Science.gov

Sample records for high fidelity system

  1. High-Fidelity Full System Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    2004-01-01

    High-fidelity full system simulations have the potential for revolutionizing the way complex systems, such as propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles, are designed, developed, manufactured, and operated. Significant time and cost savings will result from simulations that will resolve deleterious component interactions early in the design process. In addition, innovative new system configurations will result from the use of new tools that enable designers to challenge traditional rules and practices. The major challenges to developing and implementing high-fidelity systems simulations are in reducing the time and effort required to build, execute, and analyze data for the high complex simulations. In addition, large scale testing with unique instrumentation is required to validate the simulations. The solution to these problems reside in the application of advanced information technologies to assist the user to effectively manage, process, and synthesize the vast amount of data. The following presentation describes in more detail the benefits of high-fidelity full system simulations, the challenges to developing and implementing large scale simulations, and one approach that is being followed by the NASA Glenn Research Center to overcome these challenges. In addition, topics for discussion by the panel and audience are suggested.

  2. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  3. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOEpatents

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  4. High Fidelity System Modeling for High Quality Image Reconstruction in Clinical CT

    PubMed Central

    Do, Synho; Karl, William Clem; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep; Brady, Tom; Shin, Ellie; Pien, Homer

    2014-01-01

    Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging. PMID:25390888

  5. High Fidelity System Simulation of Multiple Components in Support of the UEET Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plybon, Ronald C.; VanDeWall, Allan; Sampath, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, Mahadevan; Mallina, Ramakrishna; Irani, Rohinton

    2006-01-01

    The High Fidelity System Simulation effort has addressed various important objectives to enable additional capability within the NPSS framework. The scope emphasized High Pressure Turbine and High Pressure Compressor components. Initial effort was directed at developing and validating intermediate fidelity NPSS model using PD geometry and extended to high-fidelity NPSS model by overlaying detailed geometry to validate CFD against rig data. Both "feedforward" and feedback" approaches of analysis zooming was employed to enable system simulation capability in NPSS. These approaches have certain benefits and applicability in terms of specific applications "feedback" zooming allows the flow-up of information from high-fidelity analysis to be used to update the NPSS model results by forcing the NPSS solver to converge to high-fidelity analysis predictions. This apporach is effective in improving the accuracy of the NPSS model; however, it can only be used in circumstances where there is a clear physics-based strategy to flow up the high-fidelity analysis results to update the NPSS system model. "Feed-forward" zooming approach is more broadly useful in terms of enabling detailed analysis at early stages of design for a specified set of critical operating points and using these analysis results to drive design decisions early in the development process.

  6. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-31

    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the

  7. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  8. Developing Capture Mechanisms and High-Fidelity Dynamic Models for the MXER Tether System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    A team consisting of collaborators from Tennessee Technological University (TTU), Marshall Space Flight Center, BD Systems, and the University of Delaware (herein called the TTU team) conducted specific research and development activities in MXER tether systems during the base period of May 15, 2004 through September 30, 2006 under contract number NNM04AB13C. The team addressed two primary topics related to the MXER tether system: 1) Development of validated high-fidelity dynamic models of an elastic rotating tether and 2) development of feasible mechanisms to enable reliable rendezvous and capture. This contractor report will describe in detail the activities that were performed during the base period of this cycle-2 MXER tether activity and will summarize the results of this funded activity. The primary deliverables of this project were the quad trap, a robust capture mechanism proposed, developed, tested, and demonstrated with a high degree of feasibility and the detailed development of a validated high-fidelity elastic tether dynamic model provided through multiple formulations.

  9. Overview of High-Fidelity Modeling Activities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulations (NPSS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A high-fidelity simulation of a commercial turbofan engine has been created as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Project. The high-fidelity computer simulation utilizes computer models that were developed at NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with turbofan engine manufacturers. The average-passage (APNASA) Navier-Stokes based viscous flow computer code is used to simulate the 3D flow in the compressors and turbines of the advanced commercial turbofan engine. The 3D National Combustion Code (NCC) is used to simulate the flow and chemistry in the advanced aircraft combustor. The APNASA turbomachinery code and the NCC combustor code exchange boundary conditions at the interface planes at the combustor inlet and exit. This computer simulation technique can evaluate engine performance at steady operating conditions. The 3D flow models provide detailed knowledge of the airflow within the fan and compressor, the high and low pressure turbines, and the flow and chemistry within the combustor. The models simulate the performance of the engine at operating conditions that include sea level takeoff and the altitude cruise condition.

  10. High-Fidelity Lattice Physics Capabilities of the SCALE Code System Using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing complexity in reactor designs suggests a need to reexamine of methods applied in spent-fuel characterization. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as space reactors and Generation IV power reactors also require calculational methods that provide accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory. New high-fidelity physics methods will be required to better understand the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light-water reactor designs. The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for reactor physics analysis. This paper provides a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations.

  11. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2004-12-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  12. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  14. Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magedanz, Jeffrey W.

    There has been a tendency in recent years toward greater heterogeneity in reactor cores, due to the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, burnable absorbers, and longer cycles with consequently higher fuel burnup. The resulting asymmetry of the neutron flux and energy spectrum between regions with different compositions causes a need to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, instead of the traditional diffusion approximation. Furthermore, the presence of both MOX and high-burnup fuel in the core increases the complexity of the heat conduction. The heat transfer properties of the fuel pellet change with irradiation, and the thermal and mechanical expansion of the pellet and cladding strongly affect the size of the gap between them, and its consequent thermal resistance. These operational tendencies require higher fidelity multi-physics modeling capabilities, and this need is addressed by the developments performed within this PhD research. The dissertation describes the development of a High-Fidelity Multi-Physics System for Light Water Reactor Analysis. It consists of three coupled codes -- CTF for Thermal Hydraulics, TORT-TD for Neutron Kinetics, and FRAPTRAN for Fuel Performance. It is meant to address these modeling challenges in three ways: (1) by resolving the state of the system at the level of each fuel pin, rather than homogenizing entire fuel assemblies, (2) by using the multi-group Discrete Ordinates method to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, and (3) by using a fuel-performance code, rather than a Thermal Hydraulics code's simplified fuel model, to account for the material behavior of the fuel and its feedback to the hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the system. While the first two are improvements, the third, the use of a fuel-performance code for feedback, constitutes an innovation in this PhD project. Also important to this work is the manner in which such coupling is written. While coupling involves combining

  15. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  16. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  17. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-06-13

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  18. High-fidelity stack and system modeling for tubular solid oxide fuel cell system design and thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.; Colclasure, A. M.; Goldin, G.

    Effective thermal integration of system components is critical to the performance of small-scale (<10 kW) solid oxide fuel cell systems. This paper presents a steady-state design and simulation tool for a highly-integrated tubular SOFC system. The SOFC is modeled using a high fidelity, one-dimensional tube model coupled to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Recuperative heat exchange between SOFC tail-gas and inlet cathode air and reformer air/fuel preheat processes are captured within the CFD model. Quasi one-dimensional thermal resistance models of the tail-gas combustor (TGC) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) complete the balance of plant (BoP) and SOFC coupling. The simulation tool is demonstrated on a prototype 66-tube SOFC system with 650 W of nominal gross power. Stack cooling predominately occurs at the external surface of the tubes where radiation accounts for 66-92% of heat transfer. A strong relationship develops between the power output of a tube and its view factor to the relatively cold cylinder wall surrounding the bundle. The bundle geometry yields seven view factor groupings which correspond to seven power groupings with tube powers ranging from 7.6-10.8 W. Furthermore, the low effectiveness of the co-flow recuperator contributes to lower tube powers at the bundle outer periphery.

  19. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  20. High-fidelity video and still-image communication based on spectral information: natural vision system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Haneishi, Hideaki; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Junko; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Masaru; Iwama, Ryo; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the great advancement of high-resolution and large-screen imaging technology, the issue of color is now receiving considerable attention as another aspect than the image resolution. It is difficult to reproduce the original color of subject in conventional imaging systems, and that obstructs the applications of visual communication systems in telemedicine, electronic commerce, and digital museum. To breakthrough the limitation of conventional RGB 3-primary systems, "Natural Vision" project aims at an innovative video and still-image communication technology with high-fidelity color reproduction capability, based on spectral information. This paper summarizes the results of NV project including the development of multispectral and multiprimary imaging technologies and the experimental investigations on the applications to medicine, digital archives, electronic commerce, and computer graphics.

  1. Fidelity Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1999-01-01

    Many modeling, simulation and performance analysis studies of sampled imaging systems are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model that only accounts for blurring during image acquisition and additive noise. For those sampled imaging systems where the effects of digital image acquisition, digital filtering and reconstruction are significant, the modeling, simulation and performance analysis should be based on a more comprehensive continuous-input, discrete-processing, continuous-output end-to-end model. This more comprehensive model should properly account for the low-pass filtering effects of image acquisition prior to sampling, the potentially important noiselike effects of the aliasing caused by sampling, additive noise due to device electronics and quantization, the generally high-boost filtering effects of digital processing, and the low-pass filtering effects of image reconstruction. This model should not, however, be so complex as to preclude significant mathematical analysis, particularly the mean-square (fidelity) type of analysis so common in linear system theory. We demonstrate that, although the mathematics of such a model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete fidelity-metric analysis at both the component level and at the end-to-end system level: that is, computable mean-square-based fidelity metrics are developed by which both component-level and system-level performance can be quantified. In addition, we demonstrate that system performance can be assessed qualitatively by visualizing the output image as the sum of three component images, each of which relates to a corresponding fidelity metric. The cascaded, or filtered, component accounts for the end-to-end system filtering of image acquisition, digital processing, and image reconstruction; the random noise component accounts for additive random noise, modulated by digital processing and image

  2. High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

  3. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  4. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  5. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGall, James

    2014-10-01

    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  6. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  7. Finding the Needle in the Haystack: High-Fidelity Models of Planetary Systems for Simulating Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincowski, Andrew; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Christopher C.; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Nesvold, Erika; Haystacks Team

    2015-01-01

    Future missions to characterize exoplanets will require instruments tailored to the problem of finding a habitable exoplanet: suppressing the bright star while still directly observing planets at small angular separations. This problem is compounded by interplanetary dust, which will likely be a significant source of astrophysical background noise. Instrument parameters must be constrained with detailed performance simulations, which must then be analyzed to determine if the instruments are capable of discerning the desired exoplanet characteristics. One valuable characteristic is the mass of the planet. A constraint on a planet's mass can quickly show if it is likely to be a rocky terrestrial planet, which may have the potential to form life as we know it. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the masses of small planets with traditional indirect techniques (e.g. radial velocity).A planet's gravitational effects on nearby interplanetary dust (or 'exozodi') can be more easily observed than the planet itself. A single observation of a planetary disk could constrain the mass of an exoplanet if the dust distribution varies sufficiently to be distinguished by future instruments. The NASA Haystacks team (PI: A. Roberge) has completed preliminary high-fidelity spectral image cubes of our entire Solar System at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, including star & planet spectra and scattered light from dust. In addition to these models, we present new planetary system architectures designed to test whether we can distinguish between mini-Neptune-mass planets and Earth-mass planets by their effects on the dust structure. These spectral image cubes will be processed through instrument simulators, allowing comparison of known disk structure with simulated observations of the disk. The results will help inform future exoplanet telescope missions in development (e.g. WFIRST/AFTA and ATLAST).Spectral image cubes will be available for download from a NASA website once

  8. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  9. High-fidelity synthetic IR imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Michael; Drake, Richard

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a High Fidelity Synthetic IR Imaging Model which attempts to generate accurate static images as would be seen by a defined IR sensor given the target type and the atmospheric conditions. The model attempts to be quite general in its accommodation of physical processes yet maintain radiometric accuracy. Its main application are to assist in the validation of real-time IR scene generation software, and as a tool which can be used for range performance studies of electro-optical systems. The software model allows facet modeling of targets including temperature profiles and material properties. LOWTRAN/MODTRAN is used to provide atmospheric data for transmittance and self-radiation. Optical systems are described in terms of their transmittance and point spread function, both as functions of wavelength, and a self radiation term having temperature and material properties. At each wavelength desired the model generates descriptions of the flux distribution falling on the focal plane of the sensor system. The flux from different sources is added together to form the total flux distribution on the focal plane. Pixels on the focal plane are modeled by groups of facets with associated material properties allowing the shape and wavelength sensitivity to be expressed. The raw pixel output is obtained by integrating the flux distribution over the component facets and across wavelengths. Following non-uniformity modeling a convolution is applied which models readout smearing. Bandlimited noise is then added. The model is also able to generate and apply a matched filter to the output image. The model is designed to use common commercial software tools such as Multigen for target modeling and Open GL for the rendering. The model currently executes on Silicon Graphics hardware.

  10. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph; Williams, Brian; Figueroa, Victor

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  12. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  13. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  14. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result.

  15. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  16. Complete tomography of a high-fidelity solid-state entangled spin-photon qubit pair.

    PubMed

    De Greve, Kristiaan; McMahon, Peter L; Yu, Leo; Pelc, Jason S; Jones, Cody; Natarajan, Chandra M; Kim, Na Young; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert H; Forchel, Alfred; Fejer, M M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Entanglement between stationary quantum memories and photonic qubits is crucial for future quantum communication networks. Although high-fidelity spin-photon entanglement was demonstrated in well-isolated atomic and ionic systems, in the solid-state, where massively parallel, scalable networks are most realistically conceivable, entanglement fidelities are typically limited due to intrinsic environmental interactions. Distilling high-fidelity entangled pairs from lower-fidelity precursors can act as a remedy, but the required overhead scales unfavourably with the initial entanglement fidelity. With spin-photon entanglement as a crucial building block for entangling quantum network nodes, obtaining high-fidelity entangled pairs becomes imperative for practical realization of such networks. Here we report the first results of complete state tomography of a solid-state spin-photon-polarization-entangled qubit pair, using a single electron-charged indium arsenide quantum dot. We demonstrate record-high fidelity in the solid-state of well over 90%, and the first (99.9%-confidence) achievement of a fidelity that will unambiguously allow for entanglement distribution in solid-state quantum repeater networks.

  17. Paleomagnetic recording fidelity of nonideal magnetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Muxworthy, Adrian R; Krása, David; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74–333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Key Points Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field direction Weak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences PMID:26300699

  18. Body-Sized Wideband High Fidelity Invisibility Cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Nathan

    2012-09-01

    A human-sized microwave invisibility cloak has been realized. The invisibility cloak uses fractal metamaterials with two cloaking layers to achieve a high fidelity re-attainment of the intensity of an unobstructed direct path over a better than 50% bandwidth. A human subject was cloaked demonstrating a new milestone in diverted imaging capabilities: electrically large; high fidelity; and broad bandwidth. Transformational optics must now be considered less limiting in the guidance of practical applications.

  19. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant at must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get a high fidelity simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  20. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso

    2012-06-01

    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  1. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-15

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from {epsilon} to {approx}{epsilon}{sup 2}. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  2. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures, mechanisms, and processes to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application-dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry while abrasion of some metal components may be highly dependent on trace components. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant it must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get an accurate simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  3. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  4. New high fidelity polymerases from Thermococcus species.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate; Nayak, Sunil; Park, Kyusung; Mandelman, David; Modrell, Brett; Lee, Jun; Ng, Bernie; Gibbs, Moreland D; Bergquist, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    Two DNA polymerase genes have been isolated from Thermococcus strains, Thermococcus zilligii from New Zealand, and the other, Thermococcus 'GT', a fast-growing strain isolated from the Galapagos trench. Both genes were isolated by genomic walking PCR, a technique that does not require expression of the gene product. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA showed that the two strains were not closely related, as confirmed by an examination of the DNA polymerase sequences. Inteinless versions of each gene were generated by overlap-extension PCR and transferred into plasmid expression vectors. The proteins were produced in an Escherichia coli strain with additional copies of tRNAs corresponding to rarely used codons and purified by standard chromatographic procedures. Both enzymes were able to support PCR, but the Thermococcus 'GT' polymerase required higher concentrations of template than the enzyme from T. zilligii. Both enzymes showed 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which was abolished in the case of T. zilligii by mutating the aspartic acid at position 141 and the glutamic acid at position 143 to alanine. Both enzymes showed a significant increase in fidelity of replication compared to the family A Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase, in agreement with other results reported for family B polymerases with proof-reading ability. PMID:16982200

  5. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  6. Derivation Of Probabilistic Damage Definitions From High Fidelity Deterministic Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L D

    2004-10-26

    This paper summarizes a methodology used by the Underground Analysis and Planning System (UGAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the derivation of probabilistic damage curves for US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). UGAPS uses high fidelity finite element and discrete element codes on the massively parallel supercomputers to predict damage to underground structures from military interdiction scenarios. These deterministic calculations can be riddled with uncertainty, especially when intelligence, the basis for this modeling, is uncertain. The technique presented here attempts to account for this uncertainty by bounding the problem with reasonable cases and using those bounding cases as a statistical sample. Probability of damage curves are computed and represented that account for uncertainty within the sample and enable the war planner to make informed decisions. This work is flexible enough to incorporate any desired damage mechanism and can utilize the variety of finite element and discrete element codes within the national laboratory and government contractor community.

  7. Fidelity spectrum and phase transitions of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sacramento, P. D.; Vieira, V. R.; Paunkovic, N.

    2011-12-15

    Quantum fidelity between two density matrices F({rho}{sub 1},{rho}{sub 2}) is usually defined as the trace of the operator F={radical}({radical}({rho}{sub 1}){rho}{sub 2}{radical}({rho}{sub 1})). We study the logarithmic spectrum of this operator, which we denote by the fidelity spectrum, in the cases of the XX spin chain in a magnetic field, a magnetic impurity inserted in a conventional superconductor, and a bulk superconductor at finite temperature. When the density matrices are equal, {rho}{sub 1}={rho}{sub 2}, the fidelity spectrum reduces to the entanglement spectrum. We find that the fidelity spectrum can be a useful tool in giving a detailed characterization of the different phases of many-body quantum systems.

  8. High-fidelity teleportation between light and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Polzik, E. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-12-15

    We show how high-fidelity quantum teleportation of light to atoms can be achieved in the same setup as was used in the recent experiment [J. Sherson et al., Nature 443, 557, 2006], where such an interspecies quantum state transfer was demonstrated for the first time. Our improved protocol takes advantage of the rich multimode entangled structure of the state of atoms and scattered light and requires simple postprocessing of homodyne detection signals and squeezed light in order to achieve fidelities up to 90% (85%) for teleportation of coherent (qubit) states under realistic experimental conditions. The remaining limitation is due to atomic decoherence and light losses.

  9. Competency: Does High Fidelity Simulation Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Alice M.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation is a well documented adjunctive teaching method in medical and nurse practitioner programs, but few studies of effectiveness on this technology on the development of competency have emphasized pre-licensure associate degree level programs. This study explored student competency in the application of the nursing process…

  10. High Fidelity: Investing in Evaluation Training. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    High-quality training is a crucial investment in establishing and maintaining implementation fidelity as well as building educators' trust in the new process. Training approaches for educator evaluation vary both in format (i.e., how it's delivered) and content (i.e., what is provided). Train-the-trainer sessions, online professional learning…

  11. Image-gathering system design for information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Image gathering and processing are assessed in terms of information and fidelity, and the relationship between these two figures of merit is examined. It is assumed that the system is linear and isoplanatic and that the signal and noise amplitudes are Gaussian, wide-sense stationary, and statistically independent. Within these constraints, it is found that the combined process of image gathering and reconstruction (which is intended to reproduce the output of the image-gathering system) behaves as optical, or photographic, image formation in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system ordinarily does not maximize the fidelity of the reconstructed image. The combined process of image gathering and restoration (which is intended to reproduce the input of the image-gathering system) behaves more as a communication channel in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system tends to maximize the fidelity of optimally restored representations of the input.

  12. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  13. High fidelity simulation of transcritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteriou, Marios; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Davis, Dustin

    2012-11-01

    Transcritical injection of a multi-component fluid occurs in many practical applications such as diesel and rocket engines. In this type of injection a liquid fuel at a supercritical pressure but subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where conditions are supercritical. The convoluted physics of the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state is linked to thermodynamic property variations and poses challenges to numerical simulation. For example, the temporary presence of surface tension implies that both the subcritical liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid need to be captured. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical, quiescent gaseous environment is performed. A coupled level set and volume of fluid method is adopted to capture the liquid-vapor interface, across which the continuity of mass and energy fluxes is preserved. The fluid state over the range of subcritical liquid to supercritical fluid is determined by incorporating the Peng-Robinson equation of state. To efficiently account for the sharp changes in properties near the liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. Analysis of results focuses on the impact of vanishing surface tension as conditions transition from sub-critical to supercritical.

  14. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  15. Small convolution kernels for high-fidelity image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for computing the mean-square-optimal values for small, image-restoration kernels. The algorithm is based on a comprehensive, end-to-end imaging system model that accounts for the important components of the imaging process: the statistics of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and display reconstruction. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernel values that restore the image with maximum fidelity, that is, the kernel minimizes the expected mean-square restoration error. The algorithm is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained kernel that, unlike the unconstrained filter, can be efficiently implemented by convolution. Simulation experiments demonstrate that for a wide range of imaging systems these small kernels can restore images with fidelity comparable to images restored with the unconstrained Wiener filter.

  16. Verification of generic fidelity recovery in a dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Carlos; Schäfer, Rudi; Prosen, Tomaž; Seligman, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We study the time evolution of fidelity in a dynamical many-body system, namely, a kicked Ising model, modified to allow for a time-reversal invariance breaking. We find good agreement with the random matrix predictions in the realm of strong perturbations. In particular for the time-reversal symmetry breaking case the predicted revival at the Heisenberg time is clearly seen.

  17. Simulation System Fidelity Assessment at the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Steven D.; Reardon, Scott E.; Tobias, Eric L.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity is a word that is often used but rarely understood when talking about groundbased simulation. Assessing the cueing fidelity of a ground based flight simulator requires a comparison to actual flight data either directly or indirectly. Two experiments were conducted at the Vertical Motion Simulator using the GenHel UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter math model that was directly compared to flight data. Prior to the experiment the simulator s motion and visual system frequency responses were measured, the aircraft math model was adjusted to account for the simulator motion system delays, and the motion system gains and washouts were tuned for the individual tasks. The tuned motion system fidelity was then assessed against the modified Sinacori criteria. The first experiments showed similar handling qualities ratings (HQRs) to actual flight for a bob-up and sidestep maneuvers. The second experiment showed equivalent HQRs between flight and simulation for the ADS33 slalom maneuver for the two pilot participants. The ADS33 vertical maneuver HQRs were mixed with one pilot rating the flight and simulation the same while the second pilot rated the simulation worse. In addition to recording HQRs on the second experiment, an experimental Simulation Fidelity Rating (SFR) scale developed by the University of Liverpool was tested for applicability to engineering simulators. A discussion of the SFR scale for use on the Vertical Motion Simulator is included in this paper.

  18. Optical metrology for high fidelity LCD-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Michael E.; Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2006-02-01

    The current status of optical metrology of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is reviewed in general and shortcomings of characterization of the visual performance of LCD-screens when high visual fidelity is a prime issue are described. We introduce instrumentation, procedures and evaluations for assessment of the visual properties of LCD-TV screens as a solid basis for a clear and objective rating of their performance. Identification of visual artifacts, color and gray-scale fidelity over the complete viewing-cone and under realistic ambient illumination as well as balanced response times between gray-levels are topics of this paper. A novel approach for scanning of the viewing-directions with simultaneous acquisition of 9 spectra is introduced as a solution for the dilemma of speed of measurement and colorimetric precision.

  19. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated. PMID:26553110

  20. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-11-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated.

  1. Designing High Fidelity Simulation to Maximize Student Registered Nursing Decision-Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The current healthcare environment is a complex system of patients, procedures, and equipment that strives to deliver safe and effective medical care. High fidelity simulation provides healthcare educators with a tool to create safety conscious practitioners utilizing an environment that replicates practice without risk to patients. Using HFS…

  2. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  3. Simulation Basics: How to Conduct a High-Fidelity Simulation.

    PubMed

    Willhaus, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Well-planned and conducted health care simulation scenarios provide opportunities for staff development in areas such as communication, patient care, and teamwork. Consideration of resources, the location for the training, preparation of learners, and use of either a high-fidelity mannequin or a trained actor (eg, a standardized patient) are all part of the operational attentions needed to conduct a simulation training scenario. In order for participants to meet training objectives, the execution of the simulation session must be both planned and purposeful. PMID:26909456

  4. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael J.; Andrew McCammon, J.

    2008-05-19

    In this paper, we describe a combination of algorithms for high-fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). Finally, the availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  5. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol

    2010-09-01

    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice.

  6. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. PMID:25545143

  7. High Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Flow through Turbopumps and Flowliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter LH2 feedline flowliner. Computations were performed on the Columbia platform which is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processor each. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  8. High-fidelity one-qubit operations under random telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Moettoenen, Mikko; Sousa, Rogerio de; Zhang Jun; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2006-02-15

    We address the problem of implementing high-fidelity one-qubit operations subject to time-dependent noise in the qubit energy splitting. We show with explicit numerical results that high-fidelity bit flip operations may be generated by imposing bounded control fields. For noise correlation times shorter than the time for a {pi} pulse, the time-optimal {pi} pulse itself yields the highest fidelity. For very long correlation times, fidelity loss is approximately due to systematic error, which is efficiently tackled by compensation for off resonance with a pulse sequence (CORPSE). For intermediate ranges of the noise correlation time, we find that short CORPSE, which is less accurate than CORPSE in correcting systematic errors, yields higher fidelities. Numerical optimization of the pulse sequences using gradient ascent pulse engineering results in noticeable improvement of the fidelity for a bit flip operation on the computational basis states and a small but still positive fidelity enhancement for the NOT gate.

  9. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  10. Process to Create High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to create high-fidelity lunar dust simulants that better match the unique properties of lunar dust than the existing simulants. The new dust simulant is designed to more closely approximate the size, morphology, composition, and other important properties of lunar dust (including the presence of nanophase iron). A two-step process is required to create this dust simulant. The first step is to prepare a feedstock material that contains a high percentage of agglutinate-like particles with iron globules (including nanophase iron). The raw material selected must have the proper mineralogical composition. In the second processing step, the feedstock material from the first step is jet-milled to reduce the particle size to a range consistent with lunar dust.

  11. Classical broadcasting is possible with arbitrarily high fidelity and resolution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas A; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2007-02-23

    We quantify the resolution with which any probability distribution may be distinguished from a displaced copy of itself in terms of a characteristic width. This width, which we call the resolution, is well defined for any normalizable probability distribution. We use this concept to study the broadcasting of classical probability distributions. Ideal classical broadcasting creates two (or more) output random variables each of which has the same distribution as the input random variable. We show that the universal broadcasting of probability distributions may be achieved with arbitrarily high fidelities for any finite resolution. By restricting probability distributions to any finite resolution we have therefore shown that the classical limit of quantum broadcasting is consistent with the actual classical case.

  12. The theatre of high-fidelity simulation education.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Greene, Leah

    2011-10-01

    High-fidelity simulation is a useful mechanism to aid progression, development and skill acquisition in nurse education. However, nurse lecturers are daunted by sophisticated simulation technology. This paper presents a new method of introducing human patient simulation to students and educators, whilst seeking to demystify the roles, responsibilities and underpinning pedagogy. The analogy of simulation as theatre outlines the concepts of the theatre and stage (simulation laboratory); the play itself (Simulated Clinical Experience, SCE); the actors (nursing students); audience (peer review panel); director (session facilitator); and the production team (technical coordinators). Performing in front of people in a safe environment, repeated practice and taking on a new role teaches students to act, think and be like a nurse. This in turn supports student learning and enhances self confidence.

  13. Hand ultrasound: a high-fidelity simulation of lung sliding.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Simulation training has been effectively used to integrate didactic knowledge and technical skills in emergency and critical care medicine. In this article, we introduce a novel model of simulating lung ultrasound and the features of lung sliding and pneumothorax by performing a hand ultrasound. The simulation model involves scanning the palmar aspect of the hand to create normal lung sliding in varying modes of scanning and to mimic ultrasound features of pneumothorax, including "stratosphere/barcode sign" and "lung point." The simple, reproducible, and readily available simulation model we describe demonstrates a high-fidelity simulation surrogate that can be used to rapidly illustrate the signs of normal and abnormal lung sliding at the bedside.

  14. Observational Requirements for High-Fidelity Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Peterson, Bradley M.; Collier, Stefan J.; Netzer, Hagai

    2004-01-01

    We present a series of simulations to demonstrate that high-fidelity velocity-delay maps of the emission-line regions in active galactic nuclei can be obtained from time-resolved spectrophotometric data sets like those that will arise from the proposed Kronos satellite. While previous reverberation-mapping experiments have established the size scale R of the broad emission-line regions from the mean time delay tau = R/c between the line and continuum variations and have provided strong evidence for supermassive black holes, the detailed structure and kinematics of the broad-line region remain ambiguous and poorly constrained. Here we outline the technical improvements that will be required to successfully map broad-line regions by reverberation techniques. For typical AGN continuum light curves, characterized by power-law power spectra P (f) is proportional to f(exp -alpha) with a = -1.5 +/- 0.5, our simulations show that a small UV/optical spectrometer like Kronos will clearly distinguish between currently viable alternative kinematic models. From spectra sampled at time intervals Delta t and sustained for a total duration T(sub dur), we can reconstruct high-fidelity velocity-delay maps with velocity resolution comparable to that of the spectra, and delay resolution Delta tau approx. 2 Delta t, provided T(sub dur) exceeds the broad-line region light crossing time by at least a factor of three. Even very complicated kinematical models, such as a Keplerian flow with superimposed spiral wave pattern, are resolved in maps from our simulated Kronos datasets. Reverberation mapping with Kronos data is therefore likely deliver the first clear maps of the geometry and kinematics in the broad emission-line regions 1-100 microarcseconds from supermassive black holes.

  15. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    To account for the thermal and chemical effects associated with the high CO2 concentrations in an oxy-combustion atmosphere, several refined gas-phase chemistry and radiative property models have been formulated for laminar to highly turbulent systems. This thesis examines the accuracies of several chemistry and radiative property models employed in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar to transitional oxy-methane diffusion flames by comparing their predictions against experimental data. Literature review about chemistry and radiation modeling in oxy-combustion atmospheres considered turbulent systems where the predictions are impacted by the interplay and accuracies of the turbulence, radiation and chemistry models. Thus, by considering a laminar system we minimize the impact of turbulence and the uncertainties associated with turbulence models. In the first section of this thesis, an assessment and validation of gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model in oxy-combustion scenarios was undertaken. Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. However, there were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The results of this section confirm that non-gray model predictions of radiative heat fluxes are more accurate than gray model predictions especially at steeper temperature gradients. In the second section, the accuracies of three gas-phase chemistry models were assessed by comparing their predictions against experimental measurements of temperature, species concentrations and flame lengths. The chemistry was modeled employing the Eddy

  16. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    PubMed

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  17. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    PubMed

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice. PMID:23348775

  18. Biosensor architectures for high-fidelity reporting of cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C; Vaux, David J; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-08-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling.

  19. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming <60 milliWatts. Furthermore, even though it is manufactured in a commercial 0.25-.mu.m CMOS technology (1 .mu.m=12.sup.-6 meters), it maintains this performance in harsh radiation environments. Specifically, the stated performance is sustained through a highest tested 2 megarad(Si) total dose, and the ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  20. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  1. Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Sean D.; Kok, Pieter

    2005-06-15

    We propose a practical, scalable, and efficient scheme for quantum computation using spatially separated matter qubits and single-photon interference effects. The qubit systems can be nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, Pauli-blockade quantum dots with an excess electron, or trapped ions with optical transitions, which are each placed in a cavity and subsequently entangled using a double-heralded single-photon detection scheme. The fidelity of the resulting entanglement is extremely robust against the most important errors such as detector loss, spontaneous emission, and mismatch of cavity parameters. We demonstrate how this entangling operation can be used to efficiently generate cluster states of many qubits, which, together with single-qubit operations and readout, can be used to implement universal quantum computation. Existing experimental parameters indicate that high-fidelity clusters can be generated with a moderate constant overhead.

  2. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W.; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  3. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  4. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  5. The Creation of a CPU Timer for High Fidelity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Aidan A.

    2011-01-01

    Using C and C++ programming languages, a tool was developed that measures the efficiency of a program by recording the amount of CPU time that various functions consume. By inserting the tool between lines of code in the program, one can receive a detailed report of the absolute and relative time consumption associated with each section. After adapting the generic tool for a high-fidelity launch vehicle simulation program called MAVERIC, the components of a frequently used function called "derivatives ( )" were measured. Out of the 34 sub-functions in "derivatives ( )", it was found that the top 8 sub-functions made up 83.1% of the total time spent. In order to decrease the overall run time of MAVERIC, a launch vehicle simulation program, a change was implemented in the sub-function "Event_Controller ( )". Reformatting "Event_Controller ( )" led to a 36.9% decrease in the total CPU time spent by that sub-function, and a 3.2% decrease in the total CPU time spent by the overarching function "derivatives ( )".

  6. Supporting the lecturer to deliver high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Iwan; Phillips, Cheryl

    In response to a shortage of clinical practice placements for pre-registration nurses and midwives, nursing faculties have been examining alternative ways to support students to develop their clinical skills, with simulation being one of the more popular methods. In a nursing context, simulation is often used to replicate a clinical setting, such as a hospital ward or the patient's home. Some universities have introduced clinical suites that enable replication of clinical environments and offer the use of human patient simulators to mimic patient-focused scenarios. This article describes a small informal review that aimed to identify how lecturers felt about simulation in one faculty using high-fidelity simulated scenarios to inform the development of a subsequent research study. The results indicate that although many staff use simulation and believe it is a beneficial approach to learning, many also lack confidence and do not feel sufficiently prepared in its use. Most participants felt that the development of a simulation module for lecturers would increase their confidence. PMID:21905378

  7. High Fidelity Failure Analysis for a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jain; Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2001-01-01

    A high fidelity delamination failure analysis was developed by combining a local failure analysis with a global full-scale finite element structural analysis to address strength and delamination failure in a single package. The methodology was demonstrated through a local three-dimensional pull-off failure analysis and a geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite helicopter fuselage section. Pull-off specimens were used to identify potential debonding failure of co-cured skin-stringer/frame fuselage structures. An investigation of the failed pull-off specimens was performed to determine the location of the failure initiation. Three-dimensional strain energy release rate analysis indicates that the delamination initiation and growth is controlled by Mode 1 opening mode. The bending moment at the delamination tip was identified as the crucial factor controlling the failure. The geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite fuselage section was performed using a detailed finite element model. Loads were applied along the periphery of the subcomponent using displacement fields generated from solutions of a full-vehicle model.

  8. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, A.; Glickman, Y.; Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Ozeri, R.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  9. Computer image generation: Reconfigurability as a strategy in high fidelity space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The demand for realistic, high fidelity, computer image generation systems to support space simulation is well established. However, as the number and diversity of space applications increase, the complexity and cost of computer image generation systems also increase. One strategy used to harmonize cost with varied requirements is establishment of a reconfigurable image generation system that can be adapted rapidly and easily to meet new and changing requirements. The reconfigurability strategy through the life cycle of system conception, specification, design, implementation, operation, and support for high fidelity computer image generation systems are discussed. The discussion is limited to those issues directly associated with reconfigurability and adaptability of a specialized scene generation system in a multi-faceted space applications environment. Examples and insights gained through the recent development and installation of the Improved Multi-function Scene Generation System at Johnson Space Center, Systems Engineering Simulator are reviewed and compared with current simulator industry practices. The results are clear; the strategy of reconfigurability applied to space simulation requirements provides a viable path to supporting diverse applications with an adaptable computer image generation system.

  10. A high fidelity real-time simulation of a small turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.

    1988-01-01

    A high-fidelity component-type model and real-time digital simulation of the General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine were developed for use with current generation real-time blade-element rotor helicopter simulations. A control system model based on the specification fuel control system used in the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter is also presented. The modeling assumptions and real-time digital implementation methods particular to the simulation of small turboshaft engines are described. The validity of the simulation is demonstrated by comparison with analysis-oriented simulations developed by the manufacturer, available test data, and flight-test time histories.

  11. A synthetic high fidelity, high cadence spectral Earth database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler D.; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Sparks, William B.; Cracraft, Misty

    2016-10-01

    Earth is currently our only, and will always be our best, example of a living planet. While Earth data model comparisons have been effectively used in recent years to validate spectral models, observations by interplanetary spacecraft are limited to "snapshots" in terms of viewing geometry and Earth's dynamic surface and atmosphere state. We use the well-validated Virtual Planetary Laboratory 3D spectral Earth model to generate both simulated disk-averaged spectra and high resolution, spatially resolved spectral data cubes of Earth at a viewing geometry consistent with Lunar viewing angles at wavelengths from the far UV (0.1 μm) the to the far IR (200 μm). The database includes disk-averaged spectra from dates 03/19/2008 to 04/23/2008 at one-hour cadence and fully spectral data cubes for a subset of those times. These spectral products have a wide range of applications including calibration of spacecraft instrumentation (Robinson et al. 2014), modeling the radiation environment of permanently shadowed Lunar craters due to Earthshine (Glenar et al., in prep), and testing the detectability of atmospheric and surface features of an Earth-like planet orbiting a distant star with a large space-based telescope mission concepts such as LUVOIR. These data include the phase and time-dependent changes in spectral biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4, VRE) and habitability markers (N2, H2O, CO2, ocean glint). The advantages of the VPL Earth model data products over 1D spectra traditionally used for testing instrument architectures include accurate modeling of Earth's surface inhomogeneity (continental distribution and ice caps), cloud cover and variability, pole to equator temperature gradients, obliquity, phase-dependent scattering effects, and rotation. We present a subset of this spectral data including anticipated signal-to-noise calculations of an exoEarth twin at different phases using a coronagraph instrument model (Robinson et al. 2015). We also calculate time

  12. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.

  13. High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

  14. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  15. Automatic generation of high-fidelity urban scenes for sensor simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Monnier, Camille; Kapali, Sudha; Snorrason, Magnús; Setterdahl, Duane; Lindquist, Eric

    2006-05-01

    The development and evaluation of precision strike weaponry requires high fidelity image simulation, as data collections involving moving platforms are difficult to schedule and costly to perform. Furthermore, live data collections where the weapon is being guided by an autonomous target acquisition (ATA) system cannot be performed in dense urban environments. The only solution is to develop high fidelity image and navigation simulations of realistic operating environments. We are currently developing a system that automatically generates a detailed urban scene requiring minimal user input. Given a set of parameters such as population, terrain, and city style, the system generates a two-dimensional city plan containing features such as road networks, buildings, vehicles, vegetation, and miscellaneous additional urban objects. The two-dimensional city representation is then processed by an interactive scene modeling and simulation environment that generates a textured, high-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the scene in a format compatible with well-known LADAR and IR sensor simulation suites such as IRMA. At each step in the process, the user has the ability to interact with the scene, whether to change specific scene parame-ters or to manually insert, remove, or modify targets and objects of interest.

  16. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy.

  17. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  18. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  19. High-fidelity transmission of sensory information by single cerebellar mossy fibre boutons.

    PubMed

    Rancz, Ede A; Ishikawa, Taro; Duguid, Ian; Chadderton, Paul; Mahon, Séverine; Häusser, Michael

    2007-12-20

    Understanding the transmission of sensory information at individual synaptic connections requires knowledge of the properties of presynaptic terminals and their patterns of firing evoked by sensory stimuli. Such information has been difficult to obtain because of the small size and inaccessibility of nerve terminals in the central nervous system. Here we show, by making direct patch-clamp recordings in vivo from cerebellar mossy fibre boutons-the primary source of synaptic input to the cerebellar cortex-that sensory stimulation can produce bursts of spikes in single boutons at very high instantaneous firing frequencies (more than 700 Hz). We show that the mossy fibre-granule cell synapse exhibits high-fidelity transmission at these frequencies, indicating that the rapid burst of excitatory postsynaptic currents underlying the sensory-evoked response of granule cells can be driven by such a presynaptic spike burst. We also demonstrate that a single mossy fibre can trigger action potential bursts in granule cells in vitro when driven with in vivo firing patterns. These findings suggest that the relay from mossy fibre to granule cell can act in a 'detonator' fashion, such that a single presynaptic afferent may be sufficient to transmit the sensory message. This endows the cerebellar mossy fibre system with remarkable sensitivity and high fidelity in the transmission of sensory information.

