Science.gov

Sample records for high fidelity system

  1. High-Fidelity Full System Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    2004-01-01

    High-fidelity full system simulations have the potential for revolutionizing the way complex systems, such as propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles, are designed, developed, manufactured, and operated. Significant time and cost savings will result from simulations that will resolve deleterious component interactions early in the design process. In addition, innovative new system configurations will result from the use of new tools that enable designers to challenge traditional rules and practices. The major challenges to developing and implementing high-fidelity systems simulations are in reducing the time and effort required to build, execute, and analyze data for the high complex simulations. In addition, large scale testing with unique instrumentation is required to validate the simulations. The solution to these problems reside in the application of advanced information technologies to assist the user to effectively manage, process, and synthesize the vast amount of data. The following presentation describes in more detail the benefits of high-fidelity full system simulations, the challenges to developing and implementing large scale simulations, and one approach that is being followed by the NASA Glenn Research Center to overcome these challenges. In addition, topics for discussion by the panel and audience are suggested.

  2. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOEpatents

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  3. High Fidelity System Modeling for High Quality Image Reconstruction in Clinical CT

    PubMed Central

    Do, Synho; Karl, William Clem; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep; Brady, Tom; Shin, Ellie; Pien, Homer

    2014-01-01

    Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging. PMID:25390888

  4. High Fidelity System Simulation of Multiple Components in Support of the UEET Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plybon, Ronald C.; VanDeWall, Allan; Sampath, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, Mahadevan; Mallina, Ramakrishna; Irani, Rohinton

    2006-01-01

    The High Fidelity System Simulation effort has addressed various important objectives to enable additional capability within the NPSS framework. The scope emphasized High Pressure Turbine and High Pressure Compressor components. Initial effort was directed at developing and validating intermediate fidelity NPSS model using PD geometry and extended to high-fidelity NPSS model by overlaying detailed geometry to validate CFD against rig data. Both "feedforward" and feedback" approaches of analysis zooming was employed to enable system simulation capability in NPSS. These approaches have certain benefits and applicability in terms of specific applications "feedback" zooming allows the flow-up of information from high-fidelity analysis to be used to update the NPSS model results by forcing the NPSS solver to converge to high-fidelity analysis predictions. This apporach is effective in improving the accuracy of the NPSS model; however, it can only be used in circumstances where there is a clear physics-based strategy to flow up the high-fidelity analysis results to update the NPSS system model. "Feed-forward" zooming approach is more broadly useful in terms of enabling detailed analysis at early stages of design for a specified set of critical operating points and using these analysis results to drive design decisions early in the development process.

  5. High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong; Yin, Zhang-qi; Wang, Z. D.; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum systems usually consist of two or more subsystems, which may take the advantages of the different systems. Recently, the hybrid system consisting of circuit electromechanical subsystems have attracted great attention due to its advanced fabrication and scalable integrated photonic circuit techniques. Here, we propose a scheme for high fidelity quantum state transfer between a superconducting qubit and a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, which are coupled to a superconducting transmission-line resonator with coupling strength g1 and a nanomechanical resonator with coupling strength g2, respectively. Meanwhile, the two resonators are parametrically coupled with coupling strength J. The system dynamics, including the decoherence effects, is numerical investigated. It is found that both the small () and large () coupling regimes of this hybrid system can not support high fidelity quantum state transfer before significant technique advances. However, in the intermediate coupling regime (J ~ g1 ~ g2), in contrast to a conventional wisdom, high fidelity quantum information transfer can be implemented, providing a promising route towards high fidelity quantum state transfer in similar coupled resonators systems. PMID:25168206

  6. High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong; Yin, Zhang-qi; Wang, Z D; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2014-08-29

