis on sensitivity gains that could be achieved with two new ground-based gamma-ray telescopes operating at the TeV energy scale: the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) and the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Multiwavelength and multimessenger observations are an essential component of these studies needed to characterize the environments in which the highest energy gamma rays are produced, the conditions encountered while traversing interstellar and intergalactic distances, and "conventional" astrophysical backgrounds.

  20. Probing the 2-3 leptonic mixing at high-energy neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2006-02-15

    We discuss the possibility to probe leptonic mixing parameters at high-energy neutrino telescopes in a model-independent way, using astrophysical neutron and pion sources. In particular we show how the octant of the 2-3 mixing angle might be determined independently of prior knowledge of the source, even when current uncertainties on the other mixing parameters are included. We also argue that nontrivial neutrino oscillation effects should be taken into account when using high-energy flavor ratios for astrophysical diagnostics.

  1. Energy Spectrum and Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers Using Hybrid Analysis from Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui, Charles; Allen, Monica; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Stokes, Benjamin; Ivanov, Dmitri

    2013-04-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) consists of 38 fluorescence telescopes spread over three detector sites. The three sites at located the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters, covering 700 square km, with a spacing of 1.2 km. TA is designed to study the energy spectrum, composition, and arrival direction anisotropy of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR). A unique feature of TA is that one of three fluorescence detector (FD) sites, Middle Drum (MD), is instrumented with 14 refurbished telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. This commonality provides TA with a direct link back to the HiRes experiment and data. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the MD data improves the geometrical reconstruction and hence provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle and shower profile. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum composition results will be presented.

  2. An Overview of the Electron-Proton and High Energy Telescopes for Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Sebastian; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao R.; Tammen, Jan; Steinhagen, Jan; Martin, César; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Seimetz, Lars; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Elftmann, Robert; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier; Prieto Mateo, Manuel; Gomez Herrero, Rául

    2014-05-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The University of Kiel in Germany is responsible for the design, development, and building of STEP, EPT and HET. This poster will focus on the last two. The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To separate electrons and protons EPT relies on the magnet/foil-technique. EPT is intended to close the gap between the supra-thermal particles measured by STEP and the high energy range covered by HET. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 to 100 MeV, and heavy ions from ~20 to 200 MeV/nuc. To achieve this performance HET consists of a series of silicon detectors in a telescope configuration with a scintillator calorimeter to stop high energy protons and ions. It uses the dE/dx vs. total E technique . In this way HET covers an energy range which is of interest for studies of the space radiation environment and will perform measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy particle events at the Sun. EPT and HET share a common Electronics Box, there are two EPT-HET sensors on Solar Orbiter to allow rudimentary pitch-angle coverage. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET units and calibration results of demonstration models as well as plans for future activities.

  3. An Overview of Electron-Proton and High Energy Telescopes of Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Grunau, J.; Boden, S.; Steinhagen, J.; Martin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of five sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The University of Kiel in Germany is also responsible for the design, development, and build of EPT and HET which are presented here. The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The Solar Orbiter EPT electron measurements from 20 - 400 keV will cover the gap with some overlap between suprathermal electrons measured by STEP and high energy electrons measured by HET. The proton measurements from 20 -7000 keV will partially cover the gap between STEP and HET. The Electron and Proton Telescope relies on the magnet/foil-technique. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 -100 MeV, and heavy ions from ~20 to 200 MeV/nuc. Thus, HET covers the energy range which is of specific interest for studies of the space environment and will perform the measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy events at the Sun which occasionally accelerate particles to such high energies that they can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and be measured at ground level. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET units and calibration results of demonstration models and present plans for future activities.

  4. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, M.; Dawson, B.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandat, D.; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J. N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, M.; Pech, M.; Privitera, P.; Schovanek, P.; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S. B.; Travnicek, P.; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometers as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.

  5. Radio telescopes as the detectors of super-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagkesamansky, R. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    The registration of super high energy neutrinos is a very difficult and also very important problem that requires construction of detectors with large effective target masses. Askaryan pointed out the possibility of registering cascades in dense media by the Cherenkov radio emission of an excess of negative charges in the cascades which arose in interaction between high energy particles and the atoms of medium. The telescopes for cosmic high energy neutrino detection by radioemission of cascades induced underground, but whose development continues in the atmosphere were proposed by others. The effective target masses of such detectors could be approx. 10(exp 9) tons and more. The properties of Cherenkov radio emission of cascades and the properties of ice in the Antarctic Region make it possible to propose Radio Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection (RAMAND): antennas should be placed on the ice surface of approx. 10 sq km to search for radio signals for neutrino (muon) cascades of energy. It is evident from data given that the largest radio telescopes gives the opportunity for registration of the cascades induced by neutrinos with the energies E is greater than or = 10(exp 20) eV.

  6. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W. H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-12-01

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest "conventional" cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  7. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore » design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  8. Studying the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky with Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamae, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Thompson, D. J.; Watanabe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Building on the success of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will make a major step in the study of such subjects as blazars, gamma Ray bursts, the search for dark matter, supernova remnants, pulsars, diffuse radiation, and unidentified high energy sources. The instrument will be built on new and mature detector technologies such as silicon strip detectors, low-power low-noise LSI, and a multilevel data acquisition system. GLAST is in the research and development phase, and one full tower (of 25 total) is now being built in collaborating institutes. The prototype tower will be tested thoroughly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the fall of 1999.

  9. Focal plane transport assembly controls for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, C.; Strizhak, E.; Brissette, R.

    1979-01-01

    The High Energy Astronomy Observatory - Mission B (HEAO-B) is a satellite observatory for the purpose of performing a detailed X-ray survey of the celestial sphere. Measurements will be made of stellar radiation in the range of 0.2 to 20 keV. The central part of the Observatory is an X-ray telescope, into the focus of which a variety of imaging instruments and spectrographs may be introduced. The telescope has a resolution of about 1 arc second, so that the instruments must be placed with extreme precision. This is obtained by a mechanical system of toggles and stops and a motor drive system controlled by a position sensing potentiometer with a resolution of about 1.5 degrees

  10. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  11. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  12. Simulation studies of the high-energy component of a future imaging Cherenkov telescope array

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.

    2008-12-24

    The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of the technique in an energy range between {approx}100 GeV up to several tens of TeV. At the high-energy end, these instruments are limited by photon statistics. Future arrays of IACTs such as CTA or AGIS are planned to push into the energy range beyond 100 TeV. Scientifically, this region is very promising, providing a probe of particles up to the 'knee' in the cosmic ray spectrum and access to an unexplored region in the spectra of nearby extragalactic sources. We present first results from our simulation studies of the high-energy part of a future IACT array and discuss the design parameters of such an array.

  13. Simulation studies of the high-energy component of a future imaging Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of the technique in an energy range between ~100 GeV up to several tens of TeV. At the high-energy end, these instruments are limited by photon statistics. Future arrays of IACTs such as CTA or AGIS are planned to push into the energy range beyond 100 TeV. Scientifically, this region is very promising, providing a probe of particles up to the `knee' in the cosmic ray spectrum and access to an unexplored region in the spectra of nearby extragalactic sources. We present first results from our simulation studies of the high-energy part of a future IACT array and discuss the design parameters of such an array.

  14. Tabulated data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tuner, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The second small astronomy satellite (SAS-2) carried a high energy gamma ray telescope into an equitorial orbit with a 2 D inclination, an apogee of 610 km, and a perigee of 440 km. The energy threshold of the instrument was about 30 MeV, the energy of the gamma rays could be measured up to about 200 MeV, and the integral intensity above 200 MeV could also be measured. Summary tables of the gamma ray data are presented in two energy bands, 35-100 MeV and 100 MeV. The sky was divided into 144 solid angle elements, and, in each solid angle element for which data exist, the number of gamma rays observed is given and also the exposure factor. Information is provided to permit conversion of these data into approximate intensities.

  15. Beyond VERITAS: High-Energy Gamma-Rays with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David A.; CTA Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a new observatory for the study of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, designed to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the ~30 GeV to ~100 TeV energy band compared to currently operating instruments: VERITAS, MAGIC, and H.E.S.S. CTA will probe known sources with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution, and spectral coverage, while also detecting hundreds of new sources. CTA will provide access to data in this energy band to members of the wider astronomical community for the first time. The CTA Consortium will also conduct a number of Key Science Projects, including a Galactic Plane survey and a survey of one quarter of the extragalactic sky, creating legacy data sets that will also be available to the public. This presentation will describe how CTA will bring new opportunities for the solution of astrophysical puzzles.

  16. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  17. Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum Measured with the Fermi Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /NASA, Ames

    2012-04-25

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided the measurement of the high energy (20 GeV to 1 TeV) cosmic ray electrons and positrons spectrum with unprecedented accuracy. This measurement represents a unique probe for studying the origin and diffusive propagation of cosmic rays as well as for looking for possible evidences of Dark Matter. In this contribution we focus mainly on astrophysical sources of cosmic ray electrons and positrons which include the standard primary and secondary diffuse galactic contribution, as well as nearby point-sources which are expected to contribute more significantly to higher energies. In this framework, we discuss possible interpretations of Fermi results in relation with other recent experimental data on energetic electrons and positrons (specifically the most recent ones reported by PAMELA, ATIC, PPB-BETS and H.E.S.S.).

  18. Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Abdali, Salim; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Decker, Todd R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Jimenez-Garate, Mario

    1997-10-01

    The high energy focusing telescope (HEFT) is a balloon-borne system for obtaining arcminute imagery in the 20 - 100 keV energy band. The hard x-ray optics are baselined to use thin epoxy-replicated aluminum foil substrates coated with graded-d multilayers, and we show some results on x-ray performance of prototype foil substrates. We also propose an extremely promising alternative substrate -- thermally formed glass. The advantages of thermally formed glass substrates, their fabrication and preliminary metrology on sample pieces are discussed. If ultimately feasible, the thermally formed glass is a better substrate due to its superior hard x-ray reflectivity and scattering properties in comparison to similarly coated epoxy-replicated aluminum foil. We also discuss some preliminary work on the HEFT mirror mounting concept and the associated angular resolution error budget.

  19. THE NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Craig, William W.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Giommi, Paolo; Perri, Matteo; and others

    2013-06-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the {approx}10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to the peak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z {approx}< 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element {sup 44}Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 Degree-Sign inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an

  20. TARGET: A multi-channel digitizer chip for very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Okumura, A.; Ruckman, L.; Simons, A.; Tajima, H.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.

    2011-08-11

    The next-generation very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, will feature dozens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), each with thousands of pixels of photosensors. To be affordable and reliable, reading out such a mega-channel array requires event recording technology that is highly integrated and modular, with a low cost per channel. We present the design and performance of a chip targeted to this application: the TeV Array Readout with GSa/s sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET). This application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has 16 parallel input channels, a 4096-sample buffer for each channel, adjustable input termination, self-trigger functionality, and tight window-selected readout. We report the performance of TARGET in terms of sampling frequency, power consumption, dynamic range, current-mode gain, analog bandwidth, and cross talk. The large number of channels per chip allows a low cost per channel ($10 to $20 including front-end and back-end electronics but not including photosensors) to be achieved with a TARGET-based IACT readout system. In addition to basic performance parameters of the TARGET chip itself, we present a camera module prototype as well as a second-generation chip (TARGET 2), both of which have been produced.

  1. Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by Telescope Array in Hybrid Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, William; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits several important features such as the knee (E ~10 15 . 5 eV), ankle (E ~10 18 . 7 eV), and high energy suppression (E ~10 19 . 8 eV). Cosmic ray chemical composition is the key to understanding their galactic and extragalactic sources as well as the origin of particle production and acceleration mechanisms. Energy dependent chemical composition is a fundamental input for models of cosmic ray sources and interstellar transport which may lead to competing explanations of the observed spectral features. Understanding composition will therefore allow one to distinguish between the different scenarios of cosmic ray origin, a decades old problem in astrophysics. In this talk we will describe measurements of ultra high energy cosmic ray composition performed by Telescope Array (TA) using Xmax measured in extended air showers (EAS) simultaneously observed by the TA surface array and TA fluorescence stations (called hybrid mode). Showers with primary energies above 1018 eV will be considered. We will also discuss improved methods of comparing the measured composition to EAS models.

  2. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  3. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-08-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  4. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; An, Hongjun; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Cook, Rick; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian; Hailey, Charles J.; Kitaguchi, Takao; Markwardt, Craig; Mao, Peter; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Rana, Vikram R.; Stern, Daniel K.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Walton, Dominic; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission was launched on 2012 June 13 and is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit operating above ~10 keV. NuSTAR flies two co-aligned Wolter-I conical approximation X-ray optics, coated with Pt/C and W/Si multilayers, and combined with a focal length of 10.14 meters this enables operation from 3-79 keV. The optics focus onto two focal plane arrays, each consisting of 4 CdZnTe pixel detectors, for a field of view of 12.5 arcminutes. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity, and with an effective point spread function FWHM of 18 arcseconds (HPD ~1), NuSTAR provides a leap of improvement in resolution over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. We present in-orbit performance details of the observatory and highlight important science results from the first two years of the mission.

  5. Constraints on the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Bacelar, J.; Braun, R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Strom, R. G.; Yahyaoui, R. Al

    2010-10-01

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims: By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHE neutrino flux. Methods: The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrowband radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth's ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results: With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  6. FIRST SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC NEUTRINOS WITH THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 {+-} 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}(E{sub {nu}}/ GeV){sup -2} GeV{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for the part of the sky that is always visible ({delta} < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed.

  7. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  8. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kim, Yunjin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Mori, Kaya; Perri, Matteo; Markwardt, Craig B.; Wik, Daniel R.; Hornschemeier, Anne E.; Ptak, Andrew; Rigby, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  9. The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for High Energy Astroparticle Physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Shoji

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of Cosmic Ray electrons (and positrons) t o 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV , nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV, and Gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV- 10 MeV energy range during a five year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of Calet, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fiber planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch, during the Japan Fiscal Year (April, 2014- March, 2015) time frame, to the International Space Station (ISS) for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  10. Observation and Simulations of the Backsplash Effects in High-Energy Gamma-Ray Telescopes Containing a Massive Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Hartman, Robert C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Mitchell, John W.; Thompson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Beam test and simulation results are presented for a study of the backsplash effects produced in a high-energy gamma-ray detector containing a massive calorimeter. An empirical formula is developed to estimate the probability (per unit area) of backsplash for different calorimeter materials and thicknesses, different incident particle energies, and at different distances from the calorimeter. The results obtained are applied to the design of Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST).

  11. Detection of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from 1ES 2037+521 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2016-10-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports the detection of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from 1ES 2037+521 (RA 20h39m23.5s, DEC +52d19m50s, J2000.0). The object was observed with the MAGIC telescopes for 11 hours between 2016/09/26 and 2016/09/30.

  12. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  13. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-Ray Balloon-Borne Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Apple, Jeff; StevensonChavis, Katherine; Dietz, Kurt; Holt, Marlon; Koehler, Heather; Lis, Tomasz; O'Connor, Brian; RodriquezOtero, Miguel; Pryor, Jonathan; Ramsey, Brian; Rinehart-Dawson, Maegan; Smith, Leigh; Sobey, Alexander; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Rodriquez, Marcello; Shih, Albert; Gregory, Don; Jasper, John; Bohon, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist

  14. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  15. Development of the 3-D Track Imager for Medium and High-Energy Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) and Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) are envisioned as the next medium (0.3 ^ 50 MeV) and high-energy (30 MeV - greater than 100 GeV) gamma-ray missions. These missions will address many research focus areas of the Structure and Evolution of the Universe Roadmap. These areas include: element formation, matter, energy, & magnetic field interactions in galaxies, AGN & GRB emission, and behavior of matter in extreme environments of black holes & pulsars. Achieving these science goals requires a substantial increases in telescope sensitivity and angular resolution. This talk will discuss how these goals can be met with the three-dimensional track imager (3-DTI), a large volume, low density, time projection chamber with two-dimensional micro-well detector readout and report on our development of a 10 cm x 10 cm x 30 prototype instrument.

  16. The impact of networks of robotic telescopes in continuous monitoring of high energy cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    High energy (HE) cosmic sources are characterized by emissions in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In order to clarify their behavior and understand the involved physics it is necessary to perform simultaneous measurements in a range of energy as wide as possible. This makes it necessary to use different techniques and instrumentation both space- and ground-based. Simultaneous observations are in general very difficult to be performed because they need the involvement of many instruments that belong to many experiments under the control of many groups and countries. However, since the importance of multifrequency measurements is now universally recognized, many efforts are made in order to obtain such measurements. Our group has been a pioneer in such a kind of measurements since middle of 1970s. We will briefly discuss the impact of such measurements in different class of HE cosmic sources, such as T Tauri stars (TTSs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray binary systems (XRBs), and cataclysmic variables (CVs). This discussion is mainly based on the review paper "The impact of the space experiments on our knowledge of the physics of the universe" tep{GiovannelliSabauGraziati2004} and subsequent revisions. We will also discuss the importance of having a network of robotic telescopes that can provide long term optical monitoring of the classes of HE sources already discussed. Such measurements will provide fundamental data for understanding many problems that are still open, such as the physics of the outbursts in flaring systems, the search of rotational periods of white dwarfs in CVs and orbital periods of those systems, rotational periods and periodicities of flare-like events of TTSs, correlations between optical and X-ray flares in X-ray/Be systems, fluctuations in the light curves of AGNs and their correlations with the HE emission in order to test the validity of current models, etc.

  17. A Compact Liquid Xenon Compton Telescope with High Energy Resolution and Time-of-Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberlack, Uwe; Gomez, R.; Olsen, C.; Shagin, P.; Aprile, E.; Giboni, K.; Plante, G.; Santorelli, R.

    2006-09-01

    Two recent developments have led us to propose a new type of Compton telescope in compact geometry with time-of-flight, for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy regime of 0.2 - 10 MeV. First, the technology of vacuum ultraviolet photosensors for efficient and fast readout of liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation light has improved dramatically over the last few years, and new developments are underway. A LXe Advanced Compton Telescope would consist of two detector arrays of LXe time projection chambers in compact geometry, with time-of-flight (ToF) between detector modules at a resolution of order 100 ps. Second, the previously achieved moderate energy resolution in LXe, a significant draw-back for gamma-ray line spectroscopy, has been found to be largely due to a strong anti-correlation of ionization and scintillation in LXe. Efficient measurement of both charge and light enables us to improve energy resolution greatly. A factor of three improvement over a previous prototype, LXeGRIT, has already been achieved, and the measured underlying physics indicate the possibility of achievng energy resolution below 1% FWHM at 1 MeV. We are vigorously working on improving light and charge readout to realize this potential in a practical detector. We report on the status and prospects of our current research and development program. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG05WC24G.

  18. MACHETE: A transit imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope to survey half of the very high energy γ-ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, J.; López-Coto, R.; Moralejo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for very high energy γ-ray astrophysics are pointing instruments with a field of view up to a few tens of sq deg. We propose to build an array of two non-steerable (drift) telescopes. Each of the telescopes would have a camera with a FOV of 5 × 60 sq deg oriented along the meridian. About half of the sky drifts through this FOV in a year. We have performed a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the performance of this instrument. We expect it to survey this half of the sky with an integral flux sensitivity of ˜0.77% of the steady flux of the Crab Nebula in 5 years, an analysis energy threshold of ˜150 GeV and an angular resolution of ˜0.1°. For astronomical objects that transit over the telescope for a specific night, we can achieve an integral sensitivity of 12% of the Crab Nebula flux in a night, making it a very powerful tool to trigger further observations of variable sources using steerable IACTs or instruments at other wavelengths.

  19. GLAST LARGE AREA TELESCOPE: DAILY SURVEY OF HIGH-ENERGY SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Kamae, T

    2003-12-12

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore w die range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20 MeV to 300 GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e{sup +}e{sup -} pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a st of anti-coincidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit ({approx} 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity.

  20. The energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays measured by the Telescope Array FADC fluorescence detectors in monocular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Myers, I.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2013-08-01

    We present a measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays performed by the Telescope Array experiment using monocular observations from its two new FADC-based fluorescence detectors. After a short description of the experiment, we describe the data analysis and event reconstruction procedures. Since the aperture of the experiment must be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, we describe this calculation and the comparisons of simulated and real data used to verify the validity of the aperture calculation. Finally, we present the energy spectrum calculated from the merged monocular data sets of the two FADC-based detectors, and also the combination of this merged spectrum with an independent, previously published monocular spectrum measurement performed by Telescope Array's third fluorescence detector [T. Abu-Zayyad et al., The energy spectrum of Telescope Array's middle drum detector and the direct comparison to the high resolution fly's eye experiment, Astroparticle Physics 39 (2012) 109-119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.05.012, Available from: ]. This combined spectrum corroborates the recently published Telescope Array surface detector spectrum [T. Abu-Zayyad, et al., The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment, ApJ 768 (2013) L1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1, Available from: ] with independent systematic uncertainties.

  1. The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), a High Sensitivity Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D; De Nolfo, Georgia; Hanu, Andrei R; Krizmanic, John F; Stecker, Floyd W.; Timokhin, Andrey; Venters, Tonia M.

    2014-08-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eg > 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from ~20 MeV to >10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below ~200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, a significant sensitivity gap will remain in the medium-energy regime (0.75 - 200 MeV) that has been explored only by COMPTEL and EGRET on CGRO. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires development of a telescope with significant improvement in sensitivity. Our mission concept, covering ~5 to ~200 MeV, is the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT). The AdEPT telescope will achieve angular resolution of ~0.6 deg at 70 MeV, similar to the angular resolution of Fermi/LAT at ~1 GeV that brought tremendous success in identifying new sources. AdEPT will also provide unprecedented polarization sensitivity, ~1% for a 1 Crab source. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) a low-density, large volume, gas time-projection chamber with a 2-dimensional readout. The 3-DTI provides high-resolution three-dimensional electron tracking with minimal Coulomb scattering that is essential to achieve high angular resolution and polarization sensitivity. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of the 3-DTI detector, describe the development of a 50x50x100 cm3 AdEPT prototype, and highlight a few of the key science questions that AdEPT will address.

  2. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Miele, G.; Mangano, G.; Pisanti, O.; Pastor, S.

    2008-02-15

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high-energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parametrization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an underwater Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic-ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  3. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km^3 neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-11-01

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parameterization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an under-water Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a-priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  4. Energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed with the Telescope Array using a hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-02-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than 1018.2 eV with the fluorescence detectors (FDs) and the surface detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27, 2008 to September 7, 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  5. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from MS1221.8+2452 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Juan

    2013-05-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports the discovery of very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from MS1221.8+2452 (12h24m24.2s +24d36m24s, J2000.0). MS1221.8+2452 is a blazar located at a redshift of 0.218 (Sbarufatti et al., 2005, ApJ 635, 173) and classified as a high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac. It is one of the very few BL Lacs that has been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope (Jannuzzi et al., 1997, ApJ 491, 146).

  6. CALIBRATION OF THE NuSTAR HIGH-ENERGY FOCUSING X-RAY TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.; Markwardt, Craig B.; An, Hongjun; Bachetti, Matteo; Kitaguchi, Takao; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steve; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Stern, Daniel; and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%–10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ∼10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  7. Observations of AGN at very-high energy gamma rays with the H.E.S.S. telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert

    2016-08-01

    At the high-energy end of their electromagnetic spectra, the emission of AGNs is based on non-thermal particle acceleration processes. Ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, like the H.E.S.S. array of gamma-ray telescopes, offer excellent sensitivity at E>100 GeV, a superb time resolution, and in combination with multi-wavelength instruments, represent powerful tools for investigating the particle accelerators within AGN. In the past decade, non-thermal emission from relativistic jets in numerous blazars and radio galaxies could be investigated. The gamma-rays are likely due to Compton scattering of lower energy photons, either from within the jet or from the surrounding gas. The physical properties of the jet and the way in which it is produced are still largely a unknown, but are probably related in some way to accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. In the presentation, we will discuss H.E.S.S. results of observations of AGN, both highlighting substantial new lessons learned at the high energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum and in multi wavelength contexts.

  8. Measurement of the Flux of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays by the Telescope Array FADC Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, Sean R.

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produce the most powerful collisions between single particles and atmospheric matter. They have been studied since the early 20th century yet, to this date, there is no clear answer as to the acceleration process responsible for their production. The Telescope Array Project is an experiment designed to observe the showers of particles produced as by-products of the interactions between UHECRs and the atmosphere. As a hybrid experiment, it currently utilizes 38 fluorescence detectors (FDs) divided between three sites overlooking an array of 507 surface detectors (SDs). The project's mission is to study the energy, composition and origin of UHECRs using a variety of techniques which may include some or all of the experiment's apparatus. This document, in particular, is a presentation of the UHECR energy spectrum measured at Telescope Array using the fluorescence detection technique in monocular mode. Only data from the 24 FDs at Black Rock Mesa (BR) and Long Ridge (LR) stations are used here.

  9. Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) as Readout Devices for Scintillating Fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Shera, Suzanne; Shamo, Denis

    1998-01-01

    New gamma ray and charged particle telescope designs based on scintillating fiber arrays could provide low cost, high resolution, lightweight, very large area and multi radiation length instrumentation for planned NASA space exploration. The scintillating fibers low visible light output requires readout sensors with single photon detection sensitivity and low noise. The sensitivity of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) matches well the spectral output of the scintillating fibers. Moreover, APDs have demonstrated single photon capability. The global aim of our work is to make available to NASA a novel optical detector concept to be used as scintillating fiber readouts and meeting the requirements of the new generations of space-borne gamma ray telescopes. We proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using RMD's small area APDs ((mu)APD) as scintillating fiber readouts and to study possible alternative (mu)APD array configurations for space borne readout scintillating fiber systems, requiring several hundred thousand to one million channels. The evaluation has been conducted in accordance with the task description and technical specifications detailed in the NASA solicitation "Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD as readout devices for scintillating fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes" (#8-W-7-ES-13672NAIS) posted on October 23, 1997. The feasibility study we propose builds on recent developments of silicon APD arrays and light concentrators advances at RMD, Inc. and on more than 5 years of expertise in scintillating fiber detectors. In a previous program we carried out the initial research to develop a high resolution, small pixel, solid-state, silicon APD array which exhibited very high sensitivity in the UV-VIS spectrum. This (mu)APD array is operated in Geiger mode and results in high gain (greater than 10(exp 8)), extremely low noise, single photon detection capability, low quiescent power (less than 10 (mu)W/pixel for 30 micrometers sensitive

  10. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    On September 21-22, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope, flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, N.M. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 hour flight. In this paper we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources, applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray-Light (SLF) Facility in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces.

  11. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    On 2013 September 21-22, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, NM. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 h flight. In this paper, we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources and applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces. We describe the application of our calibration measurements to in-flight observations of the Crab Nebula.

  12. Search of the energetic gamma-ray experiment telescope (EGRET) data for high-energy gamma-ray microsecond bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Esposito, J. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Hawking (1974) and Page & Hawking (1976) investigated theoretically the possibility of detecting high-energy gamma rays produced by the quantum-mechanical decay of a small black hole created in the early universe. They concluded that, at the very end of the life of the small black hole, it would radiate a burst of gamma rays peaked near 250 MeV with a total energy of about 10(exp 34) ergs in the order of a microsecond or less. The characteristics of a black hole are determined by laws of physics beyond the range of current particle accelerators; hence, the search for these short bursts of high-energy gamma rays provides at least the possibility of being the first test of this region of physics. The Compton Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) has the capability of detecting directly the gamma rays from such bursts at a much fainter level than SAS 2, and a search of the EGRET data has led to an upper limit of 5 x 10(exp -2) black hole decays per cu pc per yr, placing constraints on this and other theories predicting microsecond high-energy gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Search for High-energy Gamma-ray Emission from Tidal Disruption Events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Massive black holes at galaxy center may tear apart a star when the star passes occasionally within the disruption radius, which is the so-called tidal disruption event (TDE). Most TDEs radiate with thermal emission resulting from the acceleration disk, but three TDEs have been detected in bright nonthermal X-ray emission, which is interpreted as arising from the relativistic jets. A search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from one relativistic TDE (Swift J164449.3+573451) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has yielded nondetection. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy emission from the other two relativistic TDEs (Swift J2058.4+0516 and Swift J1112.2-8238) during the flare period. No significant GeV emission is found, with an upper limit fluence in the LAT energy range being less than 1% of that in X-rays. Compared with gamma-ray bursts and blazars, these TDEs have the lowest flux ratio between GeV emission and X-ray emission. The nondetection of high-energy emission from relativistic TDEs could be due to the fact that the high-energy emission is absorbed by soft photons in the source. Based on this hypothesis, upper limits on the bulk Lorentz factors, {{Γ }}≲ 30, are then obtained for the jets in these TDEs. We also search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from the nearest TDE discovered to date, ASASSN-14li. No significant GeV emission is found, and an upper limit of L(0.1{--}10 {GeV})≤slant 4.4× {10}42 erg s‑1 (at 95% confidence level) is obtained for the first 107 s after the disruption.

  14. Present status of very high energy gamma ray astronomy and plans for an imaging gamma ray telescope in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. L.

    1993-09-01

    The unequivocal detection of the Crab Nebula as the first-ever standard candle in the very high energy (VHE) bracket, made possible by the recently-developed Cerenkov Imaging Technique, marks a water-shed in the 20 year-old history of the TeV gamma-ray astronomy. It gives hope that, as with the Crab today, future detections in the field, too, will be on a firm statistical footing and the attendant investigations, more comprehensive in their content and range. The present mood in the field is one of cautious optimism. This paper gives an overview of the contemporary observational scene in the ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. It closes with an introduction to TACTIC, the first Indian Imaging gamma-ray telescope, presently under-development.

  15. Very high-energy γ-ray observations of novae and dwarf novae with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; Desiante, R.; Hays, E.

    2015-10-01

    Context. In the last five years the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument detected GeV γ-ray emission from five novae. The GeV emission can be interpreted in terms of an inverse Compton process of electrons accelerated in a shock. In this case it is expected that protons in the same conditions can be accelerated to much higher energies. Consequently they may produce a second component in the γ-ray spectrum at TeV energies. Aims: We aim to explore the very high-energy domain to search for γ-ray emission above 50 GeV and to shed light on the acceleration process of leptons and hadrons in nova explosions. Methods: We have performed observations, with the MAGIC telescopes of the classical nova V339 Del shortly after the 2013 outburst; optical and subsequent GeV γ-ray detections triggered the MAGIC observations. We also briefly report on VHE observations of the symbiotic nova YY Her and the dwarf nova ASASSN-13ax. We complement the TeV MAGIC observations with the analysis of contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data of the sources. The TeV and GeV observations are compared in order to evaluate the acceleration parameters for leptons and hadrons. Results: No significant TeV emission was found from the studied sources. We computed upper limits on the spectrum and night-by-night flux. The combined GeV and TeV observations of V339 Del limit the ratio of proton to electron luminosities to Lp ≲ 0.15 Le. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Rbs 0723 with the Magic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports the discovery of very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from RBS 0723 (RA: 08:47:12.9 DEC: +11:33:50, J2000.0) RBS 0723 is a BL Lac object at redshift z=0.198. The source has been detected by Fermi-LAT, in the Second Fermi-LAT source Catalogue (2FGL; Nolan et al. 2012) with F(>1 GeV) = (5.3+-1.2)e-10 cm^-2 s^-1 and with photon index 1.48+-0.16. It also belongs to the first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10 GeV sources (1FHL; Ackermann et al, 2013), showing a hard (photon index = 1.4 +- 0.4) and bright (photon flux = 9.6e-11 ph cm^-2 s^-1) emission above 10 GeV, and identified as a good candidate for VHE detection.

  17. A study of the sensitivity of an imaging telescope (GRITS) for high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yearian, Mason R.

    1990-01-01

    When a gamma-ray telescope is placed in Earth orbit, it is bombarded by a flux of cosmic protons much greater than the flux of interesting gammas. These protons can interact in the telescope's thermal shielding to produce detectable gamma rays, most of which are vetoed. Since the proton flux is so high, the unvetoed gamma rays constitute a significant background relative to some weak sources. This background increases the observing time required to pinpoint some sources and entirely obscures other sources. Although recent telescopes have been designed to minimize this background, its strength and spectral characteristics were not previously calculated in detail. Monte Carlo calculations are presented which characterize the strength, spectrum and other features of the cosmic proton background using FLUKA, a hadronic cascade program. Several gamma-ray telescopes, including SAS-2, EGRET and the Gamma Ray Imaging Telescope System (GRITS), are analyzed, and their proton-induced backgrounds are characterized. In all cases, the backgrounds are either shown to be low relative to interesting signals or suggestions are made which would reduce the background sufficiently to leave the telescope unimpaired. In addition, several limiting cases are examined for comparison to previous estimates and calibration measurements.

  18. The Telescope Array's Low Energy Extension: TALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John

    2009-05-01

    A great deal of information about the sources of ultra high energy cosmic rays exists encoded in the energy spectrum. There are three spectral features in the ultra high energy regime (the second knee, the ankle, and the GZK cut-off). An important composition change also occurs in this energy range. The Telescope Array (TA) is a large area ultra high energy cosmic ray observatory built and operated by groups from the US, Japan, Korea, and Russia. The existing part of the Telescope Array already has good efficiency above the ankle (˜10^18.5 eV). These detectors are already in the field collecting data. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) refers to the detectors devoted to the ``low energy'' portion of the spectrum - 10^16.5 - 10^19 eV. The aim of TA/TALE is to understand the origin of cosmic rays and to study their composition over a broad energy range. We will introduce the detector components and discuss the opportunities.

  19. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope, High Speed Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) High Speed Photometer (HSP). The HSP measures the intensity of starlight (brightness), which will help determine astronomical distances. Its principal use will be to measure extremely-rapid variations or pulses in light from celestial objects, such as pulsating stars. The HSP produces brightness readings. Light passes into one of four special signal-multiplying tubes that record the data. The HSP can measure energy fluctuations from objects that pulsate as rapidly as once every 10 microseconds. From HSP data, astronomers expect to learn much about such mysterious objects as pulsars, black holes, and quasars. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  1. Prospects for High Energy Detection of Microquasars with the AGILE and GLAST Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Santolamazza, Patrizia; Pittori, Carlotta; Verrecchia, Francesco

    2007-08-21

    We estimate the sensitivities of the AGILE and GLAST {gamma}-ray experiments taking into account two cases for the galactic {gamma}-ray diffuse background (at high galactic latitude and toward the galactic center). Then we use sensitivities to estimate microquasar observability with the two experiments, assuming the {gamma}-ray emission above 100 MeV of a recent microquasar model.

  2. A New View of the High Energy Gamma-ray Sky with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings that have been made possible by the use of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It describes the current status of the Fermi Telescope and reviews some of the science highlights.

  3. DESTINY, the Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, T. R.; Morse, J. A.; Destiny Science Team

    2003-12-01

    We describe a mission concept for a 1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7 for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept for our proposed Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR survey camera. SNe will be discovered by repeated imaging of an area located at the north ecliptic pole. Grism spectra with resolving power l/Dl = R * 100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SNe classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Our approach features only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of observing a large field-of-view over a full octave in wavelength simultaneously makes this approach highly competitive.

  4. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  5. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  6. Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  7. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 1727+502 with the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the prediction of a high TeV luminosity we investigated whether the blazar 1ES 1727+502 (z = 0.055) is emitting very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ rays. We observed the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 in stereoscopic mode with the two MAGIC telescopes for 14 nights between May 6th and June 10th 2011, for a total effective observing time of 12.6 h. To study the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED), we used simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival UV/optical and X-ray observations from instruments UVOT and XRT on board of the Swift satellite, and high energy (HE, 0.1 GeV-100 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi-LAT instrument. We detected, for the first time, VHE γ-ray emission from 1ES 1727+502 at a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.1 ± 0.4)% of the Crab nebula flux and the de-absorbed VHE spectrum has a photon index of (2.7 ± 0.5). No significant short-term variability was found in any of the wavebands presented here. We model the SED using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model obtaining parameters typical for this class of sources.