  20. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-30

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  1. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  2. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma

    2015-11-01

    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  3. High-Fidelity Teleportation beyond the No-Cloning Limit and Entanglement Swapping for Continuous Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70±0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  4. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality. PMID:16090375

  5. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  6. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  7. High Fidelity Modeling of Evolutionary Structures in IMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melody, James W.; Levine-West, Marie

    1994-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for testing, modal identification, and model correlation of structures which are assembled in an evolutionary manner. The methodology prescribes initial testing of a base structure without any attached components. The experimental modal properties are used to update the physical properties of the base structure finite element model using a Bayesian Estimation Technique (BET). The BET is implemented in METLAB using IMOS functions. As components are added to the base structure, additional tests are performed. Three testing options are proposed, all of which enable estimation of the physical parameters of the components alone. Furthermore, improvements to the original BET implementation have been made, which contribute to higher fidelity models and more efficient computational times.

  8. The design and implementation of a high-fidelity Raman imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Kidder, L H; Herne, T M; Levin, I W; Lewis, E N

    1996-10-01

    We describe a Raman imaging microscope that produces high-fidelity, large format Raman images and Raman spectra from samples as small as 1 micron in size. Laser illumination is delivered to the object by means of an infinity corrected microscope objective, either by a galvanometer scanning system or a widefield fibre optic. Wavelength selection of Raman scattered emission is achieved by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which maintains image fidelity and provides either continuous or random wavelength selection. The collimated AOTF output is imaged first by a tube lens and then by a projection lens onto a cooled silicon CCD array. Instrument features, including factors that determine the system's spatial and spectral resolution, and design considerations are discussed in detail. Images and spectra of test objects and samples that demonstrate the capability of this imaging spectrometer are presented. The potential of intrinsic chemical imaging is discussed in terms of its use in the analyses of a variety of chemical and biological samples. PMID:8923757

  9. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Farmer, J.; Dixon, D.; Kapernick, R.; Dickens, R.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but to also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the sheath surface in the thermal simulator. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance was determined using SINDA-FLUINT analysis, and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs was compared to the expected nuclear performance. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts.

  10. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  11. SPARTAN: A High-Fidelity Simulation for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turbe, Michael A.; McDuffie, James H.; DeKock, Brandon K.; Betts, Kevin M.; Carrington, Connie K.

    2007-01-01

    bd Systems (a subsidiary of SAIC) has developed the Simulation Package for Autonomous Rendezvous Test and ANalysis (SPARTAN), a high-fidelity on-orbit simulation featuring multiple six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) vehicles. SPARTAN has been developed in a modular fashion in Matlab/Simulink to test next-generation automated rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation,and control algorithms for NASA's new Vision for Space Exploration. SPARTAN includes autonomous state-based mission manager algorithms responsible for sequencing the vehicle through various flight phases based on on-board sensor inputs and closed-loop guidance algorithms, including Lambert transfers, Clohessy-Wiltshire maneuvers, and glideslope approaches The guidance commands are implemented using an integrated translation and attitude control system to provide 6DOF control of each vehicle in the simulation. SPARTAN also includes high-fidelity representations of a variety of absolute and relative navigation sensors that maybe used for NASA missions, including radio frequency, lidar, and video-based rendezvous sensors. Proprietary navigation sensor fusion algorithms have been developed that allow the integration of these sensor measurements through an extended Kalman filter framework to create a single optimal estimate of the relative state of the vehicles. SPARTAN provides capability for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis, allowing for rigorous evaluation of the performance of the complete proposed AR&D system, including software, sensors, and mechanisms. SPARTAN also supports hardware-in-the-loop testing through conversion of the algorithms to C code using Real-Time Workshop in order to be hosted in a mission computer engineering development unit running an embedded real-time operating system. SPARTAN also contains both runtime TCP/IP socket interface and post-processing compatibility with bdStudio, a visualization tool developed by bd Systems, allowing for intuitive evaluation of simulation results. A

  12. Random matrix models for decoherence and fidelity decay in quantum information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Carlos; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2008-03-01

    This course aims to introduce the student to random matrix models for decoherence and fidelity decay. They present a very powerful alternate approach, that emphasizes the disordered character of many environments and uncontrollable perturbations/couplings. The inherent integrability of such models makes analytic studies possible. We limit our considerations to linear response treatment, as high fidelity and small decoherence are the backbone of quantum information processes. For fidelity decay, where experimental results are available, a comparison with experiments shows excellent agreement with random matrix theory predictions.

  13. High Fidelity Virtual Environments: Does Shader Quality or Higher Polygon Count Models Increase Presence and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Scott

    This research study investigated the effects of high fidelity graphics on both learning and presence, or the "sense of being there," inside a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Four versions of a VLE on the subject of the element mercury were created, each with a different combination of high and low fidelity polygon models and high and low fidelity shaders. A total of 76 college age (18+ years of age) participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants interacted with the VLE and then completed several posttest measures on learning, presence, and attitudes towards the VLE experience. Demographic information was also collected, including age, computer gameplay experience, number of virtual environments interacted with, gender and time spent in this virtual environment. The data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 between subjects ANOVA. The main effects of shader fidelity and polygon fidelity were both non-significant for both learning and all presence subscales inside the VLE. In addition, there was no significant interaction between shader fidelity and model fidelity. However, there were two significant results on the supplementary variables. First, gender was found to have a significant main effect on all the presence subscales. Females reported higher average levels of presence than their male counterparts. Second, gameplay hours, or the number of hours a participant played computer games per week, also had a significant main effect on participant score on the learning measure. The participants who reported playing 15+ hours of computer games per week, the highest amount of time in the variable, had the highest score as a group on the mercury learning measure while those participants that played 1-5 hours per week had the lowest scores.

  14. Challenges in the development of high-fidelity LWR core neutronics tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Modern computing has made possible the solution of extremely large-scale reactor simulations, and the literature has numerous examples of high-resolution methods (often Monte Carlo) applied to full-core reactor problems. However, there are currently no examples in the literature of application of such 'High-Fidelity' or 'First Principles' methods to operating Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. This paper seeks to remind code developers, project managers, and analysts of the many important aspects of LWR simulation that must be incorporated to produce truly high-fidelity analysis tools. The authors offer a monetary prize to the first person (or group) that successfully solves a new two-cycle operational PWR depletion benchmark problem using high-fidelity tools and demonstrates acceptable accuracy by comparison with measured operational plant data (open source) provided to the reactor analysis community. (authors)

  15. A low complexity, low spur digital IF conversion circuit for high-fidelity GNSS signal playback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fei; Ying, Rendong

    2016-01-01

    A low complexity high efficiency and low spur digital intermediate frequency (IF) conversion circuit is discussed in the paper. This circuit is key element in high-fidelity GNSS signal playback instrument. We analyze the spur performance of a finite state machine (FSM) based numerically controlled oscillators (NCO), by optimization of the control algorithm, a FSM based NCO with 3 quantization stage can achieves 65dB SFDR in the range of the seventh harmonic. Compare with traditional lookup table based NCO design with the same Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) performance, the logic resource require to implemented the NCO is reduced to 1/3. The proposed design method can be extended to the IF conversion system with good SFDR in the range of higher harmonic components by increasing the quantization stage.

  16. An Automatic Medium to High Fidelity Low-Thrust Global Trajectory Toolchain; EMTG-GMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Ryne T.; Englander, Jacob A.; Hughes, Steven P.; Schadegg, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Solving the global optimization, low-thrust, multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectory problem with high-fidelity dynamical models requires an unreasonable amount of computational resources. A better approach, and one that is demonstrated in this paper, is a multi-step process whereby the solution of the aforementioned problem is solved at a lower-fidelity and this solution is used as an initial guess for a higher-fidelity solver. The framework presented in this work uses two tools developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) and the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). EMTG is a medium to medium-high fidelity low-thrust interplanetary global optimization solver, which now has the capability to automatically generate GMAT script files for seeding a high-fidelity solution using GMAT's local optimization capabilities. A discussion of the dynamical models as well as thruster and power modeling for both EMTG and GMAT are given in this paper. Current capabilities are demonstrated with examples that highlight the toolchains ability to efficiently solve the difficult low-thrust global optimization problem with little human intervention.

  17. High-fidelity photometry and astrometry of high-contrast imaged companions using LOCI processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René

    2014-01-01

    abstract-type="normal"> Résumé Direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets is a key element for understanding planet formation and migration. Such direct detections and characterizations remains technologically challenging, since a very high contrast ratio and small angular separation are involved, and futhermore speckle noise limits the high-contrast imaging performance. We further discuss a speckle subtraction and suppression technique that fully takes advantage of spectral and time-domain information on quasi-static speckles to measure the highest-fidelity photometry as well as accurate astrometry of detected companions.

  18. High fidelity computational methods in prediction of slosh dynamics including tank structure flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong Ho

    There has been a considerable amount of research to account for slosh dynamics. In particular, the dynamic motion of fluids with rigid tank systems is fairly well known in both aerospace and ground vehicle stability studies. However, most of the research up to date has been limited to simple pendulum models without taking into account the flexibilities of the tank structure. This dissertation presents two different computational approaches: (1) A high fidelity three dimensional approach of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) based formulation; and (2) A Multibody dynamics approach (MBA) based on Kane's Dynamics. The relations between liquid sloshing and dynamic motion are investigated with and without considering the effects of flexibility at different liquid fill-fraction ratios. In addition, the effects of tank structure material are also studied. In the first approach, a high fidelity full three dimensional solution, ALE the dynamic motion with the rigid and flexible structures are formulated by using non-liner explicit Finite Element Method(FEM) and the fluid motion is modeled using cell-centered Finite Volume Method(FVM). Through ALE, the system motion (motion of mass center and rotational motion) in three dimensional space is investigated with different tank structure properties such as rigid shell and flexible shell structure, with and without liquid inside and with different liquid fill-fraction ratios. In the second approach, MBA the Kane's dynamics formulation is introduced to derive the related equation of motion without considering tank flexibility. By this MBA, trajectory of translational, rotational motion and sloshing of this system are investigated. In both approach, the same external force, initial and boundary conditions are used. Finally, the results by these two methods are compared.

  19. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  20. Embedding High-Fidelity Simulation Into a Foundations of Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Megan Sary

    2015-01-01

    Delay in recognizing the need for and initiating lifesaving measures is unacceptable in health care. It is never too early to teach novice nursing students to recognize and respond to early warning signs of patient deterioration. The rapid response system was developed to expedite recognition of and response to changes in a patient's condition. Use of high-fidelity simulation by beginning nursing students to practice recognizing and responding to patient deterioration is vital to both the welfare of patients and the edification of students. Recognizing and responding quickly to patients' early warning signs of deterioration can determine a patient's outcome. This article discusses the importance of instructing beginning nursing students in identifying and reacting appropriately to early signs of patient deterioration and in following the chain of command to activate the rapid response team.

  1. High-Fidelity Simulation Meets Athletic Training Education: An Innovative Collaborative Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Taylor; Racchini, James

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently used in nursing education to provide students with simulated experiences prior to and throughout clinical coursework that involves direct patient care. These high-tech exercises take advantage of the benefits of a standardized patient or mock patient encounter, while eliminating some of the drawbacks…

  2. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  3. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-01

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O2-O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O2-O and O2-O2 collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O2-O2 collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O3 complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O2 vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  4. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.; McDermott, R.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  5. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; McDermott, R.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-04-14

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  6. Robust high-fidelity teleportation of an atomic state through the detection of cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Bo; Zhou Zhengwei; Zhang Yong; Xiang Guoyong; Guo Guangcan

    2004-07-01

    We propose a scheme for the quantum teleportation of an atomic state based on the detection of cavity decay. The internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity can be disembodiedly transferred to another atom trapped in a distant cavity by measuring interference of polarized photons through single-photon detectors. In comparison with the original proposal by Bose, Knight, Plenio, and Vedral [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5158 (1999)], our protocol of teleportation has a high fidelity of almost unity, and inherent robustness, such as the insensitivity of fidelity to randomness in the atom's position, and to detection inefficiency. All these favorable features make the scheme feasible with the current experimental technology.

  7. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  8. Progress in the utilization of high-fidelity simulation in basic science education.

    PubMed

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  9. Becoming a High-Fidelity--"Super"--Imitator: What Are the Contributions of Social and Individual Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M.; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation)--involving a demonstration--and two…

  10. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  11. Developing High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinier, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate scenarios is critical in high-fidelity simulation training. They need to be developed to address specific learning objectives, while not preventing other learning points from emerging. Buying a patient simulator, finding a volunteer to act as the patient, or even obtaining ready-made scenarios from another simulation…

  12. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  13. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  14. Structural Basis of High-Fidelity DNA Synthesis by Yeast DNA Polymerase δ

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) has a crucial role in eukaryotic replication. Now the crystal structure of the yeast DNA Pol ? catalytic subunit in complex with template primer and incoming nucleotide is presented at 2.0-A resolution, providing insight into its high fidelity and a framework to understand the effects of mutations involved in tumorigenesis.

  15. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  16. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  17. Assessing the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete and continuous-variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandarino, Antonio; Bina, Matteo; Porto, Carmen; Cialdi, Simone; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally address the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) quantum optical systems. In particular, we analyze the use of fidelity in quantum homodyne tomography of CV states and maximum-likelihood polarization tomography of DV ones, focusing attention on nonclassicality, entanglement, and quantum discord as a function of fidelity to a target state. Our findings show that high values of fidelity, despite well quantifying geometrical proximity in the Hilbert space, may be obtained for states displaying opposite physical properties, e.g., quantum or semiclassical features. In particular, we analyze in detail the quantum-to-classical transition for squeezed thermal states of a single-mode optical system and for Werner states of a two-photon polarization qubit system.

  18. High-Fidelity Single-Qubit Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzem, Tim; Cerfontaine, Pascal; Divincenzo, David P.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2014-03-01

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits in the presence of decoherence are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. However, the control methods used in earlier experiments on semiconductor two-electron spin qubits are based on unrealistic approximations which preclude reaching the required fidelities. An attractive remedy is to use control pulses found in numerical simulations that minimize the infidelity from decoherence and take the experimentally important imperfections and constraints into account. Using this approach and experimentally determined noise spectra, we find pulses for singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs double quantum dots with fidelities as high as 99.9%. Fully eliminating systematic pulse errors will likely require a calibration of the pulses on the experiment using some form of self-consistent approach. Starting with inaccurate control pulses we show that elimination of individual systematic gate errors is possible by applying a modification of the bootstrap protocol proposed by Dobrovitski et al. (PRL 105, 2010) while still retaining the pulses' high fidelities.

  19. System Performance and Policymaking in West European Education: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Responsiveness, and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Fred S.; Luschen, Gunther

    1976-01-01

    One cannot gauge or understand the performance of an educational system by examining the output of that system alone. Presents and discusses four constructs--effectiveness, efficiency, responsiveness, and fidelity--which relate the output of an educational system to the important educational, economic, political and social factors which influence…

  20. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Xiu-Xing

    2015-06-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. Supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11304230, Nature Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province under Grant No. 2013JM1006, the Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 2013JK0634, the Special Subject Construction of Weinan Normal University under Grant Nos. 14TSXK06 and 15ZRRC14

  1. Test Before You Fly - High Fidelity Planetary Environment Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Nehls, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The lunar surface environment will present many challenges to the survivability of systems developed for long duration lunar habitation and exploration of the lunar, or any other planetary, surface. Obstacles will include issues pertaining especially to the radiation environment (solar plasma and electromagnetic radiation) and lunar regolith dust. The Planetary Environments Chamber is one piece of the MSFC capability in Space Environmental Effects Test and Analysis. Comprised of many unique test systems, MSFC has the most complete set of SEE test capabilities in one location allowing examination of combined space environmental effects without transporting already degraded, potentially fragile samples over long distances between tests. With this system, the individual and combined effects of the lunar radiation and regolith environment on materials, sub-systems, and small systems developed for the lunar return can be investigated. This combined environments facility represents a unique capability to NASA, in which tests can be tailored to any one aspect of the lunar environment (radiation, temperature, vacuum, regolith) or to several of them combined in a single test.

  2. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel; Yersin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High- fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications. PMID:23745086

  3. High fidelity terrain models and geospatial datasets for use in distributed test environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gerard; Gorkavyi, Nick; Lashlee, David; Lorenzo, Max

    2005-05-01

    Distributed testing of a system of systems such is critical to successful development and fielding. Developmental and operational test planning, mission rehearsal, and modeling and simulation of distributed test events requires rapid generation of high-fidelity synthetic environments and geospatial databases that allow efficient transmission and portrayal over network-centric architectures and low-bandwidth communications networks. This paper describes an initiative lead by the U.S. Army Developmental Test Center to rapidly construct digital terrain and surface models using remote sensing data. The authors present methods and techniques used to generate Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 5 or better digital terrain models, surface object databases using Three-Dimensional (3-D) data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensors, and mathematical operations to describe complex geospatial data objects and 3-D topology in highly-compact manners. Currently, units-of-action undergo testing within a defined Common Operating Area (COA) at a training range or proving ground. In coming years, distributed testing, with simulated scenes added to the participating systems, will occur at multiple COAs located at different test facilities. Consistent construction is required for these synthetic environments or scenes for the different facilities. The authors will present trade study results with recommendations for a uniform set of data collection requirements.

  4. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  5. Novel Architecture for High Speed and High Fidelity Readout of a Quantum Annealing Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altomare, Fabio; Berkley, Andrew J.; Harris, Richard; Hoskinson, Emile M.; Johnson, Mark W.; Lanting, Trevor M.; Uchaikin, Sergey; Whittaker, Jed D.; Bunyk, Paul; Tolkacheva, Elena; Perminov, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Hysteretic dc SQUIDs provide an easy method to read the state of hundreds of qubits[1]. However, this approach becomes impractical for circuits with an even larger number of qubits due to heating when dc SQUIDs switch, the relatively slow retrapping dynamics of high quality devices, and suboptimal scaling of the number of control lines with increasing numbers of qubits. The D-Wave Two processor uses an architecture that addresses all three of these issues. This new architecture makes use of Quantum Flux Parametron based shift registers that transfer the classical information produced as the output of the quantum annealing algorithm to a small number of fast non-dissipative and high fidelity microwave readout devices. We will provide an introduction to our implementation, and present data pertaining to readout performance from a 512-qubit quantum annealing processor.

  6. Universal fidelity near quantum and topological phase transitions in finite one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, E. J.; Levchenko, A.; Sedlmayr, N.

    2016-06-01

    We study the quantum fidelity (ground-state overlap) near quantum phase transitions of the Ising universality class in one-dimensional (1D) systems of finite-size L . Prominent examples occur in magnetic systems (e.g., spin-Peierls, the anisotropic X Y model) and in 1D topological insulators of any topologically nontrivial Altland-Zirnbauer-Kitaev universality class. The rescaled fidelity susceptibility is a function of the only dimensionless parameter L M , where 2 M is the gap in the fermionic spectrum. We present analytic expressions for the fidelity susceptibility for periodic and open boundaries conditions with zero, one, or two edge states. The latter are shown to have a crucial impact and alter the susceptibility both quantitatively and qualitatively. We support our analytical solutions with numerical data.

  7. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  8. High-Fidelity Coupled Monte-Carlo/Thermal-Hydraulics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Aleksandar; Sanchez, Victor; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been used as reference reactor physics calculation tools worldwide. The advance in computer technology allows the calculation of detailed flux distributions in both space and energy. In most of the cases however, those calculations are done under the assumption of homogeneous material density and temperature distributions. The aim of this work is to develop a consistent methodology for providing realistic three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic distributions by coupling the in-house developed sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW with the standard Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP. In addition to the innovative technique of on-the fly material definition, a flux-based weight-window technique has been introduced to improve both the magnitude and the distribution of the relative errors. Finally, a coupled code system for the simulation of steady-state reactor physics problems has been developed. Besides the problem of effective feedback data interchange between the codes, the treatment of temperature dependence of the continuous energy nuclear data has been investigated.

  9. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  10. A High-Fidelity Simulation of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine and Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Csank, Jeffrey; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    A new high-fidelity simulation of a generic 40,000 lb thrust class commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller, known as CMAPSS40k, has been developed. Based on dynamic flight test data of a highly instrumented engine and previous engine simulations developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, this non-proprietary simulation was created especially for use in the development of new engine control strategies. C-MAPSS40k is a highly detailed, component-level engine model written in MATLAB/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.). Because the model is built in Simulink, users have the ability to use any of the MATLAB tools for analysis and control system design. The engine components are modeled in C-code, which is then compiled to allow faster-than-real-time execution. The engine controller is based on common industry architecture and techniques to produce realistic closed-loop transient responses while ensuring that no safety or operability limits are violated. A significant feature not found in other non-proprietary models is the inclusion of transient stall margin debits. These debits provide an accurate accounting of the compressor surge margin, which is critical in the design of an engine controller. This paper discusses the development, characteristics, and capabilities of the C-MAPSS40k simulation

  11. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model

  12. Creation of a High-fidelity, Low-cost Pediatric Skull Fracture Ultrasound Phantom.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Zachary P; Mills, Lisa; Rose, John S; Kelley, Kenneth; Ramirez, Francisco; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, point-of-care ultrasound has become a common tool used for both procedures and diagnosis. Developing high-fidelity phantoms is critical for training in new and novel point-of-care ultrasound applications. Detecting skull fractures on ultrasound imaging in the younger-than-2-year-old patient is an emerging area of point-of-care ultrasound research. Identifying a skull fracture on ultrasound imaging in this age group requires knowledge of the appearance and location of sutures to distinguish them from fractures. There are currently no commercially available pediatric skull fracture models. We outline a novel approach to building a cost-effective, simple, high-fidelity pediatric skull fracture phantom to meet a unique training requirement.

  13. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry: Spray Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.

    2009-04-26

    The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.

  14. Debriefing with the OPT model of clinical reasoning during high fidelity patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, RuthAnne; Heinrich, Carol; Matthias, April; Graham, Meki J; Bell-Kotwall, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Evidenced-based educational practices propose simulation as a valuable teaching and learning strategy to promote situated cognition and clinical reasoning to teach nursing students how to solve problems. A project that uses a structured debriefing activity, the Outcome Present State-Test Model of clinical reasoning following high fidelity patient simulation, is described in this paper. The results of this project challenge faculty to create and manage patient simulation scenarios that coordinate with didactic content and clinical experiences to direct student learning for the best reinforcement of clinical reasoning outcomes. Considerations for the future include incorporating patient simulation activities as part of student evaluation and curriculum development. The arguments for using high fidelity patient simulation in the current educational environment has obvious short term benefits, however, the long term benefit of developing clinical expertise remains to be discovered.

  15. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability. PMID:26487083

  16. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-06-30

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host {sup 14}N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  17. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-29

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. PMID:21937989

  18. Demonstration of a High-Fidelity Predictive/Preview Display Technique for Telerobotic Servicing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    A highly effective predictive/preview display technique for telerobotic servicing in space under several seconds communication time delay has been demonstrated on a large laboratory scale in May 1993, involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as the simulated ground control station and, 2500 miles away, the Goddard Space Flight Center as the simulated satellite servicing set-up. The technique is based on a high-fidelity calibration procedure that enables a high-fidelity overlay of 3-D graphics robot arm and object models over given 2-D TV camera images of robot arm and objects. To generate robot arm motions, the operator can confidently interact in real time with the graphics models of the robot arm and objects overlaid on an actual camera view of the remote work site. The technique also enables the operator to generate high-fidelity synthetic TV camera views showing motion events that are hidden in a given TV camera view or for which no TV camera views are available. The positioning accuracy achieved by this technique for a zoomed-in camera setting was about +/-5 mm, well within the allowable +/-12 mm error margin at the insertion of a 45 cm long tool in the servicing task.

  19. Adjoint-field errors in high fidelity compressible turbulence simulations for sound control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    A consistent discrete adjoint for high-fidelity discretization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is used to quantify the error in the sensitivity gradient predicted by the continuous adjoint method, and examine the aeroacoustic flow-control problem for free-shear-flow turbulence. A particular quadrature scheme for approximating the cost functional makes our discrete adjoint formulation for a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with high-order finite differences practical and efficient. The continuous adjoint-based sensitivity gradient is shown to to be inconsistent due to discretization truncation errors, grid stretching and filtering near boundaries. These errors cannot be eliminated by increasing the spatial or temporal resolution since chaotic interactions lead them to become O (1) at the time of control actuation. Although this is a known behavior for chaotic systems, its effect on noise control is much harder to anticipate, especially given the different resolution needs of different parts of the turbulence and acoustic spectra. A comparison of energy spectra of the adjoint pressure fields shows significant error in the continuous adjoint at all wavenumbers, even though they are well-resolved. The effect of this error on the noise control mechanism is analyzed.

  20. Using High-Fidelity Simulation and Eye Tracking to Characterize EHR Workflow Patterns among Hospital Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Doberne, Julie W.; He, Ze; Mohan, Vishnu; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Marquard, Jenna; Chiang, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Modern EHR systems are complex, and end-user behavior and training are highly variable. The need for clinicians to access key clinical data is a critical patient safety issue. This study used a mixed methods approach employing a high-fidelity EHR simulation environment, eye and screen tracking, surveys, and semi-structured interviews to characterize typical EHR usage by hospital physicians (hospitalists) as they encounter a new patient. The main findings were: 1) There were strong similarities across the groups in the information types the physicians looked at most frequently, 2) While there was no overall difference in case duration between the groups, we observed two distinct workflow types between the groups with respect to gathering information in the EHR and creating a note, and 3) A majority of the case time was devoted to note composition in both groups. This has implications for EHR interface design and raises further questions about what individual user workflows exist in the EHR. PMID:26958287

  1. SOWFA Super-Controller: A High-Fidelity Tool for Evaluating Wind Plant Control Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Michalakes, J.; Johnson, K.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for testing wind plant controllers in the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA). SOWFA is a high-fidelity simulator for the interaction between wind turbine dynamics and the fluid flow in a wind plant. The new super-controller testing environment in SOWFA allows for the implementation of the majority of the wind plant control strategies proposed in the literature.

  2. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  3. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Raghurama Reddy; Roberto Gomez; Junwoo Lim; Yang Wang; Sergiu Sanielevici

    2004-10-15

    This SciDAC project enabled a multidisciplinary research consortium to develop a high fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) software package for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows. Within this collaboration, the authors, based at CMU's Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), focused on extensive new developments in Sandia National Laboratories' "S3D" software to address more realistic combustion features and geometries while exploiting Terascale computational possibilities. This work significantly advances the state-of-the-art of DNS of turbulent reacting flows.

  4. The incorporation of high fidelity simulation training into hemodialysis nursing education: an Australian unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Reid, Kylie; Sinclair, Peter M; Hudson, Denis

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity hemodialysis simulation program has been introduced and evaluated in a Far North Queensland dialysis unit. This program engages and challenges hemodialysis staff across the learning continuum. It provides a realistic, safe, and controlled learning environment for nurses to develop essential hemodialysis competencies while posing no threat to patient safety. This teaching method combined with clinical experience is a positive step forward in meeting future educational needs of the renal workforce. PMID:22338939

  5. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  6. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  7. Vowel formant discrimination in high-fidelity speech by hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley-Port, Diane; Liu, Chang; Burkle, T. Zachary

    2003-10-01

    The ability to discriminate differences in vowel formant frequency under a more ordinary listening condition has been reported recently by Kewley-Port and Zheng (1999) for synthetic speech and Liu and Kewley-Port (2003) for high-fidelity speech. Results for normal-hearing (YNH) listeners showed that a longer phonetic context (sentences versus words) degraded formant discrimination while adding a sentence identification task did not. The present study used the same high-fidelity stimuli but employed listeners with moderate hearing impairment (YHI). Experimental factors manipulated included phonetic context (isolated vowels, words and sentences), level [70-dB SPL (partially audible) and 95-dB SPL (fully audible)], and task (discrimination with and without the sentence identification task). Thresholds for F1 and F2 of the vowels /I, ɛ, æ invv/ were estimated using adaptive tracking for 71% correct discrimination. The anticipated degrading effects of higher formant frequency and longer phonetic context were obtained. Unexpectedly formant thresholds for high-fidelity vowels at the higher (95-dB SPL) were slightly elevated compared to the 70-dB SPL level, the opposite of results for synthetic vowels. No effect of the added sentence task was seen, similar to the YNH listeners. Details of the differences in vowel processing attributable to moderate hearing impairment will be discussed. [Research supported by NIH-NIDCD.

  8. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  9. High-fidelity continuous-variable quantum teleportation toward multistep quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Benichi, Hugo

    2008-02-15

    The progress in quantum operations of continuous-variable (CV) schemes can be reduced to that in CV quantum teleportation. The fidelity of quantum teleportation of an optical setup is limited by the finite degree of quantum correlation that can be prepared with a pair of finitely squeezed states. Reports of improvement of squeezing level have appeared recently, and we adopted the improved methods in our experimental system of quantum teleportation. As a result, we teleported a coherent state with a fidelity F=0.83{+-}0.01, which is better than any other figures reported to date, to our knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a measure n{sub s}, the number of teleportations expected to be carried out sequentially. Our result corresponds to n{sub s}=5.0{+-}0.4. It suggests that our improvement would enable us to proceed toward more advanced quantum operations involving multiple steps.

  10. The Importance of Water for High Fidelity Information Processing and for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g ., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity > 107 : 1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular complex representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity > 107 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical prerequisite for life.

  11. High-Fidelity Qubit Measurement using a Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer Microwave Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorbeck, Ted; Hover, David; Zhu, Shaojiang; Ribeill, Guilhem; Sank, Daniel; Barends, Rami; Martinis, John; McDermott, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We describe a high-fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting Xmon qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). We will show a qubit measurement fidelity of 99% in 700 ns with the SLUG, compared to 60% without the SLUG. The SLUG amplifier has a gain of 19 dB at 6.6 GHZ. It also improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 9 dB, compared the same circuit without the SLUG. Also, the SLUG amplifier has a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to around 600 photons in the readout cavity. All of these properties make the SLUG a promising microwave amplifier for more complex quantum circuits.

  12. High-fidelity single-shot three-qubit gates via machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C.

    Three-qubit quantum gates play a crucial role in quantum error correction and quantum information processing. Here I discuss how to generate policies for quantum control to design three-qubit gates namely, Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates for an architecture of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. The resulted fidelity for each gate is above the 99.9% which is the threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our policy in the presence of decoherence-induced noise as well as show its robustness under random external noise. The three-qubit gates are designed via our machine learning algorithm called Subspace-Selective Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SuSSADE). NSERC, AITF and University of Calgarys Eyes High Fellowship Program.

  13. Controlled tunneling-induced dephasing of Rabi rotations for high-fidelity hole spin initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelt, P.-L.; Simmet, T.; Müller, K.; Dory, C.; Fischer, K. A.; Bechtold, A.; Kleinkauf, A.; Riedl, H.; Finley, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the subpicosecond initialization of a single heavy hole spin in a self-assembled quantum dot with >98.5 % fidelity and without external magnetic field. Using an optically addressable charge and spin storage device we tailor the relative electron and hole tunneling escape time scales from the dot and simultaneously achieve high-fidelity initialization, long hole storage times, and high-efficiency readout via a photocurrent signal. We measure electric-field-dependent Rabi oscillations of the neutral and charged exciton transitions in the ultrafast tunneling regime and demonstrate that tunneling-induced dephasing (TID) of excitonic Rabi rotations is the major source for the intensity damping of Rabi oscillations in the low Rabi frequency, low temperature regime. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with quantum-optical simulations revealing that TID can be used to precisely measure tunneling escape times and extract changes in the Coulomb binding energies for different charge configurations of the quantum dot. Finally, we demonstrate that for subpicosecond electron tunneling escape, TID of a coherently driven exciton transition facilitates ultrafast hole spin initialization with near-unity fidelity.

  14. High-fidelity simulations for clean and efficient combustion of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oefelein, J. C.; Chen, J. H.; Sankaran, R.

    2009-07-01

    There is an urgent and growing demand for high-fidelity simulations that capture complex turbulence-chemistry interactions in propulsion and power systems, and in particular, that capture and discriminate the effects of fuel variability. This project addresses this demand using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique (led by Oefelein) and the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) technique (led by Chen). In particular, we are conducting research under the INCITE program that is tightly coupled with funded projects established under the DOE Basic Energy Sciences and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy programs that will provide the foundational science required to develop a predictive modeling capability for design of advanced engines for transportation. Application of LES provides the formal ability to treat the full range of multidimensional time and length scales that exist in turbulent reacting flows in a computationally feasible manner and thus provides a way to simulate reacting flow phenomena in complex internal-combustion engine geometries at device relevant conditions. Application of DNS provides a way to study fundamental issues related to small-scale combustion processes in canonical configurations to understand dynamics that occur over a range of reactive-diffusive scales. Here we describe the challenges and present representative examples of the types of simulations each respective tool has been used for as part of the INCITE program. We focus on recent experiences on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) Cray-XT Platform (i.e., Jaguar).

  15. High-Fidelity Two-Qubit Gates in a Surface Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobser, Daniel; Blain, Matthew; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Fortier, Kevin; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Nielsen, Erik; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sterk, Jonathan; Stick, Daniel; Maunz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are capable of supporting a variety of exotic trapping geometries and provide a scalable system for trapped ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP). However, the feasibility of using surface traps for QIP has long been a point of contention because the close proximity of the ions to trap electrodes increases heating rates and might lead to laser-induced charging of the trap. As surface traps continue to evolve at a remarkable rate, their performance is rapidly approaching that of macroscopic electrode traps. Using Sandia's High-Optical-Access surface trap, we demonstrate robust single-qubit gates, both laser- and microwave-based. Our gates are accurately characterized by Gate Set Tomography (GST) and we report the first diamond norm measurements near the fault-tolerance threshold. Extending these techniques, we've realized a Mølmer-Sørensen two-qubit gate that is stable for several hours. This stability has allowed us to perform the first GST measurements of a two-qubit gate, yielding a process fidelity of 99.58(6)%. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  16. Replica molding of high-aspect-ratio polymeric nanopillar arrays with high fidelity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Lo, Chi-Wei; Taylor, J Ashley; Yang, Shu

    2006-09-26

    Polymeric nanostructures with high aspect ratios, so-called nanopillars, are of interest for a wide range of applications. However, it remains a challenge to fabricate high-density, polymeric nanopillars using soft lithography when the feature size is decreased to hundreds of nanometers and the structures are close to each other. Here, we investigate the fidelity of replica molding technique to fabricate polymer nanopillar arrays with diameters ranging from 300 nm to 1 mum, and we compare the experimental results to the theoretical prediction to understand the nature of the instability of nanopillars. Nanopillars molded from soft materials, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), mainly ground collapse due to the adhesive force when the aspect ratio is above 6, whereas those from stiffer materials, polyurethane and epoxy, collapse laterally at a much higher aspect ratio (>/=12), of which the critical value is dependent on the nanopillar's feature size, spacing, height, and shape. Further, we attempt to restore the collapsed high-aspect-ratio nanopillars using supercritical CO(2) drying.

  17. Becoming a high-fidelity - super - imitator: what are the contributions of social and individual learning?

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation) - involving a demonstration - and two asocial conditions (trial-and-error, recall) - involving individual learning - using two touchscreen tasks. The tasks required responding to either three different pictures in a specific picture order (Cognitive: Airplane→Ball→Cow) or three identical pictures in a specific spatial order (Motor-Spatial: Up→Down→Right). There were age-related improvements across all conditions and imitation, emulation and recall performance were significantly better than trial-and-error learning. Generalized linear models demonstrated that motor-spatial imitation fidelity was associated with age and motor-spatial emulation performance, but cognitive imitation fidelity was only associated with age. While this study provides evidence for multiple imitation mechanisms, the development of one of those mechanisms - motor-spatial imitation - may be bootstrapped by the development of another social learning skill - motor-spatial emulation. Together, these findings provide important clues about the development of imitation, which is arguably a distinctive feature of the human species.

  18. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  19. The Kepler End-to-End Model: Creating High-Fidelity Simulations to Test Kepler Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Peters, Dan J.; Tenenbaum, Peter P.; Klaus, Todd C.; Gunter, Jay P.; Cote, Miles T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to detect the transit of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars by observing 100,000 stellar targets. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in particular the data analysis pipeline, requires high-fidelity simulated data. This simulated data is provided by the Kepler End-to-End Model (ETEM). ETEM simulates the astrophysics of planetary transits and other phenomena, properties of the Kepler spacecraft and the format of the downlinked data. Major challenges addressed by ETEM include the rapid production of large amounts of simulated data, extensibility and maintainability.

  20. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  1. A cost effective and high fidelity fluoroscopy simulator using the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Jenkins, Brad; Sze, Raymond W.; Yaniv, Ziv

    2014-03-01

    The skills required for obtaining informative x-ray fluoroscopy images are currently acquired while trainees provide clinical care. As a consequence, trainees and patients are exposed to higher doses of radiation. Use of simulation has the potential to reduce this radiation exposure by enabling trainees to improve their skills in a safe environment prior to treating patients. We describe a low cost, high fidelity, fluoroscopy simulation system. Our system enables operators to practice their skills using the clinical device and simulated x-rays of a virtual patient. The patient is represented using a set of temporal Computed Tomography (CT) images, corresponding to the underlying dynamic processes. Simulated x-ray images, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), are generated from the CTs using ray-casting with customizable machine specific imaging parameters. To establish the spatial relationship between the CT and the fluoroscopy device, the CT is virtually attached to a patient phantom and a web camera is used to track the phantom's pose. The camera is mounted on the fluoroscope's intensifier and the relationship between it and the x-ray source is obtained via calibration. To control image acquisition the operator moves the fluoroscope as in normal operation mode. Control of zoom, collimation and image save is done using a keypad mounted alongside the device's control panel. Implementation is based on the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), and the use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) for accelerated image generation. Our system was evaluated by 11 clinicians and was found to be sufficiently realistic for training purposes.

  2. Effects of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Experience on Self-Efficacy, Motivation and Learning of First Semester Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznar, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the newest methodologies in nursing education is high-fidelity human patient simulation (HPS). Many nursing educators have embraced the method as it offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Despite their popularity, however, HPS systems are costly and, in an era of cost containment and tuition…

  3. High-fidelity simulation capability for virtual testing of seismic and acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Moran, Mark L.; Ketcham, Stephen A.; Lacombe, James; Anderson, Thomas S.; Symons, Neill P.; Aldridge, David F.; Marlin, David H.; Collier, Sandra L.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes development and application of a high-fidelity, seismic/acoustic simulation capability for battlefield sensors. The purpose is to provide simulated sensor data so realistic that they cannot be distinguished by experts from actual field data. This emerging capability provides rapid, low-cost trade studies of unattended ground sensor network configurations, data processing and fusion strategies, and signatures emitted by prototype vehicles. There are three essential components to the modeling: (1) detailed mechanical signature models for vehicles and walkers, (2) high-resolution characterization of the subsurface and atmospheric environments, and (3) state-of-the-art seismic/acoustic models for propagating moving-vehicle signatures through realistic, complex environments. With regard to the first of these components, dynamic models of wheeled and tracked vehicles have been developed to generate ground force inputs to seismic propagation models. Vehicle models range from simple, 2D representations to highly detailed, 3D representations of entire linked-track suspension systems. Similarly detailed models of acoustic emissions from vehicle engines are under development. The propagation calculations for both the seismics and acoustics are based on finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) methodologies capable of handling complex environmental features such as heterogeneous geologies, urban structures, surface vegetation, and dynamic atmospheric turbulence. Any number of dynamic sources and virtual sensors may be incorporated into the FDTD model. The computational demands of 3D FDTD simulation over tactical distances require massively parallel computers. Several example calculations of seismic/acoustic wave propagation through complex atmospheric and terrain environments are shown.

  4. Click Reaction on Solid Phase Enables High Fidelity Synthesis of Nucleobase-Modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Rosenthal, Malte; Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-03-16

    The post-synthetic functionalization of nucleic acids via click chemistry (CuAAC) has seen tremendous implementation, extending the applicability of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids in fields like fluorescent labeling, nanotechnology, and in vitro selection. However, the production of large quantities of high-density functionalized material via solid phase synthesis has been hampered by oxidative by-product formation associated with the alkaline workup conditions. Herein, we describe a rapid and cost-effective protocol for the high fidelity large-scale production of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids, exemplified with a recently described nucleobase-modified aptamer.