    Hybrid quantum systems usually consist of two or more subsystems, which may take the advantages of the different systems. Recently, the hybrid system consisting of circuit electromechanical subsystems have attracted great attention due to its advanced fabrication and scalable integrated photonic circuit techniques. Here, we propose a scheme for high fidelity quantum state transfer between a superconducting qubit and a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, which are coupled to a superconducting transmission-line resonator with coupling strength g1 and a nanomechanical resonator with coupling strength g2, respectively. Meanwhile, the two resonators are parametrically coupled with coupling strength J. The system dynamics, including the decoherence effects, is numerical investigated. It is found that both the small (J<{g1,g2}) and large (J>{g1,g2}) coupling regimes of this hybrid system can not support high fidelity quantum state transfer before significant technique advances. However, in the intermediate coupling regime (J ~ g1 ~ g2), in contrast to a conventional wisdom, high fidelity quantum information transfer can be implemented, providing a promising route towards high fidelity quantum state transfer in similar coupled resonators systems.

  7. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-31

    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the

  8. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  9. Developing Capture Mechanisms and High-Fidelity Dynamic Models for the MXER Tether System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    A team consisting of collaborators from Tennessee Technological University (TTU), Marshall Space Flight Center, BD Systems, and the University of Delaware (herein called the TTU team) conducted specific research and development activities in MXER tether systems during the base period of May 15, 2004 through September 30, 2006 under contract number NNM04AB13C. The team addressed two primary topics related to the MXER tether system: 1) Development of validated high-fidelity dynamic models of an elastic rotating tether and 2) development of feasible mechanisms to enable reliable rendezvous and capture. This contractor report will describe in detail the activities that were performed during the base period of this cycle-2 MXER tether activity and will summarize the results of this funded activity. The primary deliverables of this project were the quad trap, a robust capture mechanism proposed, developed, tested, and demonstrated with a high degree of feasibility and the detailed development of a validated high-fidelity elastic tether dynamic model provided through multiple formulations.

  10. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  11. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  12. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  13. The use of high fidelity CAD models as the basis for training on complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kellie; Tanner, Steve

    1993-01-01

    During the design phases of large and complex systems such as NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF), there are few, if any physical prototypes built. This is often due to their expense and the realization that the design is likely to change. This poses a problem for training, maintainability, and operations groups who are tasked to lay the foundation of plans for using these systems. The Virtual Reality and Visualization Laboratory at the Boeing Advanced Computing Group's Huntsville facility is supporting the use of high fidelity, detailed design models that are generated during the initial design phases, for use in training, maintainability and operations exercises. This capability was used in its non-immersive form to great effect at the SSF Critical Design Review (CDR) during February, 1993. Allowing the user to move about within a CAD design supports many efforts, including training and scenario study. We will demonstrate via a video of the Maintainability SSF CDR how this type of approach can be used and why it is so effective in conveying large amounts of information quickly and concisely. We will also demonstrate why high fidelity models are so important for this type of training system and how it's immersive aspects may be exploited as well.

  14. Overview of High-Fidelity Modeling Activities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulations (NPSS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A high-fidelity simulation of a commercial turbofan engine has been created as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Project. The high-fidelity computer simulation utilizes computer models that were developed at NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with turbofan engine manufacturers. The average-passage (APNASA) Navier-Stokes based viscous flow computer code is used to simulate the 3D flow in the compressors and turbines of the advanced commercial turbofan engine. The 3D National Combustion Code (NCC) is used to simulate the flow and chemistry in the advanced aircraft combustor. The APNASA turbomachinery code and the NCC combustor code exchange boundary conditions at the interface planes at the combustor inlet and exit. This computer simulation technique can evaluate engine performance at steady operating conditions. The 3D flow models provide detailed knowledge of the airflow within the fan and compressor, the high and low pressure turbines, and the flow and chemistry within the combustor. The models simulate the performance of the engine at operating conditions that include sea level takeoff and the altitude cruise condition.

  15. High-Fidelity Lattice Physics Capabilities of the SCALE Code System Using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing complexity in reactor designs suggests a need to reexamine of methods applied in spent-fuel characterization. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as space reactors and Generation IV power reactors also require calculational methods that provide accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory. New high-fidelity physics methods will be required to better understand the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light-water reactor designs. The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for reactor physics analysis. This paper provides a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations.

  16. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  17. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2004-12-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  19. Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magedanz, Jeffrey W.