  8. MeV Science with the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), a High Sensitivity Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Hunter, Stanley D.; De Nolfo, Georgia; Hanu, Andrei R.; Krizmanic, John F.; Stecker, Floyd W.; Timokhin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Many high-energy astrophysical phenomena exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares below ~200 MeV. However, while significant progress in gamma-rays has been made by instruments such as Fermi and AGILE, a significant sensitivity gap remains in the medium-energy regime (0.75 - 200 MeV) that has been explored only by COMPTEL and EGRET on CGRO. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires development of a telescope with significant improvement in sensitivity. Our mission concept, covering ~5 to ~200 MeV, is the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT). The AdEPT telescope will achieve angular resolution of ~0.6 deg at 70 MeV, similar to the angular resolution of Fermi/LAT at ~1 GeV that brought tremendous success in identifying new sources. AdEPT will also provide unprecedented polarization sensitivity, ~1% for a 1 Crab source. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) a low-density, large volume, gas time-projection chamber with a 2-dimensional readout. The 3-DTI provides high-resolution three-dimensional electron tracking with minimal Coulomb scattering that is essential to achieve high angular resolution and polarization sensitivity. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of the 3-DTI detector, describe the development of a 50x50x100 cm3 AdEPT prototype, and highlight a few of the key science questions that AdEPT will address.

  9. DESTINY: The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, T. R.; Destiny Science Team

    2005-08-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8-m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7 for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called ``dark energy" component of the Universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5-sq.-deg. area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δλ = R˜75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, and valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared with SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field of view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  10. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles L. Bennett

    2009-03-26

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for {approx}10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z {approx} 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first detected in 2005 in Sloan

  11. Search for Very High Energy Gamma-ray Emission from Pulsar-Pulsar Wind Nebula Systems with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, al K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; de Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; Cognard, I.

    2010-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has searched for high-energy gamma-ray emission of some of the most promising pulsar candidates above an energy threshold of 50 GeV, an energy not reachable up to now by other ground-based instruments. Neither pulsed nor steady gamma-ray emission has been observed at energies of 100 GeV from the classical radio pulsars PSR J0205+6449 and PSR J2229+6114 (and their nebulae 3C58 and Boomerang, respectively) and the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232. Here, we present the flux upper limits for these sources and discuss their implications in the context of current model predictions.

  12. Searches for Joint Sources of Gravitational Waves and High Energy Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescopes and Gravitational Waves Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.

    2016-10-01

    We will describe the joint GW+HEN searches performed using data taken with the ANTARES telescope from the initial searches with first common data taking period to the follow-up of the detected events of the first scientific run of LIGO.

  13. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  14. Evaluation of the cosmic-ray induced background in coded aperture high energy gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Alan; Barbier, Loius M.; Frye, Glenn M.; Jenkins, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    While the application of coded-aperture techniques to high-energy gamma-ray astronomy offers potential arc-second angular resolution, concerns were raised about the level of secondary radiation produced in a thick high-z mask. A series of Monte-Carlo calculations are conducted to evaluate and quantify the cosmic-ray induced neutral particle background produced in a coded-aperture mask. It is shown that this component may be neglected, being at least a factor of 50 lower in intensity than the cosmic diffuse gamma-rays.

  15. Determination of concentration profiles by elastic recoil detection with a ΔE-E gas telescope and high energy incident heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoquert, J. P.; Guillaume, G.; Hage-Ali, M.; Grob, J. J.; Ganter, C.; Siffert, P.

    1989-12-01

    The Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) method has been used to determine the profile of a wide range of elements simultaneously in a thin layer (1μm) with a depth resolution of a few hundred Å and high sensitivity. Z separation is achieved by a ΔE(gas)-E(solid) telescope. Results for 127I (up to 240 MeV) incident ions used to profile thin films of dielectrics (SiOxNyHz), amorphous semiconductors (a-GaAs: H) and superconductors (YBaCuO, BiSrCaCuO) are reported. It has been considered previously that ERD is of interest for analysis of light elements. We show that high energy heavy incident ions extend the field of application of the ERD method to all elements with an approximately constant depth resolution and sensitivity.

  16. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  17. Periodic Very High Energy γ-Ray Emission from LS I +61°303 Observed with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.; Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bartko, H.; Bastieri, D.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Chilingarian, A.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Curtef, V.; Dazzi, F.; DeAngelis, A.; DeCea del Pozo, E.; de los Reyes, R.; DeLotto, B.; DeMaria, M.; DeSabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominguez, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Errando, M.; Fagiolini, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Goebel, F.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Höhne, D.; Hose, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Huber, S.; Jogler, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Meyer, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizobuchi, S.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Otte, N.; Oya, I.; Panniello, M.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Raymers, A.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sartori, P.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schmitt, R.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tluczykont, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Venturini, A.; Vitale, V.; Wagner, R. M.; Wittek, W.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.

    2009-03-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the discovery of γ-ray emission from the binary system LS I +61°303 in the TeV energy region. Here we present new observational results on this source in the energy range between 300 GeV and 3 TeV. In total, 112 hr of data were taken between 2006 September and December covering four orbital cycles of this object. This large amount of data allowed us to produce an integral flux light curve covering for the first time all orbital phases of LS I +61°303. In addition, we also obtained a differential energy spectrum for two orbital phase bins covering the phase range 0.5 < phi < 0.6 and 0.6 < phi < 0.7. The photon index in the two phase bins is consistent within the errors with an average index Γ = 2.6 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys. LS I +61°303 was found to be variable at TeV energies on timescales of days. These new MAGIC measurements allowed us to search for intranight variability of the very high energy emission; however, no evidence for flux variability on timescales down to 30 min was found. To test for possible periodic structures in the light curve, we apply the formalism developed by Lomb and Scargle to the LS I +61°303 data taken in 2005 and 2006. We found the LS I +61°303 data set to be periodic with a period of (26.8 ± 0.2) days (with a post-trial chance probability of 10-7), close to the orbital period.

  18. The Gamma-Ray Large-Area Space Telescope: An Astro-Particle Mission to Explore the High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Spandre, Gloria; /INFN, Pisa

    2009-05-12

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a space mission that will detect photons from the gamma ray sky, in the rich yet poorly explored high energy band between 20MeV and 1TeV. Main instrument on board is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a gamma-ray pair-conversion telescope, that will measure direction and energy of incoming photons by means of a very large (11.000 sensors), low pitch (228 {micro}m) Silicon strip Tracker and an imaging CsI e.m. calorimeter, supported in the rejection of charged particles background by an outer, segmented Anti-Coincidence Detector built with plastic scintillators. The superior angular resolution of the LAT, coupled to its very large field of view, results in a sensitivity advance of a factor 30 or more with respect to previously flown instruments. This will allow GLAST to locate currently unresolved gamma ray sources and to detect potential new classes of sources. Study of the residual gamma ray background will have a crucial role in connection to cosmological models, supersymmetric dark matter and relics of exotic particle decay searches. An accurate spectroscopy of all gamma ray emitters will be possible with the high energy resolution of the calorimeter, improving our knowledge of the mechanisms that power the cores of blazars and AGNs, and enabling tens of different pulsar emission models. The GLAST mission will have the instrumental capabilities to locate and analyze sources of cosmic rays and investigate on their acceleration mechanism. As for transient phenomena studies, like the spectacular GRBs, known to be the most energetic natural events, GLAST is in a prominent position. This is due to the minimum detection dead time (<100 {micro}s), typical of the silicon detectors used for the LAT tracker, and to the increased field of view and alert capabilities of the second GLAST instrument, the Gamma Burst Monitor (GBM), essentially conceived as a fast transients trigger for the more accurate observations from the LAT

  19. The History of Ground-Based Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics with the Atmospheric Air Cherenkov Telescope Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2013-06-01

    In the recent two decades the ground-based technique of imaging atmosphericescopes has established itself as a powerful new discipline in science. As of today some ˜ 150 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extragalactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. The study of these sources is providing clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. The current generation of telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offers a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument known under the name Cherenkov Telescope Array. The latter's sensitivity will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the currently best instruments VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have given shape to this technique and have brought about today's successful source marathon.

  20. The telescope array middle drum monocular energy spectrum and a search for coincident showers using high resolution fly's eye hires-1 monocular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas Chase

    The transition from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment to the Telescope Array (TA) experiment has been completed. The TA Middle Drum fluorescence detector was built using refurbished telescopes from the HiRes-1 site so that a direct comparison could be made between the energy scales of the two experiments. I have made a comparison between the published HiRes spectrum [3] and a preliminary energy spectrum using data collected with the Middle Drum telescopes. Both sets of data represent measurements made via the monocular observation technique and were analyzed using the HiRes-1 profile-constrained geometry reconstruction technique. The HiRes-1 data represents almost nine years of exposure and was collected between May 29, 1997 and May 26, 2006. The Middle Drum data were collected over a three-year period between December 16, 2007 and December 16, 2010. The Middle Drum exposure is about one third of the HiRes-1 total exposure. I have demonstrated that the Middle Drum detector has the same energy scale as HiRes-1. The published HiRes-1 and Middle Drum spectra presented in this dissertation were measured using average calibrations. A study was preformed on the HiRes-1 data to determine the systematic effects of using the nightly atmospheric and electronic-calibration databases instead of average values. The difference between using the average values and using the detailed nightly databases was less than 1%, indicating the spectral results are robust to these differences. Finally, a search was made for the interaction between cosmic rays and ions in the heliosphere. This interaction could result in a unique signature of parallel, simultaneous photon showers. The HiRes-1 data were chosen for this search due to its large exposure and resulting data set. Unfortunately, detector limitations restricted the potential observations. No double-shower events were detected; however, if observed, this would be suggestive of new physics. Monte Carlo simulated events

  1. The South Pole Telescope: Unraveling the Mystery of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, Christian L.; de Haan, Tijmen; Bleem, Lindsey E.

    2016-07-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-meter telescope designed to survey the millimeter-wave sky, taking advantage of the exceptional observing conditions at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The telescope and its ground-breaking 960-element bolometric camera finished surveying 2500 square degrees at 95. 150, and 220 GHz in November 2011. We have discovered hundreds of galaxy clusters in the SPT-SZ survey through the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. The formation of galaxy clusters the largest bound objects in the universe is highly sensitive to dark energy and the history of structure formation. I will discuss the cosmological constraints from the SPT-SZ galaxy cluster sample as well as future prospects with the soon to-be-installed SPT-3G camera.

  2. Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Events over the Polar Regions of the Sun at Solar Maximum with the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope and IMP-8*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Zhang, M.

    2002-05-01

    The High Energy Telescope (HET) of the Ulysses COSPIN experi-ment measures intensities and spectra of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with good energy and charge resolution at energies above ~30 MeV/n. During the recent passes over the north and south polar re-gions of the sun, Ulysses observed a number of solar energetic particle events associated with solar activity at low latitudes. Where IMP-8 observations were available, all SEP events observed at proton energies >~30 MeV by Ulysses in the polar regions (solar latitudes above 70 degrees) were also observed at IMP-8. HOwever peak intensities were generally lower and the onsets and rises to maximum were in general significantly slower at Ulysses than at IMP. Anisotropies during the onsets of SEP events at Ulysses were in almost all cases directed outward along the nominal Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field, implying that the source of the particles on the field lines connecting to Ulysses was inside the orbit of Ulysses. In the late stages of events, generally four to five days after onset, particle fluxes at IMP and Ulysses were approximately equal and remained so for the remainder of the decay phase. We will summarize these and other results from both the north and south polar passes and discuss their significance for models of the ac-celeration and propagation of solar energetic particles. * This work was supported in part by NASA Contract JPL-955432 and by NASA Grant NAG5-8032.

  3. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 0033+595 by the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Tronconi, V.; Buson, S.; Borghese, A.

    2015-01-01

    The number of known very high energy (VHE) blazars is ˜50, which is very small in comparison to the number of blazars detected in other frequencies. This situation is a handicap for population studies of blazars, which emit about half of their luminosity in the γ-ray domain. Moreover, VHE blazars, if distant, allow for the study of the environment that the high-energy γ-rays traverse in their path towards the Earth, like the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and hence they have a special interest for the astrophysics community. We present the first VHE detection of 1ES 0033+595 with a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The VHE emission of this object is constant throughout the MAGIC observations (2009 August and October), and can be parametrized with a power law with an integral flux above 150 GeV of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of (3.8 ± 0.7). We model its spectral energy distribution (SED) as the result of inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. For the study of the SED, we used simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival X-ray data by Swift as well as INTEGRAL, and simultaneous high-energy (HE, 300 MeV-10 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observatory. Using the empirical approach of Prandini et al. (2010) and the Fermi LAT and MAGIC spectra for this object, we estimate the redshift of this source to be 0.34 ± 0.08 ± 0.05. This is a relevant result because this source is possibly one of the 10 most distant VHE blazars known to date, and with further (simultaneous) observations could play an important role in blazar population studies, as well as future constraints on the EBL and IGMF.

  4. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET): a High-Energy Astroparticle Physics Observatory on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizmanic, John

    2013-04-01

    CALET is a Japanese-led, multinational experiment that is scheduled to launch in 2014 to be attached to the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) on the ISS. During its 5-year mission, CALET will measure the fluxes of electrons/positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, gamma rays from 10 GeV to 10 TeV, and nuclei (Z=1 to 40) from 10 GeV to 1000 TeV. These measurements will address CALET's scientific goals to search for signatures of dark matter, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy, and search for nearby astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons. The main CALET instrument (CAL) is comprised of three modules: 1) two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), 2) a 3 X0-thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC), and 3) and a 27 X0-thick, segmented lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). The IMC and TASC provide measurements of the longitudinal and lateral shower development, yielding good electron/hadron separation. CALET also includes a dedicated Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) instrument. This talk will review the status of the mission, describe the instrument configuration and performance, and discuss the CALET cosmic radiation measurement capability.

  5. CORRELATIONS OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS WITH EXTRAGALACTIC OBJECTS AS OBSERVED BY THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W.; Aida, R.; Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T.; Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; and others

    2013-11-10

    We search for correlations between the positions of extragalactic objects and the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energy E ≥ 40 EeV as observed by the surface detector array of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment during the first 40 months of operation. We examine several public astronomical object catalogs, including the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalog of active galactic nuclei. We count the number of TA events correlated with objects in each catalog as a function of three parameters: the maximum angular separation between a TA event and an object, the minimum energy of the events, and the maximum redshift of the objects. We determine the combination of these parameters that maximizes the correlations, and we calculate the probability of having the same levels of correlations from an isotropic distribution of UHECR arrival directions. No statistically significant correlations are found when penalties for scanning over the above parameters and for searching in several catalogs are taken into account.

  6. Correlations of the Arrival Directions of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays with Extragalactic Objects as Observed by the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2013-11-01

    We search for correlations between the positions of extragalactic objects and the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energy E >= 40 EeV as observed by the surface detector array of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment during the first 40 months of operation. We examine several public astronomical object catalogs, including the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalog of active galactic nuclei. We count the number of TA events correlated with objects in each catalog as a function of three parameters: the maximum angular separation between a TA event and an object, the minimum energy of the events, and the maximum redshift of the objects. We determine the combination of these parameters that maximizes the correlations, and we calculate the probability of having the same levels of correlations from an isotropic distribution of UHECR arrival directions. No statistically significant correlations are found when penalties for scanning over the above parameters and for searching in several catalogs are taken into account.

  7. Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancitters, G. W., Jr.; Bless, R. C.; Dolan, J. F.; Elliot, J. L.; Robinson, E. L.; White, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide dynamic range, broad wavelenth coverage, time resolution in the microsecond region, and polarimetric capability. Here, the scientific requirements for the instrument are examined, the unique design features of the photometer are explored, and the improvements to be expected over the performance of ground-based instruments are projected.

  9. Detection of metagalactic and galactic sources of very high-energy gamma-quanta and neutrinos with the mirror Cherenkov telescope SHALON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.

    2006-08-01

    Gamma-astronomy and neutrino astronomy are unique experimental possibilities to search for sources of high-energy cosmic rays (10 10eV). Experimental data on sources of γ-quanta with the energy >1TeV are characterized by the fact that observed metagalactic sources (active galactic nuclei), being different in power from galactic sources by the factor of 10 10, do not differ in the energy spectrum, F(>E)∝Eγ-1.3±0.15. The power of the metagalactic sources and their unlimited number casts doubts on the assumption of a galactic origin of the observed cosmic-ray flux. It is possible to assume that the uniform cosmic-ray spectrum is formed by “braking” in multiple elastic or inelastic collisions with relict photons in intergalactic space. Thus, the observed distribution of protons and cosmic-ray nuclei with the spectral index 2.72±0.02 (=2.718…, the Napier's constant) may be a consequence of such a “braking” that warms up the relict photons. Problems in observation of extensive air showers generated by neutrinos are connected with an extremely small cross section of inelastic collisions of neutrinos with nuclei. However, two facts allow to search for showers generated by neutrinos: (1) a hadron cascade with the primary energy of more than 10eV leaves a mountain ridge to the atmosphere from the depth ˜300g/cm without an essential loss of the total energy in the hadron cascade, and (2) air Cherenkov radiation from such hadron cascades will be observed with a 7.5 km distant telescope over an area of more than 7×10m. This partially compensates the small cross section of inelastic neutrino collisions.

  10. Detection of high-energy gamma radiation from quasar 3C 279 by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Kwok, P. W.; Thompson, D. J.; Mattox, J. R.; Kanbach, G.; Nel, H. I.; Sreekumar, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense gamma radiation has been observed from the direction of the quasar 3C 279 throughout the energy range from 30 MeV to over 5 GeV by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) during the period June 15-28, 1991. Its spectrum is well represented by a photon differential power-law exponent of 2.0 +/- 0.1, with a photon intensity above 100 MeV of (2.8 +/- 0.4) x 10 exp -6/sq cm s. For E is greater than 100 MeV, the 2-sigma upper limits were 1.0 x 10 exp -6/sq cm s in 1973 from the SAS 2 observations and 0.3 x 10 exp -6/sq cm s for the combined 1976, 1978, and 1980 COS B observations. Hence, there has been a large increase in high-energy gamma-ray intensity relative to the earlier times, as there has been in the radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray ranges. This source is the most distant and by far the most luminous gamma-ray source yet detected.

  11. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  12. Probing the very high energy γ-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vogler, P.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; D'Ammando, F.; Buson, S.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    PG 1553+113 is a very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emitter classified as a BL Lac object. Its redshift is constrained by intergalactic absorption lines in the range 0.4 < z < 0.58. The MAGIC telescopes have monitored the source's activity since 2005. In early 2012, PG 1553+113 was found in a high state, and later, in April of the same year, the source reached its highest VHE flux state detected so far. Simultaneous observations carried out in X-rays during 2012 April show similar flaring behaviour. In contrast, the γ-ray flux at E < 100 GeV observed by Fermi-LAT is compatible with steady emission. In this paper, a detailed study of the flaring state is presented. The VHE spectrum shows clear curvature, being well fitted either by a power law with an exponential cut-off or by a log-parabola. A simple power-law fit hypothesis for the observed shape of the PG 1553+113 VHE γ-ray spectrum is rejected with a high significance (fit probability P = 2.6 × 10-6). The observed curvature is compatible with the extragalactic background light (EBL) imprint predicted by current generation EBL models assuming a redshift z ˜ 0.4. New constraints on the redshift are derived from the VHE spectrum. These constraints are compatible with previous limits and suggest that the source is most likely located around the optical lower limit, z = 0.4, based on the detection of Lyα absorption. Finally, we find that the synchrotron self-Compton model gives a satisfactory description of the observed multiwavelength spectral energy distribution during the flare.

  13. On Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Electron-Positron Spectrum Measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.

    2009-05-15

    The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.

  14. Observations of Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles from the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope Following Completion of the Solar Maximum Solar Polar Passes.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.; Posner, A.

    2003-04-01

    At the end of 2002, following its second pass over the Sun's north polar region, Ulysses had reached a radial distance of about 4.5 AU at a heliographic latitude of 24°N. While solar activity remained high, the modulated intensity of cosmic rays observed by Ulysses’ COSPIN High Energy Telescope had increased significantly from the levels observed early in 2001, which most likely represented the maximum modulation for this solar cycle. Despite continuing solar activity, the new qA<0 magnetic polarity of the Sun's dipole field was fully established for both poles since the change in the North Pole polarity in 2000. Although the current sheet tilt was still large (>40° as reported by the Wilcox Solar Observatory) and the solar wind was still frequently disturbed by solar activity, it is worthwhile to examine the recent increase in the quiet-time cosmic ray fluxes for evidence of the change in latitudinal gradients expected upon change of magnetic polarity. A difficulty is the lack of a well-matched 1 AU base-line to help distinguish spatial from temporal variations following the termination of IMP-8 operations in late 2001. We will summarize Ulysses observations of energetic (>~30 MeV/n) protons and helium through the most recent available data, and will discuss available options for determining baseline fluxes at 1 AU for studies of the radial and latitudinal gradients. **This work was supported in part by NASA/JPL Contract 955432, by NASA Grant NASA 5-28516 and by NSF grant ATM 99-12341.

  15. Energy calibration of Cherenkov Telescopes using GLAST data

    SciTech Connect

    Bastieri, D.; Busetto, G.; Piano, G.; Rando, R.; Saggion, A.; De Angelis, A.; Longo, F.

    2007-07-12

    We discuss the possibility of using the observations by GLAST of steady gamma sources, as the Crab Nebula and some selected AGNs, to calibrate the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) and improve their energy resolution, in particular. We show that at around 100 GeV, exploiting the features in the spectrum of the Crab Nebula, the absolute energy calibration uncertainty of Cherenkov telescopes can be reduced to < 10%.

  16. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  17. Is the ultra-high energy cosmic-ray excess observed by the telescope array correlated with IceCube neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Fujii, Toshihiro; Linden, Tim; Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-10-20

    The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 deg{sup 2} centered on coordinates R.A. = 146.7, decl. = 43.2. We note that the location of this excess correlates with 2 of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2σ level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single source which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, we discuss possible source classes with the correct characteristics to explain the cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes with a single source.

  18. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  19. Imaging Simulations for DESTINY, the Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, T. R.; DESTINY Science Team

    2004-12-01

    We describe a mission concept for a 1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7 for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept for our proposed Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR survey camera. SNe will be discovered by repeated imaging of an area located at the north ecliptic pole. Grism spectra with resolving power l/Dl = R * 100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SNe classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Our approach features only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of observing a large field-of-view over a full octave in wavelength simultaneously makes this approach highly competitive. In this poster we present exposure simulations to demonstrate the efficiency of the DESTINY approach.

  20. Development of a telescope for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Legere, Jason; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) is being developed at GSFC as a future NASA MIDEX mission to explore the medium-energy (5-200 MeV) gamma-ray range. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three- Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI), a gaseous time projection chamber. The high spatial resolution 3-D electron tracking of 3-DTI enables AdEPT to achieve high angular resolution gamma-ray imaging via pair production and triplet production (pair production on electrons) in the medium-energy range. The low density and high spatial resolution of 3-DTI allows the electron positron track directions to be measured before they are dominated by Coulomb scattering. Further, the significant reduction of Coulomb scattering allows AdEPT to be the first medium-energy gamma-ray telescope to have high gamma-ray polarization sensitivity. We review the science goals that can be addressed with a medium-energy pair telescope, how these goals drive the telescope design, and the realization of this design with AdEPT. The AdEPT telescope for a future MIDEX mission is envisioned as a 8 m3 active volume filled with argon at 2 atm. The design and performance of the 3-DTI detectors for the AdEPT telescope are described as well as the outstanding instrument challenges that need to be met for the AdEPT mission.

  1. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  2. CRISTA, a cryogenic IR telescope with high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barthol, P.; Grossmann, K.U.; Offermann, D.

    1994-12-31

    A limb sounding cryogenic IR telescope named CRISTA (CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere) has been developed to study dynamic disturbances in the middle atmosphere with high spatial (horizontal and vertical) resolution. For this purpose, it measures mid and far IR emissions of several trace constituents at earth`s limb using three independent telescopes with high off-axis rejection performance. Height profiles are derived from simultaneous scans of the three telescope LOS. The radiation received is spectrally analyzed by gating spectrometers followed by Si:Ga and Ge:Ga detectors. High sensitivity together with improved spatial resolution leads to a spacing of only 500 km to 600 km between two adjacent measurement points and thus to a far more detailed picture of the atmosphere compared to present day satellite experiments. CRISTA, integrated in the free-flyer ASTROSPAS, will be launched 1994 by the Space Shuttle for a short duration mission and will be part of ATLAS 3.

  3. The very high energy gamma ray spectra of IES 1959+650 and Mrk 421 as measured with the Whipple 10 m telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, M.K.; Badran, H.M.; Bond, I.H.; Boyle, P.J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Celik, O.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Calle Perez, I. de la; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D.J.; Fegan, S.J.; Finley, J.P.; Fortson, L.F.; Gammell, S.; Gibbs, K.

    2005-02-21

    In observations made with the Whipple 10 m telescope, 1ES 1959+650 (z 0.048) was caught in a high flaring state in May 2002, concurrent with a high X-ray state, and in June 2002, for which there was no corresponding X-ray flare. The spectra for both of those occasions are well fitted by a power law of differential spectral index {approx} -2.8. The relative stability of the spectral index for those flares argues strongly in favour of a two-component model as to the emission zones for the two radiation regimes.Markarian 421 (z = 0.031) was observed to be in a high flaring state, at levels of {>=} 3 Crab, during March and April 2004. The average spectrum over this time period shows evidence for a cut-off in the spectrum at {approx} 5 TeV, similar to a cut-off seen during an equivalently strong episode of flaring activity in 2001. The continued appearance of this feature indicates a long term stability, either in the physical conditions at the source, or in the intervening medium (such as attenuation on the extra-galactic infra-red background radiation)

  4. AGN Spectral Energy Distributions of GLAST Telescope Network Program Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Jeff; Lacy, Mark; Daou, Doris; Rapp, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda

    2005-03-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the "GLAST Telescope Network" (GTN) and includes a number of objects that have yet to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our project will observe one of these objects with the Spitzer MIPS and the IRAC instruments to determine their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which will be compared to a computer model of disk emission in order to determine what component of the SED is due to the disk and what component is due to synchrotron radiation induced by the jets. In addition we will observe our program objects prior to, simultaneously with, and after Spitzer observes them. This gives a direct connection from Spitzer research to student activities in the classroom.

  5. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  6. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the FSRQ S4 0954+65 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2015-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports the discovery of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the FSRQ S4 0954+65 (RA=+9:58:47.00, DEC=+65:33:55.00, J2000.0), located at redshift z=0.368.

  7. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from BL Lac object RX J1136.5+6737 by the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2014-04-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports the discovery of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from RX J1136.5+6737 (a.k.a. RBS 1004) (RA: 11:36:30.1 DEC: +67:37:04, J2000) at redshift z=0.1342. ...

  8. DESTINY: The dark energy space telescope [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2005-11-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8 m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7, for determining cosmological distances, measuring the expansion rate of the universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called "dark energy" component of the universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5 square-degree area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δ λ = R ˜ 75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field-of-view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  9. The dynamic solar chromosphere: recent advances from high resolution telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Tsiropoula, Georgia

    This review focuses on the solar chromosphere, a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer that exhibits phenomena on a large range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution observa-tions from existing telescopes (DST, SST, DOT), as well as long-duration observations with Hinode's SOT employing lines such as the Ca II infrared lines, the Ca II HK and above all the Hα line reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured environment, both in quiet and active regions. The fine-structure chromosphere, is mainly constituted by fibrilar features that connect various parts of active regions or span across network cell interiors. We discuss this highly dynamical solar chromosphere, especially below the magnetic canopy, which is gov-erned by flows reflecting both the complex geometry and dynamics of the magnetic field and the propagation and dissipation of waves in the different atmospheric layers. A comprehensive view of the fine-structure chromosphere requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved, investigation of the intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric lev-els and analysis of its impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through flows resulting from different physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and waves. Furthermore, we assess the challenges facing theory and numerical modelling which require the inclusion of several physical ingredients, such as non-LTE and three-dimensional numerical simulations.

  10. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Gorenstein, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i .e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well.

  11. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  12. First Avalanche-photodiode camera test (FACT): A novel camera using G-APDs for the observation of very high-energy γ-rays with Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, I.; Commichau, S. C.; Rissi, M.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Commichau, V.; von Gunten, H.; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Pauss, F.; Pohl, M.; Renker, D.; Rhode, W.; Röser, U.; Straumann, U.; Viertel, G.

    2009-10-01

    We present a project for a novel camera using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APDs), to be installed in a small telescope (former HEGRA CT3) on the MAGIC site in La Palma (Canary Island, Spain). This novel type of semiconductor photon detector provides several superior features compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The most promising one is a much higher Photon Detection Efficiency.

  13. Energy spectrum measured by the telescope array surface detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitri

    2012-05-01

    Two conflicting measurements of the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been reported by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments. HiRes observes a ˜5sigma suppression at E = 1019.75 eV, which is in agreement with the prediction of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) theory. AGASA, in contrast, sees the flux extended well beyond E = 1020 eV with no visible break, suggesting that the flux is limited only by the rate at which the sources can produce the UHECR and not by interaction of energetic particles with the cosmic microwave background, thus challenging the relativistic invariance principle. In response to this discrepancy, a new experiment named the Telescope Array (TA) has been deployed, which combines the detection elements used separately by HiRes and AGASA. We describe the TA surface detector (SD) analysis using a technique new to the field, which consists of a detailed Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation of the SD response to the natural cosmic rays, validating the MC by comparing its distributions with the data, and calculation of the SD aperture from the MC. We will also describe our reconstruction procedure, based solely upon the data, and its application to both data and the MC. Finally, we will describe the energy spectrum resulting from this analysis, which is found to be in excellent agreement with the HiRes result, and as such, is the first confirmation of the GZK effect by a ground array of scintillation counters.

  14. Using Telescopic Observations to Mentor High School Students in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past two summers (2009 and 2010) the NASA EPO Group at Sonoma State University (SSU) has sponsored local high school students in a summer science internship program at the University. The students, chosen from Sonoma County high schools in a competitive selection process, work in various science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the School of Science and Technology at SSU. The two interns sponsored by the EPO Group each summer monitor active galaxies using GORT, the NASA/Fermi-sponsored optical robotic telescope operated by the Group. They are mentored in their projects by EPO Group personnel and by SSU undergraduates who have experience with the telescope. The students learn about the sky, telescopes and the active galaxies they observe. They also learn how to make telescopic observations and how to reduce the CCD images obtained. Interns also participate in weekly meetings with other interns working on different projects around campus. At the end of the summer all the interns present their research results at a symposium held on campus.The symposium is attended by the interns themselves, their parents, their high school science teachers, and university faculty and administrators.The program has had a positive impact on how our interns view science, and specifically on their view of astronomy, as reported by the interns themselves in the first two years of the program.

  15. SEARCH FOR HIGH-ENERGY MUON NEUTRINOS FROM THE 'NAKED-EYE' GRB 080319B WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.

    2009-08-20

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, no excess was found above background. The 90% CL upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.5 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 120 TeV and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  16. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the"naked-eye" GRB080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi

    2009-02-01

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.12 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, there was no excess found above the background. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.0 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 145 TeV and 2.1 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  17. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from BL Lac object H1722+119 by the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Juan

    2013-05-01

    H1722+119 is a BL Lac object, that was listed as candidate TeV blazar in Costamante & Ghisellini (2002) based on its X-ray and radio properties. Its redshift is uncertain; Sbarufatti et al. 2006 give z>0.17. The source has been detected by Fermi-LAT, in the Second Fermi Catalog with F(>1 GeV) (3.7+-0.3)e-09 cm^-2 s^-1 and with spectral index 1.92+-0.06. H1722+119 was observed for five nights by the MAGIC telescopes starting May 17th 2013 and collecting 11 hours of good quality data.

  18. Mirror-concentrator for space telescope with wide field of view and "high" angular resolution for observation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and other atmospheric flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharakin, Sergey A.; Khrenov, Boris A.; Klimov, Pavel A.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Potanin, Sergey A.; Yashin, Ivan V.

    2012-09-01

    Idea of ultrahigh cosmic rays (UHECR) measurement from satellites was suggested by Linsley in 1981 and since has being developed into projects of cosmic rays telescopes for International Space Station (ISS): JEM-EUSO - to be installed on the Japanese experimental module and KLYPVE - on the Russian ISS segment. A series of space-based detectors for measurements of background phenomena in those telescopes were developed in Russia (Universitetsky-Tatiana, Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 , Chibis satellites). The satellite Lomonosov with UHECR detector TUS on its board will be launched in 2013. TUS contains multi-channel photo receiver and Fresnel-type mirror manufactured with use of special multi-layer carbon plastic technology in RSC “Energia". In this paper one and two component optical systems with 360 cm entrance diameter and 400 cm focal distance for wide angle detector KLYPVE are studied. In one component case using generalized Davies-Cotton systems (Fresnel-type mirror with ellipsoidal gross surface) it is possible to obtain 8-10° field of view (FoV) with focal spot size less than pixel size equal to 15 x 15 mm. In two component system (parabolic mirror and a Fresnel lens, mounted close to photo receiver) it is possible to increase FoV up to 10-12° and significantly simplify the primary mirror construction.

  19. High energy gamma ray balloon instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Baker, R. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chesney, J. R.; Derdeyn, S. M.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Jacques, J. S.; Laubenthal, N. A.

    1985-01-01

    The High Energy Gamma Ray Balloon Instrument was built in part to verify certain subsystems' performance for the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument, the high energy telescope to be carried on the Gamma Ray Observatory. This paper describes the instrument, the performance of some subsystems, and some relevant results.

  20. Telescope considered as a very high gain antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detaille, Michel; Houmault, Patrice

    1990-07-01

    A design concept for an optical-antenna telescope to be used in intersatellite communication (in the framework of the ESA SILEX project) is presented. The main technical requirements for a SILEX transmit-receive antennna telescope are reviewed, and a Cassegrain configuration based on a parabolic primary mirror, a hyperbolic secondary mirror, and a five-lense collimator (with baffles to limit stray light) is shown in diagrams and discussed in detail, with particular attention to local angular distortion and transmission-antenna gain. Results from tests on a breadboard version are presented in tables and graphs, including transmission of 92.6 percent at 820 nm, rms wavefront error less than lambda/28, optical gain 114.47 dB, backscattered energy 1.7 x 10 to the -6th at 838 nm, and stray-light intensity slightly above specification at sun aspect angles less than 4.5 deg.

  1. Recent results of the energy spectrum and mass composition from Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    The Telescope Array experiment is the largest hybrid detector to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in the northern hemisphere. The observation started in November 2007 for Fluorescence Detector (FD) and in March 2008 for Surface Detectors (SD). Here, we present the preliminary results of the energy spectrum and mass composition of the UHECRs measured by the FD and hybrid technique from the Telescope Array three year observations. The energy spectrum measured by the Middle Drum FD station, which is the refurbished HiRes-I detector is consistent with the results from HiRes. The energy spectrum with the two newly constructed FDs and SD is also in good agreement with the result from HiRes, especially for the energy scale. The mass composition study with the slant depth of the maximum shower development (Xmax) is obtained by using the stereo and hybrid analysis. The result of the mass composition is consistent with the proton prediction.