  5. Click Reaction on Solid Phase Enables High Fidelity Synthesis of Nucleobase-Modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Rosenthal, Malte; Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-03-16

    The post-synthetic functionalization of nucleic acids via click chemistry (CuAAC) has seen tremendous implementation, extending the applicability of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids in fields like fluorescent labeling, nanotechnology, and in vitro selection. However, the production of large quantities of high-density functionalized material via solid phase synthesis has been hampered by oxidative by-product formation associated with the alkaline workup conditions. Herein, we describe a rapid and cost-effective protocol for the high fidelity large-scale production of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids, exemplified with a recently described nucleobase-modified aptamer. PMID:26850226

  6. Fidelity decay and entropy production in many-particle systems after random interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Chavda, N. D.; Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effect of spin degree of freedom on fidelity decay and entropy production of a many-particle fermionic (bosonic) system in a mean-field, quenched by a random two-body interaction preserving many-particle spin S. The system Hamiltonian is represented by embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices (for time-reversal and rotationally invariant systems) with one plus two-body interactions preserving S for fermions/bosons. EGOE are paradigmatic models to study the dynamical transition from integrability to chaos in interacting many-body quantum systems. A simple general picture, in which the variances of the eigenvalue density play a central role, is obtained for describing the short-time dynamics of fidelity decay and entropy production. Using some approximations, an EGOE formula for the time (t sat) for the onset of saturation of entropy, is also derived. These analytical EGOE results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. Moreover, both fermion and boson systems show significant spin dependence on the relaxation dynamics of the fidelity and entropy.

  7. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  8. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  9. Real-time dynamic PC image generation techniques for high performance and high dynamic range fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunfield, Dennis H.; Trimble, Darian E.; Fronckowiak, Thomas, Jr.; Ballard, Gary; Morris, Joesph

    2008-04-01

    AMRDEC has developed and implemented new techniques for rendering real-time 32-bit floating point energy-conserved dynamic scenes using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Personal Computer (PC) based hardware and high performance nVidia Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The AMRDEC IGStudio rendering framework with the real-time Joint Scientific Image Generator (JSIG) core has been integrated into numerous AMRDEC Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) facilities, successfully replacing the lower fidelity legacy SGI hardware and software. JSIG uses high dynamic range unnormalized radiometric 32-bit floating point rendering through the use of GPU frame buffer objects (FBOs). A high performance nested zoom anti-aliasing (NZAA) technique was developed to address performance and geometric errors of past zoom anti-aliasing (ZAA) implementations. The NZAA capability for multi-object and occluded object representations includes: cluster ZAA, object ZAA, sub-object ZAA, and point source generation for unresolved objects. This technique has an optimal 128x128 pixel asymmetrical field-of-view zoom. The current NZAA capability supports up to 8 objects in real-time with a near future capability of increasing to a theoretical 128 objects in real-time. JSIG performs other dynamic entity effects which are applied in vertex and fragment shaders. These effects include floating point dynamic signature application, dynamic model ablation heating models, and per-material thermal emissivity rolloff interpolated on a per-pixel zoomed window basis. JSIG additionally performs full scene per-pixel effects in a post render process. These effects include real-time convolutions, optical scene corrections, per-frame calibrations, and energy distribution blur used to compensate for projector element energy limitations.

  10. Evaluating Intervention Fidelity: An Example from a High-Intensity Interval Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn L.; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Intervention fidelity refers to the degree to which an experimental manipulation has been implemented as intended, but simple, robust methods for quantifying fidelity have not been well documented. Therefore, we aim to illustrate a rigorous quantitative evaluation of intervention fidelity, using data collected during a high-intensity interval training intervention. Design Single-group measurement study. Methods Seventeen adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) attended a 10-week high-intensity interval training intervention, comprising two exercise sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 4-7 45-s maximal effort repetitions, interspersed with 90-s rest. We collected heart rate data at 5-s intervals and recorded the peak heart rate for each repetition. The high-intensity exercise criterion was ≥90% of individual maximal heart rate. For each participant, we calculated the proportion of total exercise repetitions exceeding this threshold. A linear mixed model was applied to properly separate the variability in peak heart rate between- and within-subjects. Results are presented both as intention to treat (including missed sessions) and per protocol (only participants with 100% attendance; n=8). Results For intention to treat, the median (interquartile range) proportion of repetitions meeting the high-intensity criterion was 58% (42% to 68%). The mean peak heart rate was 85% of maximal, with a between-subject SD of 7.8 (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 11.3) percentage points and a within-subject SD of 15.1 (14.6 to 15.6) percentage points. For the per protocol analysis, the median proportion of high-intensity repetitions was 68% (47% to 86%). The mean peak heart rate was 91% of maximal, with between- and within-subject SDs of 3.1 (-1.3 to 4.6) and 3.4 (3.2 to 3.6) percentage points, respectively. Conclusions Synthesising information on exercise session attendance and compliance (exercise intensity) quantifies the intervention dose and

  11. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Developed for the Response of Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-fidelity micromechanics model has been developed under funding from the NASA Glenn Research Center for predicting the response of multiphase materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed in constructing the higher order theory for functionally graded materials. The resulting closed-form macroscopic and microscopic constitutive equations, valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading of periodic materials with elastic and inelastic constitutive phases, can be incorporated into a structural analysis computer code. Consequently, this model now provides an alternative, accurate method.

  12. High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for ^{9}Be^{+} Ion Qubits.

    PubMed

    Gaebler, J P; Tan, T R; Lin, Y; Wan, Y; Bowler, R; Keith, A C; Glancy, S; Coakley, K; Knill, E; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2016-08-01

    We report high-fidelity laser-beam-induced quantum logic gates on magnetic-field-insensitive qubits comprised of hyperfine states in ^{9}Be^{+} ions with a memory coherence time of more than 1 s. We demonstrate single-qubit gates with an error per gate of 3.8(1)×10^{-5}. By creating a Bell state with a deterministic two-qubit gate, we deduce a gate error of 8(4)×10^{-4}. We characterize the errors in our implementation and discuss methods to further reduce imperfections towards values that are compatible with fault-tolerant processing at realistic overhead. PMID:27541451

  13. High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for 9Be+ Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, J. P.; Tan, T. R.; Lin, Y.; Wan, Y.; Bowler, R.; Keith, A. C.; Glancy, S.; Coakley, K.; Knill, E.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report high-fidelity laser-beam-induced quantum logic gates on magnetic-field-insensitive qubits comprised of hyperfine states in 9Be+ ions with a memory coherence time of more than 1 s. We demonstrate single-qubit gates with an error per gate of 3.8 (1 )×10-5 . By creating a Bell state with a deterministic two-qubit gate, we deduce a gate error of 8 (4 )×10-4. We characterize the errors in our implementation and discuss methods to further reduce imperfections towards values that are compatible with fault-tolerant processing at realistic overhead.

  14. High-fidelity AFM scanning stage based on multilayer ceramic capacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2016-05-01

    A kind of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) has been verified to have good micro-actuating properties, thus making them good candidates for nano-positioning. In this paper, we successfully employed the MLCCs as lateral scanners for a tripod scanning stage. The MLCC-based lateral scanners display hysteresis under 1.5% and a nonlinearity less than 2% even with the simplest open-loop voltage drive. The developed scanning stage was integrated into a commercial AFM to evaluate its imaging performance. Experimental results showed that sample images with high fidelities were obtained. SCANNING 38:184-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-12-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.

  16. Mixed-Species Logic Gates and High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for Trapped-Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting Rei

    2016-05-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. For trapped-ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. We demonstrate an entangling gate between two atomic ions of different elements that can serve as an important building block of quantum information processing (QIP), quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. An entangling geometric phase gate between a 9 Be+ ion and a 25 Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces. A mixed-species Bell state is thereby created with a fidelity of 0 . 979(1) . We use the gate to construct a SWAP gate that interchanges the quantum states of the two dissimilar qubits. We also report a high-fidelity universal gate set for 9 Be+ ion qubits, achieved through a combination of improved laser beam quality and control, improved state preparation, and reduced electric potential noise on trap electrodes. Supported by Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  17. A high-quality high-fidelity visualization of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu; Hoffmann, Christoph; Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    In this application paper, we describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary team towards producing a visualization of the September 11 Attack on the North Tower of New York's World Trade Center. The visualization was designed to meet two requirements. First, the visualization had to depict the impact with high fidelity, by closely following the laws of physics. Second, the visualization had to be eloquent to a nonexpert user. This was achieved by first designing and computing a finite-element analysis (FEA) simulation of the impact between the aircraft and the top 20 stories of the building, and then by visualizing the FEA results with a state-of-the-art commercial animation system. The visualization was enabled by an automatic translator that converts the simulation data into an animation system 3D scene. We built upon a previously developed translator. The translator was substantially extended to enable and control visualization of fire and of disintegrating elements, to better scale with the number of nodes and number of states, to handle beam elements with complex profiles, and to handle smoothed particle hydrodynamics liquid representation. The resulting translator is a powerful automatic and scalable tool for high-quality visualization of FEA results. PMID:18467766

  18. A high-quality high-fidelity visualization of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu; Hoffmann, Christoph; Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    In this application paper, we describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary team towards producing a visualization of the September 11 Attack on the North Tower of New York's World Trade Center. The visualization was designed to meet two requirements. First, the visualization had to depict the impact with high fidelity, by closely following the laws of physics. Second, the visualization had to be eloquent to a nonexpert user. This was achieved by first designing and computing a finite-element analysis (FEA) simulation of the impact between the aircraft and the top 20 stories of the building, and then by visualizing the FEA results with a state-of-the-art commercial animation system. The visualization was enabled by an automatic translator that converts the simulation data into an animation system 3D scene. We built upon a previously developed translator. The translator was substantially extended to enable and control visualization of fire and of disintegrating elements, to better scale with the number of nodes and number of states, to handle beam elements with complex profiles, and to handle smoothed particle hydrodynamics liquid representation. The resulting translator is a powerful automatic and scalable tool for high-quality visualization of FEA results.

  19. High-Fidelity Replica Molding of Glassy Liquid Crystalline Polymer Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hangbo; Wie, Jeong Jae; Copic, Davor; Oliver, C Ryan; Orbaek White, Alvin; Kim, Sanha; Hart, A John

    2016-03-01

    Liquid crystalline polymers have recently been engineered to exhibit complex macroscopic shape adaptivity, including optically- and thermally driven bending, self-sustaining oscillation, torsional motion, and three-dimensional folding. Miniaturization of these novel materials is of great interest for both fundamental study of processing conditions and for the development of shape-changing microdevices. Here, we present a scalable method for high-fidelity replica molding of glassy liquid crystalline polymer networks (LCNs), by vacuum-assisted replica molding, along with magnetic field-induced control of the molecular alignment. We find that an oxygen-free environment is essential to establish high-fidelity molding with low surface roughness. Identical arrays of homeotropic and polydomain LCN microstructures are fabricated to assess the influence of molecular alignment on the elastic modulus (E = 1.48 GPa compared to E = 0.54 GPa), and side-view imaging is used to quantify the reversible thermal actuation of individual LCN micropillars by high-resolution tracking of edge motion. The methods and results from this study will be synergistic with future advances in liquid crystalline polymer chemistry, and could enable the scalable manufacturing of stimuli-responsive surfaces for applications including microfluidics, tunable optics, and surfaces with switchable wetting and adhesion. PMID:26943057

  20. Construction of a reusable, high-fidelity model to enhance extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training through simulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Grisham, Lisa M; Scott, Jeanne; Mogan, Chris; Prescher, Hannes; Biffar, David; Jarred, John; Meyer, Robyn J; Hamilton, Allan J

    2014-04-01

    Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is stressful, especially for inexperienced extracorporeal life support providers. The main objective of this study was to create a novel, reusable mannequin for high-fidelity simulation of ECMO initiation. We modified a Laerdal neonatal mannequin (SimNewB; Stavanger, Norway) so that it could be used to simulate an ECMO initiation. A simulation of a neonatal patient suffering from meconium aspiration was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit, and participants included new extracorporeal life support specialists in addition to the composition of the clinical ECMO team. A total of 17 individuals participated in the neonatal ECMO initiation simulation. Questionnaire results showed that 88% of participants felt better prepared to assist in an ECMO initiation after the simulation. All participants (100%) agreed that the modified mannequin and the environment were realistic and that this simulation helps teamwork and communication in future initiations of ECMO. Simulation can be used for the prevention, identification, and reduction of anxiety-related crisis situations that novice providers may infrequently encounter during routine clinical use of mechanical circulatory support. Use of a reusable, high-fidelity mannequin may be beneficial for effective team training of complex pediatric ECMO-related procedures. PMID:24675629

  1. Concept and modeling analysis of a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Li, Yun; Wang, Anding; Xing, Tingwen

    2015-06-10

    Conventional deformable mirrors (DM) cannot meet the requirement of aberration controlling for advanced lithography tools. This paper illustrates an approach using the property that deformation of a thin plate is similar to optical modes to realize a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror whose deformation has characteristics of optical aberration modes. The way to arrange actuators is also examined. In this paper, a 36-actuator deformable mirror is taken as an example to generate low-order Zernike modes. The result shows that this DM generates the fourth fringe Zernike mode (Z4) defocus, and primary aberration Z5-Z8 with an error less than 0.5%, generates the fifth-order aberration Z10-Z14, and generates the seventh-order aberration Z17-Z20 with an error less than 1.1%. The high fidelity replication of the Zernike mode indicates that the DM satisfies the demand of controlling aberrations corresponding to the first 20 Zernike modes in an advanced lithography tool. PMID:26192845

  2. A High-Fidelity Virtual Environment for the Study of Paranoia

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Matthew R.; Zányi, Eva; Selmanovic, Elmedin; Czanner, Silvester; Birchwood, Max; Chalmers, Alan; Singh, Swaran P.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists. PMID:24455255

  3. Relations between quantum correlations, purity and teleportation fidelity for the two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Yan-Biao; Wu, Fang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and understanding quantum correlations may give a direct reply for many issues regarding the interesting behaviors of quantum system. To explore the quantum correlations in quantum teleportation, we have used a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system with spin-orbit interaction as a quantum channel to teleport an unknown state. By using different measures and standard teleportation protocols, we have derived the analytical expressions for quantum discord, entanglement of formation, purity, and maximal teleportation fidelity of the system. We compare their different characteristics and analyze the relationships between these quantities.

  4. Scalable gene synthesis by selective amplification of DNA pools from high-fidelity microchips.

    PubMed

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Leproust, Emily M; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M

    2010-12-01

    Development of cheap, high-throughput and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful owing to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols and enzymatic error correction to develop a method for highly parallel gene synthesis. We tested our approach by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ∼35 kilobase pairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ∼2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than in previously published attempts.

  5. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space-time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge-Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that its

  6. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-15

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  7. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  8. High-Fidelity Entangling Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerfontaine, Pascal; Mehl, Sebastian; Divincenzo, David P.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Recently, we have shown that single-qubit gates for singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs can be pulse-engineered to reduce systematic errors and mitigate magnetic field fluctuations from the abundant nuclear spins, leading to experimentally demonstrated gate fidelities of 98.5%. We expect that a similar approach will be successful for two-qubit gates. We now describe short gating sequences for exchange-based two-qubit gates, showing that gate infidelities below 0.1% can be reached in realistic quantum dot setups. Additionally, we perform numerical pulse optimization to fully take the experimentally important imperfections into account, minimizing systematic errors and noise sensitivity. Since transferring the optimal control pulses to an experimental setting will inevitably incur systematic errors, we discuss how these errors can be calibrated on the experiment Supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, DFG Grant BL 1197/2- 1, and the Deutsche Telekom Foundation.

  9. High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  10. Is high fidelity to supported employment equally attainable in small and large communities?

    PubMed

    Luciano, Alison; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; Becker, Deborah R

    2014-01-01

    Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based model to help people with serious mental illness achieve employment. This study examined variation in model adherence in small and large communities. We compared program-level ratings on a standardized 25-item IPS fidelity scale (range = 25-125) for 79 sites in eight states categorized by local community size. Programs in large and small communities achieved comparable fidelity scores (mean = 100 and 104, respectively). Fidelity-outcome correlations within the two groups were both of moderate size. As a practical guide, the IPS fidelity scale is suitable for use in both small and large communities.

  11. Fabrication of high fidelity, high index three-dimensional photonic crystals using a templating approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongan

    In this dissertation, we demonstrate the fabrication of high fidelity 3D photonic crystal through polymer template fabrication, backfilling and template removal to obtain high index inversed inorganic photonic crystals (PCs). Along the line, we study the photoresist chemistry to minimize the shrinkage, backfilling strategies for complete infiltration, and template removal at high and low temperatures to minimize crack-formation. Using multibeam interference lithography (MBIL), we fabricate diamond-like photonic structures from commercially available photoresist, SU-8, epoxy functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), and narrowly distributed poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s (PGMA). The 3D structure from PGMA shows the lowest shrinkage in the [111] direction, 18%, compared to those fabricated from the SU-8 (41%) and POSS (48%) materials under the same conditions. To fabricate a photonic crystal with large and complete photonic bandgap, it often requires backfilling of high index inorganic materials into a 3D polymer template. We have studied different backfilling methods to create three different types of high index, inorganic 3D photonic crystals. Using SU-8 structures as templates, we systematically study the electrodeposition technique to create inversed 3D titania crystals. We find that 3D SU-8 template is completely infiltrated with titania sol-gel through a two-stage process: a conformal coating of a thin layer of films occurs at the early electrodeposition stage (< 60 min), followed by bottom-up deposition. After calcination at 500°C to remove the polymer template, inversed 3D titania crystals are obtained. The optical properties of the 3D photonic crystals characterized at various processing steps matches with the simulated photonic bandgaps (PBGs) and the SEM observation, further supporting the complete filling by the wet chemistry. Since both PGMA and SU-8 decompose at a temperature above 400°C, leading to the formation of defects and cracks

  12. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (˜98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron-nuclear spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  13. Effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for pediatric staff nurse education.

    PubMed

    Bultas, Margaret W; Hassler, Margaret; Ercole, Patrick M; Rea, Gail

    2014-01-01

    A pre-test post-test control group design was used to compare the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) with traditional static mannequins as a teaching strategy for pediatric staff nurse education. Thirty-three nurses from a metropolitan pediatric Magnet hospital completed the study that evaluated knowledge retention, skill performance, and team confidence during the American Heart Association's (AHA) Pediatric Emergency Assessment, Recognition and Stabilization (PEARS) course. Written exams, competency and skill performance measures, and the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS) were used to compare the outcomes between the two groups. Results indicated that knowledge retention was maintained, skill performance improved, and teamwork performance scores increased in the experimental group. This study provides a foundation supporting the use of HFS as an effective teaching modality when educating pediatric staff nurses in the identification and intervention of the deteriorating pediatric patient.

  14. Efficient micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Boerhaavia diffusa L- High trade medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2015-07-01

    Boerhaavia diffusa L is a medicinal herb with immense pharmaceutical significance. The plant is used by many herbalist, Ayurvedic and pharmaceutical industries for production biopharmaceuticals. It is among the 46 medicinal plant species in high trade sourced mainly from wastelands and generally found in temperate regions of the world. However, the commercial bulk of this plant shows genetic variations which are the main constraint to use this plant as medicinal ingredient and to obtain high value products of pharmaceutical interest from this plant. In this study, we have regenerated the plant of Boerhaavia diffusa L through nodal explants and evaluated genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L with the help of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The results obtained using RAPD showed monomorphic banding pattern revealing genetic stability among the mother plant and in vitro regenerated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L.

  15. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (∼98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron–nuclear spin state of a nitrogen–vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  16. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  17. Using "The Burns Suite" as a Novel High Fidelity Simulation Tool for Interprofessional and Teamwork Training.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide

  18. Development and verification of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics model of canine nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Craven, Brent A; Paterson, Eric G; Settles, Gary S; Lawson, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains a complex airway labyrinth, dedicated to respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. The small and contorted anatomical structure of the nasal turbinates has, to date, precluded a proper study of nasal airflow in the dog. This study describes the development of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway from a three-dimensional reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans of the canine anatomy. Unstructured hexahedral grids are generated, with large grid sizes ((10-100) x 10(6) computational cells) required to capture the details of the nasal airways. High-fidelity CFD solutions of the nasal airflow for steady inspiration and expiration are computed over a range of physiological airflow rates. A rigorous grid refinement study is performed, which also illustrates a methodology for verification of CFD calculations on complex unstructured grids in tortuous airways. In general, the qualitative characteristics of the computed solutions for the different grid resolutions are fairly well preserved. However, quantitative results such as the overall pressure drop and even the regional distribution of airflow in the nasal cavity are moderately grid dependent. These quantities tend to converge monotonically with grid refinement. Lastly, transient computations of canine sniffing were carried out as part of a time-step study, demonstrating that high temporal accuracy is achievable using small time steps consisting of 160 steps per sniff period. Here we demonstrate that acceptable numerical accuracy (between approximately 1% and 15%) is achievable with practical levels of grid resolution (approximately 100 x 10(6) computational cells). Given the popularity of CFD as a tool for studying flow in the upper airways of humans and animals, based on this work we recommend the necessity of a grid dependence study and quantification of numerical error when

  19. Using "The Burns Suite" as a Novel High Fidelity Simulation Tool for Interprofessional and Teamwork Training.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide

  20. High Fidelity Simulations of Plume Impingement to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, Forrest E., III; Marichalar, Jeremiah; Stewart, Benedicte D.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States now depends on recently developed commercial spacecraft to supply the International Space Station (ISS) with cargo. These new vehicles supplement ones from international partners including the Russian Progress, the European Autonomous Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Furthermore, to carry crew to the ISS and supplement the capability currently provided exclusively by the Russian Soyuz, new designs and a refinement to a cargo vehicle design are in work. Many of these designs include features such as nozzle scarfing or simultaneous firing of multiple thrusters resulting in complex plumes. This results in a wide variety of complex plumes impinging upon the ISS. Therefore, to ensure safe "proximity operations" near the ISS, the need for accurate and efficient high fidelity simulation of plume impingement to the ISS is as high as ever. A capability combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) techniques has been developed to properly model the large density variations encountered as the plume expands from the high pressure in the combustion chamber to the near vacuum conditions at the orbiting altitude of the ISS. Details of the computational tools employed by this method, including recent software enhancements and the best practices needed to achieve accurate simulations, are discussed. Several recent examples of the application of this high fidelity capability are presented. These examples highlight many of the real world, complex features of plume impingement that occur when "visiting vehicles" operate in the vicinity of the ISS.

  1. Digital spall radiograph analysis system: Report on simulated three- dimensional digital spall image reconstruction fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring momentum and kinetic energy of spall for the Advanced Technology Assessment Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (A{sup 3}) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated spall motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z- number of the spall material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed spall image) that approximates the original spall cloud. From the model the mass of spall fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the spall configuration at two instants of time. Spall fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected spall analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques. The purpose of this document is to report the results of analysis of the fidelity of best reconstruction procedure (for one radiograph set) investigated to date. The reconstruction procedure uses data from four simultaneous radiographs representing two sides and two diagonals of a cube. The procedure makes use of an available space algorithm, two probabilistic devices (a mass placement probability heuristic, and a mass clumping heuristic), and a stochastic procedure for mass that cannot be placed by the algorithm or either of the heuristics. The procedure is fully described in the body of the report.

  2. High fidelity all-microwave controlled-phase gate for superconducting qubits by cavity vacuum displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Hanhee; Zhou, D.; Reed, M. D.; Kirchmair, G.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a new all-microwave controlled phase entangling gate for the superconducting qubits in the three-dimensional circuit QED (3D cQED) architecture. The gate exploits the strong coupling between qubits and a cavity, wherein the cavity frequency dispersively shifts depending on the qubit register state. We off-resonantly displace the cavity vacuum state; each computational state evolves a different phase due to the dispersive coupling, yielding a conditional phase. While designed to exploit the advantages of the 3D cQED architecture, the gate requires only dispersive coupling, making the gate applicable to a wide variety of superconducting qubit architectures. We demonstrate 98% gate fidelity evaluated by quantum process tomography, and will discuss how appropriate choices of system parameters could increase this number and how we could minimize the gate infidelity due to measurement induced dephasing and non-adiabatic gate procedure.

  3. High-fidelity spatially resolved multiphoton counting for quantum imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2014-09-01

    We present a method for spatially resolved multiphoton counting based on an intensified camera with the retrieval of multimode photon statistics fully accounting for nonlinearities in the detection process. The scheme relies on one-time quantum tomographic calibration of the detector. Faithful, high-fidelity reconstruction of single- and two-mode statistics of multiphoton states is demonstrated for coherent states and their statistical mixtures. The results consistently exhibit classical values of the Mandel parameter and the noise reduction factor in contrast to raw statistics of camera photo-events. Detector operation is reliable for illumination levels up to the average of one detected photon per an event area-substantially higher than in previous approaches to characterize quantum statistical properties of light with spatial resolution. PMID:25166081

  4. Student-created scenarios in the high-fidelity simulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Nancy L; Brandt, Karen; Maney, Catherine; Selig, Kristen

    2012-12-01

    As an assignment in a pediatric theory class, small groups of nursing students created and implemented scenarios in the high-fidelity simulation (HFS) laboratory. The project's purpose was to determine whether senior nursing students could create HFS scenarios that increased their knowledge base of pediatric nursing and supported the use of evidence in identifying problems and planning nursing care. After completing the project, students wrote individual reflective papers. Qualitative analysis of these papers revealed the common themes of expanded understanding of pediatric nursing care and professional growth. Data supported achievement of the project objectives; however, this was attributed to the scenario-creation process rather than to the scenarios themselves. Challenges identified included lack of a mechanism to involve each student in every scenario and logistical issues, such as faculty time and laboratory scheduling. With attention to such issues, this project can be implemented successfully in a variety of clinical areas.

  5. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  6. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-25

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths.

  7. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting, during flight, the residual strength of aircraft structures that sustain discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. Two ductile fracture simulations are presented to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data does, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  8. Practical and cost-effective high-fidelity optical carrier dissemination using coherent communication techniques.

    PubMed

    Sooudi, Ehsan; O'Gorman, James; Gunning, Paul; Ellis, Andrew D; Gunning, Fatima C Garcia; Manning, Robert J

    2015-08-24

    We report a unidirectional frequency dissemination scheme for high-fidelity optical carriers deployable over telecommunication networks. For the first time, a 10 Gb/s Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signal from an ultra-narrow linewidth laser was transmitted through a field-installed optical fibre with round-trip length of 124 km between Cork City and town of Clonakilty, without inline optical amplification. At the receiver, using coherent communication techniques and optical injection-locking the carrier was recovered with noise suppression. The beat signal between the original carrier at the transmitter and recovered carrier at the receiver shows a linewidth of 2.8 kHz. Long term stability measurements revealed fractional instabilities (True Allan deviation) of 3.3 × 10(-14) for 1 s averaging time, prior to phase noise cancellation.

  9. Fast cavity-enhanced atom detection with low noise and high fidelity.

    PubMed

    Goldwin, J; Trupke, M; Kenner, J; Ratnapala, A; Hinds, E A

    2011-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics describes the fundamental interactions between light and matter, and how they can be controlled by shaping the local environment. For example, optical microcavities allow high-efficiency detection and manipulation of single atoms. In this regime, fluctuations of atom number are on the order of the mean number, which can lead to signal fluctuations in excess of the noise on the incident probe field. Here we demonstrate, however, that nonlinearities and multi-atom statistics can together serve to suppress the effects of atomic fluctuations when making local density measurements on clouds of cold atoms. We measure atom densities below 1 per cavity mode volume near the photon shot-noise limit. This is in direct contrast to previous experiments where fluctuations in atom number contribute significantly to the noise. Atom detection is shown to be fast and efficient, reaching fidelities in excess of 97% after 10 μs and 99.9% after 30 μs.

  10. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

  11. The centricity of presence in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation: a model.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing immersive presence has been shown to have influence on learning outcomes in virtual types of simulation. Scenario-based human patient simulation, a mixed reality form, may pose unique challenges for inducing the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. A model for enhancing the centricity of presence in scenario-based human patient simulation is presented here. The model represents a theoretical linkage among the interaction of pedagogical, individual, and group factors that influence the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. Presence may have an important influence on the learning experiences and learning outcomes in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation. This report is a follow-up to an article published in 2014 by the author where connections were made to the theoretical basis of presence as articulated by nurse scholars. PMID:25520467

  12. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  13. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting in real time the residual strength of flight structures with discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. A residual strength test of a metallic, integrally-stiffened panel is simulated to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data would, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high-fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  14. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  15. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  16. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Hughes, Kyle; Mashiku, Alinda; Longuski, James

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith EXPlorer) is an asteroid sample return mission to Bennu (RQ36) that is scheduled to launch in 2016. The planned science operations precluding the small retrieval involve operations in terminator orbits (orbit plane is perpendicular to the sun). Over longer durations the solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs the orbit causing it to precess. Our work involves: modeling high fidelity SRP model to capture the perturbations during attitude changes; design a stable orbit from the high fidelity models to analyze the stability over time.

  17. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  18. High-Fidelity and Ultrafast Initialization of a Hole Spin Bound to a Te Isoelectronic Center in ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jean, P.; Éthier-Majcher, G.; André, R.; Francoeur, S.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the optical initialization of a hole-spin qubit bound to an isoelectronic center (IC) formed by a pair of Te impurities in ZnSe, an impurity-host system providing high optical homogeneity, large electric dipole moments, and potentially advantageous coherence times. The initialization scheme is based on the spin-preserving tunneling of a resonantly excited donor-bound exciton to a positively charged Te IC, thus forming a positive trion. The radiative decay of the trion within less than 50 ps leaves a heavy hole in a well-defined polarization-controlled spin state. The initialization fidelity exceeds 98.5% for an initialization time of less than 150 ps.

  19. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by evaluating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process. This paper documents the status of a focused effort to compare and understand the predictive capabilities and computational requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of single element injector model problems. The steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) and three different approaches using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique were used to simulate the initial model problem, a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. While one high-fidelity LES result matches the experimental combustion chamber wall heat flux very well, there is no monotonic convergence to the data with increasing computational tool fidelity. Systematic evaluation of key flow field regions such as the flame zone, the head end recirculation zone and the downstream near wall zone has shed significant, though as of yet incomplete, light on the complex, underlying causes for the performance level of each technique. 1 Aerospace Engineer and Combustion CFD Team Leader, MS ER42, NASA MSFC, AL 35812, Senior Member, AIAA. 2 Professor and Director, Computational Combustion Laboratory, School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, Associate Fellow, AIAA. 3 Reilly Professor of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fellow, AIAA. 4 Principal Member of Technical Staff, Combustion Research Facility, 7011 East Avenue, MS9051, Livermore, CA 94550, Associate

  20. A Multi-Level Parallelization Concept for High-Fidelity Multi-Block Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatay, Ferhat F.; Jespersen, Dennis C.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Byun, Chansup; Gee, Ken; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The integration of high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis tools with the industrial design process benefits greatly from the robust implementations that are transportable across a wide range of computer architectures. In the present work, a hybrid domain-decomposition and parallelization concept was developed and implemented into the widely-used NASA multi-block Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) packages implemented in ENSAERO and OVERFLOW. The new parallel solver concept, PENS (Parallel Euler Navier-Stokes Solver), employs both fine and coarse granularity in data partitioning as well as data coalescing to obtain the desired load-balance characteristics on the available computer platforms. This multi-level parallelism implementation itself introduces no changes to the numerical results, hence the original fidelity of the packages are identically preserved. The present implementation uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor message passing and memory accessing. By choosing an appropriate combination of the available partitioning and coalescing capabilities only during the execution stage, the PENS solver becomes adaptable to different computer architectures from shared-memory to distributed-memory platforms with varying degrees of parallelism. The PENS implementation on the IBM SP2 distributed memory environment at the NASA Ames Research Center obtains 85 percent scalable parallel performance using fine-grain partitioning of single-block CFD domains using up to 128 wide computational nodes. Multi-block CFD simulations of complete aircraft simulations achieve 75 percent perfect load-balanced executions using data coalescing and the two levels of parallelism. SGI PowerChallenge, SGI Origin 2000, and a cluster of workstations are the other platforms where the robustness of the implementation is tested. The performance behavior on the other computer platforms with a variety of realistic problems will be included as this on

  1. Conditional generation scheme for high-fidelity Yurke-Stoler states by mixing two coherent beams with a squeezed vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Sun-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The numerical conditions to generate high-fidelity Yurke-Stoler states (| α > + e iψ | - α >)were found for two cascade-placed beam splitters with one squeezed state input and two coherent state inputs. Controlling the amplitudes and the phases of beams allows for various Yurke-Stoler states to be manipulated with ultra-high fidelity, and the expected theoretical fidelity is more than 0.9999.

  2. Modeling of energy transfer in hypersonic shocks using high fidelity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong

    shock speeds above 9 km/s. High fidelity models for simulating both the dissociation and relaxation processes in N+N2 and N2+N2 systems are also investigated. Relaxation cross sections are computed and the 99 bin method shows good agreement between the bin-to-bin and state specific relaxation cross sections for both N-N2 and N2-N2 relaxation. These relaxation cross sections are then implemented separately in 0D DSMC isothermal relaxation cases. For both cases, the rotational and vibrational temperatures relax to the equilibrium heat bath temperature. For N-N 2 relaxations, the rotational temperature relaxes faster than the vibrational temperature at relatively low translational temperature and at a very similar rate to the vibrational temperature at relatively high temperature. These are in qualitative agreement with the observation of earlier experiments. The one-dimensional binning method and associated cross sections by Parsons et al. are implemented in DSMC simulations and the results are compared with those using the traditional TCE and LB models. For shock conditions similar to those in the experiments of Gorelov, it is found that the MD-QCT chemical reaction model predicts more dissociation and faster relaxation of the vibrational temperature. In the higher speed shock condition of the experiment by Fujita, the use of MD-QCT databases for both chemical reaction and internal energy predicts more dissociation in the downstream of the shock but slower relaxation of the rotational temperature. Also the rotational temperature in the shock region is in somewhat better agreement with the experiment of Fujita.

  3. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  4. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources. PMID:23952378

  5. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.

  6. High-fidelity interface tracking in compressible flows: Unlimited anchored adaptive level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourgaliev, R. R.; Theofanous, T. G.

    2007-06-01

    The interface-capturing-fidelity issue of the level set method is addressed wholly within the Eulerian framework. Our aim is for a practical and efficient way to realize the expected benefits of grid resolution and high order schemes. Based on a combination of structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), rather than quad/octrees, and on high-order spatial discretization, rather than the use of Lagrangian particles, our method is tailored to compressible flows, while it provides a potentially useful alternative to the particle level set (PLS) for incompressible flows. Interesting salient features of our method include (a) avoidance of limiting (in treating the Hamiltonian of the level set equation), (b) anchoring the level set in a manner that ensures no drift and no spurious oscillations of the zero level during PDE-reinitialization, and (c) a non-linear tagging procedure for defining the neighborhood of the interface subject to mesh refinement. Numerous computational results on a set of benchmark problems (strongly deforming, stretching and tearing interfaces) demonstrate that with this approach, implemented up to 11th order accuracy, the level set method becomes essentially free of mass conservation errors and also free of parasitic interfacial oscillations, while it is still highly efficient, and convenient for 3D parallel implementation. In addition, demonstration of performance in fully-coupled simulations is presented for multimode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (low-Mach number regime) and shock-induced, bubble-collapse (highly compressible regime).

  7. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  8. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-07-01

    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  9. Motivation and Technological Readiness in the Use of High-Fidelity Simulation: A Descriptive Comparative Study of Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Judy Jo

    2012-01-01

    There are many driving forces to increase the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in nursing education, as well as many factors that may influence the implementation of this teaching strategy. These include the motivation of nurse educators to use HFS, the technological readiness of nurse educators to use HFS and the changing demographics of the…

  10. Faculty and Student Perceptions of Preparation for and Implementation of High Fidelity Simulation Experiences in Associate Degree Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejo, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation technology is being used as an alternative way to expose students to complex patient care. Research has shown that simulation experiences can improve critical thinking skills and increase students' self-confidence (Jeffries & Rizzolo, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine nurse educator and nursing student…

  11. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  12. Testing the Predictive Capability of the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells Using an Efficient Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor); Bansal, Yogesh; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells is a new micromechanics model for unidirectionally reinforced periodic multiphase materials that was developed to overcome the original model's shortcomings. The high-fidelity version predicts the local stress and strain fields with dramatically greater accuracy relative to the original model through the use of a better displacement field representation. Herein, we test the high-fidelity model's predictive capability in estimating the elastic moduli of periodic composites characterized by repeating unit cells obtained by rotation of an infinite square fiber array through an angle about the fiber axis. Such repeating unit cells may contain a few or many fibers, depending on the rotation angle. In order to analyze such multi-inclusion repeating unit cells efficiently, the high-fidelity micromechanics model's framework is reformulated using the local/global stiffness matrix approach. The excellent agreement with the corresponding results obtained from the standard transformation equations confirms the new model's predictive capability for periodic composites characterized by multi-inclusion repeating unit cells lacking planes of material symmetry. Comparison of the effective moduli and local stress fields with the corresponding results obtained from the original Generalized Method of Cells dramatically highlights the original model's shortcomings for certain classes of unidirectional composites.

  13. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  14. High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer. and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics and assess potential design improvements at relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design is developed

  15. Statistical abstraction of high-fidelity CO2 pressure histories in 2-D, uniform, cylindrical domains

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, Bruce C; Sanzo, Dean L; Pawar, Rajesh J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, deep, geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is being evaluated as a world-wide strategy for limiting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. A key element of this evaluation is quantification of the ancillary risks associated with this fundamentally new linkage between the global energy economy and the subsurface ecosphere. Quantitative risk assessment methods traditionally enumerate operational scenarios and describe the multiple physical responses that may ensue from each scenario depending on the quality of information that is available to describe identified system dependencies. For example, multiplepoint injection of compressed CO{sub 2} into a geologic reservoir having a nominal stratigraphy will create a pressurized zone of liquid that migrates through the rock. Scenarios that postulate CO{sub 2} encountering previously undetected wells or natural fractures in the caprock that represent leakage paths to the surface must be treated in a probabilistic format that accommodates unknown details in the subsurface geology. Fluid pressure in the reservoir at the location of the potential transport path drives any potential leakage that might occur, so the spatial and temporal distribution of CO{sub 2} overpressure represents an important metric for numeric simulation. State-of-the-art geologic transport models like FEHM, TUFF, and ECLIPSE (Refs. 1, 2, 3) can accurately simulate multi phase gas migration in a fully characterized geologic domain. However, each simulation can require time periods ranging between minutes and hours to achieve acceptable numerical performance, so it is often impractical to link predictive physics models directly in a quantitative risk assessment that will require transport estimates for thousands of scenarios. When direct computation is not possible, a library of high-fidelity calculations can sometimes be distilled to a simplified statistical correlation that spans the variability in all relevant input

  16. A high-fidelity, six-degree-of-freedom batch simulation environment for tactical guidance research and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment, the tactical maneuvering simulator (TMS), is presented. The TMS is a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics, but it can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS can simulate air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics, and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulations. Data bases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system, the tactical autopilot (TA), is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands by computerized maneuvering logics from desired angle of attack and wind-axis bank-angle inputs to the inner loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. The capabilities and operation of the TMS and the TA are described.

  17. On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  18. Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.

    2002-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  19. Analysis of vehicle rollover dynamics using a high-fidelity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawel Czechowicz, Maciej; Mavros, George

    2014-05-01

    Recent data show that 35% of fatal crashes in sport utility vehicles included vehicle rollover. At the same time, experimental testing to improve safety is expensive and dangerous. Therefore, multi-body simulation is used in this research to improve the understanding of rollover dynamics. The majority of previous work uses low-fidelity models. Here, a complex and highly nonlinear multi-body model with 165 degrees of freedom is correlated to vehicle kinematic and compliance (K&C) measurements. The Magic Formula tyre model is employed. Design of experiment methodology is used to identify tyre properties affecting vehicle rollover. A novel, statistical approach is used to link suspension K&C characteristics with rollover propensity. Research so far reveals that the tyre properties that have the greatest influence on vehicle rollover are friction coefficient, friction variation with load, camber stiffness and tyre vertical stiffness. Key K&C characteristics affecting rollover propensity are front and rear suspension rate, front roll stiffness, front camber gain, front and rear camber compliance and rear jacking force.