    There has been a tendency in recent years toward greater heterogeneity in reactor cores, due to the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, burnable absorbers, and longer cycles with consequently higher fuel burnup. The resulting asymmetry of the neutron flux and energy spectrum between regions with different compositions causes a need to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, instead of the traditional diffusion approximation. Furthermore, the presence of both MOX and high-burnup fuel in the core increases the complexity of the heat conduction. The heat transfer properties of the fuel pellet change with irradiation, and the thermal and mechanical expansion of the pellet and cladding strongly affect the size of the gap between them, and its consequent thermal resistance. These operational tendencies require higher fidelity multi-physics modeling capabilities, and this need is addressed by the developments performed within this PhD research. The dissertation describes the development of a High-Fidelity Multi-Physics System for Light Water Reactor Analysis. It consists of three coupled codes -- CTF for Thermal Hydraulics, TORT-TD for Neutron Kinetics, and FRAPTRAN for Fuel Performance. It is meant to address these modeling challenges in three ways: (1) by resolving the state of the system at the level of each fuel pin, rather than homogenizing entire fuel assemblies, (2) by using the multi-group Discrete Ordinates method to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, and (3) by using a fuel-performance code, rather than a Thermal Hydraulics code's simplified fuel model, to account for the material behavior of the fuel and its feedback to the hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the system. While the first two are improvements, the third, the use of a fuel-performance code for feedback, constitutes an innovation in this PhD project. Also important to this work is the manner in which such coupling is written. While coupling involves combining

  20. High-fidelity injection detectability experiments: a tool for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Wallstrom, Garrick L; Wagner, M; Hogan, W

    2005-08-26

    When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org).

  1. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments: a Tool for Evaluating Syndromic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, Garrick L.; Wagner, M.; Hogan, W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. Objective The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. Methods HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. Results An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. Conclusion HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org). PMID:16177698

  2. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  3. A high-fidelity multiresolution digital elevation model for Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xinqiao; Li, Lin; Zhu, Haihong; Ying, Shen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of topography on Earth systems variability is well recognised. As numerical simulations evolved to incorporate broader scales and finer processes, accurately assimilating or transforming the topography to produce more exact land-atmosphere-ocean interactions, has proven to be quite challenging. Numerical schemes of Earth systems often use empirical parameterisation at sub-grid scale with downscaling to express topographic endogenous processes, or rely on insecure point interpolation to induce topographic forcing, which creates bias and input uncertainties. Digital elevation model (DEM) generalisation provides more sophisticated systematic topographic transformation, but existing methods are often difficult to be incorporated because of unwarranted grid quality. Meanwhile, approaches over discrete sets often employ heuristic approximation, which are generally not best performed. Based on DEM generalisation, this article proposes a high-fidelity multiresolution DEM with guaranteed grid quality for Earth systems. The generalised DEM surface is initially approximated as a triangulated irregular network (TIN) via selected feature points and possible input features. The TIN surface is then optimised through an energy-minimised centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT). By devising a robust discrete curvature as density function and exact geometry clipping as energy reference, the developed curvature CVT (cCVT) converges, the generalised surface evolves to a further approximation to the original DEM surface, and the points with the dual triangles become spatially equalised with the curvature distribution, exhibiting a quasi-uniform high-quality and adaptive variable resolution. The cCVT model was then evaluated on real lidar-derived DEM datasets and compared to the classical heuristic model. The experimental results show that the cCVT multiresolution model outperforms classical heuristic DEM generalisations in terms of both surface approximation precision and

  4. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  5. High fidelity femtosecond pulses from an ultrafast fiber laser system via adaptive amplitude and phase pre-shaping.