  2. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  3. Pointing Control System for a High Precision Flight Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    BENTLEY,ANTHONY E.; WILCOXEN,JEFFREY LEE

    2000-12-01

    A pointing control system is developed and tested for a flying gimbaled telescope. The two-axis pointing system is capable of sub-microradian pointing stability and high accuracy in the presence of large host vehicle jitter. The telescope also has high agility--it is capable of a 50-degree retarget (in both axes simultaneously) in less than 2 seconds. To achieve the design specifications, high-accuracy, high-resolution, two-speed resolvers were used, resulting in gimbal-angle measurements stable to 1.5 microradians. In addition, on-axis inertial angle displacement sensors were mounted on the telescope to provide host-vehicle jitter cancellation. The inertial angle sensors are accurate to about 100 nanoradians, but do not measure low frequency displacements below 2 Hz. The gimbal command signal includes host-vehicle attitude information, which is band-limited. This provides jitter data below 20 Hz, but includes a variable latency between 15 and 25 milliseconds. One of the most challenging aspects of this design was to combine the inertial-angle-sensor data with the less perfect information in the command signal to achieve maximum jitter reduction. The optimum blending of these two signals, along with the feedback compensation were designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory.

  4. Using Telescopic Observations to Mentor High School Students in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Kevin M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two summers (2009/2010) the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University has sponsored local high school students in a summer science internship program at the University. The students, chosen from Sonoma County high schools in a competitive selection process, work in various STEM fields throughout the School of Science and Technology at SSU. The two interns sponsored by the E/PO Group each summer use GORT, the NASA/Fermi-sponsored robotic observatory operated by the Group, to monitor active galaxies. They are mentored in their projects by E/PO Group personnel and by SSU undergraduates who have experience with the telescope. The students learn about the sky, telescopes and the active galaxies they observe. They also learn how to make telescopic observations and how to reduce the CCD images obtained. Interns also participate in weekly meetings with other interns working on different projects around campus. At the end of the summer all the interns present their research results at a symposium held on campus.The symposium is attended by the interns themselves, their parents and sponsoring high school science teachers, and university faculty and administrators.The program has had a positive impact on how our interns view science, as reported by themselves, and specifically on their view of astronomy, in the first year of the program.

  5. High Temperature Superconducting Bearings for Lunar Telescope Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Mark; BuiMa, Ki; Cooley, Rodger; Mackey, Daniel; Meng, Ruling; Chu, Ching Wu; Chu, Wei Kan; Chen, Peter C.; Wilson, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A telescope to be installed on the lunar surface in the near future must work in a cold and dusty vacuum environment for long periods without on site human maintenance. To track stars, the drive mechanism must be capable of exceedingly fine steps and repeatability. Further, the use of lightweight telescopes for obvious economic benefits burdens the requirement for stable support and rotation. Conventional contact bearings and gear drives have numerous failure modes under such a restrictive and harsh environment. However, hybrid superconducting magnetic bearings (HSMB) fit in naturally. These bearings are stable, light, passive, and essentially frictionless, allowing high precision electronic positioning control. By passive levitation, the HSMB does not wear out and requires neither maintenance nor power. A prototype illustrating the feasibility of this application is presented.

  6. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (<1 arc-sec) but with collecting areas that are larger by orders of magnitude. In the USA several institutions, including GSFC, MSFC, Harvard-SAO, MIT and Northwest University are working on a variety of approaches to this problem. An excellent example is the NuSTAR x-ray telescope, which teamed Cal Tech, GSFC, Columbia University and LLNL to produce a superb set of hard x-ray optics. The telescope was composed of thousands of 0.2 mm-thick glass mirrors which were epoxied into place around a spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing

  7. GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

  8. Pulsars at the Highest Energies: Questions for AGILE, Fermi (GLAST) and Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies of gamma-ray pulsars languished in recent years, while theoretical studies made significant strides. Now, with new and improved gamma-ray telescopes coming online, opportunities present themselves for dramatic improvements in our understanding of these objects. The new facilities and better modeling of processes at work in high-energy pulsars should address a number of important open questions, some of which are summarized.

  9. Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), a Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley; AdEPT Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eγ > 200MeV) gamma-ray science has been dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from about ~ 20 MeV to > 10 GeV. However, a significant sensitivity gap remains in the medium-energy regime (0.75 - 200 MeV) that has been explored only by COMPTEL and EGRET on CGRO. Exploring this regime with angular resolution near the kinematic limit and high polarization sensitivity requires a telescope design with a low density electron track imaging detector. The medium-energy (~ 5 to 200 MeV) Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), will achieve angular resolution of ~0.6 deg at 70 MeV, similar to the angular resolution of Fermi/LAT at ~ 1 GeV. AdEPT will also provide unprecedented polarization sensitivity of ~ 1 % for a 1 Crab source. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) a low-density, large volume, gas time-projection chamber with a 2-dimensional readout. We describe our ROSES/APRA funded program to build a 50x50x100 cm3 AdEPT prototype, measure the angular resolution and polarization sensitivity of this prototype at an accelerator.

  10. A new energy-efficient control approach for astronomical telescope drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Drive control makes the astronomical telescope accurately tracking celestial bodies in spite of external and internal disturbances, which is a key technique to the performance of telescopes. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear ad, aptive observer based on power reversible approach for high precision telescope position tracking. The nonlinear adaptive observer automatically estimates the disturbances in drive system, and the observed value is applied to compensate for the real disturbances. With greatly reduced disturbances, the control precision can be evidently improved. In conventional drive control, the brake device is often used to slow down the reaction wheel and may waste enormous energy. To avoid those disadvantages, an H-bridge is put forward for wheel speed regulation. Such H-bridge has four independent sections, and each section mainly consists of a power electronic switch and an anti-parallel diode. During the period of the mount slowing down, the armature current of drive motor goes through the two path-wise diodes to charge the battery. Thus, energy waste is avoided. Based on the disturbance compensation, an optimal controller is designed to minimize an evaluation function which is made up of a weighted sum of position errors and energy consumption.The outputs of the controller are applied to control the H-bridge. Simulations are performed in MATLAB language. The results show that high precision control can be obtained by the proposed approach. And the energy consumption will be remarkably reduced.

  11. Fermi LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF TWO VERY-HIGH-ENERGY (E > 100 GeV) γ-RAY PHOTONS FROM THE z = 1.1 BLAZAR PKS 0426–380

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Mizuno, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Inoue, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ajello, M.; Wood, D. L.; Chekhtman, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ohno, M.; Paneque, D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of two very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray photons from the directional vicinity of the distant (redshift, z = 1.1) blazar PKS 0426–380. The null hypothesis that both the 134 and 122 GeV photons originate from unrelated sources can be rejected at the 5.5σ confidence level. We therefore claim that at least one of the two VHE photons is securely associated with PKS 0426–380, making it the most distant VHE emitter known to date. The results are in agreement with recent Fermi-LAT constraints on the extragalactic background light (EBL) intensity, which imply a z ≅ 1 horizon for ≅ 100 GeV photons. The LAT detection of the two VHE γ-rays coincided roughly with flaring states of the source, although we did not find an exact correspondence between the VHE photon arrival times and the flux maxima at lower γ-ray energies. Modeling the γ-ray continuum of PKS 0426–380 with daily bins revealed a significant spectral hardening around the time of the first VHE event detection (LAT photon index Γ ≅ 1.4) but on the other hand no pronounced spectral changes near the detection time of the second one. This combination implies a rather complex variability pattern of the source in γ-rays during the flaring epochs. An additional flat component is possibly present above several tens of GeV in the EBL-corrected Fermi-LAT spectrum accumulated over the ∼8 month high state.

  12. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  13. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  14. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multi-Layer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This is the annual report for the third year of a three-year program. Previous annual reports have described progress achieved in the first and second years. The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i.e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well. We are building upon technology that has proven to be successful in the XMM-Newton and SWIFT missions. The improvements that we are adding are a significant reduction in mass without much loss of angular resolution and an order of magnitude extension of the bandwidth through the use of multilayer coatings. The distinctive feature of this approach compared to those of other hard X-ray telescope programs is that we expect the angular resolution to be superior than telescopes made by other methods thanks to the structural integrity of the substrates. They are thin walled complete cylinders of revolution with a Wolter Type 1 figure; the front half is a parabola, the rear half a hyperbola.

  15. Advanced High Reflector Coatings for the Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Phillips, A.; Brown, W.; Wallace, V.; Stillburn, James; Sabag, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    The Association of Universities for Research Astronomy’s (AURA) New Initiatives Office (NIO) is developing a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), a next generation telescope also known as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The telescope, whose present design consist of six hundred eighteen 1.2 m diameter mirrors, will have truly remarkable performance. It will be able to resolve crowded star fields into individual stars in galaxies as far away as 10 million light years. It will be able to image and analyze planets and dust clouds around hundreds of nearby stars. Imaging will range from the ultraviolet (UV) to long wavelength infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The goal is to have the telescope operational by 2014. Figure 1 shows a conceptual picture of the GSMT compared to the 10-m Keck telescope and Figure 2 shows a conceptual picture of the observatory.

  16. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Studies of Dark Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Mather, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has contributed significantly to studies of dark energy. It was used to find the first evidence of deceleration at z=1.8 (Riess et al. 2001) through the serendipitous discovery of a type 1a supernova (SN1a) in the Hubble Deep Field. The discovery of deceleration at z greater than 1 was confirmation that the apparent acceleration at low redshift (Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999) was due to dark energy rather than observational or astrophysical effects such as systematic errors, evolution in the SN1a population or intergalactic dust. The GOODS project and associated follow-up discovered 21 SN1a, expanding on this result (Riess et al. 2007). HST has also been used to constrain cosmological parameters and dark energy through weak lensing measurements in the COSMOS survey (Massey et al 2007; Schrabback et al 2009) and strong gravitational lensing with measured time delays (Suyu et al 2010). Constraints on dark energy are often parameterized as the equation of state, w = P/p. For the cosmological constant model, w = -1 at all times; other models predict a change with time, sometimes parameterized generally as w(a) or approximated as w(sub 0)+(1-a)w(sub a), where a = (1+z)(sup -1) is the scale factor of the universe relative to its current scale. Dark energy can be constrained through several measurements. Standard candles, such as SN1a, provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance as a function of redshift, which can be converted to H(z), the change in the Hubble constant with redshift. An analysis of weak lensing in a galaxy field can be used to derive the angular-diameter distance from the weak-lensing equation and to measure the power spectrum of dark-matter halos, which constrains the growth of structure in the Universe. Baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), imprinted on the distribution of matter at recombination, provide a standard rod for measuring the cosmological geometry. Strong gravitational lensing of a

  18. Spectrum measurement with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary James

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest Ultra High Energy cosmic ray observatory in the northern hemisphere and is designed to be sensitive to cosmic ray air showers above 1018eV. Despite the substantial measurements made by TA and AUGER (the largest cosmic ray observatory in the southern hemisphere), there remains uncertainty about whether the highest energy cosmic rays are galactic or extragalactic in origin. Locating features in the cosmic ray energy spectrum below 1018eV that indicate a transition from galactic to extragalactic sources would clarify the interpretation of measurements made at the highest energies. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) is designed to extend the energy threshold of the TA observatory down to 1016.5eV in order to make such measurements. This dissertation details the construction, calibration, and operation of the TALE flu- orescence detector. A measurement of the flux of cosmic rays in the energy range of 1016.5 -- 1018.5eV is made using the monocular data set taken between September 2013 and January 2014. The TALE fluorescence detector observes evidence for a softening of the cosmic spectrum at 1017.25+/-0.5eV. The evidence of a change in the spectrum motivates continued study of 1016.5 -- 1018.5eV cosmic rays.

  19. HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH A DIFFRACTIVE PUPIL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Guyon, Olivier; Eisner, Josh A.; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J.; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Milster, Thomas D.; Mark Ammons, S.; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A.; Belikov, Ruslan

    2012-06-01

    Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets require sub-{mu}as accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must, however, overcome astrometric distortions, which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surroundings. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the background stars and are therefore calibrated. We describe the technique, detail how the data collected by the wide-field camera are used to derive astrometric motion, and identify the main sources of astrometric error using numerical simulations and analytical derivations. We find that the 1.4 m diameter telescope, 0.3 deg{sup 2} field we adopt as a baseline design achieves 0.2 {mu}as single measurement astrometric accuracy. The diffractive pupil concept thus enables sub-{mu}as astrometry without relying on the accurate pointing, external metrology, or high-stability hardware required with previously proposed high-precision astrometry concepts.

  20. The AAVSO High Energy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    The AAVSO is expanding its International Gamma-Ray Burst Network to incorporate other high energy objects such as blazars and magnetic cataclysmic variables (polars). The new AAVSO High Energy Network will be collaborating with the Global Telescope Network (GTN) to observe bright blazars in support of the upcoming GLAST mission. We also will be observing polars in support of the XMM mission. This new network will involve both visual and CCD obsrvers and is expected to last for many years.

  1. The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), a Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eg > 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from ~20 MeV to >10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below ~200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, a significant sensitivity gap will remain in the medium-energy regime (0.75 - 200 MeV) that has been explored only by COMPTEL and EGRET on CGRO. Exploring this regime with angular resolution near the kinematic limit and high polarization sensitivity requires a gamma-ray telescope design with a low density electron track imaging detector.The medium-energy (~5 to ~200 MeV) Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), will achieve angular resolution of ~0.6° at 70 MeV, similar to the angular resolution of Fermi/LAT at ~1 GeV that brought tremendous success in identifying new sources. AdEPT will also provide unprecedented polarization sensitivity of ~1% for a 1 Crab source. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) a low-density, large volume, gas time-projection chamber with a 2-dimensional readout. The 3-DTI provides high-resolution three-dimensional electron tracking with minimal Coulomb scattering that is essential to achieve high angular resolution and polarization sensitivity. We describe our ROSES/APRA funded program to build a 50´50´100 cm3 AdEPT prototype, measure the angular resolution and polarization sensitivity of this prototype at an accelerator, and highlight some of the key science questions that AdEPT will address.

  2. Measurement of the UHECR Energy Spectrum by the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, Thomas; Bergman, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), subatomic charged particles of extraterrestrial origin and with kinetic energies near or exceeding 10^18 eV, are very rare. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment in western Utah is the northern hemisphere's largest UHECR detector, and consists of three atmospheric fluorescence detectors (FDs) and a ground array of 507 scintillator detectors. In stand-alone ``monocular'' operation, the FDs can observe the widest range in primary UHECR energies. One FD employs refurbished hardware from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye experiment; the remaining two FDs were designed for TA and employ new hardware and analysis. We will present the UHECR energy spectrum measured by the FDs in monocular mode using data collected during the first four years of operation.

  3. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  4. Development in High-Density Cobra Fiber Positioners for the Subaru Telescope's Prime Focus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Seiffert, Mic D.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Smith, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer for the Subaru Telescope that will conduct a variety of targeted surveys for studies of dark energy, galaxy evolution, and galactic archaeology. The key to the instrument is a high density array of fiber positioners placed at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope. The system, nicknamed "Cobra", will be capable of rapidly reconfiguring the array of 2394 optical fibers to the image positions of astronomical targets in the focal plane with high accuracy. The system uses 2394 individual "SCARA robot" mechanisms that are 7.7mm in diameter and use 2 piezo-electric rotary motors to individually position each of the optical fibers within its patrol region. Testing demonstrates that the Cobra positioner can be moved to within 5 micrometers of an astronomical target in 6 move iterations with a success rate of 95%. The Cobra system is a key aspect of PFS that will enable its unprecedented combination of high-multiplex factor and observing efficiency on the Subaru telescope. The requirements, design, and prototyping efforts for the fiber positioner system for the PFS are described here as are the plans for modular construction, assembly, integration, functional testing, and performance validation.

  5. Developments in high-density Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's Prime Focus Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Smith, Roger M.

    2012-09-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer for the Subaru Telescope that will conduct a variety of targeted surveys for studies of dark energy, galaxy evolution, and galactic archaeology. The key to the instrument is a high density array of fiber positioners placed at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope. The system, nicknamed “Cobra”, will be capable of rapidly reconfiguring the array of 2394 optical fibers to the image positions of astronomical targets in the focal plane with high accuracy. The system uses 2394 individual “SCARA robot” mechanisms that are 7.7mm in diameter and use 2 piezo-electric rotary motors to individually position each of the optical fibers within its patrol region. Testing demonstrates that the Cobra positioner can be moved to within 5μm of an astronomical target in 6 move iterations with a success rate of 95%. The Cobra system is a key aspect of PFS that will enable its unprecedented combination of high-multiplex factor and observing efficiency on the Subaru telescope. The requirements, design, and prototyping efforts for the fiber positioner system for the PFS are described here as are the plans for modular construction, assembly, integration, functional testing, and performance validation.

  6. Limit on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux with the Westerbork synthesis radio telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Veen, S. ter; James, C. W.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Vries, K. D. de; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.

    2010-11-15

    A particle cascade (shower) in a dielectric, for example, as initiated by an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, will have an excess of electrons which will emit coherent Cerenkov radiation, known as the Askaryan effect. In this work we study the case in which such a particle shower occurs in a medium just below its surface. We show, for the first time, that the radiation transmitted through the surface is independent of the depth of the shower below the surface when observed from far away, apart from trivial absorption effects. As a direct application we use the recent results of the NuMoon project, where a limit on the neutrino flux for energies above 10{sup 22} eV was set using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope by measuring pulsed radio emission from the Moon, to set a limit on the flux of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  7. High-precision pointing with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppi, Sergio; Pernechele, Claudio; Pisanu, Tonino; Morsiani, Marco

    2010-07-01

    We present here the systems aimed to measure and minimize the pointing errors for the Sardinia Radio Telescope: they consist of an optical telescope to measure errors due to the mechanical structure deformations and a lasers system for the errors due to the subreflector displacement. We show here the results of the tests that we have done on the Medicina 32 meters VLBI radio telescope. The measurements demonstrate we can measure the pointing errors of the mechanical structure, with an accuracy of about ~1 arcsec. Moreover, we show the technique to measure the displacement of the subreflector, placed in the SRT at 22 meters from the main mirror, within +/-0.1 mm from its optimal position. These measurements show that we can obtain the needed accuracy to correct also the non repeatable pointing errors, which arise on time scale varying from seconds to minutes.

  8. Relay telescope for high power laser alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  9. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  10. Development of a Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2010-01-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (E(sub gamma) greater than approximately 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from approximately 20 MeV to greater than 10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below approximately 200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, there will nonetheless remain a significant sensitivity gap in the medium-energy (approximately 0.1-200 MeV) regime; the lower end of this range remains largely unexplored whereas the upper end will allow comparison with FERMI data. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires significant improvements in sensitivity. A major emphasis of modern detector development, with the goal of providing significant improvements in sensitivity in the medium-energy regime, focuses on high-resolution electron tracking. The Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology being developed at GSFC provides high resolution tracking of the electron-positron pair from gamma-ray interactions from 5 to 200 MeV. The 3-DTI consists of a time projection chamber (TPC) and 2-D cross-strip microwell detector (MWD). The low-density and homogeneous design of the 3-DTI, offers unprecedented sensitivity by providing angular resolution near the kinematic limit. Electron tracking also enables measurement of gamma-ray polarization, a new tool to study astrophysical phenomenon. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a 30x30x30 cubic centimeters 3-DTI detector prototype of a medium-energy gamma-ray telescope.

  11. Development of a Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunter, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eg greater than approximately 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from approximately 20 MeV to greater than 10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below approximately 200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, there will nonetheless remain a significant sensitivity gap in the medium-energy (approximately 0.1-200 MeV) regime; the lower end of this range remains largely unexplored whereas the upper end will allow comparison with FERMI data. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires significant improvements in sensitivity. A major emphasis of modern detector development, with the goal of providing significant improvements in sensitivity in the medium-energy regime, focuses on high-resolution electron tracking. The Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology being developed at GSFC provides high resolution tracking of the electron-positron pair from gamma-ray interactions from 5 to 200 MeV. The 3-DTI consists of a time projection chamber (TPC) and 2-D cross-strip microwell detector (MWD). The low-density and homogeneous design of the 3-DTI, offers unprecedented sensitivity by providing angular resolution near the kinematic limit. Electron tracking also enables measurement of gamma-ray polarization, a new tool to study astrophysical phenomenon. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 3-DTI detector prototype of a medium-energy gamma-ray telescope.

  12. Absolute energy calibration of FD by an electron linear accelerator for Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D.; Enomoto, A.; Fukuda, S.; Furukawa, K.; Ikeda, M.; Iwase, H.; Kakihara, K.; Kamitani, T.; Kondo, Y.; Ohsawa, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sanami, T.; Satoh, M.; Shidara, T.; Sugimura, T.; Yoshida, M.; Matthews, J. N.; Ogio, S.

    2011-09-22

    The primary energy of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays(UHECR) are measured with the number of fluorescence photons which are detected with fluorescence detectors(FD) in the Telescope Array experiment(TA). Howevery since there is large uncertinty as 19% in the measurement of the energy scale, the most important theme is improvement of the energy calibration. The electron light source(ELS) is a small electron linear accelerator for new energy calibration. The ELS is located 100 m far from the FD station, and injects electron beam which is accelerated to 40 MeV energy into the sky. We can calibrate the FD energy scale by detection the air shower directly which is generated by the electron beam. The ELS was developed in KEK Japan, and moved to the TA site in March 2009. We started the beam operation in September 2010, in consequence we detected the air shower which was generated by electron beam in the air. The output kinetic energy of the electron beam was 41.1 MeV, we adjusted the output charge from 40 to 140 pC/pulse. We expect that we can improve the uncertinty of the energy scale to about 10% with the ELS, futhermore ELS will be a very useful apparatus for R and D of future UHECR observation.

  13. A bi-directional charged particle telescope to observe flux, energy spectrum and angular distribution of relativistic and non-relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. D.; Bhatnagar, S. P.; Kothari, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Charged Particle Telescope (CPT) was designed, fabricated and calibrated to make the following observations: (1) discrimination between various singly charged particles, e.g., electrons, muons and protons, in about 5 to 100 MeV energy range; (2) measurement of the flux and the energy of the charged particles incident to the telescope from two opposite directions and stopping in the telescope, thus obtaining flux and energy spectrum of downward and upward moving charged particles; and (3) measurement of the broad angular distribution of selected particles as a function of azimuthal angle. This telescope can be used to study low energy electron, muon and proton energy spectra. The experiment was flown in a high altitude balloon from Hyderabad, India, in December 1984. This same equipment is also useful in ground level electron, muon spectrum study.

  14. Scientific Design of a High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Ground based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems and specialized science cameras are now capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets. We present the scientific design for a high contrast integral field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. This lenslet based integral field spectrograph will be implemented into the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, called SCExAO.

  15. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    A Normal Incidence high resolution X-ray Telescope is reported. The design of a telescope assembly which, after fabrication, will be integrated with the mirror fabrication process is described. The assembly is engineered to fit into the Black Brant rocket skin to survive sounding rocket launch conditions. A flight ready camera is modified and tested.

  16. Development of the Advance Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; de Nolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2010-07-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (~0.3< Eγ < ~200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, mediumenergy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30×30×30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  17. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  18. Spartan Infrared Camera, a High-Resolution Imager for the SOAR Telescope: Design, Tests, and On-Telescope Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Edwin D.; Biel, Jason D.; Davis, Michael W.; Laporte, René; Loh, Owen Y.; Verhanovitz, Nathan J.

    2012-04-01

    The Spartan Infrared Camera provides tip-tilt corrected imaging for the SOAR Telescope in the 900-2500 nm spectral range with four 2048 × 2048 HAWAII-2 detectors. The camera has two plate scales: high-resolution (40 mas pixel-1) for future diffraction-limited sampling in the H and K bands and wide-field (66 mas pixel-1) to cover a 5' × 5' field, over which tip-tilt correction is substantial. The design is described in detail. Except for CaF2 field-flattening lenses, the optics are aluminum mirrors to thermally match the aluminum cryogenic-optical box in which the optics mount. The design minimizes the tilt of the optics as the instrument rotates on the Nasmyth port of the telescope. Two components of the gravitational torque on an optic are eliminated by symmetry, and the third component is minimized by balancing the optic. The optics (including the off-axis aspherical mirrors) were aligned with precise metrology. For the detector assembly, Henein pivots are used to provide frictionless, thermally compliant, lubricant-free, and thermally conducting rotation of the detectors. The heat load is 14 W for an ambient temperature of 10°C. Cooling down takes 40 hr. An activated-charcoal getter controls permeation through the large Viton O-ring for at least nine months. We present maps of the image distortion, which amount to tens of pixels at the greatest. The wavelength of the narrowband filters shift with position in the sky. The measured Strehl ratio of the camera itself is 0.81-0.84 at λ1650 nm. The width of the best K-band image was 260 mas in unexceptional seeing measured after tuning the telescope and before moving the telescope. Since images are normally taken after pointing the telescope to a different field, this supports the idea that the image quality could be improved by better control of the focus and the shape of the primary mirror. The instrument has proved to be capable of producing images that can be stitched together to measure faint, extended

  19. Warm molecular Hydrogen at high redshift with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard, P.; Boulanger, F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Appleton, P. N.; Pineau des Forêts, G.

    2015-12-01

    The build-up of galaxies is regulated by a complex interplay between gravitational collapse, galaxy merging and feedback related to AGN and star formation. The energy released by these processes has to dissipate for gas to cool, condense, and form stars. How gas cools is thus a key to understand galaxy formation. Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy revealed a population of galaxies with weak star formation and unusually powerful H_2 line emission. This is a signature of turbulent dissipation, sustained by large-scale mechanical energy injection. The cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium is associated with emission in the H_2 lines. These results have profound consequences on our understanding of regulation of star formation, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that H_2 lines can be strongly enhanced in high-redshift turbulent galaxies will be of great importance for the James Webb Space Telescope observations which will unveil the role that H_2 plays as a cooling agent in the era of galaxy assembly.

  20. Fluence measurement of fast neutron fields with a highly efficient recoil proton telescope using active pixel sensors.

    PubMed

    Taforeau, J; Higueret, S; Husson, D; Kachel, M; Lebreton, L

    2014-10-01

    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High-Energy Neutron metrology Applications) is being developed at the LNE-IRSN and aims at characterising energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a recoil proton telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50-µm-thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for proton tracking and a 3-mm-thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode, owing to a large detection solid angle, increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of 10 compared with conventional designs. The ability of the spectrometer to determine the neutron energy was demonstrated and reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on the fluence measurement of monoenergetic neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. Experimental investigations, performed at the AMANDE facility, indicate a good estimation of neutron fluence at various energies. In addition, a complete description of uncertainties budget is presented in this paper and a Monte Carlo propagation of uncertainty sources leads to a fluence measurement with a precision ∼3-5 % depending on the neutron energy.

  1. The use of high temperature superconductors to levitate lunar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to assist in the construction of a lunar telescope mirror model by conducting research on composite materials and other lightweight, rigid materials, and by determining how much weight can be levitated by available superconductors. It is believed that with the construction of four magnets suspended over four bulk superconductors (or vice versa), there should be no problems lifting a model mirror and stabilizing it at different positions. It may be necessary to increase the size and quality of the superconductors and/or magnets in order to achieve this.

  2. Instrument for Achieving High Angular Resolution on the Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1998-01-01

    Aberrations in stellar images caused by the atmosphere sets a significant limit on angular resolution in ground based astronomy. The largest of these aberrations is the image motion or wavefront tilt. Since the image motion is random it causes a blurring of the image, and this causes a blurring of the image from 0.3 arcseconds to about 0.7 arcseconds. The purpose of the tip-tilt project was to devise a system for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility that would measure the image movement and correct it by rapidly tilting a mirror in two axes (tip and tilt). The system would involve building a CCD sensor package to measure the image motion, a new top end for the telescope to hold the tip-tilt mirror, a control system, and software. The system was designed to correct images for the facility camera, NSFCAM, and for the facility spectrometer, SPEX. Both of these instruments are equipped with a cold beamsplitter to feed the sensor package.

  3. High performance Lyot and PIAA coronagraphy for arbitrarily shaped telescope apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip M.; Cady, Eric; Belikov, Ruslan; Martinache, Frantz

    2014-01-10

    Two high-performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, called Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, called Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-λ/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described for monochromatic light. Designs for the APCMLC and the higher performance PIAACMC are shown for several monolith and segmented apertures, such as the apertures of the Subaru Telescope, Giant Magellan Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope, and the Large Binocular Telescope. Performance in broadband light is also quantified, suggesting that the monochromatic designs are suitable for use in up to 20% wide spectral bands for ground-based telescopes.

  4. Observations of gamma-ray pulsars at the highest energies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most exciting developments in pulsar astrophysics in recent years has been the detection, with ground-based instruments (VERITAS, MAGIC), of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab at very high energies (VHE, E>100 GeV). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite has detected over 160 pulsars above 100 MeV. Twenty-eight of these have been shown to emit pulsations above 10 GeV and approximately a dozen show emission above 25 GeV. While most gamma-ray pulsars are well-fitted in the GeV range by a power law with an exponential cut-off at around a few GeV, some emission models predict emission at energies above 100 GeV, either through a power-law extrapolation of the low-energy spectrum, or via a new (e.g. Inverse Compton) component. We will present results of our search for high-energy emission from LAT-detected gamma-ray pulsars using the latest Pass 8 data and discuss the prospects of finding the next VHE pulsar, providing a good target (or targets) for follow-up observations with current and future ground-based observatories, like CTA.

  5. Cosmic ray charge and energy spectrum measurements using a new large area Cerenkov x dE/dx telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Kish, J. C.; Schrier, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In September, 1981, a new 0.5 square meter ster cosmic ray telescope was flown to study the charge composition and energy spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei between 0.3 and 4 GeV/nuc. A high resolution Cerenkov counter, and three dE/dx measuring scintillation counters, including two position scintillators were contained in the telescope used for the charge and energy spectrum measurements. The analysis procedures did not require any large charge or energy dependent corrections, and absolute fluxes could be obtained to an accuracy approximately 5%. The spectral measurements made in 1981, at a time of extreme solar modulation, could be compared with measurements with a similar telescope made by our group in 1977, at a time of minimum modulation and can be used to derive absolute intensity values for the HEAO measurements made in 1979 to 80. Using both data sets precise energy spectra and abundance ratios can be derived over the entire energy range from 0.3 to greater than 15 GeV/nuc.

  6. Development and Performance of the PHOT (Portable High-Speed Occultation Telescope) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. F.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Buie, M. W.; Shoemaker, K.; French, R. G.; Regester, J.

    2011-06-01

    The PHOT (Portable High-Speed Occultation Telescope) systems were developed for the specific purpose of observing stellar occultations by solar system objects. Stellar occultations have unique observing constraints: they may only be observable from certain parts of the globe; they often require a rapid observing cadence; and they require accurate time-stamp information for each exposure. The PHOT systems consist of 14 inch telescopes, CCD cameras, camera mounting plates, GPS-based time standards, and data acquisition computers. The PHOT systems are similar in principle to the POETS systems (Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems), with the main differences being (1) different CCD cameras with slightly different specifications and (2) a standalone custom-built time standard used by PHOT, whereas POETS uses a commercial time standard that is controlled from a computer. Since 2005, PHOT systems have been deployed on over two-dozen occasions to sites in the US, Mexico, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, France, Austria, Switzerland, Australia, and New Zealand, mounted on portable 14 inch telescopes or on larger stationary telescopes. Occultation light curves acquired from the 3.9 m AAT (Anglo-Australian Telescope) have produced photometric signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of 333 per scale height for a stellar occultation by Pluto. In this article we describe the seven PHOT subsystems in detail (telescopes, cameras, timers, and data stations) and present S/N estimates for actual and predicted occultations as functions of star brightness, telescope aperture, and frame rate.

  7. Cosmic Ray Measurements at the Highest Energies: Results from Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas

    Telescope Array is the largest cosmic ray detector in the northern hemisphere, operating for the last five years Utah, USA. I will present our recent results, including measurements of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10(18.2) eV, measurements of the cosmic ray primary composition as a function of energy and a measurement of the cosmic ray primary arrival direction anisotropy at energies above 10(19.75) eV. The Telescope Array has also recently deployed a low energy extension, TALE. I will present the current status and preliminary results for energies between 10(16.5) and 10(18) eV, along with plans to build a further low energy extension using Cherenkov light (NICHE).

  8. Cerenkov x total energy telescopes for the study of the mass composition of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The mass resolution attainable with cosmic ray telescopes employing Cerenkov counters for velocity measurement was examined. It is shown that in most cases, the limiting mass resolution is determined by the resolution of the Cerenkov counter. The resolution achieved in the UNH telescope flown on a balloon in 1977 is studied as a function of charge and energy. This telescope determines the mass using the Cerenkov x total energy technique. It is shown that the mass resolution for heavier nuclei can be accurately predicted using the response of the Cerenkov counter to sea level mu-mesons. The actual in flight resolution for heavier nuclei, including broadening effects, may be predicted using the beta = 1 Cerenkov distributions, and independently by studying the distribution function of the differences of the two banks of photomultipliers employed on each Cerenkov counter.

  9. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  10. Optimizing the search for high-z GRBs:. the JANUS X-ray coded aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, D. N.; Fox, D.; Palmer, D.; Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; La Parola, V.; Falcone, A. D.; Roming, P. W. A.

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z>5 and fluence S_x > 3 × 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  11. Precision continuous high-strength Azimuth track for large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antebi, Joseph; Kan, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    A novel track joint was developed for the azimuth track of the 50-m diameter Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) now under construction in Mexico at an elevation of 4,600 m. The track, which is 430 mm wide by 230 mm deep, must be flat to within +/- 0.3 mm, and the material hardness at least 290 Brinell. This design uses a partial penetration narrow gap groove weld on the top surface of the track and a splice plate welded to the underside of the track. Pre-camber of the joint compensates for weld shrinkage which is small because of the use of the narrow gap groove weld. The residual deviations from flatness are reduced to the required tolerance by adjusting anchor bolts using an optimization procedure. The feasibility of the design with respect to fabrication, strength, fatigue, and alignment was demonstrated by detailed finite element analyses, trial welding and alignment of full scale joints, and testing of the mechanical properties of the joint and adjacent metal.

  12. High resolution reconstruction of solar prominence images observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yong-yuan; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhen-yu

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution image showing fine structures is crucial for understanding the nature of solar prominence. In this paper, high resolution imaging of solar prominence on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is introduced, using speckle masking. Each step of the data reduction especially the image alignment is discussed. Accurate alignment of all frames and the non-isoplanatic calibration of each image are the keys for a successful reconstruction. Reconstructed high resolution images from NVST also indicate that under normal seeing condition, it is feasible to carry out high resolution observations of solar prominence by a ground-based solar telescope, even in the absence of adaptive optics.

  13. A Bayesian-based Method for Particle Track Identification in Low-energy Pair-creation Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Zoglauer, Andreas; Andritschke, Robert; Kanbach, Gottfried; Boggs, Steven E.

    2007-07-12

    A critical step during the data analysis of pair creation telescopes is the correct identification of the electron and positron tracks. For MEGA, an electron-tracking Compton and pair telescope optimized for energies up to 50 MeV, we describe a low-energy pair event reconstruction approach partly based on Bayesian statistics.

  14. Design and Development of Thin Plastic Foil, Conical Approximation, High Through-out X-Ray Telescope: Light Weight, Thin Plastic Foil, X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, Herbert W.; Barbera, Marco; Silver, Eric; Ingram, Russell; Christensen, Finn E.; Romaine, Suzanne; Cohen, Lester; Collura, Alfonso; Murray, Stephen S.; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a program to develop an X-ray telescope made from thin plastic shells. Our initial results have been obtained from multi-shell cylindrical lenses that are used in a point-to-point configuration to image the small focal spot of a an X-ray tube on a microchannel plate detector. We describe the steps that led up to the present design and present data from the tests that have been used to identify the properties of the plastic material that make it a suitable X-ray reflector. We discuss two applications of our technology to X-ray missions that are designed to address some of the scientific priorities set forth in NASA's long term plans for high energy astrophysics. One mission will observe in the 1 - 10 keV band, the other will extend up to ca. 100 keV.