  20. Analysis of Fiber Clustering in Composite Materials Using High-Fidelity Multiscale Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    A new multiscale micromechanical approach is developed for the prediction of the behavior of fiber reinforced composites in presence of fiber clustering. The developed method is based on a coupled two-scale implementation of the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells theory, wherein both the local and global scales are represented using this micromechanical method. Concentration tensors and effective constitutive equations are established on both scales and linked to establish the required coupling, thus providing the local fields throughout the composite as well as the global properties and effective nonlinear response. Two nondimensional parameters, in conjunction with actual composite micrographs, are used to characterize the clustering of fibers in the composite. Based on the predicted local fields, initial yield and damage envelopes are generated for various clustering parameters for a polymer matrix composite with both carbon and glass fibers. Nonlinear epoxy matrix behavior is also considered, with results in the form of effective nonlinear response curves, with varying fiber clustering and for two sets of nonlinear matrix parameters.

  1. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model. Part 2; Unsteady Surface Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Danny H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present unsteady surface pressure measurements for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model. This high-fidelity model is being used to perform detailed studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear, flap components, and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aerodynamic segment of the tests, conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, was completed in November 2010. To discern the characteristics of the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the prominent noise sources, unsteady sensors were installed on the inboard and outboard flap edges, and on the main gear wheels, struts, and door. Various configurations were tested, including flap deflections of 0?, 20?, and 39?, with and without the main landing gear. The majority of unsteady surface pressure measurements were acquired for the nominal landing configuration where the main gear was deployed and the flap was deflected 39?. To assess the Mach number variation of the surface pressure amplitudes, measurements were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Comparison of the unsteady surface pressures with the main gear on and off shows significant interaction between the gear wake and the inboard flap edge, resulting in higher amplitude fluctuations when the gear is present.

  2. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hong G. Im; Arnaud Trouve; Christopher J. Rutland; Jacqueline H. Chen

    2009-02-02

    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. Clean assembly and integration techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    1994-01-01

    A mechanical simulator of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Aft Shroud was built to perform verification testing of the Servicing Mission Scientific Instruments (SI's) and to provide a facility for astronaut training. All assembly, integration, and test activities occurred under the guidance of a contamination control plan, and all work was reviewed by a contamination engineer prior to implementation. An integrated approach was followed in which materials selection, manufacturing, assembly, subsystem integration, and end product use were considered and controlled to ensure that the use of the High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator (HFMS) as a verification tool would not contaminate mission critical hardware. Surfaces were cleaned throughout manufacturing, assembly, and integration, and reverification was performed following major activities. Direct surface sampling was the preferred method of verification, but access and material constraints led to the use of indirect methods as well. Although surface geometries and coatings often made contamination verification difficult, final contamination sampling and monitoring demonstrated the ability to maintain a class M5.5 environment with surface levels less than 400B inside the HFMS.

  4. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Hong G; Trouve, Arnaud; Rutland, Christopher J; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2012-08-13

    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. High-fidelity CRISPR-Cas9 variants with undetectable genome-wide off-targets

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Pattanayak, Vikram; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Nguyen, Nhu; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-targets of the broadly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use. Here we describe SpCas9-HF1, a high-fidelity variant harboring alterations designed to reduce non-specific DNA contacts. SpCas9-HF1 retains on-target activities comparable to wild-type SpCas9 with >85% of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) tested in human cells. Strikingly, with sgRNAs targeted to standard non-repetitive sequences, SpCas9-HF1 rendered all or nearly all off-target events undetectable by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods. Even for atypical, repetitive target sites, the vast majority of off-targets induced by SpCas9-HF1 were not detected. With its exceptional precision, SpCas9-HF1 provides an alternative to wild-type SpCas9 for research and therapeutic applications. More broadly, our results suggest a general strategy for optimizing genome-wide specificities of other RNA-guided nucleases. PMID:26735016

  6. The use of high-fidelity simulation to teach cultural competence in the nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stasha-Gae; Warda, Maria; Garbutt, Susan; Curry, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The United States population is undergoing a major demographic shift, by the year 2050, it is predicted that minority populations will constitute half of the general population. This evolving population change is significant due to the overwhelming burden of disease that minorities face in the nation. Cultural competence training is currently being used to prepare practitioners to provide care to a diverse population in an effort to eliminate health disparities. With the increasing demands of the nursing curriculum and the limited time frame to prepare competent clinicians, the search continues for innovative strategies that will produce culturally competent providers. Patient simulation is a technique that replicates real-world scenarios in a controlled and nonthreatening environment. However, despite the legal and moral obligations that nurses have to provide culturally competent care, a lack of evidence exists regarding how to properly integrate simulation methods for cultural competence training into the nursing curriculum. In the nursing curriculum, patient simulation has been used mainly to teach the biomedical aspects of care with less focus on the psychological, cultural, and environmental context. The potential exists for the use of high-fidelity patient simulation as an effective teaching strategy for cultural competence training.

  7. High fidelity simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase mutants have impaired replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sarah B; Lichtfuss, Marit; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Alcantara, Sheilajen; De Rose, Robert; Tachedjian, Gilda; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Venturi, Vanessa; Davenport, Miles P; Winnall, Wendy R; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The low fidelity of HIV replication facilitates immune and drug escape. Some reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor drug-resistance mutations increase RT fidelity in biochemical assays but their effect during viral replication is unclear. We investigated the effect of RT mutations K65R, Q151N and V148I on SIV replication and fidelity in vitro, along with SIV replication in pigtailed macaques. SIVmac239-K65R and SIVmac239-V148I viruses had reduced replication capacity compared to wild-type SIVmac239. Direct virus competition assays demonstrated a rank order of wild-type>K65R>V148I mutants in terms of viral fitness. In single round in vitro-replication assays, SIVmac239-K65R demonstrated significantly higher fidelity than wild-type, and rapidly reverted to wild-type following infection of macaques. In contrast, SIVmac239-Q151N was replication incompetent in vitro and in pigtailed macaques. Thus, we showed that RT mutants, and specifically the common K65R drug-resistance mutation, had impaired replication capacity and higher fidelity. These results have implications for the pathogenesis of drug-resistant HIV. PMID:26896929

  8. High-fidelity national carbon mapping for resource management and REDD+

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fidelity carbon mapping has the potential to greatly advance national resource management and to encourage international action toward climate change mitigation. However, carbon inventories based on field plots alone cannot capture the heterogeneity of carbon stocks, and thus remote sensing-assisted approaches are critically important to carbon mapping at regional to global scales. We advanced a high-resolution, national-scale carbon mapping approach applied to the Republic of Panama – one of the first UN REDD + partner countries. Results Integrating measurements of vegetation structure collected by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with field inventory plots, we report LiDAR-estimated aboveground carbon stock errors of ~10% on any 1-ha land parcel across a wide range of ecological conditions. Critically, this shows that LiDAR provides a highly reliable replacement for inventory plots in areas lacking field data, both in humid tropical forests and among drier tropical vegetation types. We then scale up a systematically aligned LiDAR sampling of Panama using satellite data on topography, rainfall, and vegetation cover to model carbon stocks at 1-ha resolution with estimated average pixel-level uncertainty of 20.5 Mg C ha-1 nationwide. Conclusions The national carbon map revealed strong abiotic and human controls over Panamanian carbon stocks, and the new level of detail with estimated uncertainties for every individual hectare in the country sets Panama at the forefront in high-resolution ecosystem management. With this repeatable approach, carbon resource decision-making can be made on a geospatially explicit basis, enhancing human welfare and environmental protection. PMID:23866822

  9. About the prediction of Organic Rankine Cycles performances integrating local high-fidelity turbines simulation and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Pietro; de Santis, Dante; Geraci, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are of key-importance when exploiting energy systems with a high efficiency. The variability of renewable heat sources makes more complex the global performance prediction of a cycle. The thermodynamic properties of the complex fluids used in the process are another source of uncertainty. The need for a predictive and robust simulation tool of ORCs remains strong. A high-order accurate Residual Distribution scheme has been recently developed for efficiently computing a turbine stage on unstructured grids, including advanced equations of state in order to take into account the complex fluids used in ORCs. Advantages in using high-order methods have been highlighted, in terms of number of degrees of freedom and computational time used, for computing the numerical solution with a greater accuracy compared to lower-order methods, even for shocked flows. The objective of this work is to quantify the numerical error with respect to the various sources of uncertainty of the ORC turbine, thus providing a very high-fidelity prediction in the coupled physical/stochastic space.

  10. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  11. Geological structure guided well log interpolation for high-fidelity full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Hanming; Xiang, Kui; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising technique for inverting a high-resolution subsurface velocity model. The success of FWI highly depends on a fairly well initial velocity model. We propose a method for building a good initial velocity model that can be put into the FWI framework for inverting a nearly perfect velocity structure. We use a well log interpolated velocity model as a high-fidelity initial model for the subsequent FWI. The interpolation problem is solved via a least-squares method with a geological structural regularization. In order to obtain the geological structure of subsurface reflectors, an initial reverse time migration (RTM) with a fairly realistic initial velocity model is conducted, and the local slope of subsurface structure is roughly calculated from the RTM image. The well log interpolated initial velocity model can be very close to the true velocity while containing a small velocity anomaly or over-smoothing caused by the imperfect velocity interpolation. The anomaly and over-smoothing effect can be compensated during the subsequent FWI iterations. We use a relatively simple layered model and the more complicated Marmousi velocity model to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. We start from a very smooth velocity model and obtain a nearly perfect FWI result which is much better than the traditional FWI result without the velocity interpolation. The migrated images from the RTM method using different velocity models are also compared to further confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Regarding the field deployment, we suggest that future drilling of exploration wells can be seismic-oriented, which can help fully utilize the information of well logs for building initial subsurface velocity model and will facilitate a wide application of the proposed methodology.

  12. Geological structure guided well log interpolation for high-fidelity full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Hanming; Xiang, Kui; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-11-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising technique for inverting a high-resolution subsurface velocity model. The success of FWI highly depends on a fairly well initial velocity model. We propose a method for building a good initial velocity model that can be put into the FWI framework for inverting a nearly perfect velocity structure. We use a well log interpolated velocity model as a high-fidelity initial model for the subsequent FWI. The interpolation problem is solved via a least-squares method with a geological structural regularization. In order to obtain the geological structure of subsurface reflectors, an initial reverse time migration (RTM) with a fairly realistic initial velocity model is conducted, and the local slope of subsurface structure is roughly calculated from the RTM image. The well log interpolated initial velocity model can be very close to the true velocity while containing a small velocity anomaly or oversmoothing caused by the imperfect velocity interpolation. The anomaly and oversmoothing effect can be compensated during the subsequent FWI iterations. We use a relatively simple-layered model and the more complicated Marmousi velocity model to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. We start from a very smooth velocity model and obtain a nearly perfect FWI result which is much better than the traditional FWI result without the velocity interpolation. The migrated images from the RTM method using different velocity models are also compared to further confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Regarding the field deployment, we suggest that future drilling of exploration wells can be seismic-oriented, which can help fully utilize the information of well logs for building initial subsurface velocity model and will facilitate a wide application of the proposed methodology.

  13. High-fidelity simulation and reduced-order modelling of integrally-actuated membrane wings with feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, Stefano; Palacios, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a numerical framework for the simulation and design of integrally actuated membrane wings with feedback control. The performance of the aeroelastic system are evaluated using a high-fidelity model. It consists in a fluid solver based on the direct numerical integration of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations implicitly coupled with a geometrically non-linear dynamic structural model which has been calibrated using experimental data. The rate-dependent constitutive law for the dielectric elastomer considered for the integral wing actuation is based on a non-linear formulation. The framework also includes a methodology for the model reduction of the fully-coupled system. The resulting low-order description showed to retain the main system dynamics, and can therefore be used for the design of the control scheme for the wing. Results highlights the potential to achieve on-demand aerodynamics using the actuation concept proposed. In particular, it is shown that the wing aerodynamic performance is noticeably enhanced through the actuation and the disturbances on the lift in case of gusts can be reduced up to 60%.

  14. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. J.; Harty, T. P.; Linke, N. M.; Sepiol, M. A.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99 % minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μ s and 520 μ s , and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  15. High Fidelity Modeling of Turbulent Mixing and Chemical Kinetics Interactions in a Post-Detonation Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Zambon, Andrea; Ott, James; Demagistris, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Driven by the continuing rapid advances in high-performance computing, multi-dimensional high-fidelity modeling is an increasingly reliable predictive tool capable of providing valuable physical insight into complex post-detonation reacting flow fields. Utilizing a series of test cases featuring blast waves interacting with combustible dispersed clouds in a small-scale test setup under well-controlled conditions, the predictive capabilities of a state-of-the-art code are demonstrated and validated. Leveraging physics-based, first principle models and solving large system of equations on highly-resolved grids, the combined effects of finite-rate/multi-phase chemical processes (including thermal ignition), turbulent mixing and shock interactions are captured across the spectrum of relevant time-scales and length scales. Since many scales of motion are generated in a post-detonation environment, even if the initial ambient conditions are quiescent, turbulent mixing plays a major role in the fireball afterburning as well as in dispersion, mixing, ignition and burn-out of combustible clouds in its vicinity. Validating these capabilities at the small scale is critical to establish a reliable predictive tool applicable to more complex and large-scale geometries of practical interest.

  16. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    The objectives of this research are to develop a high fidelity simulation methodology for turbomachinery aeromechanical problems and to investigate the mechanism of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of an aircraft engine axial compressor. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding technique is developed to accurately capture the unsteadiness and interaction between adjacent blade rows. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are implemented to take into account the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structure, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. An advanced mesh deformation method that generates the blade tip block mesh moving with the blade displacement is developed to ensure the mesh quality. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme as a Riemann solver designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used with an improved hybrid RANS/LES turbulence strategy, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI simulation methodology. The validated cases include: (1) DDES of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack with massive separation. The DDES accurately predicts the drag whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. (2) The AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter boundary is accurately predicted including the point at supersonic incoming flow. (3) NASA Rotor 67 validation for steady state speed line and radial profiles at peak efficiency point and near stall point. The

  17. Hi-Fi SELEX: A High-Fidelity Digital-PCR Based Therapeutic Aptamer Discovery Platform.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Eric; Foley, Jonathan H; Conway, Edward M; Haynes, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Current technologies for aptamer discovery typically leverage the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) concept by recursively panning semi-combinatorial ssDNA or RNA libraries against a molecular target. The expectation is that this iterative selection process will be sufficiently stringent to identify a candidate pool of specific high-affinity aptamers. However, failure of this process to yield promising aptamers is common, due in part to (i) limitations in library designs, (ii) retention of non-specific aptamers during screening rounds, (iii) excessive accumulation of amplification artifacts, and (iv) the use of screening criteria (binding affinity) that does not reflect therapeutic activity. We report a new selection platform, High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) SELEX, that introduces fixed-region blocking elements to safeguard the functional diversity of the library. The chemistry of the target-display surface and the composition of the equilibration solvent are engineered to strongly inhibit non-specific retention of aptamers. Partition efficiencies approaching 10(6) are thereby realized. Retained members are amplified in Hi-Fi SELEX by digital PCR in a manner that ensures both elimination of amplification artifacts and stoichiometric conversion of amplicons into the single-stranded library required for the next selection round. Improvements to aptamer selections are first demonstrated using human α-thrombin as the target. Three clinical targets (human factors IXa, X, and D) are then subjected to Hi-Fi SELEX. For each, rapid enrichment of ssDNA aptamers offering an order-nM mean equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) is achieved within three selection rounds, as quantified by a new label-free qPCR assay reported here. Therapeutic candidates against factor D are identified.

  18. High-Fidelity Simulation of Primary Blast: Direct Effects on the Head.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Thomas W; Wang, Yushan; Ritzel, David V; Josey, Tyson; Villanueva, Mercy; Shei, Yimin; Nelson, Peggy; Hennes, Grant; Weiss, Tracy; Vair, Cory; Fan, Changyang; Barnes, Julia

    2016-07-01

    The role of primary blast in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is controversial in part due to the technical difficulties of generating free-field blast conditions in the laboratory. The use of traditional shock tubes often results in artifacts, particularly of dynamic pressure, whereas the forces affecting the head are dependent on where the animal is placed relative to the tube, whether the exposure is whole-body or head-only, and on how the head is actually exposed to the insult (restrained or not). An advanced blast simulator (ABS) has been developed that enables high-fidelity simulation of free-field blastwaves, including sharply defined static and dynamic overpressure rise times, underpressures, and secondary shockwaves. Rats were exposed in head-only fashion to single-pulse blastwaves of 15 to 30 psi static overpressure. Head restraints were configured so as to eliminate concussive and minimize whiplash forces exerted on the head, as shown by kinematic analysis. No overt signs of trauma were present in the animals post-exposure. However, significant changes in brain 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase) and neurofilament heavy chain levels were evident by 7 days. In contrast to most studies of primary blast-induced TBI (PbTBI), no elevation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels was noted when head movement was minimized. The ABS described in this article enables the generation of shockwaves highly representative of free-field blast. The use of this technology, in concert with head-only exposure, minimized head movement, and the kinematic analysis of the forces exerted on the head provide convincing evidence that primary blast directly causes changes in brain function and that GFAP may not be an appropriate biomarker of PbTBI.

  19. HIGH-FIDELITY RADIO ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY USING A MILLISECOND PULSAR AS A POLARIZED REFERENCE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Van Straten, W.

    2013-01-15

    A new method of polarimetric calibration is presented in which the instrumental response is derived from regular observations of PSR J0437-4715 based on the assumption that the mean polarized emission from this millisecond pulsar remains constant over time. The technique is applicable to any experiment in which high-fidelity polarimetry is required over long timescales; it is demonstrated by calibrating 7.2 years of high-precision timing observations of PSR J1022+1001 made at the Parkes Observatory. Application of the new technique followed by arrival time estimation using matrix template matching yields post-fit residuals with an uncertainty-weighted standard deviation of 880 ns, two times smaller than that of arrival time residuals obtained via conventional methods of calibration and arrival time estimation. The precision achieved by this experiment yields the first significant measurements of the secular variation of the projected semimajor axis, the precession of periastron, and the Shapiro delay; it also places PSR J1022+1001 among the 10 best pulsars regularly observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is shown that the timing accuracy of a large fraction of the pulsars in the PPTA is currently limited by the systematic timing error due to instrumental polarization artifacts. More importantly, long-term variations of systematic error are correlated between different pulsars, which adversely affects the primary objectives of any pulsar timing array experiment. These limitations may be overcome by adopting the techniques presented in this work, which relax the demand for instrumental polarization purity and thereby have the potential to reduce the development cost of next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  20. Hi-Fi SELEX: A High-Fidelity Digital-PCR Based Therapeutic Aptamer Discovery Platform.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Eric; Foley, Jonathan H; Conway, Edward M; Haynes, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Current technologies for aptamer discovery typically leverage the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) concept by recursively panning semi-combinatorial ssDNA or RNA libraries against a molecular target. The expectation is that this iterative selection process will be sufficiently stringent to identify a candidate pool of specific high-affinity aptamers. However, failure of this process to yield promising aptamers is common, due in part to (i) limitations in library designs, (ii) retention of non-specific aptamers during screening rounds, (iii) excessive accumulation of amplification artifacts, and (iv) the use of screening criteria (binding affinity) that does not reflect therapeutic activity. We report a new selection platform, High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) SELEX, that introduces fixed-region blocking elements to safeguard the functional diversity of the library. The chemistry of the target-display surface and the composition of the equilibration solvent are engineered to strongly inhibit non-specific retention of aptamers. Partition efficiencies approaching 10(6) are thereby realized. Retained members are amplified in Hi-Fi SELEX by digital PCR in a manner that ensures both elimination of amplification artifacts and stoichiometric conversion of amplicons into the single-stranded library required for the next selection round. Improvements to aptamer selections are first demonstrated using human α-thrombin as the target. Three clinical targets (human factors IXa, X, and D) are then subjected to Hi-Fi SELEX. For each, rapid enrichment of ssDNA aptamers offering an order-nM mean equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) is achieved within three selection rounds, as quantified by a new label-free qPCR assay reported here. Therapeutic candidates against factor D are identified. PMID:25727321

  1. High-Fidelity Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis and DNS with Discontinuous-Galerkin Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel Alan Wendell

    High-fidelity numerical tools based on high-order Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods and Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) theory are developed and validated for the study of separated, vortex-dominated flows over complex geometry. The numerical framework couples prediction of separated turbulent flows using DG with time-dependent analysis of the flow through LCS and is intended for the development of separation control strategies for aerodynamic surfaces. The compressible viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil is solved with a DG based Navier-Stokes solver in two and three dimensions. A method is presented in which high-order polynomial element edges adjacent to curved boundaries are matched to boundaries defined by non-smooth splines. Artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation of straight-sided meshes results in the simulation of incorrect physics, including wake instabilities and spurious time-dependent modes. Spectral accuracy in the boundary approximation is not achieved for non-analytic boundary functions, particularly in high curvature regions. An algorithm is developed for the high-order computation of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields simultaneously and efficiently with two and three dimensional DG-based flow solvers. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element and form the high-order basis for a flow map at later time. Gradients of the flow map and FTLE are evaluated with DG operators. Multiple flow maps are determined from a single particle trace by remapping the flow map to the quadrature nodes on deformed mesh elements. For large integration times, excessive subdomain deformation deteriorates the interpolating conditioning. The conditioning provides information on the fluid deformation and identifies subdomains that contain LCS. An exponential filter smooths the flow map in highly deformed areas. The algorithm is tested on several benchmarks and is shown

  2. The nature of reality represented in high fidelity human patient simulation: philosophical perspectives and implications for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2014-01-01

    Simulation technology is increasingly being used in nursing education. Previously used primarily for teaching procedural, instrumental, or critical incident types of skills, simulation is now being applied to training related to more dynamic, complex, and interpersonal human contexts. While high fidelity human patient simulators have significantly increased in authenticity, human responses have greater complexity and are qualitatively different than current technology represents. This paper examines the texture of representation by simulation. Through a tracing of historical and contemporary philosophical perspectives on simulation, the nature and limits of the reality of human health responses represented by high fidelity human patient simulation (HF-HPS) are explored. Issues concerning nursing education are raised around the nature of reality represented in HF-HPS. Drawing on Waks, a framework for guiding pedagogical considerations around simulation in nursing education is presented for the ultimate purpose of promoting an educative experience with simulation. PMID:24320978

  3. The nature of reality represented in high fidelity human patient simulation: philosophical perspectives and implications for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2014-01-01

    Simulation technology is increasingly being used in nursing education. Previously used primarily for teaching procedural, instrumental, or critical incident types of skills, simulation is now being applied to training related to more dynamic, complex, and interpersonal human contexts. While high fidelity human patient simulators have significantly increased in authenticity, human responses have greater complexity and are qualitatively different than current technology represents. This paper examines the texture of representation by simulation. Through a tracing of historical and contemporary philosophical perspectives on simulation, the nature and limits of the reality of human health responses represented by high fidelity human patient simulation (HF-HPS) are explored. Issues concerning nursing education are raised around the nature of reality represented in HF-HPS. Drawing on Waks, a framework for guiding pedagogical considerations around simulation in nursing education is presented for the ultimate purpose of promoting an educative experience with simulation.

  4. Characterization of Flap Edge Noise Radiation from a High-Fidelity Airframe Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David P.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Bahr, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the noise generated by a baseline high-fidelity airframe model are presented. The test campaign was conducted in the open-jet test section of the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel on an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream airframe model incorporating a trailing edge flap and main landing gear. Unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained from a series of sensors positioned along the two flap edges, and far field acoustic measurements were obtained using a 97-microphone phased array that viewed the pressure side of the airframe. The DAMAS array deconvolution method was employed to determine the locations and strengths of relevant noise sources in the vicinity of the flap edges and the landing gear. A Coherent Output Power (COP) spectral method was used to couple the unsteady surface pressures measured along the flap edges with the phased array output. The results indicate that outboard flap edge noise is dominated by the flap bulb seal cavity with very strong COP coherence over an approximate model-scale frequency range of 1 to 5 kHz observed between the array output and those unsteady pressure sensors nearest the aft end of the cavity. An examination of experimental COP spectra for the inboard flap proved inconclusive, most likely due to a combination of coherence loss caused by decorrelation of acoustic waves propagating through the thick wind tunnel shear layer and contamination of the spectra by tunnel background noise at lower frequencies. Directivity measurements obtained from integration of DAMAS pressure-squared values over defined geometric zones around the model show that the baseline flap and landing gear are only moderately directional as a function of polar emission angle.

  5. Aurora A Kinase Amplifies a Midzone Phosphorylation Gradient to Promote High-Fidelity Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Anna A; Torabi, Julia; Maresca, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    During cytokinesis, aurora B kinase (ABK) relocalizes from centromeres to the spindle midzone, where it is thought to provide a spatial cue for cytokinesis. While global ABK inhibition in Drosophila S2 cells results in macro- and multi-nucleated large cells, mislocalization of midzone ABK (mABK) by depletion of Subito (Drosophila MKLP2) does not cause notable cytokinesis defects. Subito depletion was, therefore, used to investigate the contribution of other molecules and redundant pathways to cytokinesis in the absence of mABK. Inhibiting potential polar relaxation pathways via removal of centrosomes (CNN RNAi) or a kinetochore-based phosphatase gradient (Sds22 RNAi) did not result in cytokinesis defects on their own or in combination with loss of mABK. Disruption of aurora A kinase (AAK) activity resulted in midzone assembly defects, but did not significantly affect contractile ring positioning or cytokinesis. Live-cell imaging of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based aurora kinase phosphorylation sensor revealed that midzone substrates were less phosphorylated in AAK-inhibited cells, despite the fact that midzone levels of active phosphorylated ABK (pABK) were normal. Interestingly, in the absence of mABK, an increased number of binucleated cells were observed following AAK inhibition. The data suggest that equatorial stimulation rather than polar relaxation mechanisms is the major determinant of contractile ring positioning and high-fidelity cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells. Furthermore, we propose that equatorial stimulation is mediated primarily by the delivery of factors to the cortex by noncentrosomal microtubules (MTs), as well as a midzone-derived phosphorylation gradient that is amplified by the concerted activities of mABK and a soluble pool of AAK. PMID:27638695

  6. High Fidelity? Temporal and spatial scales of stratigraphic incompleteness and how they compare to environmental forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. M.; Li, Q.; Esposito, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Stratigraphy contains the most complete record of information necessary to quantitatively reconstruct paleolandscape dynamics, but this record contains significant gaps over a range of time and space scales. These gaps result from stasis on geomorphic surfaces and from erosional events. We examine stratigraphic completeness in a suite of 11 physical experiments where the topography of aggrading deltas was monitored at high temporal and spatial scales. These experiments cover a range of boundary conditions, with both constant and dynamic forcings. Our analysis centers on three time scales: (1) the time at which a record is discretized (t), (2) the time necessary to build a deposit with mean thickness equivalent to the maximum topographic roughness (Tc), and (3) the time necessary for channelized flow to migrate over the entire basin (Tch). These time scales incorporate information pertaining to the evolving topography of actively changing surfaces, kinematics by which the surfaces are changing, and net deposition rate. In constant boundary condition experiments, we find that stratigraphic completeness increases as a power law function of t/Tc until reaching 100% completeness at time scales equal to Tc. The relationship between completeness and t/Tc in experiments experiencing base-level cycles is complex and related to characteristics of the base level cycles. We observe that in our experiments the mean and standard deviation of the width of stratigraphic gaps scales with Tc/Tch. These results place quantitative limits on the fidelity of the stratigraphic record, and thus aid prediction of a depositional environment's capacity to store environmental signals.

  7. High-Fidelity Nonlinear Analysis of Compression-Loaded Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the effects of initial imperfections on the buckling and postbuckling response of unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells are presented. The shells considered in the study have four different shell-wall laminates and two different shell-radius-to-thickness ratios. The shell-wall laminates include two different orthotropic laminates and two different quasi-isotropic laminates. The shell-radius-to-thickness ratios include shell-radius-to-thickness ratios equal to 100 and 200. The results identify the effects of traditional and nontraditional initial imperfections on the nonlinear response characteristics and buckling loads of the shells. The traditional imperfections include the geometric shell-wall mid-surface imperfections that are commonly discussed in the literature on thin shell buckling. The nontraditional imperfections include shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and variations in the boundary conditions including the effects of elastic boundary conditions. A high-fidelity nonlinear shell analysis procedure that accurately accounts for the effects of these traditional and nontraditional imperfections on the nonlinear response characteristics and buckling loads of the shells is described. The analysis procedure includes a nonlinear static analysis that predicts the stable response characteristics of the shells, and a nonlinear transient analysis that predicts the unstable response characteristics. The results of a local shell-wall stress analysis used to estimate failure stresses are also described.

  8. Experimental Implementation of High-Fidelity Single-Qubit Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerfontaine, Pascal; Botzem, Tim; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits in the presence of decoherence are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. However, the control methods used in earlier experiments on GaAs two-electron spin qubits are based on unrealistic approximations which preclude reaching the required fidelities. An attractive remedy is to use control pulses found in numerical simulations that minimize the infidelity from decoherence and take the experimentally important imperfections and constraints into account. We show that the experimental implementation of these numerically optimized control pulses is possible by using a self-consistent calibration routine we proposed earlier. In our experiment this calibration routine succeeds in removing systematic gate errors to a high degree without increasing the pulses' decoherence. We extract the Bloch sphere trajectories of the resulting gate sequences using self-consistent state tomography and find good agreement with the theoretically predicted trajectories. Furthermore, we prepare different states using these gates and determine their fidelities. Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach - Foundation, Deutsche Telekom Foundation.

  9. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2016-09-07

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  10. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  11. Reliability-based aeroelastic optimization of a composite aircraft wing via fluid-structure interaction of high fidelity solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbay, M.; Fakkusoglu, N.; Kuru, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    We consider reliability based aeroelastic optimization of a AGARD 445.6 composite aircraft wing with stochastic parameters. Both commercial engineering software and an in-house reliability analysis code are employed in this high-fidelity computational framework. Finite volume based flow solver Fluent is used to solve 3D Euler equations, while Gambit is the fluid domain mesh generator and Catia-V5-R16 is used as a parametric 3D solid modeler. Abaqus, a structural finite element solver, is used to compute the structural response of the aeroelastic system. Mesh based parallel code coupling interface MPCCI-3.0.6 is used to exchange the pressure and displacement information between Fluent and Abaqus to perform a loosely coupled fluid-structure interaction by employing a staggered algorithm. To compute the probability of failure for the probabilistic constraints, one of the well known MPP (Most Probable Point) based reliability analysis methods, FORM (First Order Reliability Method) is implemented in Matlab. This in-house developed Matlab code is embedded in the multidisciplinary optimization workflow which is driven by Modefrontier. Modefrontier 4.1, is used for its gradient based optimization algorithm called NBI-NLPQLP which is based on sequential quadratic programming method. A pareto optimal solution for the stochastic aeroelastic optimization is obtained for a specified reliability index and results are compared with the results of deterministic aeroelastic optimization.

  12. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  13. An Airborne Observing Campaign of an Announced Small Asteroid Impact for High Fidelity Impact Modeling Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P. M. M.; Grinstead, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    High fidelity modeling of an asteroid impact requires a known size, mass, shape, entry orientation, entry speed, entry angle, time and location of entry, and material properties of the impacting asteroid. Much of that information can be gathered from small asteroids on an impact trajectory with Earth while they are on approach, given sufficient warning time. That makes small asteroid impacts uniquely suited for collecting data to validate such models. One-meter sized asteroids impact Earth about once a week, 4-meter sized asteroids impact once a year. So far, only asteroid 2008 TC3 was observed in space, characterized prior to impact, and then recovered in part as meteorites on the ground. The next TC3-like impact could provide more warming time to study the impact in detail. Close to 70 percent of all asteroid impacts on Earth occur over the ocean. Hence, small asteroid impact observations require an instrumented airborne platform to take a multi-disciplined research team to the right location at the right time. From a safe 100-km distance, the impact would be observed low enough in the sky to study the process of fragmentation that dictates at which altitude the kinetic energy is deposited that can cause an airburst. Constraints on radiative heating, ablation rate, and fragmentation processes can be obtained from measuring the air plasma emission escaping the shock, elemental atom line emissions and excitation conditions, pressure broadening, and deceleration in the plane of the known trajectory. It is also possible to measure wake, lightcurve and air plasma emission line intensities early in flight that can be used to evaluate the presence of regolith and the internal cohesion of asteroids. The main element abundance (asteroid composition) can be measured for individual fragments, while CN-band emission can point to the presence of organic matter. Such information will help constrain the meteorite type if no meteorites can be recovered in an over

  14. A High Fidelity Multiphysics Framework for Modeling CRUD Deposition on PWR Fuel Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Daniel John

    Corrosion products on the fuel cladding surfaces within pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies have had a significant impact on reactor operation. These types of deposits are referred to as CRUD and can lead to power shifts, as a consequence of the accumulation of solid boron phases on the fuel rod surfaces. Corrosion deposits can also lead to fuel failure resulting from localized corrosion, where the increased thermal resistance of the deposit leads to higher cladding temperatures. The prediction of these occurrences requires a comprehensive model of local thermal hydraulic and chemical processes occurring in close proximity to the cladding surface, as well as their driving factors. Such factors include the rod power distribution, coolant corrosion product concentration, as well as the feedbacks between heat transfer, fluid dynamics, chemistry, and neutronics. To correctly capture the coupled physics and corresponding feedbacks, a high fidelity framework is developed that predicts three-dimensional CRUD deposition on a rod-by-rod basis. Multiphysics boundary conditions resulting from the coupling of heat transfer, fluid dynamics, coolant chemistry, CRUD deposition, neutron transport, and nuclide transmutation inform the CRUD deposition solver. Through systematic parametric sensitivity studies of the CRUD property inputs, coupled boundary conditions, and multiphysics feedback mechanisms, the most important variables of multiphysics CRUD modeling are identified. Moreover, the modeling framework is challenged with a blind comparison of plant data to predictions by a simulation of a sub-assembly within the Seabrook nuclear plant that experienced CRUD induced fuel failures. The physics within the computational framework are loosely coupled via an operator-splitting technique. A control theory approach is adopted to determine the temporal discretization at which to execute a data transfer from one physics to another. The coupled stepsize selection is viewed as a

  15. High-fidelity pulse density modulation in neuromorphic electric circuits utilizing natural heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    Hospedales et al. have recently proposed a neural network model of the “vestibulo-ocular reflex” (VOR) in which a common input was given to multiple nonidentical spiking neurons that were exposed to uncorrelated temporal noise, and the output was represented by the sum of these neurons. Although the function of the VOR network is equivalent to pulse density modulation, the neurons' non-uniformity and temporal noises given to the neurons were shown to improve the output spike's fidelity to the analog input. In this paper, we propose a CMOS analog circuit for implementing the VOR network that exploits the non-uniformity of real MOS devices. Through extensive laboratory experiments using discrete MOS devices, we show that the output's fidelity to the input pulses is clearly improved by using multiple neuron circuits, in which the non-uniformity is naturally embedded into the devices.

  16. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits.

    PubMed

    Ballance, C J; Harty, T P; Linke, N M; Sepiol, M A; Lucas, D M

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99% minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8  μs and 520  μs, and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity. PMID:27541450

  17. High-Fidelity Resonator-Induced Phase Gate with Single-Mode Squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Shruti; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    We propose to increase the fidelity of two-qubit resonator-induced phase gates in circuit QED by the use of narrow-band single-mode squeezing. We show that there exists an optimal squeezing angle and strength that erases qubit "which-path" information leaking out of the cavity and thereby minimizes qubit dephasing during these gates. Our analytical results for the gate fidelity are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of a cascaded master equation that takes into account the dynamics of the source of squeezed radiation. With realistic parameters, we find that it is possible to realize a controlled-phase gate with a gate time of 200 ns and average infidelity of 1 0-5.

  18. High-Fidelity Resonator-Induced Phase Gate with Single-Mode Squeezing.

    PubMed

    Puri, Shruti; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    We propose to increase the fidelity of two-qubit resonator-induced phase gates in circuit QED by the use of narrow-band single-mode squeezing. We show that there exists an optimal squeezing angle and strength that erases qubit "which-path" information leaking out of the cavity and thereby minimizes qubit dephasing during these gates. Our analytical results for the gate fidelity are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of a cascaded master equation that takes into account the dynamics of the source of squeezed radiation. With realistic parameters, we find that it is possible to realize a controlled-phase gate with a gate time of 200 ns and average infidelity of 10^{-5}. PMID:27203311

  19. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces. PMID:27046605

  20. Experimental generation of a high-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    Cluster state plays a crucial role in one-way quantum computation. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to prepare an ultrahigh-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state via a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. The state fidelity is measured to be 0.9517 ±0.0027 . Our scheme can be directly extended to more photons to generate an N -qubit linear cluster state. Furthermore, our scheme is optimal for generating photonic linear cluster states in the sense of achieving the maximal success probability and having the simplest strategy. The key idea is that the photon pairs are prepared in some special nonmaximally entangled states instead of the normal Bell states. To generate a 2 N -qubit linear cluster state from N pairs of entangled photons, only (N -1 ) Hong-Ou-Mandel interferences are needed and a success probability of (1/4) N -1 is achieved.

  1. High-fidelity Rydberg-blockade entangling gate using shaped, analytic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, L. S.; Motzoi, F.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Saffman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the use of shaped pulses improves the fidelity of a Rydberg-blockade two-qubit entangling gate by several orders of magnitude compared to previous protocols based on square pulses or optimal control pulses. Using analytical derivative removal by adiabatic gate (DRAG) pulses that reduce excitation of primary leakage states and an analytical method of finding the optimal Rydberg blockade, we generate Bell states with a fidelity of F >0.9999 in a 300 K environment for a gate time of only 50 ns , which is an order of magnitude faster than previous protocols. These results establish the potential of neutral atom qubits with Rydberg-blockade gates for scalable quantum computation.

  2. High Fidelity Singlet-Triplet S-T_ Qubits in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Eriksson, Mark; Coppersmith, Sue; Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We propose an optimal set of quantum gates for a singlet-triplet qubit in a double quantum dot with two electrons utilizing the S-T- subspace. Qubit rotations are driven by the applied magnetic field and an orthogonal field gradient provided by a micromagnet. We optimize the fidelity of this qubit as a function of magnetic fields, taking advantage of ``sweet spots'' where the rotation frequencies are independent of the energy level detuning, providing protection against charge noise. We simulate gate operations and qubit rotations in the presence of quasistatic noise from charge and nuclear spins as well as leakage to nonqubit states, and predict that in silicon quantum dots gate fidelities greater than 99 % can be achieved for two nearly-orthogonal rotation axes. This work was supported in part by NSF, ARO, UW-Madison Bridge Funding, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  3. Geodetic Inversion Analysis Method of Coseismic Slip Distribution Using a Three-dimensional Finite Element High-fidelity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have focused on geodetic inversion analysis method of coseismic slip distribution with combination of observation data of coseismic crustal deformation on the ground and simplified crustal models such like analytical solution in elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). On the other hand, displacements on the seafloor or near trench axes due to actual earthquakes has been observed by seafloor observatories (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Tohoku Earthquake) (Sato et. al. 2011) (Kido et. al. 2011)). Also, some studies on tsunamis due to the Tohoku Earthquake indicate that large fault slips near the trench axis may have occurred. Those facts suggest that crustal models considering complex geometry and heterogeneity of the material property near the trench axis should be used for geodetic inversion analysis. Therefore, our group has developed a mesh generation method for finite element models of the Japanese Islands of higher fidelity and a fast crustal deformation analysis method for the models. Degree-of-freedom of the models generated by this method is about 150 million. In this research, the method is extended for inversion analyses of coseismic slip distribution. Since inversion analyses need computation of hundreds of slip response functions due to a unit fault slip assigned for respective divided cells on the fault, parallel computing environment is used. Plural crustal deformation analyses are simultaneously run in a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. In the job, dynamic load balancing is implemented so that a better parallel efficiency is obtained. Submitting the necessary number of serial job of our previous method is also possible, but the proposed method needs less computation time, places less stress on file systems, and allows simpler job management. A method for considering the fault slip right near the trench axis is also developed. As the displacement distribution of unit fault slip for computing response function, 3rd order B

  4. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  5. Fidelity decay in interacting two-level boson systems: Freezing and revivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benet, Luis; Hernández-Quiroz, Saúl; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2011-05-01

    We study the fidelity decay in the k-body embedded ensembles of random matrices for bosons distributed in two single-particle states, considering the reference or unperturbed Hamiltonian as the one-body terms and the diagonal part of the k-body embedded ensemble of random matrices and the perturbation as the residual off-diagonal part of the interaction. We calculate the ensemble-averaged fidelity with respect to an initial random state within linear response theory to second order on the perturbation strength and demonstrate that it displays the freeze of the fidelity. During the freeze, the average fidelity exhibits periodic revivals at integer values of the Heisenberg time tH. By selecting specific k-body terms of the residual interaction, we find that the periodicity of the revivals during the freeze of fidelity is an integer fraction of tH, thus relating the period of the revivals with the range of the interaction k of the perturbing terms. Numerical calculations confirm the analytical results.