  15. High-precision robotic equatorial C-ring telescope mounts: design, fabrication, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubberley, Matthew A.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the C-ring telescope mount rivals other designs in stiffness, tracking, simplicity, lack of field rotation, mechanical size and operating envelope. Issues relating to cost, fabrication, and complexity have suppressed the prevalence of the C-ring mount. The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) robotic C-ring telescope mounts, built for its network of 1.0m and 0.4m telescopes, solve many of these issues. The design yields a scalable mount with performance capabilities well suited for telescopes located at the best astronomical sites in the world at a low cost. Pointing has been demonstrated to be under 7 arc-sec RMS. Unguided tracking performance is 0.6 arc-sec for 1 minute and 2 arc-sec for 15 minutes. Slew speeds of 10deg/sec are reliably used with sub-second settling times. The mount coupled with the 1.0m telescope yields a well damped 16 Hz system. Axes are driven with zero backlash direct drive motors with a 0.01 arc-sec resolution. High system bandwidth yields superb disturbance rejection making it ideal for open air operation. Drive and bearings are maintenance free and feature a novel "bug cover" to seal them from wear and damage. Low costs are achieved with the drive/feedback configuration, structure design, and fabrication techniques, as well minimizing operating and maintenance.

  16. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI γ-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE γ-emission. During the outburst, the VHE γ-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims: We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods: Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results: The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 ± 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H.E.S.S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source

  17. AGN Spectral Energy Distributions of GLAST Telescope Network Program Objects II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Jeff; Lacy, Mark; Rapp, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda

    2006-03-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the "GLAST Telescope Network" (GTN) and includes a number of objects that have yet to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the first year of the Spitzer Teacher Observing Program, our project observed one of these objects (4C 29.45) with the Spitzer MIPS and the IRAC instruments as well as ground based instruments. These observations were used to determine its Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which was compared to a model of disk emission in order to determine if there was a component of the SED due to synchrotron radiation induced by the jets. In this proposal we will observe another target from the list and expand our efforts to create simultaneous observations through radio telescopes, optical telescopes (large and small), and other instruments as the opportunity arises.

  18. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  19. AdEPT, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Venters, Tonia M.; Krizmanic, John; Hanu, Andrei; Sasaki, Makoto; Timokhin, Andrey; AdEPT Instrument Team

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) is being developed as a future NASA/GSFC end-to-end MIDEX mission to perform high-sensitivity medium-energy (5-200 MeV) astronomy and revolutionary gamma-ray polarization measurements. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the GSFC Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI), a large volume gaseous time projection chamber with 2-dimentional micro-well detector (MWD) readout. The low density and high spatial resolution of the 3-DTI allows AdEPT to achieve high angular resolution (~0.5 deg at 67.5 MeV) and, for the first time, exceptional gamma-ray polarization sensitivity. These capabilities enable a wide range of scientific discovery potential for AdEPT. We will discuss several of the key science goals of the AdEPT mission. These include: 1) Explore fundamental processes of particle acceleration in active astrophysical objects, 2) Reveal the magnetic field configuration of the most energetic accelerators in the Universe, 3) Explore the origins and acceleration of cosmic rays and the Galactic MeV diffuse emission, 4) Search for dark matter in the Galactic center, and 5) Test relativity with polarization measurements.

  20. AdEPT, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) is being developed as a future NASA/GSFC end-to-end MIDEX mission to perform high-sensitivity medium-energy (5-200 MeV) astronomy and revolutionary gamma-ray polarization measurements. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the GSFC Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI), a large volume gaseous time projection chamber with 2-dimentional micro-well detector (MWD) readout. The low density and high spatial resolution of the 3-DTI allows AdEPT to achieve high angular resolution (~0.5 deg at 67.5 MeV) and, for the first time, exceptional gamma-ray polarization sensitivity. These capabilities enable a wide range of scientific discovery potential for AdEPT. We will discuss several of the key science goals of the AdEPT mission. These include: 1) Explore fundamental processes of particle acceleration in active astrophysical objects, 2) Reveal the magnetic field configuration of the most energetic accelerators in the Universe, 3) Explore the origins and acceleration of cosmic rays and the Galactic MeV diffuse emission, 4) Search for dark matter in the Galactic center, and 5) Test relativity with polarization measurements.

  1. Absolute energy calibration of the Telescope Array fluorescence detector with an electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Beitollahi, M.; Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D.; Langely, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Sagawa, H.; Shin, B. K.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Electron Light Source(ELS) is a new light source for the absolute energy calibration of cosmic ray Fluorescence Detector(FD) telescopes. The ELS is a compact electron linear accelerator with a typical output of 109 electrons per pulse at 40 MeV. We fire the electron beam vertically into the air 100 m in front of the telescope. The electron beam excites the gases of the atmosphere in the same way as the charged particles of the cosmic ray induced extensive air shower. The gases give off the same light with the same wavelength dependence. The light passes through a small amount of atmosphere and is collected by the same mirror and camera with their wavelength dependence. In this way we can use the electron beam from ELS to make an end-to-end calibration of the telescope. In September 2010, we began operation of the ELS and the FD telescopes observed the fluorescence photons from the air shower which was generated by the electron beam. In this article, we will reort the status of analysis of the absolute energy calibration with data which was taken in September 2010, and beam monitor study in November 2011.

  2. High volume production trial of mirror segments for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oota, Tetsuji; Negishi, Mahito; Shinonaga, Hirohiko; Gomi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Yutaka; Akutsu, Kotaro; Otsuka, Itaru; Mochizuki, Shun; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope is a next-generation optical/infrared telescope to be constructed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii toward the end of this decade, as an international project. Its 30 m primary mirror consists of 492 off-axis aspheric segmented mirrors. High volume production of hundreds of segments has started in 2013 based on the contract between National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Canon Inc.. This paper describes the achievements of the high volume production trials. The Stressed Mirror Figuring technique which is established by Keck Telescope engineers is arranged and adopted. To measure the segment surface figure, a novel stitching algorithm is evaluated by experiment. The integration procedure is checked with prototype segment.

  3. The High Speed Photometer for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the high speed photometer (HSP), its optics and detectors, its electronics, its mechanical structure, and some observational considerations are presented. The capabilities and limitations of the HSP are outlined.

  4. Observations of Energetic High Magnetic Field Pulsars with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parent, D.; Kerr, M.; DenHartog, P. R.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Espinoza, C. M.; Harding, A. K.; Romani, R. W.; Stappers, B. W.; Watters, K.; Weltevrde, P.; Abdo, A. A.; Craig, H. A.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119.6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve of PSR J1119.6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 +/- 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 +/- 0.3(+0.4 -0.2) with an energy cut-off at 0.8 +/- 0.2(+2.0 -0.5) GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119.6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field--near that of magnetars -- the field strength and structure in the gamma-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the gamma-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846.0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-Beta pulsars, PSRs J1718.3718 and J1734.3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  5. Tuning of a high magnification compact parabolic telescope for centimeter-scale laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tacca, Matteo; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Buy, Christelle; Laporte, Matthieu; Pillant, Gabriel; Genin, Eric; La Penna, Paolo; Barsuglia, Matteo

    2016-02-20

    Off-axis parabolic telescopes, widely used in astronomy and laser optics, if perfectly tuned, are virtually free from aberrations along the parabola's axis direction, but their alignment is very critical. We present a detailed method to align a high magnification off-axis afocal parabolic telescope. The method is composed of two steps: an initial pre-alignment using autocollimators, followed by a fine tuning with a collimated laser beam. Due to the large telescope magnification, the outcoming beam cannot be measured without being refocused. The beam is therefore reflected on a flat mirror and sent back through the telescope. This double-pass configuration allows the measurement of the beam quality without the need for large additional optics. In the fine-tuning step, a numerical simulation is also used to identify the degrees of freedom to be adjusted. The experimental results presented are obtained with one of the mode-matching parabolic telescopes of the gravitational wave interferometric detector Advanced Virgo. PMID:26906579

  6. Tuning of a high magnification compact parabolic telescope for centimeter-scale laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tacca, Matteo; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Buy, Christelle; Laporte, Matthieu; Pillant, Gabriel; Genin, Eric; La Penna, Paolo; Barsuglia, Matteo

    2016-02-20

    Off-axis parabolic telescopes, widely used in astronomy and laser optics, if perfectly tuned, are virtually free from aberrations along the parabola's axis direction, but their alignment is very critical. We present a detailed method to align a high magnification off-axis afocal parabolic telescope. The method is composed of two steps: an initial pre-alignment using autocollimators, followed by a fine tuning with a collimated laser beam. Due to the large telescope magnification, the outcoming beam cannot be measured without being refocused. The beam is therefore reflected on a flat mirror and sent back through the telescope. This double-pass configuration allows the measurement of the beam quality without the need for large additional optics. In the fine-tuning step, a numerical simulation is also used to identify the degrees of freedom to be adjusted. The experimental results presented are obtained with one of the mode-matching parabolic telescopes of the gravitational wave interferometric detector Advanced Virgo.

  7. High-fidelity cryothermal test of a subscale large space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Ollendorf, S.; Mattern, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Jackson, M.; Francis, J.; Hait, T.; Cleveland, P.; Muheim, D.; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    To take advantage of the unique environment of space and optimize infrared observations for faint sources, space telescopes must be cooled to low temperatures. The new paradigm in cooling large space telescopes is to use a combination of passive radiative cooling and mechanical cryocoolers. The passive system must shield the telescope from the Sun, Earth, and the warm spacecraft components while providing radiative cooling to deep space. This shield system is larger than the telescope itself, and must attenuate the incoming energy by over one million to limit heat input to the telescope. Testing of such a system on the ground is a daunting task due to the size of the thermal/vacuum chamber required and the degree of thermal isolation necessary between the room temperature and cryogenic parts of the shield. These problems have been attacked in two ways: by designing a subscale version of a larger sunshield and by carefully closing out radiation sneak paths. The 18% scale (the largest diameter shield was 1.5 m) version of the SPIRIT Origins Probe telescope shield was tested in a low cost helium shroud within a 3.1 m diameter x 4.6 m long LN II shrouded vacuum chamber. Thermal straps connected from three shield stages to the liquid helium cooled shroud were instrumented with heaters and thermometers to simulate mechanical cryocooler stages at 6 K, 18-20 K, and 45-51 K. Performance data showed that less than 10 microwatts of radiative heat leaked from the warm to cold sides of the shields during the test. The excellent agreement between the data and the thermal models is discussed along with shroud construction techniques.

  8. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  9. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Fiber Optic Testing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a spectroscopic survey that will collect data from nearly one million Lyman-α emitting galaxies at a redshift of 1.8 < z < 3.8 in order to characterize dark energy. To accomplish this, over 33,000 optical fibers will feed light from these galaxies into 150 Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrographs (VIRUS), an order of magnitude greater than has been done before. A fiber optic test bench has been constructed at the University of Texas at Austin in order to test the transmission and focal ratio degradation (FRD) of individual fibers at several wavelengths ranging from 350-600nm. Furthermore, the fiber optic bundles are undergoing extensive lifetime tests at the Center for Electromechanics on the university’s research campus which will simulate 10 years of motion on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope.

  10. AGN Spectral Energy Distribution of GLAST Telescope Network Program Object 4C 29.45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Stefaniak, L.; Rapp, S.; Hinckley, B.; Lacy, M.

    2006-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to be launched in 2006 has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the GLAST Telescope Network (GTN) and includes a number of objects that have yet to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our project observed one of these objects, 4C 29.45, with the Spitzer MIPS and the IRAC instruments and also using ground based telescopes. Observations were made in seven infrared bands with Spitzer. Additional observations made from the ground by students, amateur astronomers, and small college observatories in R,V, and I were nearly simultaneous with the Spitzer observations. We have used this data to construct the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of 4C 29.45. We compare these data to models of the dust emission from the torus, sychrotron emission from the radio core, and thermal emission from the accretion disk to determine the relative importance of the different emission mechanisms in this object as a function of wavelength.

  11. Using Telescopic Observations to Explore the Science of AGN with High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several years the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University has operated a small robotic telescope in northern Sonoma County, California. The telescope is used by high school and college instructors and their students from around the United States. Observations have been used both in classroom settings and in after-school or extracurricular activities. It has also been central over the past two summers (2009/2010) as part of a summer science internship program for Sonoma County high school students. The program gave these students an in-depth experience collecting and analyzing astronomical data. This poster describes some of the ways that the telescope has been used to make scientific measurements (as opposed to “pretty pictures”) of astronomical phenomena in high school settings. Some of the obstacles to implementing a set of astronomical observations in the high school classroom will be described, as will the steps we have taken to overcome them. Information is provided on how instructors can become involved in using the telescope and what support is available to help them get started in their classes.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) high gain antenna (HGA) deployment during STS-31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Held in appendage deploy position, the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) high gain antenna (HGA) has been released from its stowed position along the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. The STS-31 crew aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) oversees the automatic HGA deployment prior to releasing HST. HST HGA is backdropped against the blackness of space.

  13. Revealing the Hidden Wave: Using the Very Small Radio Telescope to Teach High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Michael; Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Scientists and teachers have worked together to produce teaching materials for the Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT), an easy-to-use, low-cost apparatus that can be used in multiple laboratory experiments in high school and university physics and astronomy classes. In this article, we describe the motivation for the VSRT and several of the…

  14. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-03-06

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 {micro}m and 8.0 {micro}m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B {approx} 170 {micro}G in spot A, and B {approx} 270 {micro}G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to {approx} 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of {approx} 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies {approx}> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets.

  15. High Resolution Imaging with Adaptive Optics at the Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hart, M.; McLeod, B. A.; Wittman, D.; Colucci, D.; McCarthy, D. W.; Angel, R.; Dekany, R.

    1992-12-01

    We present the latest results from an adaptive optics program being implemented at the MMT using a six element adaptive mirror. The tilt of the wavefront over each of the six telescopes is determined with a Shack-Hartmann type sensor using a 24times 24 pixel low-noise CCD. This system allows the MMT to operate at a resolution of 0.3'' at 2 microns -- near the diffraction limit of the individual 1.8-m telescopes. This resolution can be obtained within ~ 1' of any star with visual magnitude < 16, allowing high-resolution near-IR imaging with a NICMOS2 array of a wide variety of targets, including high-redshift galaxies and young and evolved stars. This system can also be used with the MMT operated as a phased array telescope. In this mode, the piston errors between the telescopes are determined by examining the Fourier transform of the combined 2-micron image of the natural guide star using a fast-readout InSb array. In this configuration we have achieved a resolution of 0.075''. In good seeing we expect to obtain images of interest within the isoplanatic patch of guide stars with K magnitude <7. We acknowledge financial support from the NSF (AST92-03336) and the Flintridge Foundation. The adaptive mirror was donated by ThermoTrex Corp.

  16. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  17. The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) Infill Ground Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, J.

    The physics goals of the The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) include the hybrid measurement of spectrum and composition of cosmic rays down to energies below 1017 eV. To achieve composition measurements from observation of extensive air showers, a ground array detector must have the ability to distinguish the muonic and electromagnetic components of a shower. Here, we consider the design issues relevant to the infill ground array component of the TALE hybrid detector, and present results of prototype studies as well as preliminary detector designs and the envisioned array layout.

  18. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-energy (approximately 5-200 Mega electron Volts) gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production kinematics limit (approximately 0.6 deg at 70 Mega electron Volts), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front detector (is less than 3 x 10(exp -6) Mega electron Volts per square centimeter per second at 70 Mega electron Volts), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% for a 10 milliCrab source in 10(exp 6) s.

  19. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter , Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo O.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-13 energy gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope 14 (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time 15 projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production 16 kinematics limit (~0.6° at 70 MeV), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front 17 detector (<3×10-6 MeV cm-2 s-1 at 70 MeV), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% 18 for a 10 millicrab source in 106 seconds.

  20. Composition Measurements near the Second Knee with the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, J.

    Cosmic rays with energies between 1016.5 and 1018.5 eV exhibit a rich range of features. The energy spectrum changes index at at least two points, known as the "second knee" and the "ankle". There appears to be a composition change in this energy regime as well, which may indicate a shift in predominance from galactic to extragalactic sources. The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension - planned for construction in Millard County, Utah, USA - stands well poised to make decisive simultaneous measurements of cosmic ray energy spectra and composition in this transition region. Here, we present the results of simulation studies relevant to the design of the TALE detectors, and estimate the sensitivity of TALE to composition changes in the 1017 eV decade.

  1. Improved high-contrast imaging with on-axis telescopes using a multistage vortex coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Mawet, Dimitri; Serabyn, Eugene; Wallace, J Kent; Pueyo, Laurent

    2011-04-15

    The vortex coronagraph is one of the most promising coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging because of its simplicity, small inner working angle, high throughput, and clear off-axis discovery space. However, as with most coronagraphs, centrally obscured on-axis telescopes degrade contrast. Based on the remarkable ability of vortex coronagraphs to move light between the interior and exterior of pupils, we propose a method based on multiple vortices, that without sacrificing throughput, reduces the residual light leakage to (a/A)(n), with n ≥ 4, and a and A being the radii of the central obscuration and primary mirror, respectively. This method thus enables high contrasts to be reached even with an on-axis telescope.

  2. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  3. NICHE: Using Cherenkov radiation to extend Telescope Array to sub-PeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas; Krizmanic, John; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    The Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array will measure the flux and nuclear composition evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) from below 1 PeV to 1 EeV. NICHE will be co-sited with the Telescope Array (TA) Low Energy (TALE) extension, and will observe events simultaneously with the TALE telescopes acting in imaging-Cherenkov mode. This will be the first hybrid-Cherenkov (simultaneous imaging and non-imaging Cherenkov) measurements of CRs in the Knee region of the CR energy spectrum. NICHE uses easily deployable detectors to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve an event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy, each with excellent resolution. First generation detectors are under construction and will form an initial prototype array (j-NICHE) that will be deployed in Summer 2016. In this talk, the NICHE design, array performance, prototype development, and status will be discussed as well as NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition as a function of energy.

  4. Integration of VIRUS spectrographs for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, J.; Mollison, N.; Soukup, I.; Hayes, R.; Hill, G. J.; Good, J.; Savage, R.; Vattiat, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory will deploy the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) to survey large areas of sky. VIRUS consists of up to 192 spectrographs deployed as 96 units. VIRUS units are fiber-fed and are housed in four enclosures making up the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). Initial design studies established an optimal array size and an upper and lower bound on their placement relative to the existing telescope structure. Tradeoffs considering IFU (optical fiber) length, support structure mass and ease of maintenance have resulted in placement of four 3 × 8 arrays of spectrograph pairs, about mid-point in elevation relative to the fixed HET structure. Because of the desire to minimize impact on the modal performance of the HET, the VSS is required to be an independent, selfsupporting structure and will only be coupled at the base of the telescope. Analysis shows that it is possible to utilize the existing azimuth drives of the telescope, through this coupling, which will greatly simplify the design and reduce cost. Each array is contained in an insulated enclosure that will control thermal load by means of heat exchangers and use of facility coolant supply. Access for installation and maintenance on the top, front, and rear of the enclosures must be provided. The design and analysis presented in this paper must provide an optimum balance in meeting the stringent requirements for science and facility constraints such as cost, weight, access, and safety.

  5. Development of high throughput X-ray telescopes for X-ray imaging and dispersive spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the technical approach to the realization of a high throughput Kirkpatrick-Baez X-ray mirror became better defined in terms of construction methodology and factors which affect maximum size. More progress was made than anticipated in the area of automatic figure formation. However, effort to improve the resolution of float glass by simple techniques were not successful. Mirror development, spectroscopy, all sky telescope, and explorer concept studies are discussed.

  6. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT). 4. Status and wavefront control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Riggs, A. J. E.; Egron, Sylvain; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Elodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Kasdin, Jeremy; Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    Segmented telescopes are a possible approach to enable large-aperture space telescopes for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of habitable worlds. However, the increased complexity of their aperture geometry, due to their central obstruction, support structures and segment gaps, makes high-contrast imaging very challenging. The High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT) was designed to study and develop solutions for such telescope pupils using wavefront control and starlight suppression. The testbed design has the flexibility to enable studies with increasing complexity for telescope aperture geometries starting with off-axis telescopes, then on-axis telescopes with central obstruction and support structures (e.g. the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]), up to on-axis segmented telescopes e.g. including various concepts for a Large UV, Optical, IR telescope (LUVOIR), such as the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST). We completed optical alignment in the summer of 2014 and a first deformable mirror was successfully integrated in the testbed, with a total wavefront error of 13nm RMS over a 18mm diameter circular pupil in open loop. HiCAT will also be provided with a segmented mirror conjugated with a shaped pupil representing the HDST configuration, to directly study wavefront control in the presence of segment gaps, central obstruction and spider. We recently applied a focal plane wavefront control method combined with a classical Lyot coronagraph on HiCAT, and we found limitations on contrast performance due to vibration effect. In this communication, we analyze this instability and study its impact on the performance of wavefront control algorithms. We present our Speckle Nulling code to control and correct for wavefront errors both in simulation mode and on testbed mode. This routine is first tested in simulation mode without instability to validate our code. We then add simulated vibrations to study the degradation of contrast

  7. A Low Energy Cosmic Ray Telescope For The International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampa, G.; Altea Collaboration

    The near Earth and interplanetary space is permeated with cosmic radiation coming from the Sun and generated also by galactic and extragalactic sources. We are develop- ing a set of six telescopes, each composed by 12 silicon detectors, to measure the low energy component of this radiation environment in the low Earth orbit. These detectors are part of the ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts) experiment to be flown in the International Space Station in 2003. Along with an ElectroEncephalo- Graph (EEG) system it will study the brain and visual system functional anomalies (light flash, phosphenes perception) and perform dosimetry measurements.

  8. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: anita.reimer@uibk.ac.at E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil

    2011-08-01

    We report on the {gamma}-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) {gamma}-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index {Gamma} = 1.78 {+-} 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor {approx}3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in {gamma}-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Markarian 421: The Missing Piece of its Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Georganopoulos, M.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Yatsu, Y.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Chen, W. P.; Jordan, B.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; McBreen, B.; Larionov, V. M.; Lin, C. S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ~3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  10. A high speed networked signal processing platform for multi-element radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Peeyush; Subrahmanya, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    A new architecture is presented for a Networked Signal Processing System (NSPS) suitable for handling the real-time signal processing of multi-element radio telescopes. In this system, a multi-element radio telescope is viewed as an application of a multi-sensor, data fusion problem which can be decomposed into a general set of computing and network components for which a practical and scalable architecture is enabled by current technology. The need for such a system arose in the context of an ongoing program for reconfiguring the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) as a programmable 264-element array, which will enable several new observing capabilities for large scale surveys on this mature telescope. For this application, it is necessary to manage, route and combine large volumes of data whose real-time collation requires large I/O bandwidths to be sustained. Since these are general requirements of many multi-sensor fusion applications, we first describe the basic architecture of the NSPS in terms of a Fusion Tree before elaborating on its application for the ORT. The paper addresses issues relating to high speed distributed data acquisition, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based peer-to-peer networks supporting significant on-the fly processing while routing, and providing a last mile interface to a typical commodity network like Gigabit Ethernet. The system is fundamentally a pair of two co-operative networks, among which one is part of a commodity high performance computer cluster and the other is based on Commercial-Off The-Shelf (COTS) technology with support from software/firmware components in the public domain.

  11. Reverse and concurrent engineering applied of a high resolution equipment Berkut for 1-meter class telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Granados, R.; Farah, A.

    2014-07-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for astronomers; one of them is the atmosphere. The light that a star emits is refracted when it goes through the earth's atmosphere; the result of this is that the image of a punctual star is not what the physics would lead us to expect. At the Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (IA-UNAM) an instrument has been developed called "Berkut", which uses a high resolution technique to improve these effects and obtain interesting and valuable scientific studies. In this paper we present the mechanical reengineering and acceptance test of Berkut. This instrument was design for taking images of high resolution. Essentially, it is composed by a set basic optics which is aligned and in focus with a 1- meter class telescope. It has its own electronic components for controlling remotely a filter wheel; that allows the exchange of the filters according to the requirements of the observer, a couple of objectives mounted in a translation stage, and a CCD camera for acquiring several images per second that are used in the speckle interferometry technique. A project like Berkut needs to be multidisciplinary; astronomy, engineering, optics, mechanics, electronics, and image processing are some of the areas of knowledge used. Berkut will be used in the telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in Tonantzintla, located in the state of Puebla, Mexico, but it can be used in any telescope 1 meter class. It is pretended to build another Berkuts for being used simultaneously in different telescopes, so it is important to keep the costs as low as possible. With this instrument we pretend to confirm the Hipparcos catalogue of binary stars besides finding exoplanets.

  12. The european FAZIA initiative: a high-performance digital telescope array for heavy-ion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, G.; Barlini, S.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Olmi, A.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A.; Valdré, S.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Chbihi, A.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Frankland, J. D.; Gramegna, F.; Gruyer, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Kordjasz, A.; Kozik, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Marchi, T.; Marini, P.; Morelli, L.; Ordine, A.; Pârlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Salomon, F.; Spadaccini, G.; Twaróg, T.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.

    2014-03-01

    The european Fazia collaboration aims at building a new modular array for charged product identification to be employed for heavy-ion studies. The elementary module of the array is a Silicon-Silicon-CsI telescope, optimized for ion identification including pulse shape analysis, too. The achievement of top performances imposes specific electronics which has been developed by the FAZIA collaboration and includes high quality charge and current preamplifiers, coupled to fully digital front-end. During the initial R&D phase, original and novel solutions have been tested in prototypes, obtaining unprecedented ion identification capabilities. FAZIA is now constructing a demonstrator array consisting of about two hundreds telescopes arranged in a compact and transportable configuration. In this contribution, we mainly summarize some aspects studied by FAZIA to improve the ion identification. Then we will briefly discuss the FAZIA program focused on experiments to be done with the demonstrator. First results on the isospin dynamics obtained with a reduced set-up demonstrate well the performance of the telescope and represent a good starting point towards future investigations with both stable and exotic beams.

  13. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  14. Design of a new high-performance pointing controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    A new form of high-performance, disturbance-adaptive pointing controller for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is proposed. This new controller is all linear (constant gains) and can maintain accurate 'pointing' of the HST in the face of persistent randomly triggered uncertain, unmeasurable 'flapping' motions of the large attached solar array panels. Similar disturbances associated with antennas and other flexible appendages can also be accommodated. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed new controller is demonstrated by a detailed design and simulation testing of one such controller for a planar-motion, fully nonlinear model of HST. The simulation results show a high degree of disturbance isolation and pointing stability.

  15. The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT}: A Future Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Balloon (and Explorer?) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics probes the highest energy, exotic phenomena in astrophysics. In the medium-energy regime, 0.1-200 MeV, many astrophysical objects exhibit unique and transitory behavior such as the transition from electron dominated to hadron dominated processes, spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Medium-energy gamma-ray imaging however, continues to be a major challenge particularly because of high background, low effective area, and low source intensities. The sensitivity and angular resolution required to address these challenges requires a leap in technology. The Advance Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) being developed at GSFC is designed to image gamma rays above 5 MeV via pair production with angular resolution of 1-10 deg. In addition AdEPT will, for the first time, provide high polarization sensitivity in this energy range. This performance is achieved by reducing the effective area in favor of enhanced angular resolution through the use of a low-density gaseous conversion medium. AdEPT is based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology that combines a large volume Negative Ion Time Projection Chamber (NITPC) with 2-D Micro-Well Detector (MWD) readout. I will review the major science topics addressable with medium-energy gamma-rays and discuss the current status of the AdEPT technology, a proposed balloon instrument, and the design of a future satellite mission.

  16. High-Tech 'Heart' of New-Generation Radio Telescope Passes First Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), part of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), took a giant step toward completion on August 7 with successful testing of advanced digital hardware designed to combine signals from its upgraded radio-telescope antennas to produce high resolution images of celestial objects. Successful Moment NRAO Crew Views Successful Computer Display Of WIDAR "First Fringes" Seated, front to back: Barry Clark, Ken Sowinski, Michael Rupen, Kevin Ryan. Standing, front to rear: Mark McKinnon, Rick Perley, Hichem Ben Frej. CREDIT: Dave Finley, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for larger file. By upgrading the 1970s-era electronics of its original Very Large Array (VLA), NRAO is creating a major new radio telescope that is ten times more sensitive than before. Using the EVLA, astronomers will observe fainter and more-distant objects than previously possible and use vastly improved analysis tools to decipher their physics. The heart of the new electronics that makes this transformation possible is a high-performance, special-purpose supercomputer, called the WIDAR Correlator. It has been designed and is being built by the National Research Council of Canada at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) of the Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, and serves as Canada's contribution to the EVLA project. The design of the correlator incorporates an NRC-patented new digital electronic architecture. The successful test, at the VLA site 50 miles west of Socorro, New Mexico, used prototype correlator electronics to combine the signals from two upgraded VLA antennas to turn them into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. The technical term for this achievement is called "first fringes." Each upgraded EVLA antenna produces 100 times more data than an original VLA antenna. When all 27 antennas are upgraded, they will pump data into the WIDAR correlator at a rate equal to 48 million digital telephone calls. To

  17. Status of High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    With the recent discovery of high-energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin by the IceCube neutrino observatory, neutrino-astronomy is entering a new era. This review will cover currently operating open water/ice neutrino telescopes, the latest evidence for a flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos and current efforts in the search for steady and transient neutrino point sources. Generalised constraints on potential astrophysical sources are presented, allowing to focus the hunt for the sources of the observed high-energy neutrinos.

  18. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope: High speed photometer instrument handbook. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Richard L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This manual is a guide for astronomers who intend to use the High Speed Photometer (HSP), one of the scientific instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All the information needed for ordinary uses of the HSP is presented, including: (1) an overview of the instrument; (2) a detailed description of some details of the HSP-ST system that may be important for some observations; (3) tables and figures describing the sensitivity and limitations of the HSP; (4) how to go about planning an observation with the HSP; and (5) a description of the standard calibration to be applied to HSP data and the resulting data products.

  20. High-resolution fibre-fed spectrograph for the 6-m telescope. Polarimetric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, D. E.; Sazonenko, D. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Yushkin, M. V.; Bychkov, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We report the computation of the design of a polarimetric unit for the optical scheme of the fiberfed high-resolution spectrograph for the 6-m Russian telescope.We discuss a variant of its integration into the design of conversion optics at the input of the fiber path if the instrument and estimate the efficiency of the entire pre-fiber optical system. The luminous efficiency of the assembly is equal to 80 and 90% when operated in the polarimetry and normal spectroscopic modes, respectively.We estimate the lower limit for the distorting instrumental effects of the polarimetric unit.

  1. Large scale telescopes for high resolution X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. [using widely separated satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows that angular-resolution, energy-range, and structural constraints on image-modulated X-ray telescopes are not fundamental and that the limits on angular resolution can be overcome by constructing such telescopes on a very large spatial scale. It is proposed that widely separated satellites be used for the modulating mask and detector array. Implementation of this concept is discussed in terms of a simple system consisting of a pinhole camera (i.e., a hole in an opaque mask on one subsatellite and a detector array on another). Advantages and problems of such systems are briefly discussed, and a solar X-ray telescope intended for deployment from a Shuttle orbiter is described. It is noted that such large-scale telescopes can be constructed to image gamma rays and even energetic neutrons as well.

  2. High Performances and Low Cost Front-End Electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, P.; Nayman, P.; Toussenel, F.; Delagnes, E.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Hermann, G.

    2008-12-24

    The current Imaging Arrays of Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) show that this technique is mature. Front-end electronics based on analogue pipelines become a popular readout solution. Slow noise and low power consumption ASICs were developed with improved dynamical range and linearity. A large bandwidth preserves the characteristics of the signal and fast readout reduces dead time. Next generation of IACT should reach an order of magnitude in sensitivity in a wide energy band, ranging from 10 GeV to more than 100 TeV. This goal can be reached with an array of 50-100 telescopes of various sizes at various spacings. With about 2 000 channels per camera a significant effort must be done to lower the overall cost and improve the performances of the electronics. Mass production will be determinant for lowering the overall cost. A gain in cost and performances can be obtained by maximising the integration of the front-end electronics in an ASIC. The amplifiers, analogue memories, digitization and first level buffering can be embedded in the same component. The first stage of the first level trigger should be also considered in this integration. Integrated electronics leads to a more compact camera and an easier maintenance on site.

  3. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  4. Conceptual Design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mary Anne; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Galvin, Michael; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian; Gong, Qian; Carlotti, Alexis; Brandt, Timothy; Janson, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in high-contrast imaging techniques now make possible both imaging and spectroscopy of planets around nearby stars. We present the conceptual design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), a lenslet-based, cryogenic integral field spectrograph (IFS) for imaging exoplanets on the Subaru telescope. The IFS will provide spectral information for 140 x 140 spatial elements over a 1.75 arcsecs x 1.75 arcsecs field of view (FOV). CHARIS will operate in the near infrared (lambda = 0.9 - 2.5 micron) and provide a spectral resolution of R = 14, 33, and 65 in three separate observing modes. Taking advantage of the adaptive optics systems and advanced coronagraphs (AO188 and SCExAO) on the Subaru telescope, CHARIS will provide sufficient contrast to obtain spectra of young self-luminous Jupiter-mass exoplanets. CHARIS is in the early design phases and is projected to have first light by the end of 2015. We report here on the current conceptual design of CHARIS and the design challenges.

  5. Development of a Modern Cosmic Ray Telescope based on Silicon Photomultipliers for use in High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Castruita, Daniel; Niduaza, Rommel; Hernandez, Victor; Knox, Adrian; Ramos, Daniel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Lately, a new light sensor technology based on the breakdown phenomenon in the reverse biased silicon diode has found many applications that span from particle physics to medical imaging science. The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has several notable advantages compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes which include: lower cost, lower operating voltage and the ability to measure very weak light signals at the single photon level. At this conference meeting, we describe our efforts to implement SiPMs as read out light detectors for plastic scintillators in a cosmic ray telescope for use in high schools. In particular, we describe our work in designing, testing and assembling the cosmic ray telescope. We include a high gain preamplifier, a custom coincidence circuit using fast comparators to discriminate the SiPM signal amplitudes and a monovibrator IC for lengthening the singles and coincidence logic pulses. An Arduino micro-controller and program sketches are used for processing and storing the singles and coincidence counts data. Results from our measurements would be illustrated and presented. US Department of Education Title V Grant Award PO31S090007.

  6. CdZnTe detector for hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray focusing telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalucci, L.; Alvarez, J. M.; Barriere, N.; Caroli, E.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Del Sordo, S.; Di Cosimo, S.; Frutti, M.; Hernanz, M.; Lozano, M.; Quadrini, E.; Pellegrini, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.; Uslenghi, M. C.; Zoglauer, A.

    2008-07-01

    The science drivers for a new generation soft gamma-ray mission are naturally focused on the detailed study of the acceleration mechanisms in a variety of cosmic sources. Through the development of high energy optics in the energy energy range 0.05-1 MeV it will be possible to achieve a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude better than the currently operating gamma-ray telescopes. This will open a window for deep studies of many classes of sources: from Galactic X-ray binaries to magnetars, from supernova remnants to Galaxy clusters, from AGNs (Seyfert, blazars, QSO) to the determination of the origin of the hard X-/gamma-ray cosmic background, from the study of antimatter to that of the dark matter. In order to achieve the needed performance, a detector with mm spatial resolution and very high peak efficiency is needed. The instrumental characteristics of this device could eventually allow to detect polarization in a number of objects including pulsars, GRBs and bright AGNs. In this work we focus on the characteristics of the focal plane detector, based on CZT or CdTe semiconductor sensors arranged in multiple planes and viewed by a side detector to enhance gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. We report the preliminary results of an optimization study based on simulations and laboratory tests, as prosecution of the former design studies of the GRI mission which constitute the heritage of this activity.

  7. A Natural Application for High Temperature Superconductors: a Bearing for the Azimuth Mount of a Lunar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Ki; Lamb, Mark; Chen, Peter; Wilson, Thomas; Cooley, Rodger; Xia, Harold; Fowler, Clay; Chen, Quark; Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    A bearing for telescope mounts on the moon has to function in a cold dusty vacuum environment that impairs the operation of almost all traditional bearings, but it is a natural environment for bearings constructed out of magnets and high temperature superconductors. The challenge lies not so much in the weight of the telescope that has to be supported, but in the smoothness of forces required for precision positioning control over a long stretch of time without human intervention. In this paper, we present a design of hybrid superconductor magnet bearings intended for use on the azimuth mount of an altitude-azimuth telescope mount system. In addition to the general features of hybrid super conducting magnet bearings, we will address particular issues connected with the application of these bearings on a telescope mount.

  8. The Telescope Array and Its Low Energy Extension: Status and Future Prospects for Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Physics in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui, C. C. H.; Ta/Tale Collaboration

    2010-07-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) Experiment, hosted by the University of Utah, is the largest ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic ray detector in the northern hemisphere. It is located near Delta, Utah, about 200 kilometers southwest of Salt Lake City. The detector consists of 512 3 m2 scintillation counters distributed in a rectangular grid of 1.2 km spacing. At the corners of the ground array sit three fluorescence detector stations. Each station views 108° in azimuth and between 3°-31° in elevation looking over the ground array providing full hybrid coverage at above 1019 eV. TA began operation at the beginning of 2008. A low-energy extension to TA (TALE) will add a fourth fluorescence site at about 6 km from the station at Long Ridge. An array of 24 telescopes covering 200° degrees in azimuth will provide stereo observation in the 1018-1019 eV decade. A tower detector, with 4 m diameter mirrors viewing between 31°-73° in elevation, will extend fluorescence and hybrid observations down to 1016.5 eV, in conjunction with an infill array of scintillation and muon detectors.

  9. Performance of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Bramall, David G.; Schmoll, Jürgen; Clark, Paul; Younger, Eddy J.; Tyas, Luke M. G.; Ryan, Sean G.; Brink, Janus D.; Strydom, Ockert J.; Buckley, David A. H.; Wilkinson, Martin; Crawford, Steven M.; Depagne, Éric

    2014-07-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) is a fibre-fed R4 échelle spectrograph employing a white pupil design with red and blue channels for wavelength coverage from 370-890nm. The instrument has four modes, each with object and sky fibres: Low (R~15000), Medium (R~40000) and High Resolution (R~65000), as well as a High Stability mode for enhanced radial velocity precision at R~65000. The High Stability mode contains a fibre double-scrambler and offers optional simultaneous Th-Ar arc injection, or the inclusion of an iodine cell in the beam. The LR mode has unsliced 500μm fibres and makes provision for nod-and-shuffle for improved background subtraction. The MR mode also uses 500μm fibres, while the HR and HS fibres are 350μm. The latter three modes employ modified Bowen-Walraven image-slicers to subdivide each fibre into three slices. All but the High Stability bench is sealed within a vacuum tank, which itself is enclosed in an interlocking Styrostone enclosure, to insulate the spectrograph against temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. The Fibre Instrument Feed (FIF) couples the four pairs of fibres to the telescope focal plane and allows the selection of the appropriate fibre pair for a given mode, and adjustment of the fibre separation to optimally position the sky fibre. The HRS employs a photomultiplier tube for an exposure meter and has a dedicated auto-guider attached to the FIF. We report here on the commissioning results and overall instrument performance since achieving first light on 28 September 2013.

  10. High energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p{anti p}), lepton (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed.

  11. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  12. Fully automated high-resolution spectroscopy at Swiss 1.2 m La Silla telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Luc; Blecha, Andre; Davignon, Geert; Maire, Charles; Queloz, Didier; Russiniello, Giovanni B.; Simond, Gilles

    2000-06-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien 1.2 m telescope (EULER) and the High- Resolution echelle Spectrograph (CORALIE), a new Swiss observing facility at ESO La Silla Observatory, are operational and since Summer 1998. The Observatory operation is fully automated and supports the unattended, attended and interactive mode of operation under local or remote control. The control hardware is based on Local Control Units (LCU) built from PC/RedHat Linux computers and a Unix Computing Server. The Operational Software is built around INTER, a command language interpreter featuring communication control, data access, image processing functions and easy access to external resources. The general SW architecture is a non-hierarchical tree of pairs made of hardware- independent interpreters running on the Observing Server and hardware dependent servers running on the LCU's. The Operational Software includes the full access (Creation/Modification/Retrieval) to the input/output databases, telescope, instrument and auxiliary set-up and control files as well as a full data-reduction pipeline. We describe briefly the system architecture, summarize the performances and the experience gained over 18 months of operation and we discuss some critical issues: use of standard components, parallel operation, real-time requirements, system upgrade and maintenance.

  13. Constraints on Very High Energy Emission from GRB 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; McEnery, J. E.; Perkins, J. S.; Veres, P.; Zhu, S.

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A. E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu; and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  15. Calibration results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST instruments to the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project is an international collaboration led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD. JWST is NASA's flagship observatory that will operate nearly a million miles away from Earth at the L2 Lagrange point. JWST's optical design is a three-mirror anastigmat with four main optical components; 1) the eighteen Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA), 2) a single Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA), 3) an Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) consisting of a Tertiary Mirror and Fine Steering Mirror, and 4) an Integrated Science Instrument Module consisting of the various instruments for JWST. JWST's optical system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of alignment capability and risk with the PMSAs and SMA having rigid body motion available on-orbit just for alignment purposes. However, the Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are essentially fixed optical subsystems within JWST, and therefore the cryogenic alignment of the AOS to the ISIM is critical to the optical performance and mission success of JWST. In support of this cryogenic alignment of the AOS to ISIM, an array of fiber optic sources, known as the AOS Source Plate Assembly (ASPA), are placed near the intermediate image location of JWST (between the secondary and tertiary mirrors) during thermal vacuum ground-test operations. The AOS produces images of the ASPA fiber optic sources at the JWST focal surface location, where they are captured by the various science instruments. In this manner, the AOS provides an optical yardstick by which the instruments within ISIM can evaluate their relative positions to and the alignment of the AOS to ISIM can be quantified. However, since the ASPA is located at the intermediate image location of the JWST three-mirror anastigmat design, the images of these fiber optic sources produced by the AOS are highly aberrated with approximately 2-3μm RMS wavefront error consisting

  16. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  17. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This illustration is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 and its experiments. It shows the focal plane instruments (at the right) plus the associated electronics for operating the telescope as it transmitted its observations to the ground. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, is located near the front of the telescope. Four separate astronomical instruments are located at the focus of this telescope and they could be interchanged for different types of observations as the observatory pointed at interesting areas of the Sky. Two of these instruments produced images; a High Resolution Imaging Detector and an Imaging Proportional Counter. The other two instruments, the Solid State Spectrometer and the Crystal Spectrometer, measured the spectra of x-ray objects. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, continuously viewed space independently to study a wider band of x-ray wavelengths and to examine the rapid time variations in the sources. The HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  18. Seismic analysis of the 4-meter telescope SST-GATE for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Blake, Simon; Sol, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create a next generation Very High Energy (VHE)γ-ray telescope array, devoted to the observation in a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky, with the main one in the Southern Hemisphere where about 100 telescopes of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are 4-meter telescopes and are devoted to the highest energy region, from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV. Some of these sites considered for CTA exhibit strong seismic constraints. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which was never before implemented in the design of a Cherenkov telescope. The integration of this telescope on the site of the Observatoire de Paris is currently in progress. Technical solutions exist in the literature to protect structures from dynamic loads caused by earthquakes without increasing the mass and cost of the structure. This paper presents a state of the art of these techniques by keeping in mind that the operational performance of the telescope should not be compromised. The preliminary seismic analysis of SSTGATE performed by the finite element method is described before.

  19. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  20. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  1. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient. PMID:26367826

  2. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1017.2 eV measured by the fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array experiment in seven years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest detector to observe ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The fluorescence detectors at two stations of TA are newly constructed and have now completed seven years of steady operation. One advantage of monocular analysis of the fluorescence detectors is a lower energy threshold for cosmic rays than that of other techniques like stereoscopic observations or coincidences with the surface detector array, allowing the measurement of an energy spectrum covering three orders of magnitude in energy. Analyzing data collected during those seven years, we report the energy spectrum of cosmic rays covering a broad range of energies above 1017.2eV measured by the fluorescence detectors and a comparison with previously published results.

  3. High-ionization accretion signatures in compact binary candidates from SOAR Telescope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing number of synoptic surveys made by small robotic telescopes, like the photometric Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS - Drake et al., 2009, ApJ, 696, 870), represents a unique opportunity for the discovery of new variable objects and also to improve the samples of many classes of variables. Our goal in this work was the discovery of new polars, a subclass of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs) with no accretion disk, and Close Binary Supersoft X-ray Sources (CBSS), strong candidates to Type Ia Supernova progenitors. Both are rare objects and probe interesting accretion scenarios. Finding spectral features associated to high-ionization mass accretion constrains the CBSS or magnetic CV nature for the candidates, expanding the hitherto small samples of these classes (specially CBSS) and allowing for detailed observational follow-up. We used the Goodman Spectrograph on SOAR 4.1 m Telescope to search for signatures of high-ionization mass accretion, as He II 468,6 nm emission line and inverted Balmer decrement, on 39 variable objects selected mostly from CRTS. In this sample we found 14 strong candidates to mCVs, 1 Nova in the final stages of eruption, 14 candidates to Dwarf Novae, 5 extragalactic sources (AGN), 1 object previously identified as a Black Hole Nova, 3 objects with pure absorption spectral features and 1 unidentified object with low S/N ratio. The mCVs candidates found in this work will be studied using time-resolved spectroscopic, polarimetric, and photometric observations in a follow-up project.

  4. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  5. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  6. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, H.; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J. P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.

    2016-10-01

    >10-12 SNe L,B-1 yr-1), where the error bars indicate 1σ confidence intervals, statistical and systematic, respectively. The cluster rate normalized by the stellar mass is 0.10+0.13-0.096±0.02 in SNuM h2 (SNuM ≡10-12SNe M-1⊙ yr-1). Furthermore, we explore the optimal future survey for improving the core-collapse supernova rate measurements at z ≳ 2 using gravitational telescopes, and for detections with multiply lensed images, and we find that the planned WFIRST space mission has excellent prospects. Conclusions: Massive clusters can be used as gravitational telescopes to significantly expand the survey range of supernova searches, with important implications for the study of the high-z transient Universe. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 082.A-0431; 0.83.A-0398, 091.A-0108 and ID 093.A-0278, PI: A. Goobar.The deep average image (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A54

  7. Predicted optical performance of the high-altitude balloon experiment (HABE) telescope in an adverse thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akau, R.L.; Givler, R.C.; Eastman, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) telescope was designed to operate at an ambient temperature of {minus}55 C and an altitude of 26 km, using a precooled primary mirror. Although at this altitude the air density is only 1.4 percent of the value at sea level, the temperature gradients within the telescope are high enough to deform the optical wavefront. This problem is considerably lessened by precooling the primary mirror to {minus}35 C. This paper describes the application of several codes to determine the range of wavefront deformation during a mission.

  8. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed-by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA); X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE); X-ray Spectrometer (XRS); Astro-E; High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) contract team during the six months during the reporting period (10/95 - 3/96) and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science, Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  10. Measuring High-Precision Astrometry with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  11. A telescopic cinema sound camera for observing high altitude aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Rockets and other high altitude aerospace vehicles produce interesting visual and aural phenomena that can be remotely observed from long distances. This paper describes a compact, passive and covert remote sensing system that can produce high resolution sound movies at >100 km viewing distances. The telescopic high resolution camera is capable of resolving and quantifying space launch vehicle dynamics including plume formation, staging events and payload fairing jettison. Flight vehicles produce sounds and vibrations that modulate the local electromagnetic environment. These audio frequency modulations can be remotely sensed by passive optical and radio wave detectors. Acousto-optic sensing methods were primarily used but an experimental radioacoustic sensor using passive micro-Doppler radar techniques was also tested. The synchronized combination of high resolution flight vehicle imagery with the associated vehicle sounds produces a cinema like experience that that is useful in both an aerospace engineering and a Hollywood film production context. Examples of visual, aural and radar observations of the first SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket launch are shown and discussed.

  12. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  13. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  14. Investigation of the Chromosphere-Corona Interface with the Upgraded Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT2.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Beltran, Samuel Tun; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Eisenhower, Kevin; Korendyke, Clarence; Feldman, Ronen; Moser, John; Shea, John; Johnson-Rambert, Mary; McMullin, Don; Stenborg, Guillermo; Shepler, Ed; Roberts, David

    2016-03-01

    Very high angular resolution ultraviolet telescope (VAULT2.0) is a Lyman-alpha (Lyα; 1216Å) spectroheliograph designed to observe the upper chromospheric region of the solar atmosphere with high spatial (<0.5‧‧) and temporal (8s) resolution. Besides being the brightest line in the solar spectrum, Lyα emission arises at the temperature interface between coronal and chromospheric plasmas and may, hence, hold important clues about the transfer of mass and energy to the solar corona. VAULT2.0 is an upgrade of the previously flown VAULT rocket and was launched successfully on September 30, 2014 from White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The target was AR12172 midway toward the southwestern limb. We obtained 33 images at 8s cadence at arc second resolution due to hardware problems. The science campaign was a resounding success, with all space and ground-based instruments obtaining high-resolution data at the same location within the AR. We discuss the science rationale, instrument upgrades, and performance during the first flight and present some preliminary science results.

  15. HETDEX: Overview of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.; Gebhardt, K.; Drory, N.; DePoy, D.; Komatsu, E.; Bender, R.; Schneider, D.; Fabricius, M.; Lee, H.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M.; Cornell, M.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies as tracers. HETDEX comprises a major upgrade of the HET, deployment of the massively replicated integral field spectrograph, VIRUS, and the execution of a multi-year blind spectroscopic survey. VIRUS, consists of 75 IFUs distributed across the 22-arcmin field of the upgraded 9.2-m HET. Each 50x50 sq. arcsec IFU is made up of 448 1.5-arcsec fibers, and feeds a pair of spectrographs with a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R 700. Each exposure gathers 33,600 spectra. Observing 20 minutes per field, we reach a line flux limit of 3.5e-17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2 and mAB 22. The baseline survey will deliver spectra of 0.8M LAEs in a 9 cubic Gpc volume with 1.9 < z < 3.5, and 1M [OII] emitters with z < 0.48. In addition, the survey will cover 0.4M other galaxies, 0.25M stars, 2000 galaxy clusters, 7000 QSOs with z < 3.5, and 20,000 NVSS radio sources. The main survey area of 42x7 sq. deg. is centered at 13hr, +53deg. Within that 300 sq. deg. region we cover 1/4.5 with fibers; thus 60 sq. deg. of sky have spectra. Initial observations will be conducted from Spring 2013 through Spring 2015. We present an overview of the project, including instrumentation and details of the planned surveys.

  16. A Compact Cosmic Ray Telescope using Silicon Photomultipliers for use in High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Luis; Elizondo, Leonardo; Shelor, Mark; Cervantes, Omar; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, the QuarkNet and the LBL Cosmic Ray Project have helped trained thousands of high school students and teachers to explore cosmic ray physics. To get high school students in the Salinas, CA area also excited about cosmic rays, we constructed a cosmic ray telescope as a physics outreach apparatus. Our apparatus includes a pair of plastic scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a coincidence circuit board. We designed and constructed custom circuit boards for mounting the SiPM detectors, the high voltage power supplies and coincidence AND circuit. The AND logic signals can be used for triggering data acquisition devices including an oscilloscope, a waveform digitizer or an Arduino microcontroller. To properly route the circuit wire traces, the circuit boards were layout in Eagle and fabricated in-house using a circuit board maker from LPKF LASER, model Protomat E33. We used a Raspberry Pi computer to control a fast waveform sampler, the DRS4 to digitize the SiPM signal waveforms. The CERN PAW software package was used to analyze the amplitude and time distributions of SiPM detector signals. At this conference, we present our SiPM experimental setup, circuit board fabrication procedures and the data analysis work flow. AIP Megger's Award, Dept. of Ed. Title V Grant PO31S090007.

  17. High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalifoux, Brandon; Sung, Edward; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2013-09-01

    Achieving both high resolution and large collection area in the next generation of x-ray telescopes requires highly accurate shaping of thin mirrors, which is not achievable with current technology. Ion implantation offers a promising method of modifying the shape of mirrors by imparting internal stresses in a substrate, which are a function of the ion species and dose. This technique has the potential for highly deterministic substrate shape correction using a rapid, low cost process. Wafers of silicon and glass (D-263 and BK-7) have been implanted with Si+ ions at 150 keV, and the changes in shape have been measured using a Shack-Hartmann metrology system. We show that a uniform dose over the surface repeatably changes the spherical curvature of the substrates, and we show correction of spherical curvature in wafers. Modeling based on experiments with spherical curvature correction shows that ion implantation could be used to eliminate higher-order shape errors, such as astigmatism and coma, by using a spatially-varying implant dose. We will report on progress in modelling and experimental tests to eliminate higher-order shape errors. In addition, the results of experiments to determine the thermal and temporal stability of implanted substrates will be reported.

  18. Optical design of an all-reflecting, high resolution camera for active-optics on ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, E. H.; Morbey, C. L.

    Optical designs of high-resolution all-mirror cameras for the active optics of the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) with classical optics (a paraboloidal primary), and the 2.2-m University of Hawaii telescope with Ritchey-Chretien (R-C) optics (a hyperboloidal primary), are presented. An oblate spheroid is used to produce longer focal ratios in the R-C telescope, lessening its disadvantage of a very small field of good definition at focal ratios longer than the optimized secondary focal ratio. Unlike the R-C telescope, the CFHT is not coma-free, and the prolate spheroid works well as its tertiary mirror. In the present camera design, the scale at the final focus is such that 0.25 arcsec covers 0.065 mm in order to match the resolution of the available detector. These cameras are off-axis, resulting in a slight change of magnification with the field rotation of alt-azimuth telescopes.

  19. Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

  20. Fluorescence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 1016.5 and 1018.5 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary

    The Telescope Array (TA) Collaboration has completed construction of a low-energy extension to its Middle Drum telescope station. Ten new telescopes were added observing 32-59 degrees in elevation above the original telescopes. A graded array of scintillator detectors (SDs) with spacings of 400-600-1200 m is being installed in front of the telescope station. With these upgrades, the physics threshold will be lowered below 1016.5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the regime corresponding to the LHC center-of-mass energy. This is also the region where the transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. A brief overview of the physics is presented as well as a report on the progress toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 1016.5 and 1018.5 eV.

  1. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  2. Low-cost, high-resolution, single-structure array telescopes for imaging of low-Earth-orbit satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y. ); Poe, G. ); Seppala, L. ); Shao, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Telescopes that are designed for the unconventional imaging of near-Earth satellites must follow unique design rules. The costs must be reduced substantially over those of the conventional telescope designs, and the design must accommodate a technique to circumvent atmospheric distortion of the image. Apertures of 12 m and more along with altitude--altitude mounts that provide high tracking rates are required. A novel design for such a telescope, optimized for speckle imaging, has been generated. Its mount closely resembles a radar mount, and it does not use the conventional dome. Costs for this design are projected to be considerably lower than those for the conventional designs. Results of a design study are presented with details of the electro-optical and optical designs.

  3. Low-cost, high-resolution, single-structure array telescopes for imaging of low-earth-orbit satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, N. A.; Oster, Yale; Poe, Greg; Seppala, Lynn; Shao, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Telescopes that are designed for the unconventional imaging of near-earth satellites must follow unique design rules. The costs must be reduced substantially over those of the conventional telescope designs, and the design must accommodate a technique to circumvent atmospheric distortion of the image. Apertures of 12 m and more along with altitude-altitude mounts that provide high tracking rates are required. A novel design for such a telescope, optimized for speckle imaging, has been generated. Its mount closely resembles a radar mount, and it does not use the conventional dome. Costs for this design are projected to be considerably lower than those for the conventional designs. Results of a design study are presented with details of the electro-optical and optical designs.

  4. Compact high-resolution spectrographs for large and extremely large telescopes: using the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. Gordon; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-09-01

    As telescopes get larger, the size of a seeing-limited spectrograph for a given resolving power becomes larger also, and for ELTs the size will be so great that high resolution instruments of simple design will be infeasible. Solutions include adaptive optics (but not providing full correction for short wavelengths) or image slicers (which give feasible but still large instruments). Here we develop the solution proposed by Bland-Hawthorn and Horton: the use of diffraction-limited spectrographs which are compact even for high resolving power. Their use is made possible by the photonic lantern, which splits a multi-mode optical fiber into a number of single-mode fibers. We describe preliminary designs for such spectrographs, at a resolving power of R ~ 50,000. While they are small and use relatively simple optics, the challenges are to accommodate the longest possible fiber slit (hence maximum number of single-mode fibers in one spectrograph) and to accept the beam from each fiber at a focal ratio considerably faster than for most spectrograph collimators, while maintaining diffraction-limited imaging quality. It is possible to obtain excellent performance despite these challenges. We also briefly consider the number of such spectrographs required, which can be reduced by full or partial adaptive optics correction, and/or moving towards longer wavelengths.

  5. Inquiry-Based Educational Design for Large-Scale High School Astronomy Projects Using Real Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we outline the theory behind the educational design used to implement a large-scale high school astronomy education project. This design was created in response to the realization of ineffective educational design in the initial early stages of the project. The new design follows an iterative improvement model where the materials and general approach can evolve in response to solicited feedback. The improvement cycle concentrates on avoiding overly positive self-evaluation while addressing relevant external school and community factors while concentrating on backward mapping from clearly set goals. Limiting factors, including time, resources, support and the potential for failure in the classroom, are dealt with as much as possible in the large-scale design allowing teachers the best chance of successful implementation in their real-world classroom. The actual approach adopted following the principles of this design is also outlined, which has seen success in bringing real astronomical data and access to telescopes into the high school classroom.

  6. High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Williams, Ted; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to test ΛCDM predictions of galaxy mass distributions, we have obtained spectrophotometric observations of several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer as part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey. Utilizing the SALT FP's 8 arcmin field of view and 2 arcsec angular resolution, we have derived 2D velocity fields of the Hα emission line to high spatial resolution at large radii. We have modeled these velocity fields with the DiskFit software package and found them to be in good agreement with lower-resolution velocity fields of the HI 21 cm line for the same galaxies. Here we present our Hα kinematic map of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 578. At the distance to this galaxy (22 Mpc), our kinematic data has a spatial resolution of 185 pc and extends to galactocentric radii of 13 kpc. The high spatial resolution of this data allows us to resolve the inner rising part of the rotation curves, which is compromised by beam smearing in lower-resolution observations. We are using these Hα kinematic data, combined with HI 21 cm kinematics and broadband photometric observations, to place constraints on NGC 578's mass distribution.

  7. Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Corey

    2009-12-17

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

  8. Evidence for dark energy from the cosmic microwave background alone using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope lensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Blake D; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Ω(Λ) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters, and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  9. Evidence for Dark Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background Alone Using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Lensing Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  10. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts directed toward the completion of an X-ray telescope assembly design, the procurement of major components, and the coordination of optical fabrication and X-ray multilayer testing are reported.

  11. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  12. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  13. High-energy neutrino astrophysics: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, U. F.; Spiering, Ch.

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinos are unique cosmic messengers. Present attempts are directed to extend the window of cosmic neutrino observation from low energies (Sun, supernovae) to much higher energies. The aim is to study the most violent processes in the Universe which accelerate charged particles to highest energies, far beyond the reach of laboratory experiments on Earth. These processes must be accompanied by the emission of neutrinos. Neutrinos are electrically neutral and interact only weakly with ordinary matter; they thus propagate through the Universe without absorption or deflection, pointing back to their origin. Their feeble interaction, however, makes them extremely difficult to detect. The years 2008-2010 have witnessed remarkable steps in developing high energy neutrino telescopes. In 2010, the cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope IceCube at the South Pole has been completed. In the Mediterranean Sea the first-generation neutrino telescope ANTARES takes data since 2008, and efforts are directed towards KM3NeT, a telescope on the scale of several cubic kilometres. The next years will be key years for opening the neutrino window to the high energy Universe. With an instrumented volume of a cubic kilometre, IceCube is entering a region with realistic discovery potential. Discoveries or non-discoveries of IceCube will have a strong impact on the future of the field and possibly mark a "moment of truth". In this review, we discuss the scientific case for neutrino telescopes, describe the detection principle and its implementation in first- and second-generation installations and finally collect the existing physics results and the expectations for future detectors. We conclude with an outlook to alternative detection methods, in particular for neutrinos of extremely high energies.

  14. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  15. High energy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce; Canizares, Claude; Catura, Richard C.; Clark, George W.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Friedman, Herbert; Giacconi, Riccardo; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Helfand, David J.; Holt, Stephen S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) important scientific problems for high energy astrophysics (stellar activity, the interstellar medium in galaxies, supernovae and endpoints of stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, relativistic plasmas and matter under extreme conditions, nature of gamma-bursts, identification of black holes, active nuclei, accretion physics, large-scale structures, intracluster medium, nature of dark matter, and the X- and gamma-ray background); (2) the existing experimental programs (Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), U.S. participation in foreign missions, and attached Shuttle and Space Station Freedom payloads); (3) major missions for the 1990's; (4) a new program of moderate missions; (5) new opportunities for small missions; (6) technology development issues; and (7) policy issues.

  16. Determination of dark energy by the Einstein Telescope: Comparing with CMB, BAO, and SNIa observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Li, T. G. F.

    2011-01-15

    A design study is currently in progress for a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector called the Einstein Telescope (ET). An important kind of source for ET will be the inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars up to z{approx}2. If binary neutron star mergers are the progenitors of short-hard {gamma}-ray bursts, then some fraction of them will be seen both electromagnetically and through GW, so that the luminosity distance and the redshift of the source can be determined separately. An important property of these 'standard sirens' is that they are self-calibrating: the luminosity distance can be inferred directly from the GW signal, with no need for a cosmic distance ladder. Thus, standard sirens will provide a powerful independent check of the {Lambda}CDM model. In previous work, estimates were made of how well ET would be able to measure a subset of the cosmological parameters (such as the dark energy parameter w{sub 0}) it will have access to, assuming that the others had been determined to great accuracy by alternative means. Here we perform a more careful analysis by explicitly using the potential Planck cosmic microwave background data as prior information for these other parameters. We find that ET will be able to constrain w{sub 0} and w{sub a} with accuracies {Delta}w{sub 0}=0.099 and {Delta}w{sub a}=0.302, respectively. These results are compared with projected accuracies for the JDEM baryon acoustic oscillations project and the SNAP type Ia supernovae observations.

  17. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  18. A low cost, high performance, 1.2m off-axis telescope built with NG-Xinetics silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wellman, John A.; Egan, Richard G.; Wollensak, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    The search for extrasolar habitable planets is one of three major astrophysics priorities identified for the next decade. These missions demand very high performance visible-wavelength optical imaging systems. Such high performance space telescopes are typically extremely expensive and can be difficult for government agencies to afford in today's economic climate, and most lower cost systems offer little benefit because they fall short on at least one of the following three key performance parameters: imaging wavelength, total system-level wavefront error and aperture diameter. Northrop Grumman Xinetics has developed a simple, lightweight, low-cost telescope design that will address the near-term science objectives of this astrophysics theme with the required optical performance, while reducing the telescope cost by an order of magnitude. Breakthroughs in SiC mirror manufacturing, integrated wavefront sensing, and high TRL deformable mirror technology have finally been combined within the same organization to offer a complete end-to-end telescope system in the lower end of the Class D cost range. This paper presents the latest results of real OAP polishing and metrology data, an optimized optical design, and finite element derived WFE

  19. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: the highest energy frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Neto, João R. T.

    2016-04-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy messengers of the present universe, with energies up to 1020 eV. Studies of astrophysical particles (nuclei, electrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. The primary particles interact in the atmosphere and generate extensive air showers. Analysis of those showers enables one not only to estimate the energy, direction and most probable mass of the primary cosmic particles, but also to obtain information about the properties of their hadronic interactions at an energy more than one order of magnitude above that accessible with the current highest energy human-made accelerator. In this contribution we will review the state-of-the-art in UHECRs detection. We will present the leading experiments Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and discuss the cosmic ray energy spectrum, searches for directional anisotropy, studies of mass composition, the determination of the number of shower muons (which is sensitive to the shower hadronic interactions) and the proton-air cross section.

  20. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  1. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  2. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  3. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-08-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter "coherence étendue," additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope: Goddard high resolution spectrograph instrument handbook. Version 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Ebbets, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) is an ultraviolet spectrometer which has been designed to exploit the imaging and pointing capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope. It will obtain observations of astronomical sources with greater spectral, spatial and temporal resolution than has been possible with previous space-based instruments. Data from the GHRS will be applicable to many types of scientific investigations, including studies of the interstellar medium, stellar winds, chromospheres and coronae, the byproducts and endproducts of stellar evolution, planetary atmospheres, comets, and many kinds of extragalactic sources. This handbook is intended to introduce the GHRS to potential users. The main purpose is to provide enough information to explore the feasibility of possible research projects and to plan, propose and execute a set of observations. An overview of the instrument performance, which should allow one to evaluate the suitability of the GHRS to specific projects, and a somewhat more detailed description of the GHRS hardware are given. How observing programs will be carried out, the various operating modes of the instrument, and the specific information about the performance of the instrument needed to plan an observation are discussed.

  5. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  6. High-Quality Optical Light Curves of Supernovae with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modjaz, M.; Li, W. D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Treffers, R. R.

    2000-05-01

    We present some results from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS), which is being conducted with the 0.75-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) and achieved successful operation in mid-1998. Since the commissioning of KAIT in 1996, significant improvements have been made to the software and hardware (such as installation of an AP7 CCD camera). A list is given of the roughly 60 nearby (z < 0.1) supernovae (SNe) discovered with LOSS, together with their spectral types and other relevant properties. We present well-sampled multi-color light curves of a selection of SNe out of a pool of about 30 SNe monitored within the past 2 years. We emphasize the importance of light-curve analysis of Type Ia and Type II SNe, since the detailed study of nearby SNe is crucial to establishing SNe as cosmological distance indicators. We also discuss preliminary conclusions derived from the surprisingly high rate of peculiar Type Ia SNe and from comparisons of their light curves. Projects which attempt to use our data for statistical analysis and for studies of bulk flows are underway. KAIT and its associated science have been made possible with funding or donations from NSF, NASA, the Sylvia and Jim Katzman Foundation, Sun Microsystems Inc., the Hewlett-Packard Company, Photometrics Ltd., AutoScope Corporation, and the University of California.

  7. Clean assembly and integration techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    1994-01-01

    A mechanical simulator of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Aft Shroud was built to perform verification testing of the Servicing Mission Scientific Instruments (SI's) and to provide a facility for astronaut training. All assembly, integration, and test activities occurred under the guidance of a contamination control plan, and all work was reviewed by a contamination engineer prior to implementation. An integrated approach was followed in which materials selection, manufacturing, assembly, subsystem integration, and end product use were considered and controlled to ensure that the use of the High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator (HFMS) as a verification tool would not contaminate mission critical hardware. Surfaces were cleaned throughout manufacturing, assembly, and integration, and reverification was performed following major activities. Direct surface sampling was the preferred method of verification, but access and material constraints led to the use of indirect methods as well. Although surface geometries and coatings often made contamination verification difficult, final contamination sampling and monitoring demonstrated the ability to maintain a class M5.5 environment with surface levels less than 400B inside the HFMS.

  8. High-resolution spectra of Jupiter's northern auroral ultraviolet emission with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Gerard, J. C.; Munhoven, G.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The first spectroscopic observations of planetary aurora with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are reported. These include spectral regions centered on the H2 Lyman and Werner bands of a region of Jupiter's northern aurora. The observations were made with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) using the Large Science Aperture as part of a campaign to study Jupiter at the time of the Ulysses flyby. The individual rotational-vibrational bands are resolved and the observed emissions are essentially all from H2. A rotational-vibrational temperature for H2 of 530 +/- 100 K is derived, a value significantly less than the 850-1100 K reported for Jovian H3(+) in the near-infrared but consistent with the temperature reported for fundamental-band quadrupole H2 emission. Comparison with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) images shows that the observed region was not one of the hot spots of the aurora. The results are interpreted in trms of electron impact excitation of H2 from secondary particles generated by primaries precipitating into Jupiter's atmsophere from the magnetosphere. In the region of the aurora observed, the homopause level is found to be significantly hotter but not necessarily higher than observed at nonauroral latitudes. The equatorial H2 dayglow spectrum was also detected; its intensity was 3.2 kR or 13% of the strength of the observed auroral emission.

  9. High-resolution Linear Polarimetric Imaging for the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Narayan, Ramesh; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Wardle, John F. C.; Bouman, Katherine L.

    2016-09-01

    Images of the linear polarizations of synchrotron radiation around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) highlight their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of accretion and outflow from supermassive black holes. The highest-resolution polarimetric images of AGNs are produced with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Because VLBI incompletely samples the Fourier transform of the source image, any image reconstruction that fills in unmeasured spatial frequencies will not be unique and reconstruction algorithms are required. In this paper, we explore some extensions of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to linear polarimetric VLBI imaging. In contrast to previous work, our polarimetric MEM algorithm combines a Stokes I imager that only uses bispectrum measurements that are immune to atmospheric phase corruption, with a joint Stokes Q and U imager that operates on robust polarimetric ratios. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique on 7 and 3 mm wavelength quasar observations from the VLBA and simulated 1.3 mm Event Horizon Telescope observations of Sgr A* and M87. Consistent with past studies, we find that polarimetric MEM can produce superior resolution compared to the standard CLEAN algorithm, when imaging smooth and compact source distributions. As an imaging framework, MEM is highly adaptable, allowing a range of constraints on polarization structure. Polarimetric MEM is thus an attractive choice for image reconstruction with the EHT.

  10. Time series of high-resolution spectra of SN 2014J observed with the TIGRE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, D.; Mittag, M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Hempelmann, A.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Trinidad, M. A.; Rauw, G.; Cabrera Sixto, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the 1.2-m TIGRE telescope. We present a series of 33 spectra with a resolution of R ≈ 20 000, which covers the important bright phases in the evolution of SN 2014J during the period from 2014 January 24 to April 1. The spectral evolution of SN 2014J is derived empirically. The expansion velocities of the Si II P-Cygni features were measured and show the expected decreasing behaviour, beginning with a high velocity of 14 000 km s-1 on January 24. The Ca II infrared triplet feature shows a high-velocity component with expansion velocities of >20 000 km s-1 during the early evolution apart from the normal component showing similar velocities as Si II. Further broad P-Cygni profiles are exhibited by the principal lines of Ca II, Mg II and Fe II. The TIGRE SN 2014J spectra also resolve several very sharp Na I D doublet absorption components. Our analysis suggests interesting substructures in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy M82, as well as in our Milky Way, confirming other work on this SN. We were able to identify the interstellar absorption of M82 in the lines of Ca II H & K at 3933 and 3968 Å as well as K I at 7664 and 7698 Å. Furthermore, we confirm several diffuse interstellar bands, at wavelengths of 6196, 6283, 6376, 6379and 6613 Å and give their measured equivalent widths.