  6. The effect of high-fidelity patient simulation on the critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills of new graduate nurses.

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda; Fowler, Kimberly A; Kays, John A; Boyd, Tiffany M; Shuey, Jennifer; Harne-Britner, Sarah; Mastrine, Cynthia

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of high-fidelity patient simulation to new nurse orientation enhanced critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills. A pretest-posttest design was used to assess critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills in two groups of graduate nurses. Compared with the control group, the high-fidelity patient simulation group did not show significant improvement in mean critical thinking or clinical decision-making scores. When mean scores were analyzed, both groups showed an increase in critical thinking scores from pretest to posttest, with the high-fidelity patient simulation group showing greater gains in overall scores. However, neither group showed a statistically significant increase in mean test scores. The effect of high-fidelity patient simulation on critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills remains unclear.

  7. High-throughput, high-fidelity HLA genotyping with deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlin; Krishnakumar, Sujatha; Wilhelmy, Julie; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Stepanyan, Lilit; Su, Laura F; Levinson, Douglas; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A; Davis, Ronald W; Davis, Mark M; Mindrinos, Michael

    2012-05-29

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic in the human genome. They play a pivotal role in the immune response and have been implicated in numerous human pathologies, especially autoimmunity and infectious diseases. Despite their importance, however, they are rarely characterized comprehensively because of the prohibitive cost of standard technologies and the technical challenges of accurately discriminating between these highly related genes and their many allelles. Here we demonstrate a high-resolution, and cost-effective methodology to type HLA genes by sequencing, which combines the advantage of long-range amplification, the power of high-throughput sequencing platforms, and a unique genotyping algorithm. We calibrated our method for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 genes with both reference cell lines and clinical samples and identified several previously undescribed alleles with mismatches, insertions, and deletions. We have further demonstrated the utility of this method in a clinical setting by typing five clinical samples in an Illumina MiSeq instrument with a 5-d turnaround. Overall, this technology has the capacity to deliver low-cost, high-throughput, and accurate HLA typing by multiplexing thousands of samples in a single sequencing run, which will enable comprehensive disease-association studies with large cohorts. Furthermore, this approach can also be extended to include other polymorphic genes.

  8. High-throughput, high-fidelity HLA genotyping with deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlin; Krishnakumar, Sujatha; Wilhelmy, Julie; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Stepanyan, Lilit; Su, Laura F.; Levinson, Douglas; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Davis, Ronald W.; Davis, Mark M.; Mindrinos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic in the human genome. They play a pivotal role in the immune response and have been implicated in numerous human pathologies, especially autoimmunity and infectious diseases. Despite their importance, however, they are rarely characterized comprehensively because of the prohibitive cost of standard technologies and the technical challenges of accurately discriminating between these highly related genes and their many allelles. Here we demonstrate a high-resolution, and cost-effective methodology to type HLA genes by sequencing, which combines the advantage of long-range amplification, the power of high-throughput sequencing platforms, and a unique genotyping algorithm. We calibrated our method for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 genes with both reference cell lines and clinical samples and identified several previously undescribed alleles with mismatches, insertions, and deletions. We have further demonstrated the utility of this method in a clinical setting by typing five clinical samples in an Illumina MiSeq instrument with a 5-d turnaround. Overall, this technology has the capacity to deliver low-cost, high-throughput, and accurate HLA typing by multiplexing thousands of samples in a single sequencing run, which will enable comprehensive disease-association studies with large cohorts. Furthermore, this approach can also be extended to include other polymorphic genes. PMID:22589303

  9. Generation of high-fidelity four-photon cluster state and quantum-domain demonstration of one-way quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Kuwashiro, Shin; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-05-30

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating a four-photon entangled cluster state with fidelity over 0.860+/-0.015. We show that the fidelity is high enough to guarantee that the produced state is distinguished from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and Dicke types of genuine four-qubit entanglement. We also demonstrate basic operations of one-way quantum computing using the produced state and show that the output state fidelities surpass classical bounds, which indicates that the entanglement in the produced state essentially contributes to the quantum operation.

  10. High-fidelity manipulation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using an optical standing wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K. J.; Deissler, B.; Burke, J. H. T.; Sackett, C. A.

    2007-09-15

    The use of off-resonant standing light waves to manipulate ultracold atoms is investigated. Previous work has illustrated that Bragg diffraction can provide efficient beam-splitting and reflection operations for atomic wave packets. The performance of these operations is characterized experimentally using Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a weak magnetic trap. Fidelities of 0.99 for beam splitting and 0.98 for reflection are observed, and splitting operations of up to third order are achieved. The dependence of the operations on light intensity and atomic velocity is measured and found to agree well with theoretical estimates.

  11. High-Fidelity Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic Using Near-Field Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, T. P.; Sepiol, M. A.; Allcock, D. T. C.; Ballance, C. J.; Tarlton, J. E.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a two-qubit logic gate driven by near-field microwaves in a room-temperature microfabricated surface ion trap. We introduce a dynamically decoupled gate method, which stabilizes the qubits against fluctuating energy shifts and avoids the need to null the microwave field. We use the gate to produce a Bell state with fidelity 99.7(1)%, after accounting for state preparation and measurement errors. The gate is applied directly to 43Ca+ hyperfine "atomic clock" qubits (coherence time T2*≈50 s ) using the oscillating magnetic field gradient produced by an integrated microwave electrode.

  12. Cluster-state quantum computing enhanced by high-fidelity generalized measurements.

    PubMed

    Biggerstaff, D N; Kaltenbaek, R; Hamel, D R; Weihs, G; Rudolph, T; Resch, K J

    2009-12-11

    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 different computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832+/-0.0002; furthermore the error contribution from our POVM device and feedforward is only of O(10(-3)), less than some recent thresholds for fault-tolerant cluster computing.

  13. New method of optimizing writing parameters in electron beam lithography systems for throughput improvement considering patterning fidelity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Hoi-Tou; Shen, Yu-Tian; Chen, Sheng-Yung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Ng, Philip C. W.; Tsai, Kuen-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Low-energy electron beam lithography is one of the promising next-generation lithography technology solutions for the 21-nm half-pitch node and beyond because of fewer proximity effects, higher resist sensitivity, and less substrate damage compared with high-energy electron beam lithography. To achieve high-throughput manufacturing, low-energy electron beam lithography systems with writing parameters of larger beam size, larger grid size, and lower dosage are preferred. However, electron shot noise can significantly increase critical dimension deviation and line edge roughness. Its influence on patterning prediction accuracy becomes nonnegligible. To effectively maximize throughput while meeting patterning fidelity requirements according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, a new method is proposed in this work that utilizes a new patterning prediction algorithm to rigorously characterize the patterning variability caused by the shot noise and a mathematical optimization algorithm to determine optimal writing parameters. The new patterning prediction algorithm can achieve a proper trade-off between computational effort and patterning prediction accuracy. Effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated on a static random-access memory circuit. The corresponding electrical performance is analyzed by using a gate-slicing technique and publicly available transistor models. Numerical results show that a significant improvement in the static noise margin can be achieved.

  14. Perceived Barriers to the Use of High-Fidelity Hands-On Simulation Training for Contrast Reaction Management: Why Programs are Not Using It.

    PubMed

    Chinnugounder, Sankar; Hippe, Daniel S; Maximin, Suresh; O'Malley, Ryan B; Wang, Carolyn L

    2015-01-01

    Although subjective and objective benefits of high-fidelity simulation have been reported in medicine, there has been slow adoption in radiology. The purpose of our study was to identify the perceived barriers in the use of high-fidelity hands-on simulation for contrast reaction management training. An IRB exempt 32 questions online web survey was sent to 179 non-military radiology residency program directors listed in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database Access system (FREIDA). Survey questions included the type of contrast reaction management training, cost, time commitment of residents and faculty, and the reasons for not using simulation training. Responses from the survey were summarized as count (percentage), mean ± standard deviation (SD), or median (range). 84 (47%) of 179 programs responded, of which 88% offered CRM training. Most (72%) conducted the CRM training annually while only 4% conducted it more frequently. Didactic lecture was the most frequently used training modality (97%), followed by HFS (30%) and computer-based simulation (CBS) (19%); 5.5% used both HFS and CBS. Of the 51 programs that offer CRM training but do not use HFS, the most common reason reported was insufficient availability (41%). Other reported reasons included cost (33%), no access to simulation centers (33%), lack of trained faculty (27%) and time constraints (27%). Although high-fidelity hands-on simulation training is the best way to reproduce real-life contrast reaction scenarios, many institutions do not provide this training due to constraints such as cost, lack of access or insufficient availability of simulation labs, and lack of trained faculty. As a specialty, radiology needs to better address these barriers at both an institutional and national level. PMID:25939562

  15. Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.

  16. Next Generation Seismic Imaging; High Fidelity Algorithms and High-End Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevc, D.; Ortigosa, F.; Guitton, A.; Kaelin, B.

    2007-05-01

    uniquely powerful computing power of the MareNostrum supercomputer in Barcelona to realize the promise of RTM, incorporate it into daily processing flows, and to help solve exploration problems in a highly cost-effective way. Uniquely, the Kaleidoscope Project is simultaneously integrating software (algorithms) and hardware (Cell BE), steps that are traditionally taken sequentially. This unique integration of software and hardware will accelerate seismic imaging by several orders of magnitude compared to conventional solutions running on standard Linux Clusters.

  17. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ru-Shan Wu, Xiao-Bi Xie, Thorne Lay

    2005-06-06

    In this project, we develop new theories and methods for multi-domain one-way wave-equation based propagators, and apply these techniques to seismic modeling, seismic imaging, seismic illumination and model parameter estimation in 3D complex environments. The major progress of this project includes: (1) The development of the dual-domain wave propagators. We continue to improve the one-way wave-equation based propagators. Our target is making propagators capable of handling more realistic velocity models. A wide-angle propagator for transversely isotropic media with vertically symmetric axis (VTI) has been developed for P-wave modeling and imaging. The resulting propagator is accurate for large velocity perturbations and wide propagation angles. The thin-slab propagator for one-way elastic-wave propagation is further improved. With the introduction of complex velocities, the quality factors Qp and Qs have been incorporated into the thin-slab propagator. The resulting viscoelastic thin-slab propagator can handle elastic-wave propagation in models with intrinsic attenuations. We apply this method to complex models for AVO modeling, random media characterization and frequency-dependent reflectivity simulation. (2) Exploring the Information in the Local Angle Domain. Traditionally, the local angle information can only be extracted using the ray-based method. We develop a wave-equation based technique to process the local angle domain information. The approach can avoid the singularity problem usually linked to the high-frequency asymptotic method. We successfully apply this technique to seismic illumination and the resulting method provides a practical tool for three-dimensional full-volume illumination analysis in complex structures. The directional illumination also provides information for angle-domain imaging corrections. (3) Elastic-Wave Imaging. We develop a multicomponent elastic migration method. The application of the multicomponent one-way elastic propagator

  18. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools.

    PubMed

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K

    2014-06-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation.

  19. Use of High Fidelity Human Simulation to Teach Physical Therapist Decision-Making Skills for the Intensive Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, Lena; Perkins, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose: There is a paucity of discussion in the professional literature about the use of high fidelity human simulation (HFHS) as a teaching intervention in physical therapist educational programs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an example of the design and use of high fidelity human simulation (HFHS) to facilitate teaching of cardiopulmonary and intensive care concepts in a physical therapist education program. Case Description: HFHS was used at the end of the fourth of 9 semesters in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program. An intensive care unit case scenario was developed that required students to perform procedural skills and apply biomedical knowledge/concepts to clinical decision-making during simulated patient mobilization. Outcomes: Students successfully completed the HFHS session objectives, though there was variability in how quickly they recognized and responded to alarms and changes in patient status. Psychomotor performance of skills was generally correct but awkward, consistent with novice performance. Students were universally positive about HFHS as a teaching strategy for preparing for an acute care clinical education experience. Discussion: One session using HFHS as a laboratory activity may have a substantial impact on students' perceptions and confidence prior to entering an acute care clinical experience. Physical therapist educational programs with access to HFHS resources should consider its incorporation into cardiopulmonary or acute care content. Given the high cost of acquiring and maintaining HFHS resources, programs without such resources should carefully consider the extent to which they would use HFHS in their curricula. PMID:20467529

  20. Design of a Genetically Stable High Fidelity Coxsackievirus B3 Polymerase That Attenuates Virus Growth in Vivo.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Seth; Block, Andrew; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Vignuzzi, Marco; Peersen, Olve B

    2016-07-01

    Positive strand RNA viruses replicate via a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that uses a unique palm domain active site closure mechanism to establish the canonical two-metal geometry needed for catalysis. This mechanism allows these viruses to evolutionarily fine-tune their replication fidelity to create an appropriate distribution of genetic variants known as a quasispecies. Prior work has shown that mutations in conserved motif A drastically alter RdRP fidelity, which can be either increased or decreased depending on the viral polymerase background. In the work presented here, we extend these studies to motif D, a region that forms the outer edge of the NTP entry channel where it may act as a nucleotide sensor to trigger active site closure. Crystallography, stopped-flow kinetics, quench-flow reactions, and infectious virus studies were used to characterize 15 engineered mutations in coxsackievirus B3 polymerase. Mutations that interfere with the transport of the metal A Mg(2+) ion into the active site had only minor effects on RdRP function, but the stacking interaction between Phe(364) and Pro(357), which is absolutely conserved in enteroviral polymerases, was found to be critical for processive elongation and virus growth. Mutating Phe(364) to tryptophan resulted in a genetically stable high fidelity virus variant with significantly reduced pathogenesis in mice. The data further illustrate the importance of the palm domain movement for RdRP active site closure and demonstrate that protein engineering can be used to alter viral polymerase function and attenuate virus growth and pathogenesis. PMID:27137934

  1. An Immersed Boundary - Adaptive Mesh Refinement solver (IB-AMR) for high fidelity fully resolved wind turbine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    The geometrical details of wind turbines determine the structure of the turbulence in the near and far wake and should be taken in account when performing high fidelity calculations. Multi-resolution simulations coupled with an immersed boundary method constitutes a powerful framework for high-fidelity calculations past wind farms located over complex terrains. We develop a 3D Immersed-Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement flow solver (IB-AMR) which enables turbine-resolving LES of wind turbines. The idea of using a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout adopted in the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method (CURVIB) has been successfully incorporated on unstructured meshes and the fractional step method has been employed. The overall performance and robustness of the second order accurate, parallel, unstructured solver is evaluated by comparing the numerical simulations against conforming grid calculations and experimental measurements of laminar and turbulent flows over complex geometries. We also present turbine-resolving multi-scale LES considering all the details affecting the induced flow field; including the geometry of the tower, the nacelle and especially the rotor blades of a wind tunnel scale turbine. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. Progress Toward Affordable High Fidelity Combustion Simulations Using Filtered Density Functions for Hypersonic Flows in Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce

  3. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  4. Direct patterning of coplanar polyethylene glycol alkylsilane monolayers by deep-ultraviolet photolithography as a general method for high fidelity, long-term cell patterning and culture.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerry; Stancescu, Maria; Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John; Hickman, James

    2011-03-01

    This manuscript details a general method for patterning coplanar alkylsilane monolayers using deep-ultraviolet photolithography that has broad application for high fidelity patterning of cells of varying phenotype in long-term cultures. A polyethylene glycol monolayer was formed on a silica substrate and then patterned using 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. The regions of photoablation were then rederivatized with (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) diethyltriamine (DETA), yielding high contrast cytophilic islands that promoted cell adhesion and growth. Rat hippocampal neurons, motoneurons, and myoblasts were then cultured in a defined, serum-free medium on the patterned surfaces for periods in excess of 40 days. This approach has been shown to be useful as a general method for the long-term culture of multiple cell types in highly defined spatial patterns and can be used for supporting complex cocultures for creating in vitro models for biological systems.

  5. ATM-independent, high-fidelity nonhomologous end joining predominates in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bret R; Hawkins, Amy J; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2010-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) utilize homologous recombination repair (HRR) as primary means of double-strand break (DSB) repair. We now show that hESCs also use nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ kinetics were several-fold slower in hESCs and neural progenitors (NPs) than in astrocytes derived from hESCs. ATM and DNA-PKcs inhibitors were ineffective or partially effective, respectively, at inhibiting NHEJ in hESCs, whereas progressively more inhibition was seen in NPs and astrocytes. The lack of any major involvement of DNA-PKcs in NHEJ in hESCs was supported by siRNA-mediated DNA-PKcs knockdown. Expression of a truncated XRCC4 decoy or XRCC4 knock-down reduced NHEJ by more than half suggesting that repair is primarily canonical NHEJ. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was dispensable for NHEJ suggesting that repair is largely independent of backup NHEJ. Furthermore, as hESCs differentiated a progressive decrease in the accuracy of NHEJ was observed. Altogether, we conclude that NHEJ in hESCs is largely independent of ATM, DNA-PKcs, and PARP but dependent on XRCC4 with repair fidelity several-fold greater than in astrocytes.

  6. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures.

    PubMed

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores.

  7. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant.

  8. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  9. Application of a High-Fidelity Icing Analysis Method to a Model-Scale Rotor in Forward Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert; Orr, Stanley; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    An icing analysis process involving the loose coupling of OVERFLOW-RCAS for rotor performance prediction and with LEWICE3D for thermal analysis and ice accretion is applied to a model-scale rotor for validation. The process offers high-fidelity rotor analysis for the noniced and iced rotor performance evaluation that accounts for the interaction of nonlinear aerodynamics with blade elastic deformations. Ice accumulation prediction also involves loosely coupled data exchanges between OVERFLOW and LEWICE3D to produce accurate ice shapes. Validation of the process uses data collected in the 1993 icing test involving Sikorsky's Powered Force Model. Non-iced and iced rotor performance predictions are compared to experimental measurements as are predicted ice shapes.

  10. Perceived benefits and challenges of repeated exposure to high fidelity simulation experiences of first degree accelerated bachelor nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Vandyke, Olga; Smallwood, Christopher; Gonzalez, Kristen Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of first-degree entry-level accelerated bachelor nursing students regarding benefits and challenges of exposure to multiple high fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios, which has not been studied to date. These perceptions conformed to some research findings among Associate Degree, traditional non-accelerated, and second-degree accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students faced with one to two simulations. However, first-degree accelerated BSN students faced with multiple complex simulations perceived improvements on all outcomes, including critical thinking, confidence, competence, and theory-practice integration. On the negative side, some reported feeling overwhelmed by the multiple HFS scenarios. Evidence from this study supports HFS as an effective teaching and learning method for nursing students, along with valuable implications for many other fields. PMID:26260522

  11. Minimally invasive endovascular stent-electrode array for high-fidelity, chronic recordings of cortical neural activity.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Thomas J; Opie, Nicholas L; John, Sam E; Rind, Gil S; Ronayne, Stephen M; Wheeler, Tracey L; Judy, Jack W; McDonald, Alan J; Dornom, Anthony; Lovell, Timothy J H; Steward, Christopher; Garrett, David J; Moffat, Bradford A; Lui, Elaine H; Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C V; Wong, Yan T; Fox, Kate E; Nurse, Ewan S; Bennett, Iwan E; Bauquier, Sébastien H; Liyanage, Kishan A; van der Nagel, Nicole R; Perucca, Piero; Ahnood, Arman; Gill, Katherine P; Yan, Bernard; Churilov, Leonid; French, Christopher R; Desmond, Patricia M; Horne, Malcolm K; Kiers, Lynette; Prawer, Steven; Davis, Stephen M; Burkitt, Anthony N; Mitchell, Peter J; Grayden, David B; May, Clive N; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-03-01

    High-fidelity intracranial electrode arrays for recording and stimulating brain activity have facilitated major advances in the treatment of neurological conditions over the past decade. Traditional arrays require direct implantation into the brain via open craniotomy, which can lead to inflammatory tissue responses, necessitating development of minimally invasive approaches that avoid brain trauma. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of chronically recording brain activity from within a vein using a passive stent-electrode recording array (stentrode). We achieved implantation into a superficial cortical vein overlying the motor cortex via catheter angiography and demonstrate neural recordings in freely moving sheep for up to 190 d. Spectral content and bandwidth of vascular electrocorticography were comparable to those of recordings from epidural surface arrays. Venous internal lumen patency was maintained for the duration of implantation. Stentrodes may have wide ranging applications as a neural interface for treatment of a range of neurological conditions. PMID:26854476

  12. Benefits of a Unified LaSRS++ Simulation for NAS-Wide and High-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia; Madden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The LaSRS++ high-fidelity vehicle simulation was extended in 2012 to support a NAS-wide simulation mode. Since the initial proof-of-concept, the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulation is maturing into a research-ready tool. A primary benefit of this new capability is the consolidation of the two modeling paradigms under a single framework to save cost, facilitate iterative concept testing between the two tools, and to promote communication and model sharing between user communities at Langley. Specific benefits of each type of modeling are discussed along with the expected benefits of the unified framework. Current capability details of the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulations are provided, including the visualization tool, live data interface, trajectory generators, terminal routing for arrivals and departures, maneuvering, re-routing, navigation, winds, and turbulence. The plan for future development is also described.

  13. Mystic: Implementation of the Static Dynamic Optimal Control Algorithm for High-Fidelity, Low-Thrust Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Mystic software is designed to compute, analyze, and visualize optimal high-fidelity, low-thrust trajectories, The software can be used to analyze inter-planetary, planetocentric, and combination trajectories, Mystic also provides utilities to assist in the operation and navigation of low-thrust spacecraft. Mystic will be used to design and navigate the NASA's Dawn Discovery mission to orbit the two largest asteroids, The underlying optimization algorithm used in the Mystic software is called Static/Dynamic Optimal Control (SDC). SDC is a nonlinear optimal control method designed to optimize both 'static variables' (parameters) and dynamic variables (functions of time) simultaneously. SDC is a general nonlinear optimal control algorithm based on Bellman's principal.

  14. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, David A; Holt, Martin V; Ocola, Leonidas E

    2013-08-01

    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  15. Effect of High-Fidelity Ice Accretion Simulations on the Performance of a Full-Scale Airfoil Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Moens, Frederic; Guffond, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of ice accretion on a wing or other surface is often required for aerodynamic evaluation, particularly at small scale or low-Reynolds number. While there are commonly accepted practices for ice simulation, there are no established and validated guidelines. The purpose of this article is to report the results of an experimental study establishing a high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance database. This research was conducted as a part of a larger program with the goal of developing subscale aerodynamic simulation methods for iced airfoils. Airfoil performance testing was carried out at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel using a 72-in. (1828.8-mm) chord NACA 23012 airfoil over a Reynolds number range of 4.5x10(exp 6) to 16.0 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.28. The high-fidelity, ice-casting simulations had a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance. A spanwise-ridge ice shape resulted in a maximum lift coefficient of 0.56 compared to the clean value of 1.85 at Re = 15.9x10(exp 6) and M = 0.20. Two roughness and streamwise shapes yielded maximum lift values in the range of 1.09 to 1.28, which was a relatively small variation compared to the differences in the ice geometry. The stalling characteristics of the two roughness and one streamwise ice simulation maintained the abrupt leading-edge stall type of the clean NACA 23012 airfoil, despite the significant decrease in maximum lift. Changes in Reynolds and Mach number over the large range tested had little effect on the iced-airfoil performance.

  16. A hybrid anchored-ANOVA - POD/Kriging method for uncertainty quantification in unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheri, Luca; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To significantly increase the contribution of numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for risk assessment and decision making, it is important to quantitatively measure the impact of uncertainties to assess the reliability and robustness of the results. As unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations are becoming the standard for industrial applications, reducing the number of required samples to perform sensitivity (SA) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is an actual engineering challenge. The novel approach presented in this paper is based on an efficient hybridization between the anchored-ANOVA and the POD/Kriging methods, which have already been used in CFD-UQ realistic applications, and the definition of best practices to achieve global accuracy. The anchored-ANOVA method is used to efficiently reduce the UQ dimension space, while the POD/Kriging is used to smooth and interpolate each anchored-ANOVA term. The main advantages of the proposed method are illustrated through four applications with increasing complexity, most of them based on Large-Eddy Simulation as a high-fidelity CFD tool: the turbulent channel flow, the flow around an isolated bluff-body, a pedestrian wind comfort study in a full scale urban area and an application to toxic gas dispersion in a full scale city area. The proposed c-APK method (anchored-ANOVA-POD/Kriging) inherits the advantages of each key element: interpolation through POD/Kriging precludes the use of quadrature schemes therefore allowing for a more flexible sampling strategy while the ANOVA decomposition allows for a better domain exploration. A comparison of the three methods is given for each application. In addition, the importance of adding flexibility to the control parameters and the choice of the quantity of interest (QoI) are discussed. As a result, global accuracy can be achieved with a reasonable number of samples allowing computationally expensive CFD-UQ analysis.

  17. High-fidelity human patient simulators compared with human actors in an unannounced mass-casualty exercise.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian M; Skrzypczak, Matthias; Raith, Stefan; Hinzmann, Dominik; Krautheim, Veronika; Heuser, Fabian; Mayer, Valentin; Kreuzer, Christoph; Himsl, Meike; Holl, Michael; Lipp, Christina; Kochs, Eberhard F; Wagner, Klaus J

    2014-04-01

    High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report describes the integration of HFSs in such an unannounced prehospital MCI drill with HAs and provides data about the differences concerning triage, treatment, and transport of HFSs and HAs with identical injury patterns. For this purpose, 75 actors and four high-fidelity simulators were subdivided into nine groups defined by a specific injury pattern. Four HFSs and six HAs comprised a group suffering from traumatic brain injury and blunt abdominal trauma. Triage results, times for transport, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic tasks were recorded. Means were compared by t test or one-way ANOVA. Triage times and results did not differ between actors and simulators. The number of diagnostic (1.25, SD = 0.5 in simulators vs 3.5, SD = 1.05 in HAs; P = .010) and therapeutic tasks (2.0, SD = 1.6 in simulators vs 4.8, SD = 0.4 in HAs; P = .019) were significantly lower in simulators. Due to difficulties in treating and evacuating the casualties from the site of the accident in a timely manner, all simulators died. Possible causal factors and strategies are discussed, with the aim of increasing the utility of simulators in emergency medicine training. PMID:24650543

  18. Fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of spin state of an electron in a semiconductor quantum dot using light-hole-trion states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically show that under the Faraday geometry fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of electron spin (ES) state in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) can be realized by utilizing the light-hole (LH)-trion states. Initialization is completed within the time scale of ten nanoseconds with high fidelity, and the initialization laser pulse can be linearly, right-circularly, or left-circularly polarized. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time required for initialization can be further shortened down to a few hundreds of picoseconds if we introduce a pillar-microcavity to promote the relaxation of a LH-trion state towards the desired ES state through the Purcell effect. We also clarify the role of heavy-hole and light-hole mixing induced transitions on the fidelity of ES state initialization.

  19. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  20. Development and Validation of a High Anatomical Fidelity FE Model for the Buttock and Thigh of a Seated Individual.

    PubMed

    Al-Dirini, Rami M A; Reed, Matthew P; Hu, Jingwen; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Current practices for designing new cushions for seats depend on superficial measurements, such as pressure mapping, which do not provide sufficient information about the condition of sub-dermal tissues. Finite element (FE) modelling offers a unique alternative to integrate assessment of sub-dermal tissue condition into seat/cushion design and development processes. However, the development and validation of such FE models for seated humans requires accurate representation of the anatomy and material properties, which remain challenges that are yet to be addressed. This paper presents the development and validation of a detailed 3D FE model with high anatomical fidelity of the buttock and thigh, for a specific seated subject. The developed model consisted of 28 muscles, the pelvis, sacrum, femur, and one layer of inter-muscular fat, subcutaneous fat and skin. Validation against in vivo measurements from MRI data confirmed that the FE model can simulate the deformation of soft tissues under sitting loads with an accuracy of (mean ± SD) 4.7 ± 4.4 mm. Simulation results showed that the maximum strains (compressive, shear and von-Mises) on muscles (41, 110, 79%) were higher than fat tissues (21, 62, 41%). The muscles that experienced the highest mechanical loads were the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus and muscles in the posterior aspect of the thighs (biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles). The developed FE model contributes to the progression towards bio-fidelity in modelling the human body in seated postures by providing insight into the distribution of stresses/strains in individual muscles and inter-muscular fat in the buttock and thigh of seated individuals. Industrial applications for the developed FE model include improving the design of office and household furniture, automotive and airplane seats and wheelchairs as well as customisation and assessment of sporting and medical equipment to meet individual requirements.

  1. High fidelity does not preclude colonization: range expansion of molting Black Brant on the Arctic coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Mallek, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High rates of site fidelity have been assumed to infer static distributions of molting geese in some cases. To test this assumption, we examined movements of individually marked birds to understand the underlying mechanisms of range expansion of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska. The Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the ACP was created to protect the primary molting area of Brant. When established in 1977, the TLSA was thought to include most, if not all, wetlands used by molting Brant on the ACP. From 2010 to 2013, we surveyed areas outside the TLSA and counted an average of 9800 Brant per year, representing 29–37% of all molting Brant counted on the ACP. We captured and banded molting Brant in 2011 and 2012 both within the TLSA and outside the TLSA at the Piasuk River Delta and Cape Simpson to assess movements of birds among areas across years. Estimates of movement rates out of the TLSA exceeded those into the TLSA, demonstrating overall directional dispersal. We found differences in sex and age ratios and proportions of adult females with brood patches, but no differences in mass dynamics for birds captured within and outside the TLSA. Overall fidelity rates to specific lakes (0.81, range = 0.49–0.92) were unchanged from comparable estimates obtained in the early 1990s. We conclude that Brant are dispersing from the TLSA into new molting areas while simultaneously redistributing within the TLSA, likely as a consequence of changes in relative habitat quality. Shifts in distribution resulted from colonization of new areas by young birds as well as low levels of directional dispersal of birds that previously molted in the TLSA. Based on combined counts, the overall number of molting Brant across the ACP has increased substantially.

  2. An elastic/viscoelastic finite element analysis method for crustal deformation using a 3-D island-scale high-fidelity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, 3-D high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretization size because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.

  3. Implementation Fidelity in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Fogg, Louis; Resnick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Implementation fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is delivered as intended and is critical to successful translation of evidence-based interventions into practice. Diminished fidelity may be why interventions that work well in highly controlled trials may fail to yield the same outcomes when applied in real life contexts. The purpose of this paper is to define implementation fidelity and describe its importance for the larger science of implementation, discuss data collection methods and current efforts in measuring implementation fidelity in community-based prevention interventions, and present future research directions for measuring implementation fidelity that will advance implementation science. PMID:20198637

  4. Potential insight for drug discovery from high fidelity receptor-mediated transduction mechanisms in insects

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a pervasive and growing concern about the small number of new pharmaceutical agents. There are many proposed explanations for this trend that do not involve the drug-discovery process per se, but the discovery process itself has also come under scrutiny. If the current paradigms are indeed not working, where are novel ideas to come from? Perhaps it is time to look to novel sources. Areas covered The receptor-signaling and 2nd-messenger transduction processes present in insects are quite similar to those in mammals (involving G proteins, ion channels, etc.). However, a review of these systems reveals an unprecedented degree of high potency and receptor selectivity to an extent greater than that modeled in most current drug-discovery approaches. Expert opinion A better understanding of insect receptor pharmacology could stimulate novel theoretical and practical ideas in mammalian pharmacology (drug discovery) and, conversely, the application of pharmacology and medicinal chemistry principles could stimulate novel advances in entomology (safer and more targeted control of pest species). PMID:21984882

  5. Robust and portable capacity computing method for many finite element analyses of a high-fidelity crustal structure model aimed for coseismic slip estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, Ryoichiro; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo

    2016-09-01

    Computation of many Green's functions (GFs) in finite element (FE) analyses of crustal deformation is an essential technique in inverse analyses of coseismic slip estimations. In particular, analysis based on a high-resolution FE model (high-fidelity model) is expected to contribute to the construction of a community standard FE model and benchmark solution. Here, we propose a naive but robust and portable capacity computing method to compute many GFs using a high-fidelity model, assuming that various types of PC clusters are used. The method is based on the master-worker model, implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), to perform robust and efficient input/output operations. The method was applied to numerical experiments of coseismic slip estimation in the Tohoku region of Japan; comparison of the estimated results with those generated using lower-fidelity models revealed the benefits of using a high-fidelity FE model in coseismic slip distribution estimation. Additionally, the proposed method computes several hundred GFs more robustly and efficiently than methods without the master-worker model and MPI.

  6. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  7. Commitment to Classroom Model Philosophy and Burnout Symptoms among High Fidelity Teachers Implementing Preschool Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coman, Drew; Alessandri, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Novotny, Stephanie; Boyd, Brian; Hume, Kara; Sperry, Laurie; Odom, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Teacher commitment to classroom model philosophy and burnout were explored in a sample of 53 teachers implementing three preschool models at high levels of fidelity for students with autism: Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH); Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and…

  8. Effects of High Fidelity Simulation on Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, and Satisfaction with Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the Solomon-Four Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rachel Mattson

    2013-01-01

    High Fidelity Simulation is a teaching strategy that is becoming well-entrenched in the world of nursing education and is rapidly expanding due to the challenges and demands of the health care environment. The problem addressed in this study is the conflicting research results regarding the effectiveness of HFS for students' knowledge acquisition…

  9. Construction and Use of Resting 12-Lead High Fidelity ECG "SuperScores" in Screening for Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; Greco, E. C.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Nunez, T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Rahman, M.A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of several conventional and advanced resting ECG parameters for identifying obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multiple conventional and advanced ECG parameters were studied for their individual and combined retrospective accuracies in detecting underlying disease, the advanced parameters falling within the following categories: 1) Signal averaged ECG, including 12-lead high frequency QRS (150-250 Hz) plus multiple filtered and unfiltered parameters from the derived Frank leads; 2) 12-lead P, QRS and T-wave morphology via singular value decomposition (SVD) plus signal averaging; 3) Multichannel (12-lead, derived Frank lead, SVD lead) beat-to-beat QT interval variability; 4) Spatial ventricular gradient (and gradient component) variability; and 5) Heart rate variability. Several multiparameter ECG SuperScores were derivable, using stepwise and then generalized additive logistic modeling, that each had 100% retrospective accuracy in detecting underlying CM or CAD. The performance of these same SuperScores was then prospectively evaluated using a test set of another 120 individuals (40 new individuals in each of the CM, CAD and control groups, respectively). All 12-lead ECG SuperScores retrospectively generated for CM continued to perform well in prospectively identifying CM (i.e., areas under the ROC curve greater than 0.95), with one such score (containing just 4 components) maintaining 100% prospective accuracy. SuperScores retrospectively generated for CAD performed somewhat less accurately, with prospective areas under the ROC curve typically in the 0.90-0.95 range. We conclude that resting 12-lead

  10. High-fidelity two-qubit gates via dynamical decoupling of local 1 /f noise at the optimal point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Paladino, E.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of achieving high-fidelity universal two-qubit gates by supplementing optimal tuning of individual qubits with dynamical decoupling (DD) of local 1 /f noise. We consider simultaneous local pulse sequences applied during the gate operation and compare the efficiencies of periodic, Carr-Purcell, and Uhrig DD with hard π pulses along two directions (πz /y pulses). We present analytical perturbative results (Magnus expansion) in the quasistatic noise approximation combined with numerical simulations for realistic 1 /f noise spectra. The gate efficiency is studied as a function of the gate duration, of the number n of pulses, and of the high-frequency roll-off. We find that the gate error is nonmonotonic in n , decreasing as n-α in the asymptotic limit, α ≥2 , depending on the DD sequence. In this limit πz-Urhig is the most efficient scheme for quasistatic 1 /f noise, but it is highly sensitive to the soft UV cutoff. For small number of pulses, πz control yields anti-Zeno behavior, whereas πy pulses minimize the error for a finite n . For the current noise figures in superconducting qubits, two-qubit gate errors ˜10-6 , meeting the requirements for fault-tolerant quantum computation, can be achieved. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence is the most efficient procedure, stable for 1 /f noise with UV cutoff up to gigahertz.

  11. Multi-fidelity approach to dynamics model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absi, Ghina N.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the use of structural dynamics computational models with multiple levels of fidelity in the calibration of system parameters. Different types of models may be available for the estimation of unmeasured system properties, with different levels of physics fidelity, mesh resolution and boundary condition assumptions. In order to infer these system properties, Bayesian calibration uses information from multiple sources (including experimental data and prior knowledge), and comprehensively quantifies the uncertainty in the calibration parameters. Estimating the posteriors is done using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which requires a large number of computations, thus making the use of a high-fidelity model for calibration prohibitively expensive. On the other hand, use of a low-fidelity model could lead to significant error in calibration and prediction. Therefore, this paper develops an approach for model parameter calibration with a low-fidelity model corrected using higher fidelity simulations, and investigates the trade-off between accuracy and computational effort. The methodology is illustrated for a curved panel located in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft engine, subjected to acoustic loading. Two models (a frequency response analysis and a full time history analysis) are combined to calibrate the damping characteristics of the panel.

  12. Experimental demonstration of four-photon entanglement and high-fidelity teleportation.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Daniell, M; Gasparoni, S; Weihs, G; Zeilinger, A

    2001-05-14

    We experimentally demonstrate observation of highly pure four-photon GHZ entanglement produced by parametric down-conversion and a projective measurement. At the same time this also demonstrates teleportation of entanglement with very high purity. Not only does the achieved high visibility enable various novel tests of quantum nonlocality, it also opens the possibility to experimentally investigate various quantum computation and communication schemes with linear optics. Our technique can, in principle, be used to produce entanglement of arbitrarily high order or, equivalently, teleportation and entanglement swapping over multiple stages.

  13. Ultra-deep sequencing enables high-fidelity recovery of biodiversity for bulk arthropod samples without PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Next-generation-sequencing (NGS) technologies combined with a classic DNA barcoding approach have enabled fast and credible measurement for biodiversity of mixed environmental samples. However, the PCR amplification involved in nearly all existing NGS protocols inevitably introduces taxonomic biases. In the present study, we developed new Illumina pipelines without PCR amplifications to analyze terrestrial arthropod communities. Results Mitochondrial enrichment directly followed by Illumina shotgun sequencing, at an ultra-high sequence volume, enabled the recovery of Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit 1 (COI) barcode sequences, which allowed for the estimation of species composition at high fidelity for a terrestrial insect community. With 15.5 Gbp Illumina data, approximately 97% and 92% were detected out of the 37 input Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), whether the reference barcode library was used or not, respectively, while only 1 novel OTU was found for the latter. Additionally, relatively strong correlation between the sequencing volume and the total biomass was observed for species from the bulk sample, suggesting a potential solution to reveal relative abundance. Conclusions The ability of the new Illumina PCR-free pipeline for DNA metabarcoding to detect small arthropod specimens and its tendency to avoid most, if not all, false positives suggests its great potential in biodiversity-related surveillance, such as in biomonitoring programs. However, further improvement for mitochondrial enrichment is likely needed for the application of the new pipeline in analyzing arthropod communities at higher diversity. PMID:23587339

  14. Development and validation of the ASPIRE-VA coaching fidelity checklist (ACFC): a tool to help ensure delivery of high-quality weight management interventions.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Goodrich, David E; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert; Gillon, Leah; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Lutes, Lesley D

    2016-09-01

    Practical and valid instruments are needed to assess fidelity of coaching for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the ASPIRE Coaching Fidelity Checklist (ACFC). Classical test theory guided ACFC development. Principal component analyses were used to determine item groupings. Psychometric properties, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability were evaluated for each subscale. Criterion validity was tested by predicting weight loss as a function of coaching fidelity. The final 19-item ACFC consists of two domains (session process and session structure) and five subscales (sets goals and monitor progress, assess and personalize self-regulatory content, manages the session, creates a supportive and empathetic climate, and stays on track). Four of five subscales showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alphas > 0.70) for group-based coaching; only two of five subscales had high internal reliability for phone-based coaching. All five sub-scales were positively and significantly associated with weight loss for group- but not for phone-based coaching. The ACFC is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess fidelity and guide skill-building for weight management interventionists. PMID:27528526

  15. Development and validation of the ASPIRE-VA coaching fidelity checklist (ACFC): a tool to help ensure delivery of high-quality weight management interventions.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Goodrich, David E; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert; Gillon, Leah; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Lutes, Lesley D

    2016-09-01

    Practical and valid instruments are needed to assess fidelity of coaching for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the ASPIRE Coaching Fidelity Checklist (ACFC). Classical test theory guided ACFC development. Principal component analyses were used to determine item groupings. Psychometric properties, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability were evaluated for each subscale. Criterion validity was tested by predicting weight loss as a function of coaching fidelity. The final 19-item ACFC consists of two domains (session process and session structure) and five subscales (sets goals and monitor progress, assess and personalize self-regulatory content, manages the session, creates a supportive and empathetic climate, and stays on track). Four of five subscales showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alphas > 0.70) for group-based coaching; only two of five subscales had high internal reliability for phone-based coaching. All five sub-scales were positively and significantly associated with weight loss for group- but not for phone-based coaching. The ACFC is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess fidelity and guide skill-building for weight management interventionists.