  11. A new-generation multi-object high throughput Doppler instrument for a planet survey at the SDSS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Wan, Xiaoke; Zhao, Bo; Hariharan, Abishek; Mahadevan, Suvrath; van Eyken, Julian; Guo, Pengcheng; McDavitt, Dan; DeWitt, Curtis; Cohen, Roger; Fleming, Scott W.; Kane, Stephen; Crepp, Justin; Shaklan, Stuart

    2006-06-01

    We report the design of a new generation multi-object high throughput Doppler instrument and first light results at the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. This instrument, capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars for planet detection, is called the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (or Keck ET) thanks to the generous gift from the W.M. Keck Foundation. It is designed for a planet survey around hundreds of thousands of stars with V =8-13 for detecting tens of thousands of planets in 2006-2020. The Doppler precision is between 3-25 m/s depending on the star magnitude. We also report a new planet detected with a prototype single object version ET instrument at the KPNO Coude Feed/2.1 m telescopes. The extrasolar planet, ET-1 (HD 102195b), has a minimum mass of 0.49 Jupiter masses and orbits a V = 8.1 G8V star with a 4.1 day period. The planet was identified using the Coude Feed 0.9 meter telescope in spring 2005. This is the first time an extrasolar planet around a star fainter than V=8 magnitude has been discovered with an under 1 meter size astronomical telescope and Doppler instrument. This planet discovery is possible due to the extremely high throughput of the instrument, 49% measured from the fiber output end to the detector.

  12. Galaxy Cluster Studies with the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boada, Steven A.; Papovich, Casey J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The study of clusters of galaxies has been argued to be a very effective way to measure cosmological parameters, including measuring dark energy and testing models of gravity. The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will observe many hundreds of square degrees, covering a large sample of galaxy clusters out to z = 0.5 based on their optical spectra (3500-5500 Å). The spectra will provide important measures of the clusters dynamics and may enable constraints on cosmological parameters, but only if the measurements provide accurate estimates of the total cluster masses. We have carried out a study to investigate the ability of HETDEX to recover accurate galaxy cluster masses over a wide range of masses and redshifts. We used a detailed mock galaxy catalog and present mock observations of two different scenarios: (1) We targeted individual galaxy clusters to investigate the recovery of parameters with such observations. (2) We created and evaluated a HETDEX-like selection "function'' of galaxies over a similarly sized portion of the sky and use well adopted techniques to recover the dynamical properties, such as velocity dispersion and mass. Using both observing strategies, we produce cluster mass probability density functions P(X|M,z), which can be used to determine the probability that a galaxy cluster of given mass (M), located at redshift (z) determined using observable parameter (X). We then applied these probability functions to ten galaxy clusters selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 and the Chandra-XMM X-ray Cluster Survey at z=0.2-0.3, and observed by the HETDEX spectrograph prototype instrument (VIRUS-p). We measured spectroscopic redshifts and line-of-sight velocities of the galaxies in and around each cluster, derived a line-of-sight velocity dispersion, and inferred a dynamical mass for each cluster which ranges from (0.4-24) x 1014 M⊙ (M200c). Using the mass probability density functions described above, we updated these

  13. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  14. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  15. Method of incident low-energy gamma-ray direction reconstruction in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Zverev, V. G.; Galper, A. M.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Dalkarov, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space-based telescope has as its main goals to measure cosmic γ-ray fluxes and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component produced, theoretically, in dark-matter-particles decay or annihilation processes, to search for discrete γ-ray sources and study them in detail, to examine the energy spectra of diffuse γ-rays — both galactic and extragalactic — and to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and γ-rays from the active Sun. Scientific goals of GAMMA-400 telescope require fine angular resolution. The telescope is of a pair-production type. In the converter-tracker, the incident gamma-ray photon converts into electron-positron pair in the tungsten layer and then the tracks are detected by silicon- strip position-sensitive detectors. Multiple scattering processes become a significant obstacle in the incident-gamma direction reconstruction for energies below several gigaelectronvolts. The method of utilising this process to improve the resolution is proposed in the presented work.

  16. Use of glass ceramic as a structural material for a high-precision space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juranek, Hans J.; Kleer, G.; Doell, W.

    1994-09-01

    SILEX is the acronym for Satellite InterLink EXperiment. By this experiment ESA (European Space Agency) starts the optical communication technique in space. Similar to the usual RF-communication technique the optical technique requires antennas for transmitting and receiving signals. Such antennas are telescopes. For Silex a two mirror telescope of an aperture of 250 mm was specified. To gain the benefits of optical communication such a telescope must fulfil extreme optical performances, especially concerning the wavefront quality which is strongly governed by the stability of the telescope structure. Thus the structure of SILEX telescope must guarantee a stability of +/- 2 microns over 320 mm in length. This figure must be maintained for 10 years under extreme environmental conditions, this especially concerns temperature, irradiation, ageing and above all launch loads. Looking at this area the glass ceramic ZERODUR was a very promising material to be used as a structural material provided one overcomes the justified concern on its mechanical reliability due to the fact that it is a brittle material similar to glass. This contribution presents solutions of the basic problems in structural design, the means of material and process qualification, and final qualification against launch loads of the critical structural item.

  17. Focal plane actuation for the development of a high resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke Miller, Alex; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We present a hexapod stabilized focal plane as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements (~50μm at 20hz) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and is the limiting resolution of the system. To solve this, the hexapod system actuates the focal plane to counteract the jitter through real-time closed loop feedback from star-trackers. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. This boost in resolution will allow for Hubble-quality imaging for a fraction of the cost. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. The design also thermally isolates the hexapod from the cryogenic focal plane enabling the use of well-established non-cryogenic hexapod technology. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giant outer planets, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new data. On an Antarctic ~100-day Long-Duration-Balloon mission the continued high-resolution imaging of gas giant storm systems would provide cloud formation and evolution data second to only a Flagship orbiter.

  18. Spectroscopic classification of optical transients with the SEDM (Spectral Energy Distribution Machine) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, D.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of the optical transients SN 2016czr, SN 2016ejc and AT 2016eki. The candidates were discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS: http://119.78.210.3/ptss2/ ), the Gaia ESA survey (Rixon et al,2014, ATel #6593) and the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ). The observations were performed on 2016-07-28 and 2016-07-29 with the Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope and the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/sedm/, range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R~100) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope.

  19. High-energy transients.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-06-13

    We present an overview of high-energy transients in astrophysics, highlighting important advances over the past 50 years. We begin with early discoveries of γ-ray transients, and then delve into physical details associated with a variety of phenomena. We discuss some of the unexpected transients found by Fermi and Swift, many of which are not easily classifiable or in some way challenge conventional wisdom. These objects are important insofar as they underscore the necessity of future, more detailed studies. PMID:23630376

  20. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  1. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  2. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen

    2014-07-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  3. The time-of-flight system on the Goddard medium energy gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. W.; Chesney, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A scintillation counter time of flight system, incorporated into the Goddard 50 cm by 50 cm spark chamber gamma ray telescope is described. The system, which utilizes constant fractions timing and particle position compensation and digitizes up to 10 ns time differences to six bit accuracy in less than 500 ns is analyzed. The performance of this system during balloon flight is discussed.

  4. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  5. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following major activities were advanced or completed: complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components; specification of all rocket skin sections including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door; fabrication, curing, and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube; engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment to a kinematic three-point mount; detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics; and multilayer mirror flats with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A.

  6. High-precision CTE measurement of hybrid C/SiC composite for cryogenic space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Yamada, N.; Imai, T.; Tange, Y.; Kaneda, H.; Katayama, H.; Kotani, M.; Maruyama, K.; Naitoh, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Suganuma, M.; Ozaki, T.; Kume, M.; Krödel, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents highly precise measurements of thermal expansion of a "hybrid" carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite, HB-Cesic® - a trademark of ECM, in the temperature region of ˜310-10 K. Whilst C/SiC composites have been considered to be promising for the mirrors and other structures of space-borne cryogenic telescopes, the anisotropic thermal expansion has been a potential disadvantage of this material. HB-Cesic® is a newly developed composite using a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fiber, in which one of the important aims of the development was to reduce the anisotropy. The measurements indicate that the anisotropy was much reduced down to 4% as a result of hybridization. The thermal expansion data obtained are presented as functions of temperature using eighth-order polynomials separately for the horizontal (XY-) and vertical (Z-) directions of the fabrication process. The average CTEs and their dispersion (1σ) in the range 293-10 K derived from the data for the XY- and Z-directions were 0.805 ± 0.003 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.837 ± 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The absolute accuracy and the reproducibility of the present measurements are suggested to be better than 0.01 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The residual anisotropy of the thermal expansion was consistent with our previous speculation regarding carbon-fiber, in which the residual anisotropy tended to lie mainly in the horizontal plane.

  7. Thin fused silica optics for a high angular resolution and large collecting area X Ray telescope after Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M; Basso, Stefano; Campana, Sergio; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Mattaini, Enrico; Moretti, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of an X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (<1 arcsec Half Energy Width, HEW), but with a much larger throughput is very attractive, even if challenging. For such a mission the scientific opportunities, in particular for the study of the early Universe, would remain at the state of the art for the next decades. Initially the ESA-led XEUS mission was proposed, with an effective area of several m2 and an angular resolution better than 2 arcsec HEW. Unfortunately, this mission was not implemented, mainly due to the costs and the low level of technology readiness. Currently the most advanced proposal for such a mission is the SMART-X project, led by CfA together with other US institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area >2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. This paper deals with the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large

  8. Study of High Energy Emission from Relativistic Jets with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, R.

    2013-12-01

    VERITAS is an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array carrying out observations of the gamma-ray sky at energies above 100 GeV. Located in southern Arizona, VERITAS consists of an array of four telescopes, and carries out a comprehensive observing program for Galactic and extragalactic high energy sources. Observations of astrophysical objects in the TeV band are sensitive probes of highly energetic processes occurring in these sources. The majority of the extragalactic sources detected at TeV energies are active galaxies of the blazar class, sources where we view the jet nearly along its axis. In this report we present recent results from the VERITAS extragalactic program, focusing on blazars.

  9. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  10. A High-Resolution Hubble Space Telescope Study of Apparent Lyman Continuum Leakers at z~3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostardi, R. E.; Shapley, A. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Trainor, R. F.; Reddy, N. A.; Siana, B.

    2015-09-01

    We present U336V606J125H160 follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 16 z ˜ 3 candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters in the HS1549+1919 field. With these data, we obtain high spatial-resolution photometric redshifts of all sub-arcsecond components of the LyC candidates in order to eliminate foreground contamination and identify robust candidates for leaking LyC emission. Of the 16 candidates, we find one object with a robust LyC detection that is not due to foreground contamination. This object (MD5) resolves into two components; we refer to the LyC-emitting component as MD5b. MD5b has an observed 1500 Å to 900 Å flux-density ratio of {({F}{UV}/{F}{LyC})}{obs}=4.0+/- 2.0, compatible with predictions from stellar population synthesis models. Assuming minimal IGM absorption, this ratio corresponds to a relative (absolute) escape fraction of {f}{esc,{rel}}{MD5{{b}}} = 75%-100% ({f}{esc,{abs}}{MD5{{b}}} = 14%-19%). The stellar population fit to MD5b indicates an age of ≲50 Myr, which is in the youngest 10% of the HST sample and the youngest third of typical z ˜ 3 Lyman break galaxies, and may be a contributing factor to its LyC detection. We obtain a revised, contamination-free estimate for the comoving specific ionizing emissivity at z = 2.85, indicating (with large uncertainties) that star-forming galaxies provide roughly the same contribution as QSOs to the ionizing background at this redshift. Our results show that foreground contamination prevents ground-based LyC studies from obtaining a full understanding of LyC emission from z ˜ 3 star-forming galaxies. Future progress in direct LyC searches is contingent upon the elimination of foreground contaminants through high spatial-resolution observations, and upon acquisition of sufficiently deep LyC imaging to probe ionizing radiation in high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  12. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  13. The Extreme and Variable High Energy Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A critically important region of the astrophysical spectrum is the hard X-ray/gamma-ray band, from the keV to the GeV energy range. In this band, an unusually rich range of astrophysical processes occur: this is the energy domain where fundamental changes from thermal to non-thermal sources/phenomena are expected, where the effects of absorption are drastically reduced and a clearer picture of the Universe is possible. This is also the energy range where most of the extreme astrophysical behavior is taking place, e.g. cosmic acceleration, explosions and accretion onto black holes and neutron stars; where variability is more the rule than the exception and where a number of instruments are actively working (e.g. INTEGRAL, SWIFT, Suzaku, MAXI, AGILE, Fermi and HESS). These telescopes are providing an unprecedented view of the high energy sky. Combined with data obtained at lower energies from a number of satellites and ground based telescopes we have for the first time the possibility of studying this extreme and variable sky over a very broad energy band and with unprecedented sensitivity.The workshop is aimed at bringing together scientists active across the field of high energy astrophysics in order to focus on the opportunities offered by the high energy window both from the observational and theoretical viewpoints, while a dedicated section will also be devoted to discuss the current status of planned and future missions. The meeting will consist of invited talks and contributions which are welcome as either posters or as short presentations. There will be time for open discussions throughout.We intend to cover the most extreme phenomena associated with acceleration, explosions and accretion onto galactic and extragalactic objects as well as to study variability in all types of objects and environments. In view of the extension of INTEGRAL operational lifetime, the workshop will provide a unique opportunity to prepare for extra observational possibility and to

  14. High-energy emission from transients.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J A; Starling, R L C

    2013-06-13

    Cosmic explosions dissipate energy into their surroundings on a very wide range of time scales: producing shock waves and associated particle acceleration. The historical culprits for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova remnants: explosions on approximately 10(4) year time scales. Increasingly, however, time-variable emission points to rapid and efficient particle acceleration in a range of different astrophysical systems. Gamma-ray bursts have the shortest time scales, with inferred bulk Lorentz factors of approximately 1000 and photons emitted beyond 100 GeV, but active galaxies, pulsar wind nebulae and colliding stellar winds are all now associated with time-variable emission at approximately teraelectron volt energies. Cosmic photons and neutrinos at these energies offer a powerful probe of the underlying physical mechanisms of cosmic explosions, and a tool for exploring fundamental physics with these systems. Here, we discuss the motivations for high-energy observations of transients, the current experimental situation, and the prospects for the next decade, with particular reference to the major next-generation high-energy observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array. PMID:23630380

  15. Early science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: observations of extremely luminous high-z sources identified by Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, R.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Chavez, M.; De la Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gallup, A. D.; Hughes, D. H.; Montaña, A.; Narayanan, G.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Zeballos, M.; Zavala, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present 8.5 arcsec resolution 1.1-mm continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of eight extremely bright submillimetre galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. We compiled a candidate list of high-redshift galaxies by cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz, full width at half-maximum = 4.5 arcmin) with the archival Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver imaging data, and requiring the presence of a unique, single Herschel counterpart within the 150-arcsec search radius of the Planck source positions with 350-μm flux density larger than 100 mJy, excluding known blazars and foreground galaxies. All eight candidate objects observed are detected in 1.1 mm continuum by AzTEC bolometer camera, and at least one CO line is detected in all cases with a spectroscopic redshift between 1.3 < zCO < 3.3. Their infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) mapped using the Herschel and AzTEC photometry are consistent with cold dust emission with characteristic temperature between Td = 43 and 84 K. With apparent IR luminosity of up to LIR = 3 × 1014μ-1 L⊙, they are some of the most luminous galaxies ever found (with yet unknown gravitational magnification factor μ). The analysis of their SEDs suggests that star formation is powering the bulk of their extremely large IR luminosities. Derived molecular gas masses of M_{H_2}=(0.6-7.8)× 10^{11} M_{odot } (for μ ≈ 10) also make them some of the most gas-rich high-redshift galaxies ever detected.

  16. MAGIC Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Garczarczyk, M.; Becerra-Gonzalez, J.; Gaug, M.; Antonelli, A.; Carosi, A.; La Barbera, A.; Spiro, S.; Bastieri, D.; Covino, S.; Dominguez, A.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.

    2010-10-15

    MAGIC is built to perform observations of prompt and early afterglow emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) above 25 GeV. The instrument is designed to have the lowest possible energy threshold among the ground based {gamma}-ray detectors and the fastest reaction time to alerts distributed over the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). The MAGIC-I telescope observed 57 GRBs during the first six years. In no cases Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray emission above the threshold energy could be detected. The telescope has undergone several major improvements in sensitivity and repositioning performance. The biggest improvement in sensitivity was achieved with the installation of the second MAGIC-II telescope. Since more than one year both telescopes are observing in stereo mode. MAGIC are the only telescopes fast and sensitive enough to extend the observational energy range of satellite detectors, while GRB prompt and early afterglow emission is still ongoing.

  17. The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10(10) to 10(15) electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics. PMID:17204642

  18. The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10(10) to 10(15) electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics.

  19. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Fridolin

    2003-10-01

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLAND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pairproduction in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  20. Effects of diffraction and static wavefront errors on high-contrast imaging from the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troya, Mitchell; Chananb, Gary; Crossfielda, Ian; Dumonta, Philip; Green, Joseph J.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    High-contrast imaging, particularly direct detection of extrasolar planets, is a major science driver for the next generation of extremely large telescopes such as the segmented Thirty Meter Telescope. This goal requires more than merely diffraction-limited imaging, but also attention to residual scattered light from wavefront errors and diffraction effects at the contrast level of 10-8-10-9. Using a wave-optics simulation of adaptive optics and a diffraction suppression system we investigate diffraction from the segmentation geometry, intersegment gaps, obscuration by the secondary mirror and its supports. We find that the large obscurations pose a greater challenge than the much smaller segment gaps. In addition the impact of wavefront errors from the primary mirror, including segment alignment and figure errors, are analyzed. Segment-to-segment reflectivity variations and residual segment figure error will be the dominant error contributors from the primary mirror. Strategies to mitigate these errors are discussed.

  1. GeV gamma-ray astronomy telescopes with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray telescopes flown on satellites have poor angular resolution with typical point source error circles of a few square degrees. It is shown that a major improvement in angular resolution for the detection of gamma-rays in the GeV region can be obtained with a single crystal as converter. The electron produced by a gamma ray incident at a small angle to a major crystal axis or plane is captured into channeling and radiates gamma rays. The channeling radiation and the electron-positron pair can be detected and yield point source locations with a precision of 5 arcseconds at 10 GeV. This is an improvement of three orders of magnitude on the angular precision of telescopes sensitive to gamma-rays above 50 MeV flown on Satellites.

  2. Real-time beamforming using high-speed FPGAs at the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barott, William C.; Milgrome, Oren; Wright, Melvyn; MacMahon, David; Kilsdonk, Tom; Backus, Peter; Dexter, Matt

    2011-02-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO) is a wide-field panchromatic radio telescope currently consisting of 42 offset-Gregorian antennas each with a 6 m aperture, with plans to expand the array to 350 antennas. Through unique back-end hardware, the ATA performs real-time wideband beamforming with independent subarray capabilities and customizable beam shaping. The beamformers enable science observations requiring the full gain of the array, time domain (nonintegrated) output, and interference excision or orthogonal beamsets. In this paper we report on the design of this beamformer, including architecture and experimental results. Furthermore, we address some practical considerations in large-N wideband beamformers implemented on field programmable gate array platforms, including device utilization, methods of calibration and control, and interchip synchronization.

  3. HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS AS SPECTRAL CANDLES TO MEASURE THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT IN THE FERMI AND AIR CHERENKOV TELESCOPES ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-20

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e {sup -} e {sup +} pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE {gamma}-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known-only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE {gamma}-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE {gamma}-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z {approx_lt} 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the {gamma}{gamma} opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  4. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  5. Analysis, testing, and control of telescope's high-precision drive system in low-temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fu-Jia; Zhang, Jian; Wen, Hai-Kun

    2014-07-01

    Antarctic is perfect site for astronomic observatory. But Antarctic also challenge the telescope design because of low temperature. The low temperature can impact characterization of telescope control system, especially for drive system. The following phenomenon can be produced due to low temperature. 1. The viscosity of grease will increase. 2. The clearance of bearing and gear will decrease. These two factors can lead to the increase in load torque of drive system with temperature drop. This would cause the bad tracking accuracy and low speed creeping. In order to overcome the impact of low temperature and improve the telescope's track accuracy. In this paper, we describe some methods to overcome the effect of low temperature. First, the motor's electromagnetism and lubrication in low temperature are analyzed. It shows that motor's electromagnetism is little affected by temperature if the suitable material is selected. But the characterization of grease change dramatically with temperature. Second, the other lubricant material, solid lubricant, instead of lubricating grease is proposed. Contrasting experiment on two lubricant material proved that the solid lubricant is better than lubricating grease in low temperature environment. Third, besides the mechanical solution, a method from control point view is proposed to reduce the temperature influence. In this paper, the friction feedforward algorithm is used to compensate the torque change. Laboratory testing results will be presented verifying that friction feedforward can increase the tracking accuracy in low temperature environment.

  6. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  7. High energy flare physics group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The contributions of the High Energy Flare Physics Special Session in the American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting are reviewed. Oral and poster papers were presented on observatories and instruments available for the upcoming solar maximum. Among these are the space-based Gamma Ray Observatory, the Solar Flare and Cosmic Burst Gamma Ray Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, the Soft X Ray Telescope on the spacecraft Solar-A, and the balloon-based Gamma Ray Imaging Device. Ground based observatories with new capabilities include the BIMA mm-wave interferometer (Univ. of California, Berkeley; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Maryland), Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the Very Large Array. The highlights of the various instrument performances are reported and potential data correlations and collaborations are suggested.

  8. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  9. Very high energy gamma ray observations of southern hemisphere AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, P. M.; Lyons, K.; McComb, T. J. L.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Rayner, S. M.; Shaw, S. E.; Turver, K. E.

    2001-12-01

    A range of AGNs visible from the Southern hemisphere has been observed with the University of Durham Mark 6 very high energy gamma ray telescope. Results of observations of 1ES 0323+022, PKS 0829+046, 1ES 1101-232, Cen A, PKS 1514-24, RKJ 10578-275, 1ES 2316-423, PKS 2005-489 and PKS 0548-322 are presented. .

  10. [Build and Demonstrate a X-Ray Interferometer and Build and Fly a High Resolution Telescope on a Sounding Rocket}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report is written with eight months still go on the 36 month period of the grant. This grant, as originally proposed three years ago, was two pronged - to build and demonstrate a practical x-ray interferometer, and to build and fly a high resolution telescope on a sounding rocket. As we started into these projects, we received community feedback that led to our giving priority to the interferometer., The rocket would achieve O.2-arcsecond resolution that, while better, than that of Chandra, would, because of the limited signal of a sub-orbital flight, not be of substantially greater scientific use. The interferometry, on the other hand, shows the potential for many orders of magnitude improvement. For this reason we gave priority to the lab interferometry, and the building of the telescope lagged behind. With our new understanding (and practical demonstration) of how to build an interferometer, we changed the telescope design from spherical surfaces in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, to an interferometer with resolution between .005 and .05 arcseconds.

  11. New Results on High Energy Cosmic Ray Electrons Observed with Fermi LAT and Their Implications on the Models of Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes, in detail, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). Observations made from the June 11, 2008 launch and a discussion of observations made of high energy cosmic ray electrons is also presented.

  12. A TREETOPS simulation of the Hubble Space Telescope-High Gain Antenna interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Virtually any project dealing with the control of a Large Space Structure (LSS) will involve some level of verification by digital computer simulation. While the Hubble Space Telescope might not normally be included in a discussion of LSS, it is presented to highlight a recently developed simulation and analysis program named TREETOPS. TREETOPS provides digital simulation, linearization, and control system interaction of flexible, multibody spacecraft which admit to a point-connected tree topology. The HST application of TREETOPS is intended to familiarize the LSS community with TREETOPS by presenting a user perspective of its key features.

  13. High Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Gallardo, J. C.

    INTRODUCTION PHYSICS CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL REQUIRED LUMINOSITY FOR LEPTON COLLIDERS THE EFFECTIVE PHYSICS ENERGIES OF HADRON COLLIDERS HADRON-HADRON MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST CIRCULAR e^{+}e^- MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST e^{+}e^- LINEAR COLLIDERS LUMINOSITY CONVENTIONAL RF SUPERCONDUCTING RF AT HIGHER ENERGIES γ - γ COLLIDERS μ ^{+} μ^- COLLIDERS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES DESIGN STUDIES STATUS AND REQUIRED R AND D COMPARISION OF MACHINES CONCLUSIONS DISCUSSION

  14. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ˜ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ˜40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ˜ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  15. High Contrast Science Program for the Exo-C Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Marley, Mark S.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Meadows, Victoria; Belikov, Ruslan; McElwain, Michael W.; Exo-C Science; Technology Definition Team

    2015-01-01

    Exo-C is a detailed study of the science capability, engineering design, technology requirements, and costing for a modest-aperture space telescope with an internal coronagraph that could directly image exoplanetary systems. During its three year mission, Exo-C will carry out imaging and spectroscopy over the wavelength range 0.45-1.0 um towards the following goals: 1) Characterize the atmospheres of at least a dozen known, nearby radial velocity planets. Exo-C spectra will diagnose their atmospheric composition and the presence of clouds, performing the first such measurements of cool giant exoplanets like those in our own solar system. 2) Conduct an imaging survey of at least 100 additional nearby stars down to ~3e-10 contrast, enabling the discovery of new exoplanets down to super-Earth sizes. Sub-Neptune and super-Earth planets are relatively common in the exoplanet population, but have no counterparts in our Solar System. Exo-C spectra will provide the first atmospheric characterization for these intriguing objects. 3) Image several hundred circumstellar disks, revealing structures induced by planetary perturbations and the time evolution of disk properties. If exozodi is low and a very stable telescope can be achieved, habitable zone planets down to Earth size might be detected in a small sample of nearby stars including the alpha Cen system. Science targets, observing protocols, and future work will be discussed.

  16. Super-Gaussian apodization in ground based telescopes for high contrast coronagraph imaging.

    PubMed

    Cagigas, Miguel A; Valle, Pedro J; Cagigal, Manuel P

    2013-05-20

    We introduce the use of Super-Gaussian apodizing functions in the telescope pupil plane and/or the coronagraph Lyot plane to improve the imaging contrast in ground-based coronagraphs. We describe the properties of the Super-Gaussian function, we estimate its second-order moment in the pupil and Fourier planes and we check it as an apodizing function. We then use Super-Gaussian function to apodize the telescope pupil, the coronagraph Lyot plane or both of them. The result is that a proper apodizing masks combination can reduce the exoplanet detection distance up to a 45% with respect to the classic Lyot coronagraph, for moderately aberrated wavefronts. Compared to the prolate spheroidal function the Super-Gaussian apodizing function allows the planet light up to 3 times brighter. An extra help to increase the extinction rate is to perform a frame selection (Lucky Imaging technique). We show that a selection of the 10% best frames will reduce up to a 20% the detection angular distance when using the classic Lyot coronagraph but that the reduction is only around the 5% when using an apodized coronagraph.

  17. Title: MAGIC detects exceptionally high activity from PKS 1510-089 at very high energy gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2016-06-01

    The MAGIC telescopes have detected an increase in the Very High Energy gamma-ray flux from PKS 1510-089 (RA=15 12 50.5, dec=-09 06 00, J2000.0). The preliminary analysis of the MAGIC data taken on 2016/05/30 for 2.7 hours, indicates a highly significant signal (significance > 60 sigma).

  18. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Rafael Antonio; Moncada, Roberto; Guerra, Juan; Anchordoqui, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The search for the origin(s) of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CR) remains one of the cornerstones of high energy astrophysics. The previously proposed sources of acceleration for these UHECRs were gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to their energetic activity and powerful jets. However, a problem arises between the acceleration method and the observed CR spectrum. The CRs from GRBs or AGN jets are assumed to undergo Fermi acceleration and a source injection spectrum proportional to E^-2 is expected. However, the most recent fits to the spectrum and nuclear composition suggest an injection spectrum proportional to E^-1. It is well known that such a hard spectrum is characteristic of unipolar induction of rotating compact objects. When this method is applied to the AGN cores, they prove to be much too luminous to accelerate CR nuclei without photodisintegrating, thus creating significant energy losses. Instead, here we re-examine the possibility of these particles being accelerated around the much less luminous quasar remnants, or dead quasars. We compare the interaction times of curvature radiation and photodisintegration, the two primary energy loss considerations with the acceleration time scale. We show that the energy losses at the source are not significant enough as to prevent these CRs from reaching the maximum observed energies. Using data from observatories in the northern and southern sky, the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory respectively, two hotspots have been discerned which have some associated quasar remnants that help to motivate our study.

  19. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  20. High rising energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    In an effort to demonstrate that cost effective energy innovation is found in the synergistic combination of many basic proven architectural, mechanical and electrical elements, a team of consultants, architects and engineers joined together on a project: Galleria One in Atlanta, Georgia. They started with an efficient envelope and excellent individual floor VAV air conditioning systems. They reduced and eliminated heat gains. A Value and Energy Engineering checklist was created and is presented in this paper. There was no additional annual operation and maintenance cost incurred by the energy conserving features of the project with the exception of an emergency generator, which runs approximately 100 hours each summer and thus requires some additional maintenance.

  1. ART-XC: A Medium-energy X-ray Telescope System for the Spectrum-R-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, V.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.; Thachenko, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Semena, N.; Buntov,M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Gubarev, M.; ODell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Romaine, S.; Swartz. D/; Weisskopf, M.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Strueder, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ART-XC instrument is an X-ray grazing-incidence telescope system in an ABRIXAS-type optical configuration optimized for the survey observational mode of the Spectrum-RG astrophysical mission which is scheduled to be launched in 2011. ART-XC has two units, each equipped with four identical X-ray multi-shell mirror modules. The optical axes of the individual mirror modules are not parallel but are separated by several degrees to permit the four modules to share a single CCD focal plane detector, 1/4 of the area each. The 450-micron-thick pnCCD (similar to the adjacent eROSITA telescope detector) will allow detection of X-ray photons up to 15 keV. The field of view of the individual mirror module is about 18 x 18 arcminutes(exp 2) and the sensitivity of the ART-XC system for 4 years of survey will be better than 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over the 4-12 keV energy band. This will allow the ART-XC instrument to discover several thousand new AGNs.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Particle Astronomy FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ASTRONOMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rene A.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2009-05-01

    another clue to understanding the nature of high-energy objects both within and outside our galaxy. And yet, along with new understandings, we are also faced with new puzzles. Each of the papers in this focus issue presents the field of high-energy particle astronomy from the perspective of a given instrumental approach, corresponding to the current state-of-the-art for a particular class of messenger particle in a given energy range. For gamma-ray astronomy, we have a excellent report by R Johnson and R Mukherjee on results from space-borne telescopes, first from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and then from the recently commissioned Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The detailed paper by J Hinton describes a wealth of results from several ground-based gamma-ray telescopes using the atmospheric Cherenokov technique. Gamma-ray results and the prospects from air-shower detectors which can provide all-sky monitoring are very well described in a paper by G Sinnis. Larger plans for the future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy are summarized in a paper by F Krennrich (in preparation). We also include two papers for 'non-photon' particle detection, a summary of the exciting new results for cosmic ray physics by P Sommers and S Westerhoff and an article by K Hoffman describing the astrophysics and capabilities of truly remarkable, large-volume neutrino detectors. For both cosmic rays and neutrinos, the fields seem to be on the threshold of doing astronomy—that is, associating specific detected particles with particular astrophysical objects. Together, the fully operational space- and ground-based gamma-ray observatories and the new large-area experiments for cosmic ray and neutrino detection represent a new era in astronomy. We can be confident that the field of high-energy particle astronomy will continue to rapidly develop as more exciting results from these instruments are reported in the future. Focus on High Energy Particle Astronomy Contents Gamma ray astronomy with

  3. New high spectral resolution spectrograph and mid-IR camera for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelley, Michael; Rayner, John

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3.0 m infrared telescope located at an altitude of 4.2 km near the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii. The IRTF was established by NASA to support planetary science missions. We show new observational capabilities resulting from the completion of iSHELL, a 1–5 μm echelle spectrograph with resolving power of 70,000 using a 0.375 arcsec slit. This instrument will be commissioned starting in August 2016. The spectral grasp of iSHELL is enormous due to the cross-dispersed design and use of a 2Kx2K HgCdTe array. Raw fits files will be publicly archived, allowing for more effective use of the large amount of spectral data that will be collected. The preliminary observing manual for iSHELL, containing the instrument description, observing procedures and estimates of sensitivity can be downloaded at http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/~ishell/iSHELL_observing_manual.pdf. This manual and instrument description papers can be downloaded at http://bit.ly/28NFiMj. We are also working to restore to service our 8–25 μm camera, MIRSI. It will be upgraded with a closed cycle cooler that will eliminate the need for liquid helium and allow continuous use of MIRSI on the telescope. This will enable a wider range of Solar System studies at mid-IR wavelengths, with particular focus on thermal observations of NEOs. The MIRSI upgrade includes plans to integrate a visible CCD camera that will provide simultaneous imaging and guiding capabilities. This visible imager will utilize similar hardware and software as the MORIS system on SpeX. The MIRSI upgrade is being done in collaboration with David Trilling (NAU) and Joseph Hora (CfA). For further information on the IRTF and its instruments including visitor instruments, see: http:// irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA contract NNH14CK55B, NASA Science Mission Directorate, and NASA grant NNX15AF81G (Trilling, Hora) for the upgrade of MIRSI.

  4. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  5. In-flight performance of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeltzsch, J.; Ebbets, D.; Garner, H.; Tuffli, A.; Breyer, R.; Kinsey, J.; Peck, C.; Lindler, D.; Feggans, J.

    1991-09-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) has completed Orbital Verification and is well into the Science Verification phase of its mission. The instrument performance has been flawless, and many significant early science observations have been completed. The GHRS digicon detectors are well calibrated including the determination of operating parameters, detector geometry, and noise sensitivity. Tests using calibration lamps and standard UV stars have confirmed the instrument sensitivity and spectral resolving powers of Lambda/Delta-Lambda = 2000, 20,000, and 90,000. The sensitivity has not changed since the 1984 baseline ground based calibration. The GHRS flight software has been thoroughly tested, and is controlling all instrument observing as expected. Basic target acquisition testing and GHRS alignment calibrations have been successfully completed, and targets are routinely being located within 2-3 arcsecs of the initial pointing. Observations have been successfully performed using both the 2.0 x 2.0 arcsec aperture, and the smaller 0.25 x 0.25 arcsec aperture. The extended point spread function caused by the spherical aberration of the HST primary mirror has been well measured, and observing methods to deal with it have been developed. The aberrated image allows approximately 70 percent of the total energy into the large science aperture, and 15 percent of the total energy into the smaller aperture. Numerous science assessment observations of interesting astronomical targets have been completed, and indicate the extreme usefulness of the GHRS to the scientific community.

  6. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  7. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  8. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  9. EXTRAGALACTIC VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2012-09-20

    We study the origin of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background using the data from the Fermi telescope. To estimate the background level, we count photons at high Galactic latitudes |b| > 60 Degree-Sign . Subtracting photons associated with known sources and the residual cosmic-ray and Galactic diffuse backgrounds, we estimate the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) flux. We find that the spectrum of EGB in the very high energy band above 30 GeV follows the stacked spectrum of BL Lac objects. Large Area Telescope data reveal the positive (1 + z) {sup k}, 1 < k < 4 cosmological evolution of the BL Lac source population consistent with that of their parent population, Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We show that EGB at E > 30 GeV could be completely explained by emission from unresolved BL Lac objects if k {approx_equal} 3.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Images of Herbig-Haro Energy Sources: [Fe II] Jets, Binarity, and Envelope Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Yu, Ka Chun; Heathcote, Steve; Bally, John; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2000-09-01

    We have observed seven regions surrounding the driving sources of Herbig-Haro flows using the NICMOS infrared camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. These Herbig-Haro energy sources, which power the HH 34, 47, 83, 111, 199, 300, and 454 flows, have all been previously detected in the centimeter-wavelength radio continuum. The regions were imaged in two broadband filters, F160W and F205W, which, in addition to stellar continuum, principally transmit the [Fe II] 1.644 μm and H2 2.122 μm lines, respectively, of shocks present in the images. Highly collimated infrared jets emerge from the sources of HH 34, 111, 300, and 454. In all of these cases, the [Fe II] emission transmitted in the F160W filter is much stronger than the H2 emission in the F205W band. Combined with previously published NICMOS images of the bright [Fe II] HH 1 jet, these data suggest that [Fe II] emission may be as important a tracer of shocked jets in the infrared as [S II] emission is in the optical. [Fe II] emission may be enhanced near the driving sources relative to the H2 emission by a combination of high jet density and strong far-ultraviolet (7.6-13.6 eV) radiation from the forming star. The HH 454 [Fe II] jet, which emanates from the L1551 NE source, is pointed directly at the bright shock HH 29, providing further evidence that this young star, rather than L1551 IRS 5, is the source of the brightest Herbig-Haro object in the L1551 outflow complex. In five regions, the driving sources are visible at 2 μm. Among these, the sources powering HH 47 and HH 300 are found to be binary stars. One other young stellar system, the source of the HH 111 protostellar jet, is triple. When combined with other studies, these results indicate that 36% of 14 Herbig-Haro energy sources observed with NICMOS are multiple at near-infrared wavelengths with component separations greater than 0.15"-0.20". Therefore, considering incompleteness, obscuration, and faintness of possible companions in the observed

  11. Improved flux limits for neutrinos with energies above 10(22) eV from observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

    PubMed

    Scholten, O; Buitink, S; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2009-11-01

    Particle cascades initiated by ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the lunar regolith will emit an electromagnetic pulse with a time duration of the order of nanoseconds through a process known as the Askaryan effect. It has been shown that in an observing window around 150 MHz there is a maximum chance for detecting this radiation with radio telescopes commonly used in astronomy. In 50 h of observation time with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we have set a new limit on the flux of neutrinos, summed over all flavors, with energies in excess of 4x10(22) eV.

  12. Improved flux limits for neutrinos with energies above 10(22) eV from observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

    PubMed

    Scholten, O; Buitink, S; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2009-11-01

    Particle cascades initiated by ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the lunar regolith will emit an electromagnetic pulse with a time duration of the order of nanoseconds through a process known as the Askaryan effect. It has been shown that in an observing window around 150 MHz there is a maximum chance for detecting this radiation with radio telescopes commonly used in astronomy. In 50 h of observation time with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we have set a new limit on the flux of neutrinos, summed over all flavors, with energies in excess of 4x10(22) eV. PMID:20365914

  13. Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekers, Ron; Wilson, Thomas L.

    ``Radio Telescopes" starts with a brief historical introduction from Jansky's1931 discovery of radio emission from the Milky Way through the development ofradio telescope dishes and arrays to aperture synthesis imaging. It includessufficient basics of electromagnetic radiation to provide some understanding of thedesign and operation of radio telescopes. The criteria such as frequencyrange, sensitivity, survey speed, angular resolution, and field of view thatdetermine the design of radio telescopes are introduced. Because it is soeasy to manipulate the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies, radiotelescopes have evolved into many different forms, sometimes with "wire"structures tuned to specific wavelengths, which look very different from anykind of classical telescope. To assist astronomers more familiar with otherwavelength domains, the appendix A.1. includes a comparison of radioand optical terminology. Some of the different types of radio telescopesincluding the filled aperture dishes, electronically steered phased arrays, andaperture synthesis radio telescopes are discussed, and there is a sectioncomparing the differences between dishes and arrays. Some of the morerecent developments including hierarchical beam forming, phased arrayfeeds, mosaicing, rotation measure synthesis, digital receivers, and longbaseline interferometers are included. The problem of increasing radiofrequency interference is discussed, and some possible mitigation strategies areoutlined.

  14. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  15. PEPSI: The high-resolution échelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Barnes, S. I.; Bauer, S.-M.; Beckert, E.; Bittner, W.; Bredthauer, R.; Carroll, T. A.; Denker, C.; Dionies, F.; DiVarano, I.; Döscher, D.; Fechner, T.; Feuerstein, D.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Harnisch, G.; Hofmann, A.; Lesser, M.; Paschke, J.; Pankratow, S.; Plank, V.; Plüschke, D.; Popow, E.; Sablowski, D.

    2015-05-01

    PEPSI is the bench-mounted, two-arm, fibre-fed and stabilized Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Three spectral resolutions of either 43 000, 120 000 or 270 000 can cover the entire optical/red wavelength range from 383 to 907 nm in three exposures. Two 10.3k×10.3k CCDs with 9-μm pixels and peak quantum efficiencies of 94-96 % record a total of 92 échelle orders. We introduce a new variant of a wave-guide image slicer with 3, 5, and 7 slices and peak efficiencies between 92-96 %. A total of six cross dispersers cover the six wavelength settings of the spectrograph, two of them always simultaneously. These are made of a VPH-grating sandwiched by two prisms. The peak efficiency of the system, including the telescope, is 15 % at 650 nm, and still 11 % and 10 % at 390 nm and 900 nm, respectively. In combination with the 110 m2 light-collecting capability of the LBT, we expect a limiting magnitude of ≈ 20th mag in V in the low-resolution mode. The R = 120 000 mode can also be used with two, dual-beam Stokes IQUV polarimeters. The 270 000-mode is made possible with the 7-slice image slicer and a 100-μm fibre through a projected sky aperture of 0.74 arcsec, comparable to the median seeing of the LBT site. The 43 000-mode with 12-pixel sampling per resolution element is our bad seeing or faint-object mode. Any of the three resolution modes can either be used with sky fibers for simultaneous sky exposures or with light from a stabilized Fabry-Pérot étalon for ultra-precise radial velocities. CCD-image processing is performed with the dedicated data-reduction and analysis package PEPSI-S4S. Its full error propagation through all image-processing steps allows an adaptive selection of parameters by using statistical inferences and robust estimators. A solar feed makes use of PEPSI during day time and a 500-m feed from the 1.8 m VATT can be used when the LBT is busy otherwise. In this paper, we

  16. LAT Perspectives in Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Ormes, J. F.; Funk, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) science objectives and capabilities in the detection of high energy electrons in the energy range from 20 GeV to approx. 1 TeV are presented. LAT simulations are used to establish the event selections. It is found that maintaining the efficiency of electron detection at the level of 30% the residual hadron contamination does not exceed 2-3% of the electron flux. LAT should collect approx. ten million of electrons with the energy above 20 GeV for each year of observation. Precise spectral reconstruction with high statistics presents us with a unique opportunity to investigate several important problems such as studying galactic models of IC radiation, revealing the signatures of nearby sources such as high energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, testing the propagation model, and searching for KKDM particles decay through their contribution to the electron spectrum.

  17. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  18. Spartan infrared camera: high-resolution imaging for the SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Edwin D.; Biel, Jason D.; Chen, Jian-Jun; Davis, Michael; Laporte, Rene; Loh, Owen Y.

    2004-09-01

    The Spartan Infrared Camera provides tip-tilt corrected imaging for the SOAR Telescope in the 1-2.5μm spectral range with four 2048x2048 HAWAII2 detectors. The median image size is expected to be less than 0.25 arcsec (FWHM), and in the H and K bands a significant amount of the light is expected to be in a core having the diffraction-limited width. The camera has two plate scales: 0.04 arcsec/pixel (f/21) for diffraction-limited sampling in the H and K bands and 0.07 arcsec/pixel (f/12) to cover a 5×5 arcmin2 field, over which tip-tilt correction is substantial. Except for CaF2 field-flattening lenses, the optics is all reflective to achieve the large field size and achromaticity, and all aluminum to match thermally the aluminum cryogenic-optical box in which the optics mount. The Strehl ratio of the camera itself is 0.95-1.00 for the f/21 channel. The optics (including the off-axis aspherical mirrors) will be aligned with precise metrology rather than adjusted using interferometry.

  19. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  20. Calibrating high-precision Faraday rotation measurements for LOFAR and the next generation of low-frequency radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor-Beltran, C.; Sobey, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; de Bruyn, G.; Noutsos, A.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Birzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Dettmar, R.-J.; van Duin, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Grit, T.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Keane, E.; Kohler, J.; Kramer, M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pilia, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Stappers, B. W.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; ter Veen, S.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2013-04-01

    Faraday rotation measurements using the current and next generation of low-frequency radio telescopes will provide a powerful probe of astronomical magnetic fields. However, achieving the full potential of these measurements requires accurate removal of the time-variable ionospheric Faraday rotation contribution. We present ionFR, a code that calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. ionFR uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. We describe applications of this code for the calibration of radio polarimetric observations, and demonstrate the high accuracy of its modeled ionospheric Faraday rotations using LOFAR pulsar observations. These show that we can accurately determine some of the highest-precision pulsar rotation measures ever achieved. Precision rotation measures can be used to monitor rotation measure variations - either intrinsic or due to the changing line-of-sight through the interstellar medium. This calibration is particularly important for nearby sources, where the ionosphere can contribute a significant fraction of the observed rotation measure. We also discuss planned improvements to ionFR, as well as the importance of ionospheric Faraday rotation calibration for the emerging generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, such as the SKA and its pathfinders.

  1. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabaly, K.; Spiga, D.; Canestrari, R.; Bonnoli, G.; Lavagna, M.; Pareschi, G.

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors' manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of figure errors. This paper determines first order surface finish tolerances based on a surface microroughness characterization campaign, using Phase Shift Interferometry. That allows us to compute the roughness contribution to Cherenkov telescope PSF. This study is performed for diverse mirror candidates (MAGIC-I and II, ASTRI, MST) varying in manufacture technologies, selected coating materials and taking into account the degradation over time due to environmental hazards.

  2. Future of high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e/sup -/ colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place.

  3. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  4. Pulsars at very high energies with HESS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavitto, Gianluca

    Pulsed gamma-rays above 100 GeV, recently discovered from the Crab pulsar by the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) VERITAS and MAGIC, have demonstrated the possibility of detecting pulsars at very high energies (VHE). In order to clarify the many questions that this unexpected discovery has opened, the detection of more VHE pulsars is now of paramount importance. With an expected threshold below 50 GeV and being the only operating IACT in the Southern Hemisphere, the new 28 m class H.E.S.S. II telescope is in a unique position to observe the pulsar population visible from the Southern Hemisphere. Indeed, several pulsars are promising candidates for VHE emission based on theoretical expectations and on the extrapolation of their Fermi-LAT measured gamma-ray spectra. The selection criteria for candidate pulsars, including the prospects of detection by HESS-II, will be discussed.

  5. Very high energy gamma ray extension of GRO observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1992-01-01

    This has been an exiciting year for high energy gamma-ray astronomy, both from space and from ground-based observatories. It has been a particularly active period for the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray group. In phase 1 of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), there has not been too much opportunity for overlapping observations with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and the other GRO telescopes; however, significant progress was made in the development of data analysis techniques and in improving the sensitivity of the technique which will have direct application in correlative observations in phase 2. Progress made during the period 1 Jul. 1991 - 31 Dec. 1991 is presented.

  6. Exploring the violent and high-energy frontier of the Universe with GLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, S.; GLAST Collaboration

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (successfully launched in June 11, 2008) is opening the violent, restless and high-energy frontier of the Universe to exploration. This unique experiment and mission (bringing together the astrophysics and high-energy particle physics communities and knowledge), teamed up NASA and the US Department of Energy joined with Government Agencies and Institutions in France, Germany, Japan, Italy and Sweden, while General Dynamics built the spacecraft.

  7. Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will combine high sensitivity with the flexibility offered by the Space Transportation System. A recently completed study has generated a preliminary design which demonstrates the feasibility of SIRTF. The 1.0 to 1.5 meter aperture, f/8 Gregorian telescope will be cooled to 20 K by a stored supercritical helium system. The telescope will be pointed and stabilized at two levels: the European-developed Instrument Pointing System provides primary pointing and stabilization; and an internal star tracker senses residual errors and drives a folding mirror inside the telescope to null the errors. The folding mirror can also be driven by square or triangular waves to provide space chopping or small-area scanning.

  8. Spectroscopic classification of Gaia16atw and Gaia16aui with the SEDM (Spectra Energy Distribution Machine) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, D.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of Gaia16atw and Gaia16aui, discovered by the Gaia ESA survey. The observations were performed with the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM)(http://www.astro.caltech.edu/sedm/, range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R~100) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope.

  9. Energy spectra of high energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, K.; Minorikawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on high energy neutrinos ( or = 1 TeV), a new calculation of atmospheric neutrino intensities was carried out taking into account EMC effects observed in P-A collisions by accelerator, recent measurement of primary cosmic ray spectrum and results of cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio. Other features of the present calculation are (1) taking into account kinematics of three body decays of kaons and charm particles in diffusion equations and (2) taking into account energy dependence of kaon production.

  10. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays from blazar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-02-01

    In spite of major observational advances in high-energy astronomy, the problem of UHECR origin has defied solution. Nevertheless, candidate sources can be ruled out on the basis of physical arguments and available data. For example, only a few source classes remain viable after requiring that the sources of UHECRs are extragalactic, that some of the sources are found within the GZK radius, and that they have adequate emissivity to explain the UHECR intensity and adequate power to accelerate the highest energy UHECRs. Features in the γ-ray spectra of blazars observed with Fermi at GeV energies, and with ground-based γ-ray telescopes at very-high energies (VHE; >~ 100 GeV), favor acceleration of UHECRs in blazar black-hole jets.

  11. High-energy neutrino astronomy: a glimpse of the promised land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiering, Ch

    2014-05-01

    In 2012, physicists and astronomers celebrated the hundredth anniversary of the detection of cosmic rays by Viktor Hess. A year later, in 2013, the first evidence of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos emerged, promising fundamental insight into the origin of cosmic rays. The evidence was obtained from the data from the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole. When the idea of this telescope was first discussed at the 1973 International Cosmic Ray Conference, it was beyond anyone's imagination that it would take a biblical forty years before the first discoveries would be made and the promised land of the high energy neutrino would first be glimpsed. This paper sketches the development towards highly sensitive detectors, describes the latest results from the IceCube and ANTARES neutrino telescopes, and takes a look into the future.

  12. Optical performance assessment of a fluorescence detector for the telescope array low-energy extension experiment by using the interferometric simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, In Seok; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) has been designed with different structures comprised of various materials. However, the cycle of expansion and contraction in these materials in response to thermal effects results in structural deformation. Furthermore, because the TALE-FD is exposed to high-temperature environments, significant light dispersion occurs as a result of the substantial deformation of the mirror (due to thermal expansion mismatch); this is considered to be an important issue that must be addressed in order to enhance the array performance and productivity. As the optical surface accuracy may be influenced by the structural deformation, an assessment of any significant structural deformations of the component materials is necessary to increase confidence in the array's operation. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify the relationship between temperature increases and changes in the surface accuracy of the TALE-FD large mirror. For this purpose, Cherenkov light emission and the fluorescence processes of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are emulated in order to assess the optical performance of the TALE-FD in practical situations. Additionally, the detection sensitivity of the TALE-FD large mirror is experimentally identified by measuring the distribution of the focused spot produced by incident light over the surface of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sensor array.

  13. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  14. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  15. General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchen, Luis F.

    2011-01-01

    The Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. The tool uses a Code V prescription of the optical train, and uses MATLAB programs to call ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled fine-steering mirrors (FSMs). The sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007, where the error budget is evaluated. The user specifies the particular optics of interest, and chooses the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions, and combines that with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. CPEB also contains a combination of form and ActiveX controls with Visual Basic for Applications code to allow for user interaction in which the user can perform trade studies such as changing engineering requirements, and identifying and isolating stringent requirements. It contains summary tables and graphics that can be instantly used for reporting results in view graphs. The entire process to obtain a coronagraphic telescope performance error budget has been automated into three stages: conversion of optical prescription from Zemax or Code V to MACOS (in-house optical modeling and analysis tool), a linear models process, and an error budget tool process. The first process was improved by developing a MATLAB package based on the Class Constructor Method with a number of user-defined functions that allow the user to modify the MACOS optical prescription. The second process was modified by creating a MATLAB package that contains user-defined functions that automate the process. The user interfaces with the process by utilizing an initialization file where the user defines the parameters of the linear model

  16. Exploring the High Energy Universe: GLAST Mission and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    GLAST, the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope, is NASA's next-generation high-energy gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in Autumn 2007. GLAST will allow measurements of cosmic gamma-ray sources in t he 10 MeV to 100 GeV energy band to be made with unprecedented sensi tivity. Amongst its key scientific objectives are to understand part icle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei, Pulsars and Supernovae Remnants, to provide high resolution measurements of unidentified ga mma-ray sources, to study transient high energy emission from objects such as gamma-ray bursts, and to probe Dark Matter and the early Uni verse. Dr. McEnery will present an overview of the GLAST mission and its scientific goals.

  17. Exploring the High Energy Universe: GLAST Mission and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    GLAST, the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope, is NASA's next-generation high-energy gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in Autumn 2007. GLAST will allow measurements of cosmic gamma-ray sources in the 10 MeV to 100 GeV energy band to be made with unprecedented sensitivity. Amongst its key scientific objectives are to understand particle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei, Pulsars and Supernovae Remnants, to provide high resolution measurements of unidentified gamma-ray sources, to study transient high energy emission from objects such as gamma-ray bursts, and to probe Dark Matter and the early Universe. Dr. McEnery will present an overview of the GLAST mission and its scientific goals.

  18. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  19. Three Years of Automated High-Resolution Spectroscopy at Swiss La Silla 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, A.; Udry, S.; Weber, L.

    We report the 3 years experiences of Swiss Facility operation at La Silla Observatory. A brief overview of EULER - the Swiss Ritchey-Chretien 120 cm telescope and of CORALIE - the fibre-coupled, high-resolution echelle spectrograph is given. We describe the design and the concept of the control system which mostly links together commercial hardware elements, free public software (Linux and GNU) and some key components built and fully controlled by Geneva Observatory. We focus on key elements, and we analyze various aspects of operation such as the efficiency, real-time requirements, calibration and maintenance and specific constraints of the astronomical Observatory. We discuss the critical aspects of the automation of the operation, the conditions and the parameters which determine the degree of automation that can be achieved at the cost-effective level and we outline some possible improvement and future plans. We present the summary of scientific activity together with some scientific highlights.

  20. Three years of automated high-resolution spectroscopy at the Swiss La Silla 1.2m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, A.; Weber, L.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2001-12-01

    We report 3 years of experiences with Swiss Facility operation at La Silla observatory. A brief overview of EULER -- the Swiss Ritchey-Chretien 120 cm telescope and of CORALIE -- the fibre-coupled, high-resolution Echelle spectrograph is given. We describe the design and the concept of the control system which mostly links together commercial hardware elements, free public software (Linux and GNU) and some key components built and fully controlled by Geneva Observatory. We focus on key elements, and we analyze various aspects of operation such as the efficiency, real-time requirements, calibration and maintenance and specific constraints of the astronomical observatory. We discuss the critical aspects of the automation of the operation, the conditions and the parameters which determine the degree of automation that can be achieved at the cost-effective level and we outline some possible improvement and future plans. We present the summary of scientific activity together with some scientific highlights.

  1. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  2. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  3. Auxiliary control systems for Pachmarhi array of Cverenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothe, K. S.; Acharya, B. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chitnis, V. R.; D'Souza, A. I.; Francis, P. J.; John, A. V.; Joshi, S. R.; Majumdar, P.; Nagesh, B. K.; Pose, M. S.; Purohit, P. N.; Rahman, M. A.; Rao, K. K.; Rao, S. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Singh, B. B.; Stanislaus, A. J.; Sudershanan, P. V.; Upadhya, S. S.; Venkateshmurthy, B. L.; Vishwanath, P. R.

    2002-03-01

    Pachmarhi Array of Cverenkov Telescopes (PACT) consists of 25 Telescopes deployed over an area of 100m x 80m. The experiment is based on atmospheric Cverenkov technique to detect Very High Energy celestial gamma-rays using wavefront sampling method. Each telescope consists of 7 large area parabolic mirrors mounted para-axially on an equatorial mount and a fast photo-multiplier tube at the focus of each mirror. For efficient operation of the experiment 3 automated control systems were developed and installed, viz. Automated Computerized Telescope Orientation System (ACTOS) to control the pointing and tracking of individual telescopes, Automatic Photo-multiplier Exposure System (APES) to facilitate the exposure of photo-tubes only during observations, and Computerized Automated Rate Adjustment and Monitoring System (CARAMS) to ensure uniform gains for all the phototube - mirror systems. The design features and performance of each of these systems are discussed.

  4. High-Speed Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet photometry of two DB white dwarfs: Nonradial and radial pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.; Bond, Howard E.; Sherbert, Lisa E.; Watson, Todd K.

    1994-01-01

    We observed two DB white dwarf stars with the High Speed Photometer aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The two targets, the nonradial pulsator GD 358, and PG 0112+104, a non-pulsating white dwarf with similar temperature, were each observed for 1800 s with a time resolution of 10 ms. We used the F140LP configuration, which gives a broadband response in the UV between 1400 and 3000 A. The data clearly show the long period (about 700 s) pulsations in GD 358. Comparison with optical observations obtained two weeks earlier shows that the amplitude of the pulsations in the UV is approximately 1.4 times higher, consistent with nonradial pulsations due solely to temperature changes at constant radius. The high time resolution of these observations allows us to search for high-frequency pulsations (such as p modes or high overtone radial modes). No firm evidencefor high-frequency pulsations was seen in either object between 1 and 12 Hz. Correlation analysis of GD 358 shows no clear signal of multifrequency high overtone radial pulsations at the 0.00075 mag level, with no individual modes above the 0.0016 mag level. Upper limits for PG 0112+104 are approximately 2 times higher than for GD 358. Implications of this study for the theory of white dwarf pulsations are discussed.

  5. Energy spectrum of cascades generated by muons in Baksan underground scintillation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Achkasov, V. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrum of cascades generated by cosmic ray muons underground is presented. The mean zenith angle of the muon arrival is theta=35 deg the depth approx. 1000 hg/sq cm. In cascades energy range 700 GeV the measured spectrum is in agreement with the sea-level integral muon spectrum index gamma=3.0. Some decrease of this exponent has been found in the range 4000 Gev.

  6. The Role of the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy among Middle and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; Deutscher, Rebecca

    This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to…

  7. Recent results from telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum (XMAX) are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20∘ radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 σ. The measured ⟨XMAX⟩ is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 1018.2 eV-1019.2 eV.

  8. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  9. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  10. Three Decades of High Energy Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most brilliant explosions in space. The first GRB was discovered on 1967, just over 40 years ago. It took several years and multiple generations of space and ground instruments to unravel some of the mysteries of this phenomenon. However, many questions remain open today. I will discuss the history, evolution and current status of the GRB field and its contributions in our understanding of the transient high energy sky. Finally, I will describe how GRBs can be utilized in future missions as tools, to probe the cosmic chemical evolution of the Universe Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 24) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from several magnetar sources. In total, six new sources were discovered between 2008 and 2011, with a synergy between Swift, RXTE, Fermi and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts.

  11. The design and implementation of a high sensitivity telescope for in situ measurements of energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Charles Walter

    This work describes the design and implementation of a high-sensitivity telescope (HST) for in situ detection and energy analysis of energetic charged particles in the Earth's radiation belts from a near-equatorial orbit that will range over geocentric distances from ≈ 2--3.5 Earth radii as part of the US Air Force's Demonstrations and Science eXperiment (DSX) mission. The HST employs a two element silicon solid state detector telescope that has a geometrical factor of 0.1 cm2 sr with a 14° field-of-view centered on the on-orbit local magnetic field vector to detect ≈ 100 particles s-1 cm-2 sr-1 in the geomagnetic bounce loss cone. The pointing direction of the HST is guaranteed by the active attitude control subsystem of the spacecraft. A novel implementation of a knife-edged baffled collimator design restricts the field-of-view and provides a sharp cutoff (≈ 103) in the angular response to all particle species with energies from ≈ 40--800 keV. The HST detectors are shielded with 5g cm-2 of aluminum followed by 3.1 g cm-2 of tungsten in all non-look directions to reduce the background fluxes incident on the detectors through the orbit (>107 particles cm -2 s-1 for electrons and protons individually) to levels that will allow the detection of the target flux in the loss cone. The HST has been extensively characterized on the ground and is capable of analyzing the energies of particles over the range of 25--850 keV with an energy resolution of 3.7keV and a noise FWHM of 15keV. The calibration has been established using 241Am and 133Ba X-ray sources and verified using additional beta- and X-ray sources and the electron beams produced by the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Radiation Effects Facility. The instrument's calibration has been shown to vary by less than 2% over the operational temperature range of --20 to +35°C. Electromagnetic interference testing has proven that the HST is unaffected by strong VLF fields

  12. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  13. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  14. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  15. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.; Holdridge, David V.; Norris, J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  16. ROSAT: An international mission exploring the high energy universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    ROSAT was designed specifically to detect high energy radiation, by using its telescopes to study x ray and ultraviolet emissions, regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot be seen and that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. ROSAT is an international astronomical observatory project. ROSAT's science mission is divided into two phases. With its in-orbit checkout period complete, ROSAT has begun phase one of its mission, an all sky survey to map the heavens. When the 6 month mapping survey is complete, the satellite will begin phase two and be pointed at selected objects, studying individual targets, for the remainder of its mission.

  17. The synergy between the dark energy survey and the South pole telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Vallinotto, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) has recently completed its science verification (SV) phase, collecting data over 150 deg{sup 2} of sky. In this work we analyze to what extent it is beneficial to supplement the analysis of DES data with cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing data. We provide forecasts for both DES-SV and for the full survey covering 5000 deg{sup 2}. We show that data presently available from DES-SV and SPT-SZ would allow a ∼8% measurement of the linear galaxy bias in three out of four redshift bins. We further show that a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy density, and CMB lensing data allows to break the degeneracy between the shear multiplicative bias, the linear galaxy bias, and the normalization of the matter power spectrum. We show that these observables can thus be self-calibrated to the percent or sub-percent level, depending on the quality of available data and the fraction of overlap of the footprints and priors included in the analysis.

  18. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission. and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however. is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (-0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double- Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral informatioT. he spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  19. Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to the detection of axion-like particles at high gamma-ray opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Manuel; Conrad, Jan E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2014-12-01

    Extensions of the Standard Model of particles commonly predict the existence of axion(-like) particles (ALPs) that could be detected through their coupling to photons in external magnetic fields. This coupling could lead to modifications of γ-ray spectra from extragalactic sources. Above a certain energy, the γ-ray flux should be exponentially damped due to the interaction with photons of background radiations fields. ALPs, on the other hand, propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances and a reconversion into γ-rays could lead to an additional component in the spectra. Here, we present the sensitivity of the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect this spectral hardening. Using the full instrumental response functions of CTA, a combined likelihood analysis of four γ-ray sources shows that a significant detection of the ALP signal is possible for couplings g{sub aγ} ≳ 2 × 10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1} and ALP masses m{sub a} ∼< 100 neV. We discuss the dependency of these values on different model assumptions and magnetic-field scenarios and identify the best observation strategy to search for an ALP induced boost of the γ-ray flux.

  20. High-energy neutron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Michele Rhea

    2001-12-01

    Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for the radiation protection quantity effective dose were calculated for neutrons, photons and protons with energies up to 2 GeV using the MCNPX code. The calculations were performed using the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory versions of the MIRD-V male and female anthropomorphic phantoms modified to include the skin and esophagus. The latest high-energy neutron evaluated cross-section libraries and the recommendations given in ICRP Publication 60 and ICRP Publication 74 were utilized to perform the calculations. Sets of fluence-to- effective dose conversion coefficients are given for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left-lateral, right-lateral and rotational irradiation geometries. This is the first set of dose conversion coefficients over this energy range calculated for the L-LAT irradiation geometry. A unique set of high-energy neutron depth-dose benchmark experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center/Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE/WNR) complex. The experiments consisted of filtered neutron beams with energies up to 800 MeV impinging on a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 tissue-equivalent phantom. The absorbed dose was measured in the phantom at various depths with tissue-equivalent ion chambers. The phantom and the experimental set-up were modeled using MCNPX. Comparisons of the experimental and computational depth- dose distributions indicate that the absorbed dose calculated by MCNPX is within 13% for neutrons with energies up to 750 MeV. This experiment will serve as a benchmark experiment for the testing of high-energy radiation transport codes for the international radiation protection community.

  1. Inquiry-Based Educational Design for Large-Scale High School Astronomy Projects Using Real Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Michael; McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the theory behind the educational design used to implement a large-scale high school astronomy education project. This design was created in response to the realization of ineffective educational design in the initial early stages of the project. The new design follows an iterative improvement model where the materials…

  2. High energy density electrochemical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, J. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Primary cell has an anode of lithium, a cathode containing dihaloisocyanuric acid, and a nonaqueous electrolyte comprised of a solution of lithium perchlorate in methyl formate. It produces an energy density of 213 watt hrs/lb and can achieve a high current density.

  3. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  4. High Energy Astronomy Observatory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtalik, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    The series of three orbiting high energy astronomy observatories that comprise the HEAO program are described. Several unique designs as well as the attitude control and determination system, used for observatory scan rotation of the first and third missions and for precision pointing on the second mission, are analyzed. Attention is given to observatory requirements, design characteristics, and the RGA performance summary.

  5. Conference on the High Energy Radiation Background in Space, held in conjunction with IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference. Workshop record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following topics were dealt with: the high energy radiation background in space, cosmic rays, solar particle events, gamma-ray astronomical telescopes, detector noise due to background radiations, semiconductor particle counters, magnetosphere and radiation belts.

  6. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV.

  7. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  8. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  9. High-resolution broadband spectroscopy using externally dispersed interferometry at the Hale telescope: Part 1, data analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward H.; Sirk, Martin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lloyd, James P.; Ishikawa, Yuzo; McDonald, Eliza A.; Shourt, William V.; Vanderburg, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution broadband spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths (950 to 2450 nm) has been performed using externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) at the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Observations of stars were performed with the "TEDI" interferometer mounted within the central hole of the 200-in. primary mirror in series with the comounted TripleSpec near-infrared echelle spectrograph. These are the first multidelay EDI demonstrations on starlight, as earlier measurements used a single delay or laboratory sources. We demonstrate very high (10×) resolution boost, from original 2700 to 27,000 with current set of delays (up to 3 cm), well beyond the classical limits enforced by the slit width and detector pixel Nyquist limit. Significantly, the EDI used with multiple delays rather than a single delay as used previously yields an order of magnitude or more improvement in the stability against native spectrograph point spread function (PSF) drifts along the dispersion direction. We observe a dramatic (20×) reduction in sensitivity to PSF shift using our standard processing. A recently realized method of further reducing the PSF shift sensitivity to zero is described theoretically and demonstrated in a simple simulation which produces a 350× times reduction. We demonstrate superb rejection of fixed pattern noise due to bad detector pixels-EDI only responds to changes in pixel intensity synchronous to applied dithering. This part 1 describes data analysis, results, and instrument noise. A section on theoretical photon limited sensitivity is in a companion paper, part 2.

  10. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness, and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Scharmer, Göran B.

    2006-06-01

    The 1-meter Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) obtains images of the solar surface with an unprecedented resolution of 0.1 arcsec. It consists of a relatively slender tower with on top only the vacuum turret for reflecting downward the solar beam and no protective dome. This is a favourable situation to get good local seeing. Just in the case of some wind, seeing is best for daytime observations, therefore the precision bearings and drives of the elevation- and azimuth axis of the turret have to be stiff against wind. This requires line contact between the meshing teeth of the large gear wheel and the pinion. High preload forces to achieve line contact are not allowed because of appearing stick-slip effects. To reduce the risk on stick-slip a special design of the teeth for high stiffness combined with low friction and smooth transition from one tooth to the next was made. Furthermore, extreme precision in the fabrication was pursued such that relatively small contact forces give already line contact. This required a special order of the successive fabrication steps of the combination of bearing and gear teeth. An additional problem was the relatively thin section of the bearings required for a compact turret construction, needed for best local seeing and minimum wind load. Solutions for all these problems will be discussed. For the large gears the exceptional good DIN quality class 4 for the pitch precision and straightness plus direction of the teeth faces was achieved.

  11. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  12. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  13. High-resolution imaging of the Pluto-Charon system with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Adorf, H.-M.; Corrain, G.; Gemmo, A.; Greenfield, P.; Hainaut, O.; Hook, R. N.; Tholen, D. J.; Blades, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Images of the Pluto-Charon system were obtained with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) after the refurbishment of the telescope. The images are of superb quality, allowing the determination of radii, fluxes, and albedos. Attempts were made to improve the resolution of the already diffraction limited images by image restoration. These yielded indications of surface albedo distributions qualitatively consistent with models derived from observations of Pluto-Charon mutual eclipses.

  14. High-energy gamma radiation from Geminga observed by EGRET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J. M.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kwok, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has carried out extensive studies of the gamma-ray source Geminga. Following the detection of pulsed X-rays (Halpern and Holt 1992) from Geminga, Bertsch et al. (1992) reported the same 237 ms periodicity to be visible in the EGRET data. A full analysis of the Geminga source shows that the energy spectrum is compatible with a power law with a spectral index of -1.50 +/- 0.08 between 30 MeV and 2 GeV. A falloff relative to the power law is observed for energies above 2 GeV. Phase-resolved spectra also show power laws with high-energy cutoffs, but with significant variation of the spectral index with phase. No unpulsed emission is observed. No evidence for time variation was found within the EGRET observations.

  15. High-resolution digital brain atlases: a Hubble telescope for the brain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edward G; Stone, James M; Karten, Harvey J

    2011-05-01

    We describe implementation of a method for digitizing at microscopic resolution brain tissue sections containing normal and experimental data and for making the content readily accessible online. Web-accessible brain atlases and virtual microscopes for online examination can be developed using existing computer and internet technologies. Resulting databases, made up of hierarchically organized, multiresolution images, enable rapid, seamless navigation through the vast image datasets generated by high-resolution scanning. Tools for visualization and annotation of virtual microscope slides enable remote and universal data sharing. Interactive visualization of a complete series of brain sections digitized at subneuronal levels of resolution offers fine grain and large-scale localization and quantification of many aspects of neural organization and structure. The method is straightforward and replicable; it can increase accessibility and facilitate sharing of neuroanatomical data. It provides an opportunity for capturing and preserving irreplaceable, archival neurohistological collections and making them available to all scientists in perpetuity, if resources could be obtained from hitherto uninterested agencies of scientific support. PMID:21599693

  16. Development of high angular resolution x-ray telescopes based on slumped glass foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Borsa, F.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Zambra, A.; Parodi, G.; Martelli, F.; Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) were based on a large number of high quality segments, aiming at achieving a global spatial resolution better than 5” HEW while giving a large collecting area (around 3m2@ 1 keV). A study concerning the hot slumping of thin glass foils was started in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB), for the development of a replication technology based on glass material. The study is currently continuing even after the IXO program has been descoped and renamed ATHENA, in the perspective of using the technology under development for other future missions or applications. INAF-OAB efforts have been focused on the "Direct" slumping approach with convex moulds, meaning that during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface. The single mirror segments are made of thin glass plates (0.4 mm thick), with a reflecting area of 200 mm × 200 mm. The adopted integration process foresees the use of glass reinforcing ribs for bonding together the plates in such a way to form a rigid and stiff stack of segmented mirror shells; the stack is supported by a thick backplane. During the bonding process, the plates are constrained in close contact with the surface of a precisely figured integration master by the application of vacuum pump suction. In this way, the springback deformations and the low frequency errors still present in the plates' profile after slumping can be corrected. The status of the technology development is presented in this paper, together with the description and metrology of the prototypes already realized or under construction at the Observatory laboratories.