  16. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a simulator for non-nuclear tests for the development of a space nuclear power system. The development of the Instrumented Thermal Simulator is to assist in developing an understanding of individual components and integrated system operation without the cost, time, safety concerns associated with nuclear testing. The presentation shows the design, the electrical integration, the hardware, and the assembly of the simulators. There are slides that show the test plan, the analysis, and the initial results.

  17. A novel craniotomy simulation system for evaluation of stereo-pair reconstruction fidelity and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Conley, Rebekah H.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2016-03-01

    Brain shift compensation using computer modeling strategies is an important research area in the field of image-guided neurosurgery (IGNS). One important source of available sparse data during surgery to drive these frameworks is deformation tracking of the visible cortical surface. Possible methods to measure intra-operative cortical displacement include laser range scanners (LRS), which typically complicate the clinical workflow, and reconstruction of cortical surfaces from stereo pairs acquired with the operating microscopes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a craniotomy simulation device that permits simulating realistic cortical displacements designed to measure and validate the proposed intra-operative cortical shift measurement systems. The device permits 3D deformations of a mock cortical surface which consists of a membrane made of a Dragon Skin® high performance silicone rubber on which vascular patterns are drawn. We then use this device to validate our stereo pair-based surface reconstruction system by comparing landmark positions and displacements measured with our systems to those positions and displacements as measured by a stylus tracked by a commercial optical system. Our results show a 1mm average difference in localization error and a 1.2mm average difference in displacement measurement. These results suggest that our stereo-pair technique is accurate enough for estimating intra-operative displacements in near real-time without affecting the surgical workflow.

  18. Air-dropped sensor network for real-time high-fidelity volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Ma, A.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and deployment experience of an air-dropped wireless sensor network for volcano hazard monitoring. The deployment of five stations into the rugged crater of Mount St. Helens only took one hour with a helicopter. The stations communicate with each other through an amplified 802.15.4 radio and establish a self-forming and self-healing multi-hop wireless network. The distance between stations is up to 2 km. Each sensor station collects and delivers real-time continuous seismic, infrasonic, lightning, GPS raw data to a gateway. The main contribution of this paper is the design and evaluation of a robust sensor network to replace data loggers and provide real-time long-term volcano monitoring. The system supports UTC-time synchronized data acquisition with 1ms accuracy, and is online configurable. It has been tested in the lab environment, the outdoor campus and the volcano crater. Despite the heavy rain, snow, and ice as well as gusts exceeding 120 miles per hour, the sensor network has achieved a remarkable packet delivery ratio above 99% with an overall system uptime of about 93.8% over the 1.5 months evaluation period after deployment. Our initial deployment experiences with the system have alleviated the doubts of domain scientists and prove to them that a low-cost sensor network system can support real-time monitoring in extremely harsh environments. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  19. Controlled high-fidelity navigation in the charge stability diagram of a double quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Coden, Diego S Acosta; Romero, Rodolfo H; Räsänen, Esa

    2015-03-25

    We propose an efficient control protocol for charge transfer in a double quantum dot. We consider numerically a two-dimensional model system, where the quantum dots are subjected to time-dependent electric fields corresponding to experimental gate voltages. Our protocol enables navigation in the charge stability diagram from a state to another through controllable variation of the fields. We show that the well-known adiabatic Landau-Zener transition-when supplemented with a time-dependent field tailored with optimal control theory-can remarkably improve the transition speed. The results also lead to a simple control scheme obtained from the experimental charge stability diagram that requires only a single parameter. Eventually, we can achieve the ultrafast performance of the composite pulse protocol that allows the system to be driven at the quantum speed limit.

  20. High-Fidelity Simulations of Electrically-Charged Atomizing Diesel-Type Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Benoit; Owkes, Mark; van Poppel, Bret

    2015-11-01

    Combustion of liquid fuels accounts for over a third of the energy usage today. Improving efficiency of combustion systems is critical to meet the energy needs while limiting environmental impacts. Additionally, a shift away from traditional fossil fuels to bio-derived alternatives requires fuel injection systems that can atomize fuels with a wide range of properties. In this work, the potential benefits of electrically-charged atomization is investigated using numerical simulations. Particularly, the electrostatic forces on the hydrodynamic jet are quantified and the impact of the forces is analyzed by comparing simulations of Diesel-type jets at realistic flow conditions. The simulations are performed using a state-of-the-art numerical framework that globally conserves mass, momentum, and the electric charge density even at the gas-liquid interface where discontinuities exist.

  1. A possible mechanism for the dynamics of transition between polymerase and exonuclease sites in a high-fidelity DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping

    2009-08-01

    The fidelity of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase is significantly increased by a mechanism of proofreading that is performed at the exonuclease active site separate from the polymerase active site. Thus, the transition of DNA between the two active sites is an important activity of DNA polymerase. Here, based on our proposed model, the rates of DNA transition between the two active sites are theoretically studied. With the relevant parameters, which are determined from the available crystal structure and other experimental data, the calculated transfer rate of correctly base-paired DNA from the polymerase to exonuclease sites and the transfer rate after incorporation of a mismatched base are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The transfer rates in the presence of two and three mismatched bases are also consistent with the previous experimental data. In addition, the calculated transfer rate from the exonuclease to polymerase sites has a large value even with the high binding affinity of 3'-5' ssDNA for the exonuclease site, which is also consistent with the available experimental value. Moreover, we also give some predictive results for the transfer rate of DNA containing only A:T base pairs and that of DNA containing only G:C base pairs.

  2. Validation and verification of a high-fidelity computational model for a bounding robot's parallel actuated elastic spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusey, Jason L.; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong

    2014-06-01

    We document the design and preliminary numerical simulation study of a high fidelity model of Canid, a recently introduced bounding robot. Canid is a free-standing, power-autonomous quadrupedal machine constructed from standard commercially available electromechanical and structural elements, incorporating compliant C-shaped legs like those of the decade old RHex design, but departing from that standard (and, to the best of our knowledge, from any prior) robot platform in its parallel actuated elastic spine. We have used a commercial modeling package to develop a finite-element model of the actuated, cable-driven, rigid-plate-reinforced harness for the carbon-fiber spring that joins the robot's fore- and hind-quarters. We compare a numerical model of this parallel actuated elastic spine with empirical data from preliminary physical experiments with the most important component of the spine assembly: the composite leaf spring. Specifically, we report our progress in tuning the mechanical properties of a standard modal approximation to a conventional compliant beam model whose boundary conditions represent constraints imposed by the actuated cable driven vertebral plates that comprise the active control affordance over the spine. We conclude with a brief look ahead at near-term future experiments that will compare predictions of this fitted composite spring model with data taken from the physical spine flexed in isolation from the actuated harness.

  3. High-fidelity CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects.

    PubMed

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Pattanayak, Vikram; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J Keith

    2016-01-28

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-target effects of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use. Here we describe SpCas9-HF1, a high-fidelity variant harbouring alterations designed to reduce non-specific DNA contacts. SpCas9-HF1 retains on-target activities comparable to wild-type SpCas9 with >85% of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) tested in human cells. Notably, with sgRNAs targeted to standard non-repetitive sequences, SpCas9-HF1 rendered all or nearly all off-target events undetectable by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods. Even for atypical, repetitive target sites, the vast majority of off-target mutations induced by wild-type SpCas9 were not detected with SpCas9-HF1. With its exceptional precision, SpCas9-HF1 provides an alternative to wild-type SpCas9 for research and therapeutic applications. More broadly, our results suggest a general strategy for optimizing genome-wide specificities of other CRISPR-RNA-guided nucleases.

  4. High fidelity virtual stenting (HiFiVS) for intracranial aneurysm flow diversion: in vitro and in silico.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ding; Dumont, Travis M; Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Makoto; Yang, Xinjian; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2013-10-01

    A flow diverter (FD) is a flexible, densely braided stent-mesh device placed endoluminally across an intracranial aneurysm to induce its thrombotic occlusion. FD treatment planning using computational virtual stenting and flow simulation requires accurate representation of the expanded FD geometry. We have recently developed a high fidelity virtual stenting (HiFiVS) technique based on finite element analysis to simulate detailed FD deployment processes in patient-specific aneurysms (Ma et al. J. Biomech. 45:2256-2263,(2012)). This study tests if HiFiVS simulation can recapitulate real-life FD implantation. We deployed two identical FDs (Pipeline Embolization Device) into phantoms of a wide-necked segmental aneurysm using a clinical push-pull technique with different delivery wire advancements. We then simulated these deployment processes using HiFiVS and compared results against experimental recording. Stepwise comparison shows that the simulations precisely reproduced the FD deployment processes recorded in vitro. The local metal coverage rate and pore density quantifications demonstrated that simulations reproduced detailed FD mesh geometry. These results provide validation of the HiFiVS technique, highlighting its unique capability of accurately representing stent intervention in silico.

  5. "Coming ready or not" high fidelity human patient simulation in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing education: diffusion of Innovation.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-10-01

    This paper is the first to address high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) as a technique to prepare pre-registration nursing students for practice in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing (CAPN). By examining the published literature in a systematic review, no evidence was located that discussed the application of this innovative mannequin-based educational technique for this population. Indeed, mental health nursing preparation generally had minimal literature addressing the adoption of HFHPS. Rogers' (2003) model of the "Diffusion of Innovation" was applied as a lens to explain this observation. His model fitted this observed pattern well and provided a range of explanatory paradigms. It was limited, however, in its predictive ability to suggest when and under what conditions HFHPS might be expected to be adopted by nursing preparation programmes for CAPN. At the conclusion to this examination, the absence of a conversation evident in the mental health or CAPN literature on the preparation of pre-registration nursing students using this educational technique is striking. The potential of this approach to be combined in new ways to better prepare nursing students for the challenges of practice in mental health or CAPN needs extensive examination.

  6. Vibrons in finite size molecular lattices: a route for high-fidelity quantum state transfer at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    A communication protocol is proposed in which vibron-mediated quantum state transfer takes place in a molecular lattice. We consider two distant molecular groups grafted on each side of the lattice. These groups form two quantum computers where vibrational qubits are implemented and received. The lattice defines the communication channel along which a vibron delocalizes and interacts with a phonon bath. Using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, vibron-phonon entanglement is taken into account through the effective Hamiltonian concept. A vibron is thus dressed by a virtual phonon cloud whereas a phonon is clothed by virtual vibronic transitions. It is shown that three quasi-degenerate dressed states define the relevant paths followed by a vibron to tunnel between the computers. When the coupling between the computers and the lattice is judiciously chosen, constructive interference takes place between these paths. Phonon-induced decoherence is minimized and a high-fidelity quantum state transfer occurs over a broad temperature range. PMID:23044492

  7. High-Fidelity Down-Conversion Source for Secure Communications Using On-Demand Single Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Tony

    2015-01-01

    AdvR, Inc., has built an efficient, fully integrated, waveguide-based source of spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs that will accelerate research and development (R&D) in the emerging field of quantum information science. Key to the innovation is the use of submicron periodically poled waveguides to produce counter propagating photon pairs, which is enabled by AdvR's patented segmented microelectrode poling technique. This novel device will provide a high brightness source of down-conversion pairs with enhanced spectral properties and low attenuation, and it will operate in the visible to the mid-infrared spectral region. A waveguide-based source of spectrally and spatially pure heralded photons will contribute to a wide range of NASA's advanced technology development efforts, including on-demand single photon sources for high-rate spaced-based secure communications.

  8. High-fidelity cryothermal test of a subscale large space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Ollendorf, S.; Mattern, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Jackson, M.; Francis, J.; Hait, T.; Cleveland, P.; Muheim, D.; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    To take advantage of the unique environment of space and optimize infrared observations for faint sources, space telescopes must be cooled to low temperatures. The new paradigm in cooling large space telescopes is to use a combination of passive radiative cooling and mechanical cryocoolers. The passive system must shield the telescope from the Sun, Earth, and the warm spacecraft components while providing radiative cooling to deep space. This shield system is larger than the telescope itself, and must attenuate the incoming energy by over one million to limit heat input to the telescope. Testing of such a system on the ground is a daunting task due to the size of the thermal/vacuum chamber required and the degree of thermal isolation necessary between the room temperature and cryogenic parts of the shield. These problems have been attacked in two ways: by designing a subscale version of a larger sunshield and by carefully closing out radiation sneak paths. The 18% scale (the largest diameter shield was 1.5 m) version of the SPIRIT Origins Probe telescope shield was tested in a low cost helium shroud within a 3.1 m diameter x 4.6 m long LN II shrouded vacuum chamber. Thermal straps connected from three shield stages to the liquid helium cooled shroud were instrumented with heaters and thermometers to simulate mechanical cryocooler stages at 6 K, 18-20 K, and 45-51 K. Performance data showed that less than 10 microwatts of radiative heat leaked from the warm to cold sides of the shields during the test. The excellent agreement between the data and the thermal models is discussed along with shroud construction techniques.

  9. High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. L.; Feng, M.; Yin, Z. Q.; Hu, Y.; Du, J. F.

    2011-07-15

    We study a hybrid quantum computing system using a nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble (NVE) as quantum memory, a current-biased Josephson junction (CBJJ) superconducting qubit fabricated in a transmission line resonator (TLR) as the quantum computing processor, and the microwave photons in TLR as the quantum data bus. The storage process is seriously treated by considering all kinds of decoherence mechanisms. Such a hybrid quantum device can also be used to create multiqubit W states of NVEs through a common CBJJ. The experimental feasibility is achieved using currently available technology.

  10. Proposal for High-Fidelity Quantum Simulation Using a Hybrid Dressed State.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianming; Cohen, Itsik; Retzker, Alex; Plenio, Martin B

    2015-10-16

    A fundamental goal of quantum technologies concerns the exploitation of quantum coherent dynamics for the realization of novel quantum applications such as quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. A key challenge on the way towards these goals remains the protection of quantum coherent dynamics from environmental noise. Here, we propose a concept of a hybrid dressed state from a pair of continuously driven systems. It allows sufficiently strong driving fields to suppress the effect of environmental noise while at the same time being insusceptible to both the amplitude and phase noise in the continuous driving fields. This combination of robust features significantly enhances coherence times under realistic conditions and at the same time provides new flexibility in Hamiltonian engineering that otherwise is not achievable. We demonstrate theoretically applications of our scheme for a noise-resistant analog quantum simulation in the well-studied physical systems of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and of trapped ions. The scheme may also be exploited for quantum computation and quantum metrology. PMID:26550857

  11. Proposal for High-Fidelity Quantum Simulation Using a Hybrid Dressed State.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianming; Cohen, Itsik; Retzker, Alex; Plenio, Martin B

    2015-10-16

    A fundamental goal of quantum technologies concerns the exploitation of quantum coherent dynamics for the realization of novel quantum applications such as quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. A key challenge on the way towards these goals remains the protection of quantum coherent dynamics from environmental noise. Here, we propose a concept of a hybrid dressed state from a pair of continuously driven systems. It allows sufficiently strong driving fields to suppress the effect of environmental noise while at the same time being insusceptible to both the amplitude and phase noise in the continuous driving fields. This combination of robust features significantly enhances coherence times under realistic conditions and at the same time provides new flexibility in Hamiltonian engineering that otherwise is not achievable. We demonstrate theoretically applications of our scheme for a noise-resistant analog quantum simulation in the well-studied physical systems of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and of trapped ions. The scheme may also be exploited for quantum computation and quantum metrology.

  12. Predicting growth of graphene nanostructures using high-fidelity atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Keven F.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Schultz, Peter A.; Foster, Michael E.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-09-01

    In this project we developed t he atomistic models needed to predict how graphene grows when carbon is deposited on metal and semiconductor surfaces. We first calculated energies of many carbon configurations using first principles electronic structure calculations and then used these energies to construct an empirical bond order potentials that enable s comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of growth. We validated our approach by comparing our predictions to experiments of graphene growth on Ir, Cu and Ge. The robustness of ou r understanding of graphene growth will enable high quality graphene to be grown on novel substrates which will expand the number of potential types of graphene electronic devices.

  13. High-fidelity numerical simulation of solitons in the nerve axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ken; Werpers, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    High-order accurate finite difference schemes are derived for a non-linear soliton model of nerve signal propagation in axons. Two types of well-posed boundary conditions are analysed. The boundary closures are based on the summation-by-parts (SBP) framework and the boundary conditions are imposed using a penalty (SAT) technique, to guarantee linear stability. The resulting SBP-SAT approximation is time-integrated with an explicit finite difference method. The accuracy and stability properties of the newly derived finite difference approximations are demonstrated for an analytic soliton solution.

  14. Coupled high fidelity thermal hydraulics and neutronics for reactor safety simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent A. Mousseau; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2008-09-01

    This work is a continuation of previous work on the importance of accuracy in the simulation of nuclear reactor safety transients. This work is qualitative in nature and future work will be more quantitative. The focus of this work will be on a simplified single phase nuclear reactor primary. The transient of interest investigates the importance of accuracy related to passive (inherent) safety systems. The transient run here will be an Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) transient. Here the coolant pump is turned off and the un’SCRAM’ed reactor transitions from forced to free convection (Natural circulation). Results will be presented that show the difference that the first order in time truncation physics makes on the transient. The purpose of this document is to illuminate a possible problem in traditional reactor simulation approaches. Detailed studies need to be done on each simulation code for each transient analyzed to determine if the first order truncation physics plays an important role.

  15. Pattern fidelity improvement of chemo-epitaxy DSA process for high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Makoto; Nishi, Takanori; You, Gen; Saito, Yusuke; Ido, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kiyohito; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Hosoya, Masanori; Chen, Weichien; Nakamura, Satoru; Somervell, Mark; Kitano, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is one of the candidates for next generation lithography. Over the past few years, cylindrical and lamellar structures dictated by the block co-polymer (BCP) composition have been investigated for use in patterning contact holes or lines, and, Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL is a registered trademark or a trademark of Tokyo Electron Limited in Japan and /or other countries.) has presented the evaluation results and the advantages of each-1-5. In this report, we will present the latest results regarding the defect reduction work on a model line/space system. Especially it is suggested that the defectivity of the neutral layer has a large impact on the defectivity of the DSA patterns. Also, LER/LWR reduction results will be presented with a focus on the improvements made during the etch transferring the DSA patterns into the underlayer.

  16. Runtime Performance and Virtual Network Control Alternatives in VM-Based High-Fidelity Network Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S; Henz, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    In prior work (Yoginath and Perumalla, 2011; Yoginath, Perumalla and Henz, 2012), the motivation, challenges and issues were articulated in favor of virtual time ordering of Virtual Machines (VMs) in network simulations hosted on multi-core machines. Two major components in the overall virtualization challenge are (1) virtual timeline establishment and scheduling of VMs, and (2) virtualization of inter-VM communication. Here, we extend prior work by presenting scaling results for the first component, with experiment results on up to 128 VMs scheduled in virtual time order on a single 12-core host. We also explore the solution space of design alternatives for the second component, and present performance results from a multi-threaded, multi-queue implementation of inter-VM network control for synchronized execution with VM scheduling, incorporated in our NetWarp simulation system.

  17. High-fidelity numerical simulations of compressible turbulence and mixing generated by hydrodynamic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahed, Pooya

    High-speed flows are prone to hydrodynamic interfacial instabilities that evolve to turbulence, thereby intensely mixing different fluids and dissipating energy. The lack of knowledge of these phenomena has impeded progress in a variety of disciplines. In science, a full understanding of mixing between heavy and light elements after the collapse of a supernova and between adjacent layers of different density in geophysical (atmospheric and oceanic) flows remains lacking. In engineering, the inability to achieve ignition in inertial fusion and efficient combustion constitute further examples of this lack of basic understanding of turbulent mixing. In this work, my goal is to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes and employ them to study compressible turbulence and mixing generated by interactions between shocked (Richtmyer-Meshkov) and accelerated (Rayleigh-Taylor) interfaces, which play important roles in high-energy-density physics environments. To accomplish my goal, a hybrid high-order central/discontinuity-capturing finite difference scheme is first presented. The underlying principle is that, to accurately and efficiently represent both broadband motions and discontinuities, non-dissipative methods are used where the solution is smooth, while the more expensive and dissipative capturing schemes are applied near discontinuous regions. Thus, an accurate numerical sensor is developed to discriminate between smooth regions, shocks and material discontinuities, which all require a different treatment. The interface capturing approach is extended to central differences, such that smooth distributions of varying specific heats ratio can be simulated without generating spurious pressure oscillations. I verified and validated this approach against a stringent suite of problems including shocks, interfaces, turbulence and two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability simulations. The three-dimensional code is shown to scale well up to 4000 cores

  18. Acquisition of Competencies by Medical Students in Neurological Emergency Simulation Environments Using High Fidelity Patient Simulators.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ledesma, M J; Juanes, J A; Sáncho, C; Alonso-Sardón, M; Gonçalves, J

    2016-06-01

    The training of medical students demands practice of skills in scenarios as close as possible to real ones that on one hand ensure acquisition of competencies, and on the other, avoid putting patients at risk. This study shows the practicality of using high definition mannequins (SimMan 3G) in scenarios of first attention in neurological emergencies so that medical students at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Salamanca could acquire specific and transversal competencies. The repetition of activities in simulation environments significantly facilitates the acquisition of competencies by groups of students (p < 00.5). The greatest achievements refer to skills whereas the competencies that demand greater integration of knowledge seem to need more time or new sessions. This is what happens with the competencies related to the initial diagnosis, the requesting of tests and therapeutic approaches, which demand greater theoretical knowledge. PMID:27106583

  19. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids

    PubMed Central

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 µm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils. PMID:19656861

  20. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Xu, J; Dang, H; Stayman, J W; Yorkston, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, J H

    2015-02-21

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening.The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT.Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  1. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  2. Assessing the Fidelity of Atmospheric Mercury Measurements Using a Commercial Speciation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, W. T.; Ren, X.; Kelley, P.; Olson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tekran mercury speciation system is the only commercially viable instrumentation for the routine measurement of mercury compounds in the atmosphere, and is widely deployed in mercury monitoring networks worldwide. To date, however, many key performance measures of the instrumentation have yet to be adequately addressed or documented. While a number of controlled experiments have been conducted in laboratory settings, issues of potential measurement artifacts, non-quantitative collection efficiencies of GOM species, humidity effects, etc. remain to be explored under field conditions. This presentation will address some issues surrounding the accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness of speciated mercury measurements made with the Tekran analytical instrumentation deployed at three AMNet sites operated by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory: a coastal location (Grand Bay NERR, MS); an inland site in the Mid-Atlantic region (Beltsville, MD); and a high elevation site in the remote free troposphere (Mauna Loa Observatory, HI).

  3. High-Fidelity Modelling Methodology of Light-Limited Photosynthetic Production in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Andrea; Nikolaou, Andreas; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Chachuat, Benoît; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Reliable quantitative description of light-limited growth in microalgae is key to improving the design and operation of industrial production systems. This article shows how the capability to predict photosynthetic processes can benefit from a synergy between mathematical modelling and lab-scale experiments using systematic design of experiment techniques. A model of chlorophyll fluorescence developed by the authors [Nikolaou et al., J Biotechnol 194:91-99, 2015] is used as starting point, whereby the representation of non-photochemical-quenching (NPQ) process is refined for biological consistency. This model spans multiple time scales ranging from milliseconds to hours, thus calling for a combination of various experimental techniques in order to arrive at a sufficiently rich data set and determine statistically meaningful estimates for the model parameters. The methodology is demonstrated for the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana by combining pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorescence, photosynthesis rate and antenna size measurements. The results show that the calibrated model is capable of accurate quantitative predictions under a wide range of transient light conditions. Moreover, this work provides an experimental validation of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves which had been theoricized. PMID:27055271

  4. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  5. High-Fidelity Modelling Methodology of Light-Limited Photosynthetic Production in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Andrea; Nikolaou, Andreas; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Chachuat, Benoît; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Reliable quantitative description of light-limited growth in microalgae is key to improving the design and operation of industrial production systems. This article shows how the capability to predict photosynthetic processes can benefit from a synergy between mathematical modelling and lab-scale experiments using systematic design of experiment techniques. A model of chlorophyll fluorescence developed by the authors [Nikolaou et al., J Biotechnol 194:91-99, 2015] is used as starting point, whereby the representation of non-photochemical-quenching (NPQ) process is refined for biological consistency. This model spans multiple time scales ranging from milliseconds to hours, thus calling for a combination of various experimental techniques in order to arrive at a sufficiently rich data set and determine statistically meaningful estimates for the model parameters. The methodology is demonstrated for the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana by combining pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorescence, photosynthesis rate and antenna size measurements. The results show that the calibrated model is capable of accurate quantitative predictions under a wide range of transient light conditions. Moreover, this work provides an experimental validation of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves which had been theoricized.

  6. High-Fidelity Modelling Methodology of Light-Limited Photosynthetic Production in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Chachuat, Benoît; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Reliable quantitative description of light-limited growth in microalgae is key to improving the design and operation of industrial production systems. This article shows how the capability to predict photosynthetic processes can benefit from a synergy between mathematical modelling and lab-scale experiments using systematic design of experiment techniques. A model of chlorophyll fluorescence developed by the authors [Nikolaou et al., J Biotechnol 194:91–99, 2015] is used as starting point, whereby the representation of non-photochemical-quenching (NPQ) process is refined for biological consistency. This model spans multiple time scales ranging from milliseconds to hours, thus calling for a combination of various experimental techniques in order to arrive at a sufficiently rich data set and determine statistically meaningful estimates for the model parameters. The methodology is demonstrated for the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana by combining pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorescence, photosynthesis rate and antenna size measurements. The results show that the calibrated model is capable of accurate quantitative predictions under a wide range of transient light conditions. Moreover, this work provides an experimental validation of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves which had been theoricized. PMID:27055271

  7. Halogenated Pentamethine Cyanine Dyes Exhibiting High Fidelity for G-Quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nanjunda, Rupesh; Owens, Eric A.; Mickelson, Leah; Alyabyev, Sergey; Kilpatrick, Nancy; Wang, Siming; Henary, Maged; Wilson, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Design and optimization of quadruplex-specific small molecules is developing into an attractive strategy for anti-cancer therapeutics with some promising candidates in clinical trials. A number of therapeutically favorable features of cyanine molecules can be effectively exploited to develop them as promising quadruplex-targeting agents. Herein, the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of dimethylindoliene cyanine dyes with varying halogen substitutions are reported. Their interactions with telomeric and c-myc quadruplexes as well as a reference duplex sequence have been evaluated using thermal melting, biosensor-surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectrometry. Thermal melting analysis indicates that these ligands exhibit significant quadruplex stabilization and a very low duplex binding, with the dimethyl incorporation of paramount importance for decreased duplex affinity. Circular dichroism studies showed that the interaction of cyanines with quadruplex structures are primarily through stacking at one or both ends of the terminal tetrads with the two (trimethylammonium)propyl groups interacting in the accessible quadruplex grooves. Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectral studies shows the formation of an initial strong 1:1 complex followed by a significantly weaker secondary binding. Isothermal calorimetry studies show that the interaction of cyanines is predominantly entropy driven. In line with the design principles, this work provides new insights for further developing potent, highly selective cyanines as promising quadruplex-specific agents. PMID:23127491

  8. High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong

    2015-10-19

    Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm3. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377

  9. A Method for High Fidelity Optogenetic Control of Individual Pyramidal Neurons In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic methods have emerged as a powerful tool for elucidating neural circuit activity underlying a diverse set of behaviors across a broad range of species. Optogenetic tools of microbial origin consist of light-sensitive membrane proteins that are able to activate (e.g., channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2) or silence (e.g., halorhodopsin, NpHR) neural activity ingenetically-defined cell types over behaviorally-relevant timescales. We first demonstrate a simple approach for adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of ChR2 and NpHR transgenes to the dorsal subiculum and prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex in rat. Because ChR2 and NpHR are genetically targetable, we describe the use of this technology to control the electrical activity of specific populations of neurons (i.e., pyramidal neurons) embedded in heterogeneous tissue with high temporal precision. We describe herein the hardware, custom software user interface, and procedures that allow for simultaneous light delivery and electrical recording from transduced pyramidal neurons in an anesthetized in vivo preparation. These light-responsive tools provide the opportunity for identifying the causal contributions of different cell types to information processing and behavior. PMID:24022017

  10. High-fidelity spatial addressing of 43Ca+ qubits using near-field microwave control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Lopes Aude Craik, Diana; Linke, Norbert; Allcock, David; Sepiol, Martin; Harty, Thomas; Ballance, Christopher; Stacey, Derek; Steane, Andrew; Lucas, David

    2016-05-01

    Individual addressing of qubits is essential for scalable quantum computation. Spatial addressing allows unlimited numbers of qubits to share the same frequency, whilst enabling arbitrary parallel operations. We present the latest experimental results obtained using a two-zone microfabricated surface trap designed to perform spatial, near-field microwave addressing of long-lived 43Ca+ ``atomic clock'' qubits held in separate trap zones (each of which feature four integrated microwave electrodes). Microwave near fields generated by multi-electrode chip ion traps are often difficult to faithfully simulate and a simple method of characterizing and testing trap chips before placement under ultra-high vacuum would significantly speed up trap design optimization. We describe a printed circuit board antenna for use in mapping microwave near-fields generated by ion-trap electrodes. The antenna is designed to measure fields down to 100 μ m away from trap electrodes and to be impedance matched at a desired spot frequency for an improved signal to noise ratio in field measurements. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office, EPSRC (UK) and the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme.

  11. High fidelity information processing in folic acid chemotaxis of Dictyostelium amoebae.

    PubMed

    Segota, Igor; Mong, Surin; Neidich, Eitan; Rachakonda, Archana; Lussenhop, Catherine J; Franck, Carl

    2013-11-01

    Living cells depend upon the detection of chemical signals for their existence. Eukaryotic cells can sense a concentration difference as low as a few per cent across their bodies. This process was previously suggested to be limited by the receptor-ligand binding fluctuations. Here, we first determine the chemotaxis response of Dictyostelium cells to static folic acid gradients and show that they can significantly exceed this sensitivity, responding to gradients as shallow as 0.2% across the cell body. Second, using a previously developed information theory framework, we compare the total information gained about the gradient (based on the cell response) to its upper limit: the information gained at the receptor-ligand binding step. We find that the model originally applied to cAMP sensing fails as demonstrated by the violation of the data processing inequality, i.e. the total information exceeds the information at the receptor-ligand binding step. We propose an extended model with multiple known receptor types and with cells allowed to perform several independent measurements of receptor occupancy. This does not violate the data processing inequality and implies the receptor-ligand binding noise dominates both for low- and high-chemoattractant concentrations. We also speculate that the interplay between exploration and exploitation is used as a strategy for accurate sensing of otherwise unmeasurable levels of a chemoattractant. PMID:24026470

  12. Evolving high fidelity climate sensor simulators to preserve climate data record continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Kelly K.; Smith, G. L.; Priestley, Kory

    2012-09-01

    Six CERES scanning radiometers have flown to date. The Proto-­-Flight Model flew aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission spacecraft in November 1997. Two CERES instruments, Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2, are aboard the Terra spacecraft, which was launched in December 1999. Two more CERES instruments, FM-­-3 and FM-­-4, are on the Aqua spacecraft, which was placed in orbit in May 2002. These instruments continue to operate after providing over a decade of Earth Radiation Budget data. FM-­-5 is onboard the NPP spacecraft and launched in October 2011. FM-­-6 is being built for use on the JPPS spacecraft. A successor to these CERES instruments is presently in the definition stage. This paper describes the role of instrument simulators in the life cycle of the CERES instruments and how the simulators may be modified to better represent the instrument and its operations. NASA LaRC originally built the CERES instrument simulators. They were created to test CERES flight loads and view the resulting instrument response. The simulator's interface to the instrument processor and spacecraft bus enables the verification of all software modifications, which are uploaded to orbiting instruments. The simulators were recently redesigned to provide additional functionality, however not all instrument operations are completely replicated. The existing simulator software provides the necessary stubs to incorporate modifications and improvements. One possible upgrade is a simulation to imitate the CERES detector assembly. Another useful enhancement is fault injection into select instrument systems, to simulate operational failures and resolve anomaly situations. Many features could be added to the simulator, all of which can ultimately improve instrument performance.

  13. On the high fidelity simulation of chemical explosions and their interaction with solid particle clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik

    The flow field behind chemical explosions in multiphase environments is investigated using a robust, state-of-the-art simulation strategy that accounts for the thermodynamics, gas dynamics and fluid mechanics of relevance to the problem. Focus is laid on the investigation of blast wave propagation, growth of hydrodynamic instabilities behind explosive blasts, the mixing aspects behind explosions, the effects of afterburn and its quantification, and the role played by solid particles in these phenomena. In particular, the confluence and interplay of these different physical phenomena are explored from a fundamental perspective, and applied to the problem of chemical explosions. A solid phase solver suited for the study of high-speed, two-phase flows has been developed and validated. This solver accounts for the inter-phase mass, momentum and energy transfer through empirical laws, and ensures two-way coupling between the two phases, viz. solid particles and gas. For dense flow fields, i.e., when the solid volume fraction becomes non-negligible (˜60%), the finite volume method with a Godunov type shock-capturing scheme requires modifications to account for volume fraction gradients during the computation of cell interface gas fluxes. To this end, the simulation methodology is extended with the formulation of an Eulerian gas, Lagrangian solid approach, thereby ensuring that the so developed two-phase simulation strategy can be applied for both flow conditions, dilute and dense alike. Moreover, under dense loading conditions the solid particles inevitably collide, which is accounted for in the current research effort with the use of an empirical collision/contact model from literature. Furthermore, the post-detonation flow field consists of gases under extreme temperature and pressure conditions, necessitating the use of real gas equations of state in the multiphase model. This overall simulation strategy is then extended to the investigation of chemical explosions in

  14. High Fidelity Springback Simulation and Compensation with Robust Forming Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Intaek; Carleer, B. D.; Haage, S.

    2011-08-01

    For the efficient virtual try-out loop, geometric change and bending angles have been compensated during last 20 years. This approach was based on some restrictions like pure bending, plane strain state and isotropic behavior. For more complex forming processes, this has been applied without reviewing this limitation. Analytical force consideration to reduce the amount of springback is also another idea to compensate geometrical displacement adjustment efficiently. In other view, the springback prediction accuracy is also one major topic with various material model developments. All these topics are absolutely of high importance in order to increase springback accuracy and effective compensation to help reduce the trials efforts. But the focus should not only be on these advances issues since the basics must be right as well. Based on our long term experiences in simulation and several project outcomes covered 20 different parts during last 2 years, we will present our experience and investigations in order to geometrically compensate forming process. It is emphasized that we did not just simulate the springback but the compensated surfaces where brought into the real tools. So, the experiences are not only based on numerical analysis but of all this part a physical tryout has been performed as well. The experiences are consolidated in a set of principles of robust springback compensation. These principles will be illustrated and explained at an example part, a B-pillar upper reinforcement. Indeed, it is can be seen that that compensation is a straight forward activity. However, our experiences have shown that it is only a straight forward activity in case certain `boundary conditions are fulfilled. We will discuss some of this boundary condition using the B-pillar upper example. Through this study, basic requirements for successful springabck compensation, the full scope of simulation range, set-up the nominal springback simulation and robustness of forming

  15. Marker ReDistancing/Level Set Method for High-Fidelity Implicit Interface Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nourgaliev; Samet Kadioglu; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid of the Front-Tracking (FT) and the Level-Set (LS) methods is introduced, combining advantages and removing drawbacks of both methods. The kinematics of the interface is treated in a Lagrangian (FT) manner, by tracking markers placed at the interface. The markers are not connected – instead, the interface topology is resolved in an Eulerian (LS) framework, by wrapping a signed distance function around Lagrangian markers each time the markers move. For accuracy and efficiency, we have developed a high-order “anchoring” algorithm and an implicit PDE-based re-distancing. We have demonstrated that the method is 3rd-order accurate in space, near the markers, and therefore 1st-order convergent in curvature; in contrast to traditional PDE-based re-initialization algorithms, which tend to slightly relocate the zero Level Set and can be shown to be non-convergent in curvature. The implicit pseudo-time discretization of the re-distancing equation is implemented within the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) framework combined with ILU(k) preconditioning. We have demonstrated that the steady-state solutions in pseudo-time can be achieved very efficiently, with iterations (CFL ), in contrast to the explicit re-distancing which requires 100s of iterations with CFL . The most cost-effective algorithm is found to be a hybrid of explicit and implicit discretizations, in which we apply first 10-15 iterations with explicit discretization (to bring the initial guess to the ball of convergence for the Newton’s method) and then finishing with 2-3 implicit steps, bringing the re-distancing equation to a complete steady-state. The eigenscopy of the JFNK-ILU(k) demonstrates the efficiency of the ILU(k) preconditioner, which effectively cluster eigenvalues of the otherwise extremely ill-conditioned Jacobian matrices, thereby enabling the Krylov (GMRES) method to converge with iterations, with only a few levels of ILU fill-ins. Importantly, due to the Level Set localization

  16. A high-fidelity method to analyze perturbation evolution in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, S.; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-04-01

    turbulence closures. The method is illustrated by application to a well-validated Mach 1.3 jet. Specifically, the effects of turbulence on the jet lipline and core collapse regions on the near-acoustic field are isolated. The properties of the method, including linearity and effect of initial transients, are discussed. The results provide insight into how turbulence from different parts of the jet contribute to the observed dominance of low and high frequency content at shallow and sideline angles, respectively.

  17. On the high fidelity simulation of chemical explosions and their interaction with solid particle clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik

    The flow field behind chemical explosions in multiphase environments is investigated using a robust, state-of-the-art simulation strategy that accounts for the thermodynamics, gas dynamics and fluid mechanics of relevance to the problem. Focus is laid on the investigation of blast wave propagation, growth of hydrodynamic instabilities behind explosive blasts, the mixing aspects behind explosions, the effects of afterburn and its quantification, and the role played by solid particles in these phenomena. In particular, the confluence and interplay of these different physical phenomena are explored from a fundamental perspective, and applied to the problem of chemical explosions. A solid phase solver suited for the study of high-speed, two-phase flows has been developed and validated. This solver accounts for the inter-phase mass, momentum and energy transfer through empirical laws, and ensures two-way coupling between the two phases, viz. solid particles and gas. For dense flow fields, i.e., when the solid volume fraction becomes non-negligible (˜60%), the finite volume method with a Godunov type shock-capturing scheme requires modifications to account for volume fraction gradients during the computation of cell interface gas fluxes. To this end, the simulation methodology is extended with the formulation of an Eulerian gas, Lagrangian solid approach, thereby ensuring that the so developed two-phase simulation strategy can be applied for both flow conditions, dilute and dense alike. Moreover, under dense loading conditions the solid particles inevitably collide, which is accounted for in the current research effort with the use of an empirical collision/contact model from literature. Furthermore, the post-detonation flow field consists of gases under extreme temperature and pressure conditions, necessitating the use of real gas equations of state in the multiphase model. This overall simulation strategy is then extended to the investigation of chemical explosions in

  18. Administrator Strategies that Support High Fidelity Implementation of the Pyramid Model for Promoting Social-Emotional Competence & Addressing Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincic, Melissa; Smith, Barbara J.; Strain, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the Pyramid Model with fidelity and achieving positive outcomes for children and their families requires that administrators understand their roles in the implementation process. Every administrative decision impacts program quality and sustainability. This Policy Brief underscores the importance of facilitative administrative…

  19. Acquisition, Retention, and Retraining: Effects of High and Low Fidelity in Training Devices. Technical Report 69-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsley, Douglas L.

    This study is the first in a series which was conducted under the name STRANGER III, and which was to examine trainee's long-term memory of motor skills. This phase examined the effects of varying fidelity of training devices on acquisition, retention, and reinstatement of ability to perform a 92-step procedural task. Three versions of the Section…

  20. High Fidelity? How Should We Consider Variations in the Delivery of School-Based Health Promotion Interventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Jo; Audrey, Suzanne; Moore, Laurence; Parry-Langdon, Nina; Campbell, Rona

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The complexity and scale of health promotion interventions present challenges for the standardization of delivery. Furthermore, health promotion practice favours adapting interventions according to perceived client need. This paper examines the fidelity of intervention delivery within A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST),…

  1. Using High-Fidelity Analysis Methods and Experimental Results to Account for the Effects of Imperfections on the Buckling Response of Composite Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2003-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the effects of initial imperfections on the buckling response of unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells are presented. The analytical results include the effects of traditional and nontraditional initial imperfections and uncertainties in the values of selected shell parameters on the buckling loads of the shells. The nonlinear structural analysis results correlate very well with the experimental results. The high-fidelity nonlinear analysis procedure used to generate the analytical results can also be used to form the basis of a new shell design procedure that could reduce the traditional dependence on empirical results in the shell design process. KEYWORDS: high-fidelity nonlinear structural analysis, composite shells, shell stability, initial imperfections

  2. High-Fidelity Tissue Engineering of Patient-Specific Auricles for Reconstruction of Pediatric Microtia and Other Auricular Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Kafka, Concepcion; Hernandez, Karina A.; Popa, Samantha; Perez, Justin L.; Zhou, Sherry; Pramanik, Satadru; Brown, Bryan N.; Ryu, Won Seuk; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Spector, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Autologous techniques for the reconstruction of pediatric microtia often result in suboptimal aesthetic outcomes and morbidity at the costal cartilage donor site. We therefore sought to combine digital photogrammetry with CAD/CAM techniques to develop collagen type I hydrogel scaffolds and their respective molds that would precisely mimic the normal anatomy of the patient-specific external ear as well as recapitulate the complex biomechanical properties of native auricular elastic cartilage while avoiding the morbidity of traditional autologous reconstructions. Methods Three-dimensional structures of normal pediatric ears were digitized and converted to virtual solids for mold design. Image-based synthetic reconstructions of these ears were fabricated from collagen type I hydrogels. Half were seeded with bovine auricular chondrocytes. Cellular and acellular constructs were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsa of nude rats and harvested after 1 and 3 months. Results Gross inspection revealed that acellular implants had significantly decreased in size by 1 month. Cellular constructs retained their contour/projection from the animals' dorsa, even after 3 months. Post-harvest weight of cellular constructs was significantly greater than that of acellular constructs after 1 and 3 months. Safranin O-staining revealed that cellular constructs demonstrated evidence of a self-assembled perichondrial layer and copious neocartilage deposition. Verhoeff staining of 1 month cellular constructs revealed de novo elastic cartilage deposition, which was even more extensive and robust after 3 months. The equilibrium modulus and hydraulic permeability of cellular constructs were not significantly different from native bovine auricular cartilage after 3 months. Conclusions We have developed high-fidelity, biocompatible, patient-specific tissue-engineered constructs for auricular reconstruction which largely mimic the native auricle both biomechanically and histologically

  3. Comparison of the Computational Efficiency of the Original Versus Reformulated High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M; Bednarcyk, Brett; Aboydi, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    The High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) micromechanics model has recently been reformulated by Bansal and Pindera (in the context of elastic phases with perfect bonding) to maximize its computational efficiency. This reformulated version of HFGMC has now been extended to include both inelastic phases and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. The present paper presents an overview of the HFGMC theory in both its original and reformulated forms and a comparison of the results of the two implementations. The objective is to establish the correlation between the two HFGMC formulations and document the improved efficiency offered by the reformulation. The results compare the macro and micro scale predictions of the continuous reinforcement (doubly-periodic) and discontinuous reinforcement (triply-periodic) versions of both formulations into the inelastic regime, and, in the case of the discontinuous reinforcement version, with both perfect and weak interfacial bonding. The results demonstrate that identical predictions are obtained using either the original or reformulated implementations of HFGMC aside from small numerical differences in the inelastic regime due to the different implementation schemes used for the inelastic terms present in the two formulations. Finally, a direct comparison of execution times is presented for the original formulation and reformulation code implementations. It is shown that as the discretization employed in representing the composite repeating unit cell becomes increasingly refined (requiring a larger number of sub-volumes), the reformulated implementation becomes significantly (approximately an order of magnitude at best) more computationally efficient in both the continuous reinforcement (doubly-periodic) and discontinuous reinforcement (triply-periodic) cases.

  4. Using multimedia tools and high-fidelity simulations to improve medical students' resuscitation performance: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of our study was to shed light on educational methods to strengthen medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) leadership and team skills in order to optimise CPR understanding and success using didactic videos and high-fidelity simulations. Design An observational study. Setting A tertiary medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 104 5–7th year medical students, including 72 men and 32 women. Interventions We provided the medical students with a 2-hour training session on advanced CPR. During each class, we divided the students into 1–2 groups; each group consisted of 4–6 team members. Medical student teams were trained by using either method A or B. Method A started with an instructional CPR video followed by a first CPR simulation. Method B started with a first CPR simulation followed by an instructional CPR video. All students then participated in a second CPR simulation. Outcome measures Student teams were assessed with checklist rating scores in leadership, teamwork and team member skills, global rating scores by an attending physician and video-recording evaluation by 2 independent individuals. Results The 104 medical students were divided into 22 teams. We trained 11 teams using method A and 11 using method B. Total second CPR simulation scores were significantly higher than first CPR simulation scores in leadership (p<0.001), teamwork (p<0.001) and team member skills (p<0.001). For methods A and B students' first CPR simulation scores were similar, but method A students' second CPR simulation scores were significantly higher than those of method B in leadership skills (p=0.034), specifically in the support subcategory (p=0.049). Conclusions Although both teaching strategies improved leadership, teamwork and team member performance, video exposure followed by CPR simulation further increased students' leadership skills compared with CPR simulation followed by video exposure. PMID:27678539

  5. Curriculum Fidelity and Factors Affecting Fidelity in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumen, Nilay T.; Cakar, Esra; Yildiz, Derya G.

    2014-01-01

    Although a centralist education system is in place in Turkey, studies show that while implementing the curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education, teachers make changes based on their own preferences or depending on students. Curriculum fidelity can be defined as the degree to which teachers or stakeholders abide by a curriculum's…

  6. Optimal conditions for high-fidelity dispersive readout of a qubit with a photon-number-resolving detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrii

    2016-03-01

    We determine the optimal parameters for a simple and efficient scheme of dispersive readout of a qubit. Depending on the qubit state (ground or excited), the resonance of a cavity is shifted either to the red or to the blue side. Qubit state is inferred by detecting the photon number transmitted through the cavity. It turns out that this kind of detection provides better measurement fidelity than the detection of the presence or absence of photons only. We show that radiating the cavity on either of the frequencies it shifts to results in a suboptimal measurement. The optimal frequency of the probe photons is determined, as well as the optimal ratio of the shift to the resonator leakage. It is shown that to maximize the fidelity of a long-lasting measurement, it is sufficient to use the parameters optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio in the photon count. One can reach 99% fidelity for a single-shot measurement in various physical realizations of the scheme.

  7. Enhancing the Design Process for Complex Space Systems through Early Integration of Risk and Variable-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri; Osburg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    An important enabler of the new national Vision for Space Exploration is the ability to rapidly and efficiently develop optimized concepts for the manifold future space missions that this effort calls for. The design of such complex systems requires a tight integration of all the engineering disciplines involved, in an environment that fosters interaction and collaboration. The research performed under this grant explored areas where the space systems design process can be enhanced: by integrating risk models into the early stages of the design process, and by including rapid-turnaround variable-fidelity tools for key disciplines. Enabling early assessment of mission risk will allow designers to perform trades between risk and design performance during the initial design space exploration. Entry into planetary atmospheres will require an increased emphasis of the critical disciplines of aero- and thermodynamics. This necessitates the pulling forward of EDL disciplinary expertise into the early stage of the design process. Radiation can have a large potential impact on overall mission designs, in particular for the planned nuclear-powered robotic missions under Project Prometheus and for long-duration manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond under Project Constellation. This requires that radiation and associated risk and hazards be assessed and mitigated at the earliest stages of the design process. Hence, RPS is another discipline needed to enhance the engineering competencies of conceptual design teams. Researchers collaborated closely with NASA experts in those disciplines, and in overall space systems design, at Langley Research Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report documents the results of this initial effort.

  8. High-fidelity simulation versus case-based discussion for teaching medical students in Brazil about pediatric emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Farhat, Sylvia C.L.; Geis, Gary L; Olsen, Orjan; Schvartsman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare high-fidelity simulation with case-based discussion for teaching medical students about pediatric emergencies, as assessed by a knowledge post-test, a knowledge retention test and a survey of satisfaction with the method. METHODS: This was a non-randomized controlled study using a crossover design for the methods, as well as multiple-choice questionnaire tests and a satisfaction survey. Final-year medical students were allocated into two groups: group 1 participated in an anaphylaxis simulation and a discussion of a supraventricular tachycardia case, and conversely, group 2 participated in a discussion of an anaphylaxis case and a supraventricular tachycardia simulation. Students were tested on each theme at the end of their rotation (post-test) and 4–6 months later (retention test). RESULTS: Most students (108, or 66.3%) completed all of the tests. The mean scores for simulation versus case-based discussion were respectively 43.6% versus 46.6% for the anaphylaxis pre-test (p=0.42), 63.5% versus 67.8% for the post-test (p=0.13) and 61.5% versus 65.5% for the retention test (p=0.19). Additionally, the mean scores were respectively 33.9% versus 31.6% for the supraventricular tachycardia pre-test (p=0.44), 42.5% versus 47.7% for the post-test (p=0.09) and 41.5% versus 39.5% for the retention test (p=0.47). For both themes, there was improvement between the pre-test and the post-test (p<0.05), and no significant difference was observed between the post-test and the retention test (p>0.05). Moreover, the satisfaction survey revealed a preference for simulation (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: As a single intervention, simulation is not significantly different from case-based discussion in terms of acquisition and retention of knowledge but is superior in terms of student satisfaction. PMID:26106956

  9. High fidelity simulation and analysis of liquid jet atomization in a gaseous crossflow at intermediate Weber numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in numerical methods coupled with the substantial enhancements in computing power and the advent of high performance computing have presented first principle, high fidelity simulation as a viable tool in the prediction and analysis of spray atomization processes. The credibility and potential impact of such simulations, however, has been hampered by the relative absence of detailed validation against experimental evidence. The numerical stability and accuracy challenges arising from the need to simulate the high liquid-gas density ratio across the sharp interfaces encountered in these flows are key reasons for this. In this work we challenge this status quo by presenting a numerical model able to deal with these challenges, employing it in simulations of liquid jet in crossflow atomization and performing extensive validation of its results against a carefully executed experiment with detailed measurements in the atomization region. We then proceed to the detailed analysis of the flow physics. The computational model employs the coupled level set and volume of fluid approach to directly capture the spatiotemporal evolution of the liquid-gas interface and the sharp-interface ghost fluid method to stably handle high liquid-air density ratio. Adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian droplet models are shown to be viable options for computational cost reduction. Moreover, high performance computing is leveraged to manage the computational cost. The experiment selected for validation eliminates the impact of inlet liquid and gas turbulence and focuses on the impact of the crossflow aerodynamic forces on the atomization physics. Validation is demonstrated by comparing column surface wavelengths, deformation, breakup locations, column trajectories and droplet sizes, velocities, and mass rates for a range of intermediate Weber numbers. Analysis of the physics is performed in terms of the instability and breakup characteristics and the features of downstream

  10. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  11. C-arm cone beam CT guidance of sinus and skull base surgery: quantitative surgical performance evaluation and development of a novel high-fidelity phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescan, A. D.; Chan, H.; Daly, M. J.; Witterick, I.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    Surgical simulation has become a critical component of surgical practice and training in the era of high-precision image-guided surgery. While the ability to simulate surgery of the paranasal sinuses and skull base has been conventionally limited to 3D digital simulation or cadaveric dissection, we have developed novel methods employing rapid prototyping technology and 3D printing to create high-fidelity models from real patient images (CT or MR). Such advances allow creation of patient-specific models for preparation, simulation, and training before embarking on the actual surgery. A major challenge included the development of novel material formulations compatible with the rapid prototyping process while presenting anatomically realistic flexibility, cut-ability, drilling purchase, and density (CT number). Initial studies have yielded realistic models of the paranasal sinuses and skull base for simulation and training in image-guided surgery. The process of model development and material selection is reviewed along with the application of the phantoms in studies of high-precision surgery guided by C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT). Surgical performance is quantitatively evaluated under CBCT guidance, with the high-fidelity phantoms providing an excellent test-bed for reproducible studies across a broad spectrum of challenging surgical tasks. Future work will broaden the atlas of models to include normal anatomical variations as well as a broad spectrum of benign and malignant disease. The role of high-fidelity models produced by rapid prototyping is discussed in the context of patient-specific case simulation, novel technology development (specifically CBCT guidance), and training of future generations of sinus and skull base surgeons.

  12. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  13. The high fidelity of the cetacean stranding record: insights into measuring diversity by integrating taphonomy and macroecology

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.

    2011-01-01

    Stranded cetaceans have long intrigued naturalists because their causation has escaped singular explanations. Regardless of cause, strandings also represent a sample of the living community, although their fidelity has rarely been quantified. Using commensurate stranding and sighting records compiled from archived datasets representing nearly every major ocean basin, I demonstrated that the cetacean stranding record faithfully reflects patterns of richness and relative abundance in living communities, especially for coastlines greater than 2000 km and latitudinal gradients greater than 4°. Live–dead fidelity metrics from seven different countries indicated that strandings were almost always richer than live surveys; richness also increased with coastline length. Most death assemblages recorded the same ranked relative abundance as living communities, although this correlation decreased in strength and significance at coastline lengths greater than 15 000 km, highlighting the importance of sampling diversity at regional scales. Rarefaction analyses indicated that sampling greater than 10 years generally enhanced the completeness of death assemblages, although protracted temporal sampling did not substitute for sampling over longer coastlines or broader latitudes. Overall, this global live–dead comparison demonstrated that strandings almost always provided better diversity information about extant cetacean communities than live surveys; such archives are therefore relevant for macroecological and palaeobiological studies of cetacean community change through time. PMID:21525057

  14. Teacher Fidelity to One Physical Education Curricular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Stylianou, Michalis; van der Mars, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed teachers' fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers' fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups.…

  15. Evaluating Fidelity to the Wraparound Service Model for Youth: Application of Item Response Theory to the Wraparound Fidelity Index

    PubMed Central

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Sather, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The wraparound process is a mechanism for multi-system planning and care coordination for youth with serious emotional and behavioral problems. Fidelity monitoring is critical to effective implementation of evidence-based practices in children’s mental health, as it helps ensure that complex interventions like wraparound are implemented as intended. The 40-item Wraparound Fidelity Index, version 4 (WFI-4; Bruns, Burchard, Suter, Leverentz-Brady, & Force, 2004) is the most frequently used measure of fidelity to the wraparound process, but analysis of its psychometric properties is insufficient. An item response theory approach, Rasch partial credit models for ordered polytomous data, was used on ratings from 1,234 facilitators, 1,006 caregivers, and 221 team members, focused on 1,478 youths (55% male). Results indicated the WFI-4 measured a unidimensional construct, with little evidence of item bias and good item and model fit. However, the item information curve was skewed, with most people endorsing high-fidelity responses, and several items had duplicative location estimates. A reduced 20-item measure is proposed. Internal reliability estimates for scores from this reduced measure were approximately equivalent to the longer measure. However, both versions would benefit from additional items located in the highest-fidelity area of either version of the scale where scores by greater than half of our sample fall, but only three items are located. PMID:23544392

  16. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  17. How Fidelity Invests in Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Ellyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company reorganized, automated, and reengineered all systems related to service delivery. They created a model for the development of associates called Service Delivery University and committed each associate to 80 hours of development per year. (JOW)

  18. Is mate fidelity related to site fidelity? A comparative analysis in Ciconiiforms.

    PubMed

    Cézilly; Dubois; Pagel

    2000-06-01

    We tested for an association between divorce rate and site fidelity in 42 avian species belonging to the order Ciconiiforms, using comparative methods that account for the influences of phylogenetic relationships on the data. Our methods enabled us to detect evidence of correlated evolution and provided information on the temporal ordering of evolutionary changes in these two variables. We found a significant correlation between divorce rate and site fidelity, indicating that species with little or no site fidelity are more likely to divorce. Our data suggest that the coupled evolution of divorce and site fidelity can be summarized by three major events. The first event corresponds to a transition from species showing high divorce rate and low or no site fidelity to species that tended to reuse the same nests over consecutive breeding seasons. This was followed by a transition towards higher mate fidelity, with the preservation of pair bonds over consecutive breeding attempts. In a third stage, divorce rate and the rate of site fidelity varied, independently of each other. We discuss our results within the context of the ancestor species and the past environments in which the traits originated, and address the importance of the potential for individual recognition in shaping the observed patterns of covariation between mate fidelity and site fidelity in Ciconiiforms. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10877893

  19. High-Fidelity Reprogrammed Human IPSCs Have a High Efficacy of DNA Repair and Resemble hESCs in Their MYC Transcriptional Signature.

    PubMed

    Nagaria, Pratik K; Robert, Carine; Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S; Zambidis, Elias T; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed from adult or progenitor somatic cells and must make substantial adaptations to ensure genomic stability in order to become "embryonic stem cell- (ESC-) like." The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for maintenance of such genomic integrity. Herein, we determined whether cell of origin and reprogramming method influence the DDR of hiPSCs. We demonstrate that hiPSCs derived from cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors (i.e., CB-iPSC) via an efficient high-fidelity stromal-activated (sa) method closely resembled hESCs in DNA repair gene expression signature and irradiation-induced DDR, relative to hiPSCs generated from CB or fibroblasts via standard methods. Furthermore, sa-CB-iPSCs also more closely resembled hESCs in accuracy of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and C-MYC transcriptional signatures, relative to standard hiPSCs. Our data suggests that hiPSCs derived via more efficient reprogramming methods possess more hESC-like activated MYC signatures and DDR signaling. Thus, an authentic MYC molecular signature may serve as an important biomarker in characterizing the genomic integrity in hiPSCs. PMID:27688775

  20. High-Fidelity Reprogrammed Human IPSCs Have a High Efficacy of DNA Repair and Resemble hESCs in Their MYC Transcriptional Signature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed from adult or progenitor somatic cells and must make substantial adaptations to ensure genomic stability in order to become “embryonic stem cell- (ESC-) like.” The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for maintenance of such genomic integrity. Herein, we determined whether cell of origin and reprogramming method influence the DDR of hiPSCs. We demonstrate that hiPSCs derived from cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors (i.e., CB-iPSC) via an efficient high-fidelity stromal-activated (sa) method closely resembled hESCs in DNA repair gene expression signature and irradiation-induced DDR, relative to hiPSCs generated from CB or fibroblasts via standard methods. Furthermore, sa-CB-iPSCs also more closely resembled hESCs in accuracy of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and C-MYC transcriptional signatures, relative to standard hiPSCs. Our data suggests that hiPSCs derived via more efficient reprogramming methods possess more hESC-like activated MYC signatures and DDR signaling. Thus, an authentic MYC molecular signature may serve as an important biomarker in characterizing the genomic integrity in hiPSCs.

  1. High-Fidelity Reprogrammed Human IPSCs Have a High Efficacy of DNA Repair and Resemble hESCs in Their MYC Transcriptional Signature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed from adult or progenitor somatic cells and must make substantial adaptations to ensure genomic stability in order to become “embryonic stem cell- (ESC-) like.” The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for maintenance of such genomic integrity. Herein, we determined whether cell of origin and reprogramming method influence the DDR of hiPSCs. We demonstrate that hiPSCs derived from cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors (i.e., CB-iPSC) via an efficient high-fidelity stromal-activated (sa) method closely resembled hESCs in DNA repair gene expression signature and irradiation-induced DDR, relative to hiPSCs generated from CB or fibroblasts via standard methods. Furthermore, sa-CB-iPSCs also more closely resembled hESCs in accuracy of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and C-MYC transcriptional signatures, relative to standard hiPSCs. Our data suggests that hiPSCs derived via more efficient reprogramming methods possess more hESC-like activated MYC signatures and DDR signaling. Thus, an authentic MYC molecular signature may serve as an important biomarker in characterizing the genomic integrity in hiPSCs. PMID:27688775

  2. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2011-07-15

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  3. Ground state fidelity from tensor network representations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Orús, Roman; Vidal, Guifre

    2008-02-29

    For any D-dimensional quantum lattice system, the fidelity between two ground state many-body wave functions is mapped onto the partition function of a D-dimensional classical statistical vertex lattice model with the same lattice geometry. The fidelity per lattice site, analogous to the free energy per site, is well defined in the thermodynamic limit and can be used to characterize the phase diagram of the model. We explain how to compute the fidelity per site in the context of tensor network algorithms, and demonstrate the approach by analyzing the two-dimensional quantum Ising model with transverse and parallel magnetic fields. PMID:18352611

  4. The fidelity of adaptive phototaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Tuval, Idan; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-03-01

    Along the evolutionary path from single cells to multicellular organisms with a central nervous system are species of intermediate complexity which move in ways suggesting high-level coordination, yet have none. Instead, organisms within this category possess many autonomous cells which are endowed with programs that have evolved to achieve concerted responses to environmental stimuli. We examine the main features of the program underlying high-fidelity phototaxis in colonial algae which spin about a body-fixed axis as they swim. Using micromanipulation and particle image velocimetry of flagella-driven flows in Volvox carteri, we show that there is an adaptive response at the single-cell level that displays a pronounced maximum in its frequency dependence for periodic light signals. Moreover, the natural rotational frequency of the colony is tuned to match this optimal response. A hydrodynamic model of phototactic steering further shows that the phototactic ability decreases dramatically when the colony does not spin at its natural frequency, a result confirmed by phototaxis assays in which colony rotation was slowed by increasing the fluid viscosity.

  5. Teleporting an unknown quantum state with unit fidelity and unit probability via a non-maximally entangled channel and an auxiliary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashvand, Taghi

    2016-08-01

    We present a new scheme for quantum teleportation that one can teleport an unknown state via a non-maximally entangled channel with certainly, using an auxiliary system. In this scheme depending on the state of the auxiliary system, one can find a class of orthogonal vectors set as a basis which by performing von Neumann measurement in each element of this class Alice can teleport an unknown state with unit fidelity and unit probability. A comparison of our scheme with some previous schemes is given and we will see that our scheme has advantages that the others do not.

  6. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  7. Examining the Fidelity of Climate model via Shadowing Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, H.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fully fledged climate models provide the best available simulations for reflecting the future, yet we have scant insight into their fidelity, in particular as to the duration into the future at which the real world should be expected to evolve in a manner today's models cannot foresee. We know now that our best available models are not adequate for many sought after purposes. To throw some light on the maximum fidelity expected from a given generation of models, and thereby aid both policy making and model development, we can test the weaknesses of a model as a dynamical system to get an informed idea of its potential applicability at various lead times. Shadowing times reflect the duration on which a GCM reflects the observations; extracting the shortcomings of the model which limit shadowing times allows informed speculation regarding the fidelity of the model in the future. More specifically, the relevant phenomena limiting model fidelity can be learned by identifying the reasons models cannot shadow; the time scales on which feedbacks on the system (which are not active in the model) are likely to result in model irrelevance can be discerned. The methodology is developed in the "low dimensional laboratory" of relatively simple dynamical systems, for example Lorenz 95 systems. The results are presented in Lorenz 95 systems, high dimensional fluid dynamical simulations of rotating annulus and GCMs. There are severe limits on the light shadowing experiments can shine on GCM predictions. Never the less, they appear to be one of the brightest lights we can shine to illuminate the likely fidelity of GCM extrapolations into the future.

  8. Partial host fidelity in nest selection by the shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a highly generalist avian brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Mahler, B; Confalonieri, V A; Lovette, I J; Reboreda, J C

    2007-09-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites can be host specialists or host generalists. In turn, individual females within generalist brood parasites may themselves be host specialists or generalists. The shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis is an extreme generalist, but little is known about individual female host fidelity. We examined variation in mitochondrial control region sequences from cowbird chicks found in nests of four common Argentinean hosts. Haplotype frequency distributions differed among cowbird chicks from nests of these hosts, primarily because eggs laid in nests of house wrens Troglodytes aedon differed genetically from those laid in nests of the other three hosts (chalk-browed mockingbird Mimus saturninus, brown-and-yellow marshbird Pseudoleistes virescens, and rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis). These differences in a maternally inherited marker indicate the presence of a nonrandom laying behaviour in the females of this otherwise generalist brood parasite, which may be guided by choice for nest type, as house wrens nest in cavities whereas the other three species are open cup nesters.

  9. Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, M.F.; Puccetti, M.G.

    1988-01-04

    The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    needed for repository modeling are severely lacking. In addition, most of existing reactive transport codes were developed for non-radioactive contaminants, and they need to be adapted to account for radionuclide decay and in-growth. The accessibility to the source codes is generally limited. Because the problems of interest for the Waste IPSC are likely to result in relatively large computational models, a compact memory-usage footprint and a fast/robust solution procedure will be needed. A robust massively parallel processing (MPP) capability will also be required to provide reasonable turnaround times on the analyses that will be performed with the code. A performance assessment (PA) calculation for a waste disposal system generally requires a large number (hundreds to thousands) of model simulations to quantify the effect of model parameter uncertainties on the predicted repository performance. A set of codes for a PA calculation must be sufficiently robust and fast in terms of code execution. A PA system as a whole must be able to provide multiple alternative models for a specific set of physical/chemical processes, so that the users can choose various levels of modeling complexity based on their modeling needs. This requires PA codes, preferably, to be highly modularized. Most of the existing codes have difficulties meeting these requirements. Based on the gap analysis results, we have made the following recommendations for the code selection and code development for the NEAMS waste IPSC: (1) build fully coupled high-fidelity THCMBR codes using the existing SIERRA codes (e.g., ARIA and ADAGIO) and platform, (2) use DAKOTA to build an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS), and build a modular code architecture and key code modules for performance assessments. The key chemical calculation modules will be built by expanding the existing CANTERA capabilities as well as by extracting useful components from other existing codes.

  11. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  12. A New View on Interstellar Dust - High Fidelity Studies of Interstellar Dust Analogue Tracks in Stardust Flight Spare Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Postberg F.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bugiel, S.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002 the Stardust Mission exposed aerogel collector panels for a total of about 200 days to the stream of interstellar grains sweeping through the solar system. The material was brought back to Earth in 2006. The goal of this work is the laboratory calibration of the collection process by shooting high speed [5 - 30km/s] interstellar dust (ISD) analogues onto Stardust aerogel flight spares. This enables an investigation into both the morphology of impact tracks as well as any structural and chemical modification of projectile and collector material. First results indicate a different ISD flux than previously assumed for the Stardust collection period.

  13. Sequential kriging optimization using multiple-fidelity evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Deng; Allen, T. T.; Notz, W. I.; Miller, R. A.

    2006-11-01

    When cost per evaluation on a system of interest is high, surrogate systems can provide cheaper but lower-fidelity information. In the proposed extension of the sequential kriging optimization method, surrogate systems are exploited to reduce the total evaluation cost. The method utilizes data on all systems to build a kriging metamodel that provides a global prediction of the objective function and a measure of prediction uncertainty. The location and fidelity level of the next evaluation are selected by maximizing an augmented expected improvement function, which is connected with the evaluation costs. The proposed method was applied to test functions from the literature and a metal-forming process design problem via finite element simulations. The method manifests sensible search patterns, robust performance, and appreciable reduction in total evaluation cost as compared to the original method.

  14. Sequential kriging optimization using multiple-fidelity evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Deng; Allen, T. T.; Notz, W. I.; Miller, R. A.

    2006-05-23

    When cost per evaluation on a system of interest is high, surrogate systems can provide cheaper but lower-fidelity information. In the proposed extension of the sequential kriging optimization method, surrogate systems are exploited to reduce the total evaluation cost. The method utilizes data on all systems to build a kriging metamodel that provides a global prediction of the objective function and a measure of prediction uncertainty. The location and fidelity level of the next evaluation are selected by maximizing an augmented expected improvement function, which is connected with the evaluation costs. The proposed method was applied to test functions from the literature and a metal-forming process design problem via finite element simulations. The method manifests sensible search patterns, robust performance, and appreciable reduction in total evaluation cost as compared to the original method.

  15. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proposal for high-speed and high-fidelity electron-spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity in a weak external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arka; Lin Ziliang; Faraon, Andrei; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2010-08-15

    We describe a proposal for fast electron-spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity without the need for a strong magnetic field. We employ two-photon excitation to access trion states that are spin forbidden by one-photon excitation. Our simulation shows a maximum initialization speed of 1.3 GHz and maximum fidelity of 99.7% with realistic system parameters.

  17. Modeling for Fidelity: virtual mentorship by scientists fosters teacher self-efficacy and promotes implementation of novel high school biomedical curricula.

    PubMed

    Malanson, Katherine; Jacque, Berri; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina F

    2014-01-01

    This small-scale comparison case study evaluates the impact of an innovative approach to teacher professional development designed to promote implementation of a novel cutting edge high school neurological disorders curriculum. 'Modeling for Fidelity' (MFF) centers on an extended mentor relationship between teachers and biomedical scientists carried out in a virtual format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials. Four teachers from different diverse high schools in Massachusetts and Ohio who experienced MFF contextualized to a 6-week Neurological Disorders curriculum with the same science mentor were compared to a teacher who had experienced an intensive in-person professional development contextualized to the same curriculum with the same mentor. Fidelity of implementation was measured directly using an established metric and indirectly via student performance. The results show that teachers valued MFF, particularly the mentor relationship and were able to use it effectively to ensure critical components of the learning objectives were preserved. Moreover their students performed equivalently to those whose teacher had experienced intensive in-person professional development. Participants in all school settings demonstrated large (Cohen's d>2.0) and significant (p<0.0001 per-post) changes in conceptual knowledge as well as self-efficacy towards learning about neurological disorders (Cohen's d>1.5, p<0.0001 pre-post). The data demonstrates that the virtual mentorship format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials is an effective method of developing extended interactions between biomedical scientists and teachers that are scalable and not geographically constrained, facilitating teacher implementation of novel cutting-edge curricula.

  18. Undergraduate nursing students' experiences when examining nursing skills in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Sundler, Annelie J; Pettersson, Annika; Berglund, Mia

    2015-12-01

    Simulation has become a widely used and established pedagogy for teaching clinical nursing skills. Nevertheless, the evidence in favour of this pedagogical approach is weak, and more knowledge is needed in support of its use. The aim of this study was (a) to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students when examining knowledge, skills and competences in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators and (b) to analyse these students' learning experiences during the examination. A phenomenological approach was used, and qualitative interviews were conducted among 23 second-year undergraduate nursing students-17 women and 6 men. The findings revealed that, irrespective of whether they passed or failed the examination, it was experienced as a valuable assessment of the students' knowledge and skills. Even if the students felt that the examination was challenging, they described it as a learning opportunity. In the examination, the students were able to integrate theory with practice, and earlier established knowledge was scrutinised when reflecting on the scenarios. The examination added aspects to the students' learning that prepared them for the real world of nursing in a safe environment without risking patient safety. The study findings suggest that examinations in clinical simulation laboratories can be a useful teaching strategy in nursing education. The use of high-fidelity patient simulators made the examination authentic. The reflections and feedback on the scenario were described as significant for the students' learning. Undergraduate nursing students can improve their knowledge, understanding, competence and skills when such examinations are performed in the manner used in this study.

  19. Undergraduate nursing students' experiences when examining nursing skills in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Sundler, Annelie J; Pettersson, Annika; Berglund, Mia

    2015-12-01

    Simulation has become a widely used and established pedagogy for teaching clinical nursing skills. Nevertheless, the evidence in favour of this pedagogical approach is weak, and more knowledge is needed in support of its use. The aim of this study was (a) to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students when examining knowledge, skills and competences in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators and (b) to analyse these students' learning experiences during the examination. A phenomenological approach was used, and qualitative interviews were conducted among 23 second-year undergraduate nursing students-17 women and 6 men. The findings revealed that, irrespective of whether they passed or failed the examination, it was experienced as a valuable assessment of the students' knowledge and skills. Even if the students felt that the examination was challenging, they described it as a learning opportunity. In the examination, the students were able to integrate theory with practice, and earlier established knowledge was scrutinised when reflecting on the scenarios. The examination added aspects to the students' learning that prepared them for the real world of nursing in a safe environment without risking patient safety. The study findings suggest that examinations in clinical simulation laboratories can be a useful teaching strategy in nursing education. The use of high-fidelity patient simulators made the examination authentic. The reflections and feedback on the scenario were described as significant for the students' learning. Undergraduate nursing students can improve their knowledge, understanding, competence and skills when such examinations are performed in the manner used in this study. PMID:25943280

  20. Image gathering and processing - Information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Halyo, N.; Samms, R. W.; Stacy, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we formulate and use information and fidelity criteria to assess image gathering and processing, combining optical design with image-forming and edge-detection algorithms. The optical design of the image-gathering system revolves around the relationship among sampling passband, spatial response, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our formulations of information, fidelity, and optimal (Wiener) restoration account for the insufficient sampling (i.e., aliasing) common in image gathering as well as for the blurring and noise that conventional formulations account for. Performance analyses and simulations for ordinary optical-design constraints and random scences indicate that (1) different image-forming algorithms prefer different optical designs; (2) informationally optimized designs maximize the robustness of optimal image restorations and lead to the highest-spatial-frequency channel (relative to the sampling passband) for which edge detection is reliable (if the SNR is sufficiently high); and (3) combining the informationally optimized design with a 3 by 3 lateral-inhibitory image-plane-processing algorithm leads to a spatial-response shape that approximates the optimal edge-detection response of (Marr's model of) human vision and thus reduces the data preprocessing and transmission required for machine vision.

  1. Towards a Better Understanding of Forest Biophysical Parameters - Combining High Fidelity Simulations, Airborne Waveform Lidar, and Terrestrial Lidar Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Kelbe, D.; Romanczyk, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    The science community has come a long way from traditional, 2D imaging approaches to the assessment of ecosystem structure, function and composition. For example, waveform- (wlidar) and terrestrial lidar systems (TLS) present us with exciting opportunities for detailed, accurate and precise, and scalable structural characterization of vegetation. wlidar and TLS generally can be regarded as complementary i.e., airborne wlidar typically digitizes the entire backscattered energy profile at high spatial and vertical resolutions, while TLS samples dense 3D point clouds of the bottom-up vegetation structure. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) have been collaborating with the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) to assess vegetation structure and variation in the Pacific-Southwest (San Joaquin Experimental Range and Soaproot Saddle sites, CA) and Northeast (Harvard Forest, MA) domains. The teams collected airborne small-footprint wlidar data and in-situ TLS data for these sites and is taking a two-tiered (top-down and bottom-up) approach to forest structural assessment. We will present our work where we (i) studied wlidar signal attenuation throughout the canopy in a simulation environment - the attenuation correction factor was linearly proportional to the sum of the area under the proceeding Gaussians - and (ii) used the fine-scale stem structure extracted via TLS to reconstruct complex, but realistic, 3D forest environments for refined simulation studies. These studies indicate that we can potentially assess vegetation canopies remotely using a vertically-stratified approach with wlidar and use rapid-scan TLS technology to calibrate models predicated upon synoptic airborne systems. Other outputs of our approaches can be used for typical forest inventory, ecological parameter extraction, and new algorithm validation.

  2. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    , robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. In the push to better understand the physical and ecological processes of snowmelt and how they influence regional to global hydrologic and climatic cycles, these technologies and retrievals provide markedly improved detail. We have implemented a science computing facility anchored upon the open source Apache OODT data processing framework. Apache OODT provides adaptable, rapid, and effective workflow technologies that we leverage to execute 10s of thousands of MOD-DRFS and MODSCAG jobs in the Western US, Alaska, and High Asia, critical regions where snowmelt and runoff must be more accurately and precisely identified. Apache OODT also provides us data dissemination capabilities built upon the popular, open source WebDAV protocol that allow our system to disseminate over 20 TB of MOD-DRFS and MODSCAG to the decision making community. Our latest endeavor involves building out Apache OODT to support Geospatial exploration of our data, including providing a Leaflet.js based Map, Geoserver backed protocols, and seamless integration with our Apache OODT system. This framework provides the foundation for the ASO data system.

  3. High Fidelity Non-Gravitational Force Models for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination of TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.

  4. Roseate Tern breeding dispersal and fidelity: Responses to two newly restored colony sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, Jeffrey A.; Monticelli, David; Nichols, James; Hines, James; Nisbet, Ian; Cormons, Grace; Hays, Helen; Hatch, Jeremy; Mostello, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We used 22 yr of capture–mark–reencounter (CMR) data collected from 1988 to 2009 on about 12,500 birds at what went from three to five coastal colony sites in Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, United States, to examine spatial and temporal variation in breeding dispersal/fidelity rates of adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii). At the start of our study, Roseate Terns nested at only one site (Bird Island) in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, but two more sites in this bay (Ram and Penikese Islands) were subsequently recolonized and became incorporated into our CMR metapopulation study. We examined four major hypotheses about factors we thought might influence colony-site fidelity and movement rates in the restructured system. We found some evidence that colony-site fidelity remained higher at long-established sites compared with newer ones and that breeding dispersal was more likely to occur among nearby sites than distant ones. Sustained predation at Falkner Island, Connecticut, did not result in a sustained drop in fidelity rates of breeders. Patterns of breeding dispersal differed substantially at the two restored sites. The fidelity of Roseate Terns at Bird dropped quickly after nearby Ram was recolonized in 1994, and fidelity rates for Ram soon approached those for Bird. After an oil spill in Buzzards Bay in April 2003, hazing (deliberate disturbance) of the terns at Ram prior to the start of egg-laying resulted in lowering of fidelity at this site, a decrease in immigration from Bird, and recolonization of Penikese by Roseate Terns. Annual fidelity rates at Penikese increased somewhat several years after the initial recolonization, but they remained much lower there than at all the other sites throughout the study period. The sustained high annual rates of emigration from Penikese resulted in the eventual failure of the restoration effort there, and in 2013, no Roseate Terns nested at this site.

  5. Particle infectivity of HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones in a subtype C heterosexual transmission pair following high fidelity amplification and unbiased cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Deymier, Martin J.; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Ende, Zachary; Ratner, Hannah K.; Kilembe, William; Hunter, Eric

    2014-11-15

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 impedes high throughput, large-scale sequencing and full-length genome cloning by common restriction enzyme based methods. Applying novel methods that employ a high-fidelity polymerase for amplification and an unbiased fusion-based cloning strategy, we have generated several HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones from an epidemiologically linked transmission pair. These clones represent the transmitted/founder virus and phylogenetically diverse non-transmitted variants from the chronically infected individual's diverse quasispecies near the time of transmission. We demonstrate that, using this approach, PCR-induced mutations in full-length clones derived from their cognate single genome amplicons are rare. Furthermore, all eight non-transmitted genomes tested produced functional virus with a range of infectivities, belying the previous assumption that a majority of circulating viruses in chronic HIV-1 infection are defective. Thus, these methods provide important tools to update protocols in molecular biology that can be universally applied to the study of human viral pathogens. - Highlights: • Our novel methodology demonstrates accurate amplification and cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes. • A majority of plasma derived HIV variants from a chronically infected individual are infectious. • The transmitted/founder was more infectious than the majority of the variants from the chronically infected donor.

  6. Combining high fidelity simulations and real data for improved small-footprint waveform lidar assessment of vegetation structure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Wu, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of vegetation complexity and biodiversity, from a remote sensing perspective, has evolved from 2D species diversity to also include 3D vegetation structural diversity. Attempts at using image-based approaches for structural assessment have met with reasonable success, but 3D remote sensing technologies, such as radar and light detection and ranging (lidar), are arguably more adept at sensing vegetation structure. While radar-derived structure metrics tend to break down at high biomass levels, novel waveform lidar systems present us with new opportunities for detailed and scalable structural characterization of vegetation. These sensors digitize the entire backscattered energy profile at high spatial and vertical resolutions and often at off-nadir angles. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and Carnegie Institution for Science have been using airborne data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) to assess vegetation structure and variation in savanna ecosystems in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa. It quickly became evident that (i) pre-processing of small-footprint waveform data is a critical step prior to testing scientific hypotheses, (ii) a number of assumptions of how vegetation structure is expressed in these 3D signals need to be evaluated, and very importantly (iii) we need to re-evaluate our linkages between coarse in-field measurements, e.g., volume, biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and metrics derived from waveform lidar. Research has progressed to the stage where we have evaluated various pre-processing steps, e.g., convolution via the Wiener filter, Richardson-Lucy, and non-negative least squares algorithms, and the coupling of waveform voxels to tree structure in a simulation environment. This was done in the MODTRAN-based Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) simulation environment, developed at RIT. We generated "truth" cross-section datasets of detailed virtual trees

  7. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  8. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System.