  17. Superorbital periodic modulation in wind-accretion high-mass X-ray binaries from swift burst alert telescope observations

    SciTech Connect

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-11-20

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418–4532, and IGR J16479–4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493–4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393–4643 (= AX J16390.4–4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1–6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  18. Superorbital Periodic Modulation in Wind-Accretion High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418-4532, and IGR J16479-4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493-4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393-4643 (= AX J16390.4-4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1-6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  19. Concepts for a high-resolution multi-object spectrograph for galactic archeology on the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Churilov, Vladimir; Ellis, Simon; Farrell, Tony; Freeman, Ken C.; Haynes, Roger; Horton, Anthony; Jones, Damien J.; Knight, Greg; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg; Waller, Lew

    2008-07-01

    Mapping out stellar families to trace the evolutionary star formation history of the Milky Way requires a spectroscopic facility able to deliver high spectral resolution (R>=30k) with both good wavelength coverage (~400 Ang) and target multiplex advantage (~400 per 2 degree field). Such a facility can survey 1,200,000 bright stars over 10,000 square degrees in about 400 nights with a 4-meter aperture telescope. Presented are the results of a conceptual design study for such a spectrograph, which is under development as the next major instrument for the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The current design (that builds upon the AAOmega system) makes use of a White Pupil collimator and an R3 echelle that is matched to the existing AAOmega cameras. The fibre slit can be reconfigured to illuminate the Pupil relay side of the collimator mirror bypassing the echelle, thus preserving the lower dispersion modes of the AAOmega spectrograph. Other spectrograph options initially considered include use of an anamorphic collimator that reduces the required dispersion to that achievable with VPH grating technology or possible use of a double-pass VPH grating.

  20. High-contrast imager for complex aperture telescopes (HiCAT): 3. first lab results with wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Egron, Sylvain; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Carlotti, Alexis; Long, Chris A.; Lajoie, Rachel; Soummer, Rémi

    2015-09-01

    HiCAT is a high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions in wavefront sensing, control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes. The pupil geometry of such observatories includes primary mirror segmentation, central obstruction, and spider vanes, which make the direct imaging of habitable worlds very challenging. The testbed alignment was completed in the summer of 2014, exceeding specifications with a total wavefront error of 12nm rms over a 18mm pupil. The installation of two deformable mirrors for wavefront control is to be completed in the winter of 2015. In this communication, we report on the first testbed results using a classical Lyot coronagraph. We also present the coronagraph design for HiCAT geometry, based on our recent development of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) with shaped-pupil type optimizations. These new APLC-type solutions using two-dimensional shaped-pupil apodizer render the system quasi-insensitive to jitter and low-order aberrations, while improving the performance in terms of inner working angle, bandpass and contrast over a classical APLC.

  1. CHIMERA: a wide-field, multi-colour, high-speed photometer at the prime focus of the Hale telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, L. K.; Hallinan, G.; Milburn, J.; Gardner, P.; Konidaris, N.; Singh, N.; Shao, M.; Sandhu, J.; Kyne, G.; Schlichting, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Caltech HIgh-speed Multi-colour camERA (CHIMERA) is a new instrument that has been developed for use at the prime focus of the Hale 200-inch telescope. Simultaneous optical imaging in two bands is enabled by a dichroic beam splitter centred at 567 nm, with Sloan u' and g' bands available on the blue arm and Sloan r', i' and z_s bands available on the red arm. Additional narrow-band filters will also become available as required. An electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector is employed for both optical channels, each capable of simultaneously delivering sub-electron effective read noise under multiplication gain and frame rates of up to 26 fps full frame (several 1000 fps windowed), over a fully corrected 5 × 5 arcmin field of view. CHIMERA was primarily developed to enable the characterization of the size distribution of sub-km Kuiper Belt Objects via stellar occultation, a science case that motivates the frame-rate, the simultaneous multi-colour imaging and the wide field of view of the instrument. In addition, it also has unique capability in the detection of faint near-Earth asteroids and will be used for the monitoring of short-duration transient and periodic sources, particularly those discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), and the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF).

  2. Effects of corotating interaction regions on ULYSSES high energy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Droege, W.; Kunow, H.; Raviart, A.

    1995-09-01

    Since June 1992 the Kiel Electron Telescope on board ULYSSES measures variations of more than 10% in the fluxes of high energy H and He showing a periodicity of about 26 days in coincidence with the passage of corotating interaction regions. (CIR). At low energies MeV protons are accelerated at the shocks of the CIRs. These effects are observed up to high southern latitudes, where the signature of a CIR is no longer visible in plasma or magnetic field data. After passing over the south polar cap ULYSSES has now returned to the solar equator and climbs up to the north pole. In this paper we study the relative intensity variations with latitude and the latitude dependence at solar distances smaller than ever studied before.

  3. Development of a mid-sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Robert A.

    2012-06-28

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based observatory for very high-energy (10 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays, planned for operation starting in 2018. It will be an array of dozens of optical telescopes, known as Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACTs), of 8 m to 24 m diameter, deployed over an area of more than 1 square km, to detect flashes of Cherenkov light from showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere by gamma rays. CTA will have improved angular resolution, a wider energy range, larger fields of view and an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current ACT arrays such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Several institutions have proposed a research and development program to eventually contribute 36 medium-sized telescopes (9 m to 12 m diameter) to CTA to enhance and optimize its science performance. The program aims to construct a prototype of an innovative, Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (SCT) design that will allow much smaller and less expensive cameras and much larger fields of view than conventional Davies-Cotton designs, and will also include design and testing of camera electronics for the necessary advances in performance, reliability and cost. We report on the progress of the mid-sized SCT development program.

  4. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  5. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  6. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  7. High energy electron positron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; UPSILON Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the UPSILON; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles.

  8. Qualification and Testing of a Large Hot Slumped Secondary Mirror for Schwarzschild-Couder Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodeghiero, G.; Giro, E.; Canestrari, R.; Pernechele, C.; Sironi, G.; Pareschi, G.; Lessio, L.; Conconi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) telescopes are based on highly aspherical optics, and they represent a novel design in the world of very high energy astrophysics. This work addresses the realization and the qualification of the secondary mirror for an SC telescope, named ASTRI, developed in the context of the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory. The discussion surveys the overall development from the early design concept to the final acceptance optical tests.

  9. High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

    2009-10-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored

  10. Thin monolithic glass shells for future high angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M. M.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most difficult requests to be accomplished from the technological point of view for next generation x-ray telescopes is to combine high angular resolution and effective area. A significant increase of effective area can be reached with high precision but at the same time thin (2-3 mm thickness for mirror diameters of 30-110 cm) glass mirror shells. In the last few years the Brera Observatory has lead a development program for realizing this kind of monolithic thin glass shell. The fused silica has been chosen as shell substrate due to its thermal and mechanical properties. To bring the mirror shells to the needed accuracy, we have adopted a deterministic direct polishing method (already used for past missions as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra) to ten time thinner shells. The technological challenge has been solved using a temporary stiffening structure that allows the handling and the machining of so thin glass shells. The results obtained with a prototype shell at an intermediate stage of its development (17'' HEW measured in full illumination mode with x-ray) indicate that the working concept is feasible and can be further exploited using the very large Ion Beam Facility available in our labs for the final high accuracy figuring of the thin shells. In this paper we present the required tolerances for the shell realization, the shells production chain flow and the ion beam facility up grading. Forecast on figuring time and expected performances of the figuring will also be given on the basis on the metrological data collected during past shell development.

  11. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badalà, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; de Pasquale, S.; di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Williams, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2008-04-01

    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.

  12. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-12-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  13. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  14. Optical properties of high-frequency radio sources from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Bannister, Keith W.; Chhetri, Rajan; Hancock, Paul J.; Johnston, Helen M.; Massardi, Marcella; Murphy, Tara

    2011-11-01

    Our current understanding of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes predominantly from studies at frequencies of 5 GHz and below. With the recent completion of the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey, we can now gain insight into the high-frequency radio properties of AGN. This paper presents supplementary information on the AT20G sources in the form of optical counterparts and redshifts. Optical counterparts were identified using the SuperCOSMOS data base and redshifts were found from either the 6dF Galaxy Survey or the literature. We also report 144 new redshifts. For AT20G sources outside the Galactic plane, 78.5 per cent have optical identifications and 30.9 per cent have redshift information. The optical identification rate also increases with increasing flux density. Targets which had optical spectra available were examined to obtain a spectral classification. There appear to be two distinct AT20G populations; the high luminosity quasars that are generally associated with point-source optical counterparts and exhibit strong emission lines in the optical spectrum, and the lower luminosity radio galaxies that are generally associated with passive galaxies in both the optical images and spectroscopic properties. It is suggested that these different populations can be associated with different accretion modes (cold-mode or hot-mode). We find that the cold-mode sources have a steeper spectral index and produce more luminous radio lobes, but generally reside in smaller host galaxies than their hot-mode counterparts. This can be attributed to the fact that they are accreting material more efficiently. Lastly, we compare the AT20G survey with the S-cubed semi-empirical (S3-SEX) models and conclude that the S3-SEX models need refining to correctly model the compact cores of AGN. The AT20G survey provides the ideal sample to do this.

  15. First light results from the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinis, Andrew; Anguiano, Borja; Asplund, Martin; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Barden, Sam; Birchall, Michael; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brzeski, Jurek; Cannon, Russell; Carollo, Daniela; Case, Scott; Casey, Andrew; Churilov, Vladimir; Warrick, Couch; Dean, Robert; De Silva, Gayandhi; D'Orazi, Valentina; Duong, Ly; Farrell, Tony; Fiegert, Kristin; Freeman, Kenneth; Gabriella, Frost; Gers, Luke; Goodwin, Michael; Gray, Doug; Green, Andrew; Heald, Ron; Heijmans, Jeroen; Ireland, Michael; Jones, Damien; Kafle, Prajwal; Keller, Stefan; Klauser, Urs; Kondrat, Yuriy; Kos, Janez; Lawrence, Jon; Lee, Steve; Mali, Slavko; Martell, Sarah; Mathews, Darren; Mayfield, Don; Miziarski, Stan; Muller, Rolf; Pai, Naveen; Patterson, Robert; Penny, Ed; Orr, David; Schlesinger, Katharine; Sharma, Sanjib; Shortridge, Keith; Simpson, Jeffrey; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg; Stafford, Darren; Staszak, Nicholas; Vuong, Minh; Waller, Lewis; de Boer, Elizabeth Wylie; Xavier, Pascal; Zheng, Jessica; Zhelem, Ross; Zucker, Daniel; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2015-07-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES, is a facility-class optical spectrograph for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). It is designed primarily for Galactic Archaeology, the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The goal of the GALAH survey is to reconstruct the mass assembly history of the Milky Way through a detailed chemical abundance study of one million stars. The spectrograph is based at the AAT and is fed by the existing 2dF robotic fiber positioning system. The spectrograph uses volume phase holographic gratings to achieve a spectral resolving power of 28,000 in standard mode and also provides a high-resolution mode ranging between 40,000 and 50,000 using a slit mask. The GALAH survey requires an SNR greater than 100 for a star brightness of V=14 in an exposure time of one hour. The total spectral coverage of the four channels is about 100 nm between 370 and 1000 nm for up to 392 simultaneous targets within the 2-degree field of view. HERMES has been commissioned over three runs, during bright time in October, November, and December 2013, in parallel with the beginning of the GALAH pilot survey, which started in November 2013. We present the first-light results from the commissioning run and the beginning of the GALAH survey, including performance results such as throughput and resolution, as well as instrument reliability.

  16. Measurement of the atmospheric ν μ energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, I.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1-200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ˜25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index γ meas=3.58±0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

  17. Pion exchange at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    The state of Regge pion exchange calculations for high-energy reactions is reviewed. Experimental evidence is summarized to show that (i) the pion trajectory has a slope similar to that of other trajectories; (ii) the pion exchange contribution can dominate contributions of higher trajectories up to quite a large energy; (iii) many two-body cross sections with large pion contributions can be fit only by models which allow for kinematical conspiracy at t=0. The theory of kinematic conspiracy is reviewed for two-body amplitudes, and calculations of the conspiring pion--Pomeron cut discussed. The author then summarizes recent work on pion exchange in Reggeized Deck models for multiparticle final states, with emphasis on the predictions of various models (with and without resonances) for phases of the partial wave amplitudes.

  18. Acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) for high precision tracking in telescope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Cai, Hua-Xiang; Huang, Yong-Mei; Ge, Liang; Tang, Tao; Su, Yan-Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jin-Ying; He, Dong; Du, Sheng-Ping; Ling, Yu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a cascade acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by a disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) method is proposed to improve the tracking precision of telescope systems. Telescope systems usually suffer some uncertain disturbances, such as wind load, nonlinear friction and other unknown disturbances. To ensure tracking precision, an acceleration feedback loop which can increase the stiffness of such a system is introduced. Moreover, to further improve the tracking precision, we introduce the DOC method which can accurately estimate the disturbance and compensate it. Furthermore, the analysis of tracking accuracy used by this method is proposed. Finally, a few comparative experimental results show that the proposed control method has excellent performance for reducing the tracking error of a telescope system.

  19. Magnetometer Application for GAMMA-400 Telescope Switching into the Mode with Increased Low Energy Charged Particles Intensity Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khyzhniak, E. V.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    GAMMA-400 is an international project of a high apogee orbital astrophysical observatory for studying the characteristics of high-energy gamma-emission, electrons/positrons and light nuclei fluxes. The energy range for γ-rays and electrons/positrons registration in the main aperture is from ∼0.1 GeV to ∼3.0 TeV. Also, this aperture allows high energy light nuclei fluxes characteristics investigation. Moreover, special aperture configuration allows registering of gamma-quanta, electrons (positrons) and light nuclei from the lateral directions too. The spacecraft GAMMA-400 orbit will be located in the Earth's magnetosphere and will pass front shock wave from magnetosphere interaction with the solar wind, turbulent-transition region, magnetopause and so on. During the satellite's movement through various Earth's magnetosphere regions its anticoincidence detectors will register high intensity fluxes of low energy charged particles captured by the magnetic field. The working area sections of GAMMA-400 detector systems used as anticoincidence shield are about 1 m2 each. The high intensity low energy charged particles flux influence on anticoincidence detectors should be taken into account during particle identification. This article presents a comparison between Earth's magnetosphere theoretical model according to SPENVIIS package and real data measured by detectors onboard THEMIS series satellites. The differences between these two datasets indicate that the calculated data are not sufficient to make short time predictions of variations of magnetic induction in the outer magnetosphere. A special trigger marker flag will be produced by GAMMA-400 counting and triggers signals formation system accordingly to the data of two onboard magnetometers. This flag's presence leads to special algorithms execution start, putting the plastic detectors into a dedicated working mode taking into account possible high count rates of external detector layers.

  20. Duke University high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  1. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David; Lewis, Jay

    2010-10-08

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  2. HETDEX: Measuring Dark Energy at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, G.; Komatsu, E.; Drory, N.; DePoy, D.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Fabricius, M.; Wisotzki, L.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies as tracers. The survey instrument, VIRUS, consists of 75 IFUs distributed across the 22-arcmin field of the upgraded 9.2-m HET. Each 50x50 sq. arcsec IFU is made up of 448 1.5-arcsec fibers, and feeds a pair of spectrographs with a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R 700. Each exposure gathers 33,600 spectra. The baseline survey will deliver spectra of 0.8M LAEs in a 9 cubic Gpc volume with 1.9 < z < 3.5, and 1M [OII] emitters with z < 0.48. We expect to measure both the Hubble parameter and angular diameter distance to better than 1%. HETDEX will provide a unique window on the evolution of dark energy.

  3. Rossi and high-energy astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, George W.

    2012-03-01

    The contributions of Bruno Rossi to high-energy astronomy began in Italy in the 1930s with investigations concerning the nature of cosmic rays in theory and in hands-on experiments at the universities of Florence and Padua. Recent discoveries had cast doubt on Robert Millikan's idea that the primary cosmic rays are gamma rays created in the production of the elements by fusion of hydrogen atoms in interstellar space. Rossi entered the field with a prediction published in 1930 of a difference between the intensity of cosmic rays from the east and the west that would occur if the primary cosmic rays were charged particles of one sign. In the same year he invented the first practical electronic coincidence circuit, which he used in a series of fundamental particle experiments and in an unsuccessful attempt to detect an east-west effect at Florence. Expecting by theory that the effect would be greater at high altitude near the equator, he took his experiment to Eritrea in 1934 where his measurements demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are predominantly positive particles. In the report of his expedition he also described his discovery of extensive cosmic-ray air showers. After WWII and his work at Los Alamos, Rossi resumed his cosmic-ray research, now at MIT, in a new style best described in his own words: ``Now I had the responsibility of an entire group, and what mattered was no longer my own work, but the work of the group.'' He suggested the new methods of ``density sampling'' and ``fast timing'' for air shower studies, and promoted their application in numerous experiments on the nature and origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. In 1959 he initiated and participated as a consultant in the work of Riccardo Giacconi that led to the discovery of the first x-ray star, Sco X-1, and the development of the first imaging x-ray telescopes. At MIT, members of the Rossi Cosmic Ray Group took the early steps in gamma-ray astronomy, first with balloon experiments

  4. Two suggested configurations for the Chinese space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-Qiang; Cui, Xiang-Qun

    2014-09-01

    China will establish a 2-meter space-based astronomical telescope. Its main science goals are performing a sky survey for research about dark matter and dark energy, and high resolution observations. Some experts suggest that this space telescope should be installed inside the Chinese space station. In accord with this suggestion we put forward our first configuration, i.e., to adopt a coudé system for this telescope. This coudé system comes from the Chinese 2.16m telescope's coudé system, which includes a relay mirror so that excellent image quality can be obtained. In our second configuration, we suggest that the whole space telescope fly freely as an independent satellite outside the space station. When it needs servicing, for example, changing instruments, refilling refrigerant or propellant, etc., this space telescope can fly near or even dock with the core space station. Although some space stations have had accompanying satellites, the one we propose is a space telescope that will be much larger than other accompanying satellites in terms of weight and volume. On the basis of the second configuration, we also put forward the following idea: the space station can be composed of several large independent modules if necessary.

  5. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  6. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  7. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  8. ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY SPECTRUM OF THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chkheidze, N.; Machabeli, G.; Osmanov, Z.

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we construct a self-consistent theory interpreting the observations from the MAGIC Cherenkov Telescope of the very high energy (VHE) pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar. In particular, on the basis of Vlasov's kinetic equation, we study the process of quasi-linear diffusion (QLD) developed by means of the cyclotron instability. This mechanism provides simultaneous generation of low (radio) and VHE (0.01-25 GeV) emission on light cylinder scales in one location of the pulsar magnetosphere. A different approach to the synchrotron emission is considered, giving the spectral index of the VHE emission ({beta} = 2) and the exponential cutoff energy (23 GeV) in good agreement with the observational data.

  9. High energy gamma ray results from the second small astronomy satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. F.; Tuemer, T.

    1974-01-01

    A high energy (35 MeV) gamma ray telescope employing a thirty-two level magnetic core spark chamber system was flown on SAS 2. The high energy galactic gamma radiation is observed to dominate over the general diffuse radiation along the entire galactic plane, and when examined in detail, the longitudinal and latitudinal distribution seem generally correlated with galactic structural features, particularly with arm segments. The general high energy gamma radiation from the galactic plane, explained on the basis of its angular distribution and magnitude, probably results primarily from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter.

  10. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  11. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  12. High Energy Neutrinos from the Cold: Status and Prospects of the IceCube Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Portello-Roucelle, Cecile; Collaboration, IceCube

    2008-02-29

    The primary motivation for building neutrino telescopes is to open the road for neutrino astronomy, and to offer another observational window for the study of cosmic ray origins. Other physics topics, such as the search for WIMPs, can also be developed with neutrino telescope. As of March 2008, the IceCube detector, with half of its strings deployed, is the world largest neutrino telescope taking data to date and it will reach its completion in 2011. Data taken with the growing detector are being analyzed. The results of some of these works are summarized here. AMANDA has been successfully integrated into IceCube data acquisition system and continues to accumulate data. Results obtained using only AMANDA data taken between the years 2000 and 2006 are also presented. The future of IceCube and the extensions in both low and high energy regions will finally be discussed in the last section.

  13. Catching GRBs with atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R. C.; Primack, J. R.; Bouvier, A.; Otte, A. N.

    2011-08-01

    Fermi has shown GRBs to be a source of >10 GeV photons. We present an estimate of the detection rate of GRBs with a next generation Cherenkov telescope. Our predictions are based on the observed properties of GRBs detected by Fermi, combined with the spectral properties and redshift determinations for the bursts population by instruments operating at lower energies. While detection of VHE emission from GRBs has eluded ground-based instruments thus far, our results suggest that ground-based detection may be within reach of the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), albeit with a low rate, 0.25-0.5/yr. Such a detection would help constrain the emission mechanism of gamma-ray emission from GRBs. Photons at these energies from distant GRBs are affected by the UV-optical background light, and a ground-based detection could also provide a valuable probe of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) in place at high redshift.

  14. Highlights from the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, H.

    2014-10-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest experiment in the Northern Hemisphere currently studying the origin and nature of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays above ˜1018 eV by measuring their energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions. It is located in the western desert of central Utah, USA. The TA detector consists of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters, deployed on a square grid of 1.2-km spacing that covers approximately 700 km2, and 38 fluorescence telescopes located at three sites looking over the surface array. The TA commenced hybrid observation with both sets of detectors in 2008. Here, we present recent results from these 5 years of data and outline our ongoing and near future plans.

  15. JSC Particle Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Particle Telescope. Schematic diagrams of the telescope geometry and an electronic block diagram of the detector telescopes' components are also described.

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    spectrum of primary cosmic rays M Nagano Analysis of the fluorescence emission from atmospheric nitrogen by electron excitation, and its application to fluorescence telescopes F Arqueros, F Blanco and J Rosado Observing ultra-high-energy cosmic particles from space: S-EUSO, the Super-Extreme Universe Space Observatory Mission A Santangelo and A Petrolini The JEM-EUSO mission Yoshiyuki Takahashi and the JEM-EUSO Collaboration Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays A A Ivanov, S P Knurenko and I Ye Sleptsov

  17. Is the massive star cluster Westerlund 2 double? - A high resolution multi-band survey with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Grebel, Eva K.; Bonanos, Alceste; Christian, Carol A.; de Mink, Selma; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo; Pasquali, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Westerlund 2 is one of the most massive young star clusters known in the Milky Way. Located in the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm, and containing more than 80 O-Type stars, Westerlund 2 is a perfect target to study the star formation process and feedback in the presence of massive stars as well as the possible triggering of star formation in the surrounding clouds. The close proximity (4.16 kpc) to the Sun, as well as the young age (<2.0 Myr) allow us to study star formation in detail at a high spatial resolution and makes it possible to determine the mass function of the cluster close to its initial state.We present results from our recent multi-band survey in the optical and near-infrared obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on board of the Hubble Space Telescope, covering an area of ~20 arcsec2.Combining Hα and Paβ line observations we were able to create a high resolution pixel-to-pixel map of the color excess E(B-V)g of the gas. We demonstrated that, as expected, the region is affected by significant differential reddening with a median value of E(B-V)g=1.87 mag, which is caused by the still present gas and dust of the HII region RCW49.After separating the cluster members from foreground contaminants we obtained for Westerlund 2 a pronounced pre-main-sequence population including a distinct turn-on region. The distance was inferred from the dereddened color-magnitude diagrams using Padova isochrones. It is in good agreement with the literature value of 4.16±0.33 kpc determined with spectroscopic data. By fitting the zero-age-main-sequence to two-color-diagrams we derived a value for the total-to-selective extinction of RV=3.78±0.125.Analyzing the spatial distribution of stars using a spatial number density map, we found that Westerlund 2 most likely consists of two clumps, namely the main body of Westerlund 2 and a less well populated one located to the North. We estimated the same age of 0.5-2.0 Myr for both clumps

  18. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 2 years of science operations, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope continues to survey the high-energy sky on a daily basis. In addition to the more than 1400 sources found in the first Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog (I FGL), new results continue to emerge. Some of these are: (1) Large-scale diffuse emission suggests possible activity from the Galactic Center region in the past; (2) a gamma-ray nova was found, indicating particle acceleration in this binary system; and (3) the Crab Nebula, long thought to be a steady source, has varied in the energy ranges seen by both Fermi instruments.

  19. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  20. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The theory and current status of materials research for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion are reviewed. Semiconductors are shown to be the preferred class of materials for this application. Optimization of the figure of merit of both broadband and narrow-band semiconductors is discussed as a function of temperature. Phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed, and basic material guidelines are given for reduction of thermal conductivity. Two general classes of materials show promise for high temperature figure of merit (Z) values, namely the rare earth chalcogenides and the boron-rich borides. The electronic transport properties of the rare earth chalcogenides are explicable on the basis of degenerate or partially degenerate n-type semiconductors. Boron and boron-rich borides exhibit p-type hopping conductivity, with detailed explanations proposed for the transport differing from compound to compound. Some discussion is presented on the reasons for the low thermal conductivities in these materials. Also, ZTs greater than one appear to have been realized at high temperature in many of these compounds.

  1. COROT telescope development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Thierry; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain

    2004-06-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the future COROT satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Space has proposed an original optical concept associated with a high performance baffle. From 2001, the LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) has placed the telescope development contract to Alcatel Space and is presently almost finished. Based on relevant material and efficient thermal control design, COROTEL should meet its ambitious performance and bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  2. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in the X-Ray Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph is of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 telescope being evaluated by engineers in the clean room of the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC was heavily engaged in the technical and scientific aspects, testing and calibration, of the HEAO-2 telescope The HEAO-2 was the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date. The X-Ray Calibration Facility was built in 1976 for testing MSFC's HEAO-2. The facility is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produced a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performance in space is predicted. The original facility contained a 1,000-foot long by 3-foot diameter vacuum tube (for the x-ray path) cornecting an x-ray generator and an instrument test chamber. Recently, the facility was upgraded to evaluate the optical elements of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  3. The Nature of Unidentified Galactic High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, Alberto; Reimer, Olaf; Thompson, David J.

    2001-10-01

    This is the first book dedicated to unidentified celestial gamma-ray sources. The launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory allowed the first all-sky surveys in gamma-rays, the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation. The Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope discovered more than 270 sources of high-energy protons, more than half of which are not identified with known celestial objects. Most of these objects belong to the Milky Way and more than one class of sources are present among the unidentified sources. Unravelling the nature of all these objects requires the combination of different sorts of instruments, like radio telescopes, optical telescopes, and X-ray satellites, together with the next generations of space and ground-based gamma-ray telescopes. This book presents the current knowledge on the subject and outlines strategies for identification of objects with current astronomical facilities. It provides a forward look by outlining the prospects of future generation gamma-ray telescopes. The contributions are detailed and represent valuable material for undergraduate and postgraduate astrophysics students and researchers in the field. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0010-3

  4. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  5. High energy beam lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Sterne, P.A.; Hartley, J.; Cowan, T.E.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a positron lifetime defect analysis capability based on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator. The high energy beam lifetime spectrometer is operational with a 60 mCi {sup 22}Na source providing a current of 7 10{sup 5} positrons per second. Lifetime data are derived from a thin plastic transmission detector providing an implantation time and a BaF{sub 2} detector to determine the annihilation time. Positron lifetime analysis is performed with a 3 MeV positron beam on thick sample specimens at counting rates in excess of 2000 per second. The instrument is being used for bulk sample analysis and analysis of samples encapsulated in controlled environments for in situ measurements.

  6. High energy femtosecond pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Philippe; Mironov, Sergey; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Payeur, Stéphane; Khazanov, Efim; Sergeev, Alexander; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Mourou, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    An original method for retrieving the Kerr nonlinear index was proposed and implemented for TF12 heavy flint glass. Then, a defocusing lens made of this highly nonlinear glass was used to generate an almost constant spectral broadening across a Gaussian beam profile. The lens was designed with spherical curvatures chosen in order to match the laser beam profile, such that the product of the thickness with intensity is constant. This solid-state optics in combination with chirped mirrors was used to decrease the pulse duration at the output of a terawatt-class femtosecond laser. We demonstrated compression of a 33 fs pulse to 16 fs with 170 mJ energy.

  7. Discovery of High-energy and Very High Energy γ-Ray Emission from the Blazar RBS 0413

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Coppi, P.; Cui, W.; Decerprit, G.; Dickherber, R.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Hawkins, K.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lee, K.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Palma, N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based γ-ray observatory, detected VHE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (σ) and a γ-ray flux of (1.5 ± 0.6stat ± 0.7syst) × 10-8 photons m-2 s-1 (~1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 ± 0.68stat ± 0.30syst. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9σ, a power-law photon index of 1.57 ± 0.12stat +0.11 - 0.12sys, and a γ-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 ± 0.43stat +0.31 - 0.22sys) × 10-5 photons m-2 s-1. We present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the γ-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.

  8. DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY AND VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLAZAR RBS 0413

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Decerprit, G.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Coppi, P.; Cui, W. E-mail: fortin@llr.in2p3.fr; and others

    2012-05-10

    We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based {gamma}-ray observatory, detected VHE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations ({sigma}) and a {gamma}-ray flux of (1.5 {+-} 0.6{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} ({approx}1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 {+-} 0.68{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub syst}. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9{sigma}, a power-law photon index of 1.57 {+-} 0.12{sub stat}+{sup 0.11}{sub -0.12sys}, and a {gamma}-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 {+-} 0.43{sub stat}{sup +0.31}{sub -0.22sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the {gamma}-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.

  9. Low Energy Building for High Energy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The Huston Huffman Center at the University of Oklahoma's Norman campus has a jogging track as well as facilities for exercise and court games that are fully accessible to the handicapped. The building is set eight feet in the ground both to reduce its bulk and to conserve energy. (Author/MLF)

  10. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  11. GroundBIRD: Observing Cosmic Microwave Polarization at Large Angular Scale with Kinetic Inductance Detectors and High-Speed Rotating Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Damayanthi, T.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Karatsu, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Otani, C.; Sekimoto, Y.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Yoshida, M.; Won, E.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an important source of information about the origin of our universe. In particular, odd-parity large angular scale patterns in the CMB polarization, the primordial B-modes, are strong evidence for an inflationary universe, related to the accelerating expansion of the metric. We are developing a unique telescope, GroundBIRD, to take CMB polarization measurements. The telescope combines novel techniques: high-speed rotation scanning, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We evaluated the response of MKIDs on the rotation stage. Method of shielding from the geo-magnetic field is established. We have also developed a receiver cryostat. We are able to maintain a sufficient cold status for observations on the optical configuration. We plan to start commissioning the system by observing CMB in Japan in 2015-2016. We will then deploy GroundBIRD in the Canary Islands for further scientific observations.

  12. THE MASS OF THE CANDIDATE EXOPLANET COMPANION TO HD 136118 FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY AND HIGH-PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martioli, Eder; McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz; Armstrong, Amber; Bean, Jacob L.; Harrison, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance sensor astrometry and high-cadence radial velocities for HD 136118 from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with archival data from Lick to determine the complete set of orbital parameters for HD 136118 b. We find an orbital inclination for the candidate exoplanet of i{sub b} = 163.{sup 0}1 +- 3.{sup 0}0. This establishes the actual mass of the object, M{sub b} = 42{sup +11}{sub -18} M{sub J} , in contrast to the minimum mass determined from the radial velocity data only, M{sub b} sin i approx 12 M{sub J} . Therefore, the low-mass companion to HD 136118 is now identified as a likely brown dwarf residing in the 'brown dwarf desert'.

  13. Two-telescope interferometric testbed to develop low-cost atmospheric correction techniques for high angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkner, Lyle G.; Percheron, Isabelle; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Sanchez, Darryl

    1998-07-01

    A two multi-r(subscript o) telescope interferometer was built at Air Force Research Lab in Albuquerque New Mexico as a development testbed. The principal objective of this testbed is to develop existing techniques and to test novel low-cost technologies for applications in future interferometers. These technologies include a tip/tilt piston mirror that has a 500-Hz bandwidth with a 200-wave adjustable piston capability at 633nm. This type of mirror has been installed on both telescopes and is used to track objects and scan for fringes. The data obtained on these objects will be used to determine algorithms for measuring fringe visibility at low light level. Additional technologies include liquid crystal devices that have been used to correct static aberrations in the optical system and will be used with a new wavefront sensing technique to correct low order atmospheric aberrations. The new wavefront sensor currently being developed in-house uses a GEN III intensifier optically coupled to a Dalsa camera to provide atmospheric correction on faint extended objects. The testbed will also be utilized to test single mode fiber optics as a replacement to traditional recombining optics. This will potentially reduce the cost and simplify the alignment of multi telescope interferometers.

  14. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  15. WIND MEASUREMENTS WITH HIGH-ENERGY DOPPLER LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petros, Mulugeta; Jirong, Yu; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Slingh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    Coherent lidars at 2-micron wavelengths from holmium or thulium solid-state lasers have been in use to measure wind for applications in meteorology, aircraft wake vortex tracking, and turbulence detection [1,2,3] These field-deployed lidars, however, have generally been of a pulse energy of a few millijoules, limiting their range capability or restricting operation to regions of high aerosol concentration such as the atmospheric boundary layer. Technology improvements in the form of high-energy pulsed lasers, low noise detectors, and high optical quality telescopes are being evaluated to make wind measurements to long ranges or low aerosol concentrations. This research is aimed at developing lidar technology for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The VALIDAR project was initiated to demonstrate a high pulse energy coherent Doppler lidar. VALIDAR gets its name from the concept of validation lidar, in that it can serve as a calibration and validation source for future airborne and spaceborne lidar missions. VALIDAR is housed within a mobile trailer for field measurements.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope high resolution spectroscoy of the exposed white dwarf in the dwarf nova VW Hydri in quiescence: A rapidly rotating white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Huang, Min; Szkody, Paula; Cheng, Fu-Hua

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a far-ultraviolet spectrum of the dwarf nova VW Hyi in quiescence, with the Hubble Space Telescope Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph covering the region of the Si iv lambda(lambda)1393, 1402 resonance doublet. The broad, shallow Si iv doublet feature is fully resolved, has a total equivalent width of 2.8 A, and is the first metal absorption feature to be clearly detected in the exposed white dwarf. Our synthetic spectral analysis, using a model grid constructed with the code TLUSTY, resulted in a reasonable fit to a white dwarf photosphere with T(sub eff) = 22,000 +/- 2000 K, log g = 8.0 +/- 0.3, an approximately solar Si/H abundance, and a rotational velocity, v sin i approximately equal to 600 km/s. This rotation rate, while not definitive because it is based upon just one line transition, is 20% of the Keplerian (breakup) velocity of the white dwarf and hence does not account for the unexpectedly low boundary-layer luminosity inferred from the soft-X-ray/extreme ultra-violet bands where most of the boundary-layer luminosity should be radiated. The predicted boundary-layer luminosity for a 0.6 solar mass white dwarf accreting at the rate 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr and rotating at 600 km/s, corresponding to VW Hyi in quiescence, is 2 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s when proper account is taken of the rotational kinetic energy going into spinning up the white dwarf. If the boundary-layer area is equal to that of the white dwarf, then T(sub bl) = 24,000 K. This is essentially identical to the photspheric luminosity and temperature determined in far-ultraviolet photospheric analyses. If the boundary-layer area is 10(exp -3) of the white dwarf surface area, then T(sub bl) = 136,000 K.

  17. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aartsen, M. G.

    2016-01-20

    This study presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECRmore » magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.« less

  18. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.

  19. Beam expander telescope design utilizing fast spherical primaries.

    PubMed

    Southwell, W H

    1979-04-15

    An exact geometrical ray analysis has been used to derive the profiles for telescope secondaries that perfectly recollimate beams incident on fast concave spherical mirrors. Both Cassegrainian and Gregorian configurations are possible. The high magnification designs tend to redistribute the energy profile and may be used, for example, to make Gaussian beams more uniform. PMID:20208915

  20. Beam expander telescope design utilizing fast spherical primaries.

    PubMed

    Southwell, W H

    1979-04-15

    An exact geometrical ray analysis has been used to derive the profiles for telescope secondaries that perfectly recollimate beams incident on fast concave spherical mirrors. Both Cassegrainian and Gregorian configurations are possible. The high magnification designs tend to redistribute the energy profile and may be used, for example, to make Gaussian beams more uniform.