  9. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-21

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System.

  10. [Fidelity to trust].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Avello, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Trust in the doctor, an essential condition of medical practice throughout its history, appears to be considered as an outdated value, destined to extinction. In his work, Pellegrino analyzes the epistemological, empirical and conceptual basis of trust in professional relationships, the reasons for its weakening in an ethics of distrust, and he presents his philosophical proposal, which recovers and reappraises the fidelity to trust placed in the doctor-patient relationship, as an essential virtue for an appropriate ethical behaviour in the practice of medicine as in a moral community.

  11. Using machine learning and real-time workload assessment in a high-fidelity UAV simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfort, Samuel S.; Sibley, Ciara M.; Coyne, Joseph T.

    2016-05-01

    Future unmanned vehicle operations will see more responsibilities distributed among fewer pilots. Current systems typically involve a small team of operators maintaining control over a single aerial platform, but this arrangement results in a suboptimal configuration of operator resources to system demands. Rather than devoting the full-time attention of several operators to a single UAV, the goal should be to distribute the attention of several operators across several UAVs as needed. Under a distributed-responsibility system, operator task load would be continuously monitored, with new tasks assigned based on system needs and operator capabilities. The current paper sought to identify a set of metrics that could be used to assess workload unobtrusively and in near real-time to inform a dynamic tasking algorithm. To this end, we put 20 participants through a variable-difficulty multiple UAV management simulation. We identified a subset of candidate metrics from a larger pool of pupillary and behavioral measures. We then used these metrics as features in a machine learning algorithm to predict workload condition every 60 seconds. This procedure produced an overall classification accuracy of 78%. An automated tasker sensitive to fluctuations in operator workload could be used to efficiently delegate tasks for teams of UAV operators.

  12. Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and Fidelity of Implementation on Problem Behavior in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. B.; Fenning, P.; Kato, M. McGrath; McIntosh, K.

    2014-01-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have…

  13. The Structure of a High Fidelity DNA Polymerase Bound to a Mismatched Nucleotide Reveals an ;Ajar; Intermediate Conformation in the Nucleotide Selection Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Eugene Y.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2011-10-10

    To achieve accurate DNA synthesis, DNA polymerases must rapidly sample and discriminate against incorrect nucleotides. Here we report the crystal structure of a high fidelity DNA polymerase I bound to DNA primer-template caught in the act of binding a mismatched (dG:dTTP) nucleoside triphosphate. The polymerase adopts a conformation in between the previously established 'open' and 'closed' states. In this 'ajar' conformation, the template base has moved into the insertion site but misaligns an incorrect nucleotide relative to the primer terminus. The displacement of a conserved active site tyrosine in the insertion site by the template base is accommodated by a distinctive kink in the polymerase O helix, resulting in a partially open ternary complex. We suggest that the ajar conformation allows the template to probe incoming nucleotides for complementarity before closure of the enzyme around the substrate. Based on solution fluorescence, kinetics, and crystallographic analyses of wild-type and mutant polymerases reported here, we present a three-state reaction pathway in which nucleotides either pass through this intermediate conformation to the closed conformation and catalysis or are misaligned within the intermediate, leading to destabilization of the closed conformation.

  14. Measurement of Pressure Responses in a Physical Model of a Human Head with High Shape Fidelity Based on Ct/mri Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Tachiya, Hiroshi; Anata, Kenji; Hojo, Akihiro

    This study discusses a head injury mechanism in case of a human head subjected to impact, from results of impact experiments by using a physical model of a human head with high-shape fidelity. The physical model was constructed by using rapid prototyping technology from the three-dimensional CAD data, which obtained from CT/MRI images of a subject's head. As results of the experiments, positive pressure responses occurred at the impacted site, whereas negative pressure responses occurred at opposite the impacted site. Moreover, the absolute maximum value of pressure occurring at the frontal region of the intracranial space of the head model resulted in same or higher than that at the occipital site in each case that the impact force was imposed on frontal or occipital region. This result has not been showed in other study using simple shape physical models. And, the result corresponds with clinical evidences that brain contusion mainly occurs at the frontal part in each impact direction. Thus, physical model with accurate skull shape is needed to clarify the mechanism of brain contusion.

  15. A comparison of behind-the-ear high-fidelity linear hearing aids and two-channel compression aids, in the laboratory and in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Laurence, R F; Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R

    1983-02-01

    Eight patients suffering from sensorineural hearing losses with recruitment took part in a trial comparing their own hearing aids (or no aid if they did not normally wear one) with 'high-fidelity' linear aids and with aids incorporating two-channel syllabic compression. All aids were worn behind the ear. Speech intelligibility was measured both in quiet and in noise, and the patients were given questionnaires enquiring about the effectiveness of the aids in everyday situations. Both the intelligibility tests and the questionnaires indicated that the linear aids were substantially better than own/no aid, and the compressor aids were substantially better than the linear aids, allowing good speech discrimination over a wide range of sound levels. Six out of the eight patients derived significant benefit from being fitted with two aids rather than one. The use of directional microphones in the linear and compressor aids allowed a significant improvement for speech intelligibility in noise when the speech and noise were spatially separated.

  16. Implantation and Recovery of Long-Term Archival Transceivers in a Migratory Shark with High Site Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Haulsee, Danielle E.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Breece, Matthew W.; Clauss, Tonya M.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a long-term tagging method that can be used to understand species assemblages and social groupings associated with large marine fishes such as the Sand Tiger shark Carcharias taurus. We deployed internally implanted archival VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs; VEMCO Ltd. Nova Scotia, Canada) in 20 adult Sand Tigers, of which two tags were successfully recovered (10%). The recovered VMTs recorded 29,646 and 44,210 detections of telemetered animals respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a method for long-term (~ 1 year) archival acoustic transceiver tag implantation, retention, and recovery in a highly migratory marine fish. Results show low presumed mortality (n = 1, 5%), high VMT retention, and that non-lethal recovery after almost a year at liberty can be achieved for archival acoustic transceivers. This method can be applied to study the social interactions and behavioral ecology of large marine fishes. PMID:26849043

  17. Implantation and Recovery of Long-Term Archival Transceivers in a Migratory Shark with High Site Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Haulsee, Danielle E; Fox, Dewayne A; Breece, Matthew W; Clauss, Tonya M; Oliver, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a long-term tagging method that can be used to understand species assemblages and social groupings associated with large marine fishes such as the Sand Tiger shark Carcharias taurus. We deployed internally implanted archival VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs; VEMCO Ltd. Nova Scotia, Canada) in 20 adult Sand Tigers, of which two tags were successfully recovered (10%). The recovered VMTs recorded 29,646 and 44,210 detections of telemetered animals respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a method for long-term (~ 1 year) archival acoustic transceiver tag implantation, retention, and recovery in a highly migratory marine fish. Results show low presumed mortality (n = 1, 5%), high VMT retention, and that non-lethal recovery after almost a year at liberty can be achieved for archival acoustic transceivers. This method can be applied to study the social interactions and behavioral ecology of large marine fishes.

  18. Implantation and Recovery of Long-Term Archival Transceivers in a Migratory Shark with High Site Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Haulsee, Danielle E; Fox, Dewayne A; Breece, Matthew W; Clauss, Tonya M; Oliver, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a long-term tagging method that can be used to understand species assemblages and social groupings associated with large marine fishes such as the Sand Tiger shark Carcharias taurus. We deployed internally implanted archival VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs; VEMCO Ltd. Nova Scotia, Canada) in 20 adult Sand Tigers, of which two tags were successfully recovered (10%). The recovered VMTs recorded 29,646 and 44,210 detections of telemetered animals respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a method for long-term (~ 1 year) archival acoustic transceiver tag implantation, retention, and recovery in a highly migratory marine fish. Results show low presumed mortality (n = 1, 5%), high VMT retention, and that non-lethal recovery after almost a year at liberty can be achieved for archival acoustic transceivers. This method can be applied to study the social interactions and behavioral ecology of large marine fishes. PMID:26849043

  19. High-fidelity solvent-resistant replica molding of hydrophobic polymer surfaces produced by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Carmela; Eaton, Shane M; Levi, Marinella; Cerullo, Giulio; Turri, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate that hydrophobic areas formed by femtosecond laser irradiation on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) polymer substrates can be faithfully replicated on samples of the same material via a solvent-resistant perfluoropolyether (PFPE) elastomer mold. The replicated PMMA and PS samples show nearly identical micro-nanoscale topography and hydrophobic wetting characteristics as the laser-patterned master substrates. This work combines the femtosecond laser capability of spatially tailoring the wettability with a high-resolution parallel replication method, offering the potential for the efficient production of microfluidic devices with selectively tailored flow behavior. PMID:21631121

  20. BeamDyn: A High-Fidelity Wind Turbine Blade Solver in the FAST Modular Framework: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Sprague, M.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.

    2015-01-01

    BeamDyn, a Legendre-spectral-finite-element implementation of geometrically exact beam theory (GEBT), was developed to meet the design challenges associated with highly flexible composite wind turbine blades. In this paper, the governing equations of GEBT are reformulated into a nonlinear state-space form to support its coupling within the modular framework of the FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool. Different time integration schemes (implicit and explicit) were implemented and examined for wind turbine analysis. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this new beam solver. An example analysis of a realistic wind turbine blade, the CX-100, is also presented as validation.

  1. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  2. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  3. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed.

  4. High fidelity neuronal networks formed by plasma masking with a bilayer membrane: analysis of neurodegenerative and neuroprotective processes.

    PubMed

    Hardelauf, Heike; Sisnaiske, Julia; Taghipour-Anvari, Amir Ali; Jacob, Peter; Drabiniok, Evelyn; Marggraf, Ulrich; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Hengstler, Jan G; Neyer, Andreas; van Thriel, Christoph; West, Jonathan

    2011-08-21

    Spatially defined neuronal networks have great potential to be used in a wide spectrum of neurobiology assays. We present an original technique for the precise and reproducible formation of neuronal networks. A PDMS membrane comprising through-holes aligned with interconnecting microchannels was used during oxygen plasma etching to dry mask a protein rejecting poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adlayer. Patterns were faithfully replicated to produce an oxidized interconnected array pattern which supported protein adsorption. Differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells adhered to the array nodes with the micron-scale interconnecting tracks guiding neurite outgrowth to produce neuronal connections and establish a network. A 2.0 μm track width was optimal for high-level network formation and node compliance. These spatially standardized neuronal networks were used to analyse the dynamics of acrylamide-induced neurite degeneration and the protective effects of co-treatment with calpeptin or brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

  5. Comparing Effectiveness of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation vs Case-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Ling Yap, Yen; Leng Lee, Wee; Chang Soh, Yee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether human patient simulation (HPS) is superior to case-based learning (CBL) in teaching diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and thyroid storm (TS) to pharmacy students. Design. In this cross-over, open-label, single center, randomized control trial, final-year undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled in an applied therapeutics course were randomized to HPS or CBL groups. Pretest, posttest, knowledge retention tests, and satisfaction survey were administered to students. Assessment. One hundred seventy-four students participated in this study. The effect sizes attributable to HPS were larger than CBL in both cases. HPS groups performed significantly better in posttest and knowledge retention test compared to CBL groups pertaining to TS case (p<0.05). Students expressed high levels of satisfaction with HPS sessions. Conclusion. HPS was superior to CBL in teaching DKA and TS to final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. PMID:25386018

  6. Decay of fidelity in terms of correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicki, R.; Fannes, M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider, within the algebraic formalism, the time dependence of fidelity for qubits encoded in an open physical system. We relate the decay of fidelity to the evolution of correlation functions and, in the particular case of a Markovian dynamics, to the spectral gap of the generator of the semigroup. The results are applicable to the analysis of models of quantum memories.

  7. Fidelity amplitude of the scattering matrix in microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, R.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Stöckmann, H.-J.

    2005-06-01

    The concept of fidelity decay is discussed from the point of view of the scattering matrix, and the 'scattering fidelity' is introduced as the parametric cross-correlation of a given S-matrix element, taken in the time domain, normalized by the corresponding autocorrelation function. We show that for chaotic systems, this quantity represents the usual fidelity amplitude, if appropriate ensemble and/or energy averages are taken. We present a microwave experiment where the scattering fidelity is measured for an ensemble of chaotic systems. The results are in excellent agreement with random matrix theory for the standard fidelity amplitude. The only parameter, namely the perturbation strength, could be determined independently from level dynamics of the system, thus providing agreement between theory and experiment without any free fit parameter.

  8. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  9. Treatment Fidelity: Relation to Treatment Acceptability and Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanol, Gizem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the relation between acceptability and fidelity of an intervention package in natural classroom settings, and (b) to examine how fidelity of implementation varies in relation to high vs. low treatment acceptability over the course of an academic school year. Participants were 44 teachers, from 15…

  10. Modeling for Fidelity: Virtual Mentorship by Scientists Fosters Teacher Self-Efficacy and Promotes Implementation of Novel High School Biomedical Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Malanson, Katherine; Jacque, Berri; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina F.

    2014-01-01

    This small-scale comparison case study evaluates the impact of an innovative approach to teacher professional development designed to promote implementation of a novel cutting edge high school neurological disorders curriculum. ‘Modeling for Fidelity’ (MFF) centers on an extended mentor relationship between teachers and biomedical scientists carried out in a virtual format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials. Four teachers from different diverse high schools in Massachusetts and Ohio who experienced MFF contextualized to a 6-week Neurological Disorders curriculum with the same science mentor were compared to a teacher who had experienced an intensive in-person professional development contextualized to the same curriculum with the same mentor. Fidelity of implementation was measured directly using an established metric and indirectly via student performance. The results show that teachers valued MFF, particularly the mentor relationship and were able to use it effectively to ensure critical components of the learning objectives were preserved. Moreover their students performed equivalently to those whose teacher had experienced intensive in-person professional development. Participants in all school settings demonstrated large (Cohen's d>2.0) and significant (p<0.0001 per-post) changes in conceptual knowledge as well as self-efficacy towards learning about neurological disorders (Cohen's d>1.5, p<0.0001 pre-post). The data demonstrates that the virtual mentorship format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials is an effective method of developing extended interactions between biomedical scientists and teachers that are scalable and not geographically constrained, facilitating teacher implementation of novel cutting-edge curricula. PMID:25551645

  11. RTI Fidelity of Implementation Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Fidelity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with the essential components of RTI and the infrastructure that is necessary for successful implementation. It is accompanied by a worksheet with guiding questions and…

  12. Is High Fidelity Simulation the Most Effective Method for the Development of Non-Technical Skills in Nursing? A Review of the Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin; Strachan, Alasdair; Smith, Michelle McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To review the literature on the use of simulation in the development of non-technical skills in nursing Background: The potential risks to patients associated with learning 'at the bedside' are becoming increasingly unacceptable, and the search for innovative education and training methods that do not expose the patient to preventable errors continues. All the evidence shows that a significant proportion of adverse events in health care is caused by problems relating to the application of the 'non-technical' skills of communication, teamwork, leadership and decision-making. Results: Simulation is positively associated with significantly improved interpersonal communication skills at patient handover, and it has also been clearly shown to improve team behaviours in a wide variety of clinical contexts and clinical personnel, associated with improved team performance in the management of crisis situations. It also enables the effective development of transferable, transformational leadership skills, and has also been demonstrated to improve students' critical thinking and clinical reasoning in complex care situations, and to aid in the development of students' self-efficacy and confidence in their own clinical abilities. Conclusion: High fidelity simulation is able to provide participants with a learning environment in which to develop non-technical skills, that is safe and controlled so that the participants are able to make mistakes, correct those mistakes in real time and learn from them, without fear of compromising patient safety. Participants in simulation are also able to rehearse the clinical management of rare, complex or crisis situations in a valid representation of clinical practice, before practising on patients. PMID:22893783

  13. miR-155 Over-expression Promotes Genomic Instability by Reducing High-fidelity Polymerase Delta Expression and Activating Error-prone DSB Repair

    PubMed Central

    Czochor, Jennifer R.; Sulkowski, Parker; Glazer, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 is an oncogenic microRNA (miR) that is often over-expressed in cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. miR-155 can target several DNA repair factors including RAD51, MLH1, and MSH6, and its over-expression results in an increased mutation frequency in vitro, although the mechanism has yet to be fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that over-expression of miR-155 drives an increased mutation frequency both in vitro and in vivo, promoting genomic instability by affecting multiple DNA repair pathways. miR-155 over-expression causes a decrease in homologous recombination, but yields a concurrent increase in the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Despite repressing established targets MLH1 and MSH6, the identified mutation pattern upon miR-155 over-expression does not resemble that of a mismatch repair-deficient background. Further investigation revealed that all four subunits of polymerase delta, a high-fidelity DNA replication and repair polymerase, are down-regulated at the mRNA level in the context of miR-155 over-expression. FOXO3a, a transcription factor and known target of miR-155, has one or more putative binding site(s) in the promoter of all four polymerase delta subunits. Finally, suppression of FOXO3a by miR-155 or by siRNA knockdown is sufficient to repress the expression of the catalytic subunit of polymerase delta, POLD1, at the protein level, indicating that FOXO3a contributes to the regulation of polymerase delta levels. PMID:26850462

  14. Three-Dimensional Engineered High Fidelity Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLA) as Targets for Human Respiratory Virus Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Deatly, A. M.; Suderman, M. T.; Lin, Y.-H.; Chen, W.; Gupta, C. K.; Randolph, V. B.; Udem, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Unlike traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like assemblies (TLA) (Goodwin et aI, 1992, 1993, 2000 and Nickerson et aI. , 2001,2002) offer high organ fidelity with the potential to emulate the infective dynamics of viruses and bacteria in vivo. Thus, utilizing NASA micro gravity Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology, in vitro human broncho-epithelial (HBE) TLAs were engineered to mimic in vivo tissue for study of human respiratory viruses. These 3D HBE TLAs were propagated from a human broncho-tracheal cell line with a mesenchymal component (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and either an adult human broncho-epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) or human neonatal epithelial cell (16HBE140-) as the overlying element. Resulting TLAs share several characteristic features with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including tight junctions, desmosomes and cilia (SEM, TEM). The presence of epithelium and specific lung epithelium markers furthers the contention that these HBE cells differentiate into TLAs paralleling in vivo tissues. A time course of infection of these 3D HBE TLAs with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) wild type A2 strain, indicates that virus replication and virus budding are supported and manifested by increasing virus titer and detection of membrane-bound F and G glycoproteins. Infected 3D HBE TLAs remain intact for up to 12 days compared to infected 2D cultures that are destroyed in 2-3 days. Infected cells show an increased vacuolation and cellular destruction (by transmission electron microscopy) by day 9; whereas, uninfected cells remain robust and morphologically intact. Therefore, the 3D HBE TLAs mimic aspects of human respiratory epithelium providing a unique opportunity to analyze, for the first time, simulated in vivo viral infection independent of host immune response.

  15. Multifractality in fidelity sequences of optimized Toffoli gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moqadam, Jalil Khatibi; Welter, Guilherme S.; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the multifractality in the fidelity sequences of several engineered Toffoli gates. Using quantum control methods, we consider several optimization problems whose global solutions realize the gate in a chain of three qubits with XY Heisenberg interaction. Applying a minimum number of control pulses assuring a fidelity above 99 % in the ideal case, we design stable gates that are less sensitive to variations in the interqubits couplings. The most stable gate has the fidelity above 91 % with variations about 0.1 %, for up to 10 % variation in the nominal couplings. We perturb the system by introducing a single source of 1 / f noise that affects all the couplings. In order to quantify the performance of the proposed optimized gates, we calculate the fidelity of a large set of optimized gates under prescribed levels of coupling perturbation. Then, we run multifractal analysis on the sequence of attained fidelities. This way, gate performance can be assessed beyond mere average results, since the chosen multifractality measure (the width of the multifractal spectrum) encapsulates into a single performance indicator the spread of fidelity values around the mean and the presence of outliers. The higher the value of the performance indicator the more concentrated around the mean the fidelity values are and rarer is the occurrence of outliers. The results of the multifractal analysis on the fidelity sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimized gate implementations, in the sense they are rendered less sensitive to variations in the interqubits coupling strengths.

  16. A new paradigm for variable-fidelity stochastic simulation and information fusion in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele; Parussini, Lucia; Perdikaris, Paris; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Predicting the statistical properties of fluid systems based on stochastic simulations and experimental data is a problem of major interest across many disciplines. Even with recent theoretical and computational advancements, no broadly applicable techniques exist that could deal effectively with uncertainty propagation and model inadequacy in high-dimensions. To address these problems, we propose a new paradigm for variable-fidelity stochastic modeling, simulation and information fusion in fluid mechanics. The key idea relies in employing recursive Bayesian networks and multi-fidelity information sources (e.g., stochastic simulations at different resolution) to construct optimal predictors for quantities of interest, e.g., the random temperature field in stochastic Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The object of inference is the quantity of interest at the highest possible level of fidelity, for which we can usually afford only few simulations. To compute the optimal predictors, we developed a multivariate recursive co-kriging approach that simultaneously takes into account variable fidelity in the space of models (e.g., DNS vs. potential flow solvers), as well as variable-fidelity in probability space. Numerical applications are presented and discussed. This research was supported by AFOSR and DARPA.

  17. Interactions by 2D Gel Electrophoresis Overlap (iGEO): a novel high fidelity approach to identify constituents of protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Here we describe a novel approach used to identify the constituents of protein complexes with high fidelity, using the integrin-associated scaffolding protein PINCH as a test case. PINCH is comprised of five LIM domains, zinc-finger protein interaction modules. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINCH has two known high-affinity binding partners—Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) that binds to LIM1 and Ras Suppressor 1 (RSU1) that binds to LIM5—but has been postulated to bind additional proteins as well. Results To purify PINCH complexes, in parallel we fused different affinity tags (Protein A and Flag) to different locations within the PINCH sequence (N- and C-terminus). We expressed these tagged versions of PINCH both in cell culture (overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cell culture in the presence of endogenous PINCH) and in vivo (at native levels in Drosophila lacking endogenous PINCH). After affinity purification, we analyzed PINCH complexes by a novel 2D-gel electrophoresis analysis, iGEO (interactions by 2D Gel Electrophoresis Overlap), with mass spectrometric identification of individual spots of interest. iGEO allowed the identification of protein partners that associate with PINCH under two independent purification strategies, providing confidence in the significance of the interaction. Proteins identified by iGEO were validated against a highly inclusive list of candidate PINCH interacting proteins identified in previous analyses by MuDPIT mass spectrometry. Conclusions The iGEO strategy confirmed a core complex comprised of PINCH, RSU1, ILK, and ILK binding partner Parvin. Our iGEO method also identified five novel protein partners that specifically interacted with PINCH in Drosophila S2 cell culture. Because of the improved reproducibility of 2D-GE methodology and the increasing affordability of the required labeling reagents, iGEO is a method that is accessible to most moderately well-equipped biological laboratories. The biochemical co

  18. Development of the MCNPX depletion capability: A Monte Carlo linked depletion method that automates the coupling between MCNPX and CINDER90 for high fidelity burnup calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne

    Monte Carlo-linked depletion methods have gained recent interest due to the ability to more accurately model complex 3-dimesional geometries and better track the evolution of temporal nuclide inventory by simulating the actual physical process utilizing continuous energy coefficients. The integration of CINDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a high-fidelity completely self-contained Monte-Carlo-linked depletion capability in a well established, widely accepted Monte Carlo radiation transport code that is compatible with most nuclear criticality (KCODE) particle tracking features in MCNPX. MCNPX depletion tracks all necessary reaction rates and follows as many isotopes as cross section data permits in order to achieve a highly accurate temporal nuclide inventory solution. This work chronicles relevant nuclear history, surveys current methodologies of depletion theory, details the methodology in applied MCNPX and provides benchmark results for three independent OECD/NEA benchmarks. Relevant nuclear history, from the Oklo reactor two billion years ago to the current major United States nuclear fuel cycle development programs, is addressed in order to supply the motivation for the development of this technology. A survey of current reaction rate and temporal nuclide inventory techniques is then provided to offer justification for the depletion strategy applied within MCNPX. The MCNPX depletion strategy is then dissected and each code feature is detailed chronicling the methodology development from the original linking of MONTEBURNS and MCNP to the most recent public release of the integrated capability (MCNPX 2.6.F). Calculation results of the OECD/NEA Phase IB benchmark, H. B. Robinson benchmark and OECD/NEA Phase IVB are then provided. The acceptable results of these calculations offer sufficient confidence in the predictive capability of the MCNPX depletion method. This capability sets up a significant foundation, in a well established

  19. Optimization and Parallelization of the Thermal-Hydraulic Sub-channel Code CTF for High-Fidelity Multi-physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K; Schmidt, Rodney; Avramova, Maria N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes major improvements to the computational infrastructure of the CTF sub-channel code so that full-core sub-channel-resolved simulations can now be performed in much shorter run-times, either in stand-alone mode or as part of coupled-code multi-physics calculations. These improvements support the goals of the Department Of Energy (DOE) Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water (CASL) Energy Innovation Hub to develop high fidelity multi-physics simulation tools for nuclear energy design and analysis. A set of serial code optimizations--including fixing computational inefficiencies, optimizing the numerical approach, and making smarter data storage choices--are first described and shown to reduce both execution time and memory usage by about a factor of ten. Next, a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallelization strategy targeting distributed memory Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) platforms and utilizing domain-decomposition is presented. In this approach, data communication between processors is accomplished by inserting standard MPI calls at strategic points in the code. The domain decomposition approach implemented assigns one MPI process to each fuel assembly, with each domain being represented by its own CTF input file. The creation of CTF input files, both for serial and parallel runs, is also fully automated through use of a pre-processor utility that takes a greatly reduced set of user input over the traditional CTF input file. To run CTF in parallel, two additional libraries are currently needed; MPI, for inter-processor message passing, and the Parallel Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc), which is leveraged to solve the global pressure matrix in parallel. Results presented include a set of testing and verification calculations and performance tests assessing parallel scaling characteristics up to a full core, sub-channel-resolved model of Watts Bar Unit 1 under hot full-power conditions (193 17x17

  20. Measuring trainer fidelity in the transfer of suicide prevention training

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi F.; Pisani, Anthony R.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; McMahon, Marcie; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding effective and efficient models to train large numbers of suicide prevention interventionists, including ‘hotline’ crisis counselors, is a high priority. Train-the-trainer (TTT) models are widely used but understudied. Aims To assess the extent to which trainers following TTT delivered the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) program with fidelity, and to examine fidelity across two trainings and seven training segments. Methods We recorded and reliably rated trainer fidelity, defined as adherence to program content and competence of program delivery, for 34 newly trained ASIST trainers delivering the program to crisis center staff on two separate occasions. A total of 324 observations were coded. Trainer demographics were also collected. Results On average, trainers delivered two-thirds of the program. Previous training was associated with lower levels of trainer adherence to the program. 18% of trainers' observations were rated as solidly competent. Trainers did not improve fidelity from their first to second training. Significantly higher fidelity was found for lectures and lower fidelity was found for interactive training activities including asking about suicide and creating a safe plan. Conclusions We found wide variability in trainer fidelity to the ASIST program following TTT and few trainers had high levels of both adherence and competence. More research is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of TTT models. PMID:24901061

  1. Individualized Clinical Coaching in the TLE TeachLivE Lab: Enhancing Fidelity of Implementation of System of Least Prompts among Novice Teachers of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince Garland, Krista M.; Holden, Kara; Garland, Dennis Patrick

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing educators who teach students with autism spectrum disorders is implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) with fidelity. One EBP used to help such learners in acquiring targeted behavioral or academic skills is prompting. In this study, the authors examine the efficacy of individualized clinical coaching (ICC) of…

  2. Methodology development for evaluation of selective-fidelity rotorcraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William D.; Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Wolfe, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    This paper addressed the initial step toward the goal of establishing performance and handling qualities acceptance criteria for realtime rotorcraft simulators through a planned research effort to quantify the system capabilities of 'selective fidelity' simulators. Within this framework the simulator is then classified based on the required task. The simulator is evaluated by separating the various subsystems (visual, motion, etc.) and applying corresponding fidelity constants based on the specific task. This methodology not only provides an assessment technique, but also provides a technique to determine the required levels of subsystem fidelity for a specific task.

  3. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  4. Dynamics of Loschmidt echoes and fidelity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Thomas; Prosen, Tomaž; Seligman, Thomas H.; Žnidarič, Marko

    2006-11-01

    Fidelity serves as a benchmark for the reliability in quantum information processes, and has recently attracted much interest as a measure of the susceptibility of dynamics to perturbations. A rich variety of regimes for fidelity decay have emerged. The purpose of the present review is to describe these regimes, to give the theory that supports them, and to show some important applications and experiments. While we mention several approaches we use time correlation functions as a backbone for the discussion. Vanicek's uniform approach to semiclassics and random matrix theory provides important alternatives or complementary aspects. Other methods will be mentioned as we go along. Recent experiments in micro-wave cavities and in elastodynamic systems as well as suggestions for experiments in quantum optics shall be discussed.

  5. Competitive environments induce shifts in host fidelity.

    PubMed

    Rova, E; Björklund, M

    2010-08-01

    Recent models support the idea of sympatric speciation as a result of the joint effects of disruptive selection and assortative mating. We present experimental data, testing models of speciation through frequency-dependent selection. We show that under high competition on a mixture of resources/hosts, strains of the Seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, change their host fidelity and evolve a more generalistic behaviour in resource utilization among females. The change in host fidelity did not result in disruptive selection and was not followed by assortative mating. This means that only one of three fundamental prerequisites for sympatric speciation evolved as a result of the frequency-dependent selection. We conclude that for this process to work, a shift to a novel food resource as a result of selection must also lead to a loss of preference for the original resource such that individuals are only able to use either one of the two.

  6. Measuring Implementation Fidelity in a Community-Based Parenting Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Fogg, Louis; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Resnick, Barbara; Gross, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishing the feasibility and validity of implementation fidelity monitoring strategies is an important methodological step in implementing evidence-based interventions on a large scale. Objectives The objective of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Fidelity Checklist, a measure designed to assess group leader adherence and competence delivering a parent training intervention (the Chicago Parent Program) in child care centers serving low-income families. Method The sample included 9 parent groups (12 group sessions each), 12 group leaders, and 103 parents. Independent raters reviewed 106 audiotaped parent group sessions and coded group leaders’ fidelity on the Adherence and Competence Scales of the Fidelity Checklist. Group leaders completed self-report adherence checklists and a measure of parent engagement in the intervention. Parents completed measures of consumer satisfaction and child behavior. Results High interrater agreement (Adherence Scale = 94%, Competence Scale = 85%) and adequate intraclass correlation coefficients (Adherence Scale = .69, Competence Scale = .91) were achieved for the Fidelity Checklist. Group leader adherence changed over time, but competence remained stable. Agreement between group leader self-report and independent ratings on the Adherence Scale was 85%; disagreements were more frequently due to positive bias in group leader self-report. Positive correlations were found between group leader adherence and parent attendance and engagement in the intervention and between group leader competence and parent satisfaction. Although child behavior problems improved, improvements were not related to fidelity. Discussion The results suggest that the Fidelity Checklist is a feasible, reliable, and valid measure of group leader implementation fidelity in a group-based parenting intervention. Future research will be focused on testing the Fidelity Checklist with diverse and larger samples and generalizing

  7. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates between susceptible hosts than the wild-type virus and, most notably, another replication defective mutant that has wild-type levels of polymerase fidelity. These results provide the first experimental evidence that norovirus polymerase fidelity contributes to virus transmission between hosts and that maintaining diversity is important for the establishment of infection. This work supports the hypothesis that the reduced polymerase fidelity of the pandemic GII.4 human norovirus isolates may contribute to their global dominance. IMPORTANCE Virus replication fidelity and hence the intrahost genetic diversity of viral populations are known to be intricately linked to viral pathogenesis and tropism as well as to immune and antiviral escape during infection. In this study, we investigated whether changes in replication fidelity can impact the ability of a virus to transmit between susceptible hosts by the use of a mouse model for norovirus. We show that a variant encoding a high-fidelity polymerase is transmitted less efficiently between mice than the wild-type strain. This

  8. Fidelity of the Integrated Force Method Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale; Halford, Gary; Coroneos, Rula; Patnaik, Surya

    2002-01-01

    The theory of strain compatibility of the solid mechanics discipline was incomplete since St. Venant's 'strain formulation' in 1876. We have addressed the compatibility condition both in the continuum and the discrete system. This has lead to the formulation of the Integrated Force Method. A dual Integrated Force Method with displacement as the primal variable has also been formulated. A modest finite element code (IFM/Analyzers) based on the IFM theory has been developed. For a set of standard test problems the IFM results were compared with the stiffness method solutions and the MSC/Nastran code. For the problems IFM outperformed the existing methods. Superior IFM performance is attributed to simultaneous compliance of equilibrium equation and compatibility condition. MSC/Nastran organization expressed reluctance to accept the high fidelity IFM solutions. This report discusses the solutions to the examples. No inaccuracy was detected in the IFM solutions. A stiffness method code with a small programming effort can be improved to reap the many IFM benefits when implemented with the IFMD elements. Dr. Halford conducted a peer-review on the Integrated Force Method. Reviewers' response is included.

  9. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  10. A random matrix formulation of fidelity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Prosen, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2004-02-01

    We propose to study echo dynamics in a random-matrix framework, where we assume that the perturbation is time-independent, random and orthogonally invariant. This allows us to use a basis in which the unperturbed Hamiltonian is diagonal and its properties are thus largely determined by its spectral statistics. We concentrate on the effect of spectral correlations usually associated with chaos and disregard secular variations in spectral density. We obtain analytical results for the fidelity decay in the linear-response regime. To extend the domain of validity, we heuristically exponentiate the linear-response result. The resulting expressions, exact in the perturbative limit, are accurate approximations in the transition region between the 'Fermi golden rule' and the perturbative regimes, as verified by example for a deterministic chaotic system. To sense the effect of spectral stiffness, we apply our model also to the extreme cases of random spectra and equidistant spectra. In our analytical approximations as well as in extensive Monte Carlo calculations, we find that fidelity decay is fastest for random spectra and slowest for equidistant ones, while the classical ensembles lie in between. We conclude that spectral stiffness systematically enhances fidelity.

  11. Incorporating medium fidelity simulation in a practical nurse education program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Donna D

    2010-01-01

    We frequently hear the word simulation in nursing educatioh. Research has been done on the use of high fidelity simulation in registered nursing programs. High fidelity simulators are expensive and require more than one faculty to facilitate. The question remains: Does every nursing program require a high fidelity simulation laboratory? This article will define the three levels of fidelity and describe the incorporation of a medium fidelity simulation into a practical nursing program and will describe the benefits of simulation use. The article will assist the faculty and students new to simulation, and allow them to choose the equipment and scenarios that will be most advantageous for their individual programs. The choice of equipment, scenarios, and fidelity often depends upon the space, time, funds, and faculty available. Simulation adds an important component to nursing education. Using simulation wisely helps students practice in a controlled environment without danger to living patients. The lessons learned will someday play into a "life or death" scenario, and the patient will not be a simulation mannequin.

  12. Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.

  13. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  14. Fidelity of RNA polymerase II transcription controlled by elongation factor TFIIS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, ChoonJu; Agarwal, Kan

    1996-01-01

    Fidelity of DNA and protein synthesis is regulated by a proofreading mechanism but function of a similar mechanism during RNA synthesis has not been demonstrated. Analysis of transcriptional fidelity and its control has been hampered by the necessity to employ complex DNA templates requiring either a promoter and initiation factors or 3′-extended templates. To circumvent this difficulty, we have created an RNA–DNA dumbbell template that can be recognized as a template-primer and extended by RNA polymerase II. By employing this system, we demonstrate that RNA polymerase II can misincorporate a nucleotide and carry out template-dependent elongation at the mispaired end. The transcripts containing misincorporated residues can be cleaved by the very slow 3′ → 5′ ribonuclease activity of the RNA polymerase II, but enhancement of this activity by the elongation factor TFIIS generates RNA with a high degree of fidelity. This enhanced preferential cleavage of misincorporated transcripts suggests an important role for TFIIS in maintaining transcriptional fidelity. PMID:8942993

  15. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  16. FURTHER EVALUATION OF BOOTSTRAP RESAMPLING AS A TOOL FOR RADIO-INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING FIDELITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kemball, Athol; Mitra, Modhurita; Chiang, H.-F.

    2010-01-15

    We report on a broader evaluation of statistical bootstrap resampling methods as a tool for pixel-level calibration and imaging fidelity assessment in radio interferometry. Pixel-level imaging fidelity assessment is a challenging problem, important for the value it holds in robust scientific interpretation of interferometric images, enhancement of automated pipeline reduction systems needed to broaden the user community for these instruments, and understanding leading-edge direction-dependent calibration and imaging challenges for future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array. This new computational approach is now possible because of advances in statistical resampling for data with long-range dependence and the available performance of contemporary high-performance computing resources. We expand our earlier numerical evaluation to span a broader domain subset in simulated image fidelity and source brightness distribution morphologies. As before, we evaluate the statistical performance of the bootstrap resampling methods against direct Monte Carlo simulation. We find that both model-based and subsample bootstrap methods continue to show significant promise for the challenging problem of interferometric imaging fidelity assessment when evaluated over the broader domain subset. We report on their measured statistical performance and guidelines for their use and application in practice. We also examine the performance of the underlying polarization self-calibration algorithm used in this study over a range of parallactic angle coverage.

  17. First-Order Model Management With Variable-Fidelity Physics Applied to Multi-Element Airfoil Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N. M.; Nielsen, E. J.; Lewis, R. M.; Anderson, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    First-order approximation and model management is a methodology for a systematic use of variable-fidelity models or approximations in optimization. The intent of model management is to attain convergence to high-fidelity solutions with minimal expense in high-fidelity computations. The savings in terms of computationally intensive evaluations depends on the ability of the available lower-fidelity model or a suite of models to predict the improvement trends for the high-fidelity problem, Variable-fidelity models can be represented by data-fitting approximations, variable-resolution models. variable-convergence models. or variable physical fidelity models. The present work considers the use of variable-fidelity physics models. We demonstrate the performance of model management on an aerodynamic optimization of a multi-element airfoil designed to operate in the transonic regime. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations represent the high-fidelity model, while the Euler equations represent the low-fidelity model. An unstructured mesh-based analysis code FUN2D evaluates functions and sensitivity derivatives for both models. Model management for the present demonstration problem yields fivefold savings in terms of high-fidelity evaluations compared to optimization done with high-fidelity computations alone.

  18. Extending the Conceptualization of Listening Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.; O'Brien, Kelley; Hanson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    An exploration of variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity (LF) was conducted through two separate studies. Study 1 indicated that when the potential fidelity of the stimulus message was varied as a function of the number of words and time length, the message with lowest potential fidelity produced significantly lower LF than either the…

  19. Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Holter, Mark C.; Teague, Gregory B.; Bybee, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Fidelity may be defined as the extent to which delivery of an intervention adheres to the protocol or program model originally developed. Fidelity measurement has increasing significance for evaluation, treatment effectiveness research, and service administration. Yet few published studies using fidelity criteria provide details on the…

  20. Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1991-01-01

    The fidelity and resolution of the traditional Wiener restorations given in the prevalent digital processing literature can be significantly improved when the transformations between the continuous and discrete representations in image gathering and display are accounted for. However, the visual quality of these improved restorations also is more sensitive to the defects caused by aliasing artifacts, colored noise, and ringing near sharp edges. In this paper, these visual defects are characterized, and methods for suppressing them are presented. It is demonstrated how the visual quality of fidelity-maximized images can be improved when (1) the image-gathering system is specifically designed to enhance the performance of the image-restoration algorithm, and (2) the Wiener filter is combined with interactive Gaussian smoothing, synthetic high edge enhancement, and nonlinear tone-scale transformation. The nonlinear transformation is used primarily to enhance the spatial details that are often obscurred when the normally wide dynamic range of natural radiance fields is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of film and other displays.