    PubMed

    Prawiharjo, Jerry; Daga, Nikita K; Geng, Rui; Price, Jonathan H; Hanna, David C; Richardson, David J; Shepherd, David P

    2008-09-15

    The generation of high-fidelity femtosecond pulses is experimentally demonstrated in a fiber based chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system through an adaptive amplitude and phase pre-shaping technique. A pulse shaper, based on a dual-layer liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), was implemented in the fiber CPA system for amplitude and phase shaping prior to amplification. The LC-SLM was controlled using a differential evolution algorithm, to maximize a two-photon absorption detector signal from the compressed fiber CPA output pulses. It is shown that this approach compensates for both accumulated phase from material dispersion and nonlinear phase modulation. A train of pulses was produced with an average power of 12.6W at a 50MHz repetition rate from our fiber CPA system, which were compressible to high fidelity pulses with a duration of 170 fs.

  6. Hamiltonian Engineering for High Fidelity Quantum Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Baksic, Alexandre; Clerk, Aashish

    High-fidelity gates and operations are crucial to almost every aspect of quantum information processing. In recent experiments, fidelity is mostly limited by unwanted couplings with states living out of the logical subspace. This results in both leakage and phase errors. Here, we present a general method to deal simultaneously with both these issues and improve the fidelity of quantum gates and operations. Our method is applicable to a wide variety of systems. As an example, we can correct gates for superconducting qubits, improve coherent state transfer between a single NV centre electronic spin and a single nitrogen nuclear spin, improve control over a nuclear spin ensemble, etc. Our method is intimately linked to the Magnus expansion. By modifying the Magnus expansion of an initially given Hamiltonian Hi, we find analytically additional control Hamiltonians Hctrl such that Hi +Hctrl leads to the desired gate while minimizing both leakage and phase errors.

  7. High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su Jong

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 milestone THM.CFD.P13.03: High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulation. High fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was conducted to investigate the applicability and robustness performance of BWR closures. As a preliminary study, a CFD model with simplified Ferrule spacer grid geometry of NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) benchmark has been implemented. Performance of multiphase segregated solver with baseline boiling closures has been evaluated. Although the mean values of void fraction and exit quality of CFD result for BFBT case 4101-61 agreed with experimental data, the local void distribution was not predicted accurately. The mesh quality was one of the critical factors to obtain converged result. The stability and robustness of the simulation was mainly affected by the mesh quality, combination of BWR closure models. In addition, the CFD modeling of fully-detailed spacer grid geometry with mixing vane is necessary for improving the accuracy of CFD simulation.

  8. High-fidelity digital recording and playback sphygmomanometry system: device description and proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongshill; Chee, Youngjoon; Kim, Inyoung; Karpettas, Nikos; Kollias, Anastasios; Atkins, Neil; Stergiou, George S; O'Brien, Eoin

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the development of a new digital sphygmocorder (DS-II), which allows the digital recording and playback of the Korotkoff sounds, together with cuff pressure waveform, and its performance in a pilot validation study. A condenser microphone and stethoscope head detect Korotkoff sounds and an electronic chip, dedicated to audio-signal processing, is used to record high-quality sounds. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) are determined from the recorded signals with an automatic beat detection algorithm that displays the cuff pressure at each beat on the monitor. Recordings of Korotkoff sounds, with the cuff pressure waveforms, and the simultaneous on-site assessments of SBP/DBP were performed during 100 measurements in 10 individuals. The observers reassessed the recorded signals to verify their accuracy and differences were calculated. The features of the high-fidelity DS-II, the technical specifications and the assessment procedures utilizing the playback software are described. Interobserver absolute differences (mean±SD) in measurements were 0.7±1.1/1.3±1.3 mmHg (SBP/DBP) with a mercury sphygmomanometer and 0.3±0.9/0.8±1.2 mmHg with the DS-II. The absolute DS-II mercury sphygmomanometer differences were 1.3±1.9/1.5±1.3 mmHg (SBP/DBP). The high-fidelity DS-II device presents satisfactory agreement with simultaneous measurements of blood pressure with a mercury sphygmomanometer. The device will be a valuable methodology for validating new blood pressure measurement technologies and devices.

  9. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular–chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  10. High color fidelity thin film multilayer systems for head-up display use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    Head-up display is gaining increasing access in automotive vehicles for indication and position/navigation purposes. An optical combiner, which allows the driver to receive image information from outside and inside of the automobile, is the essential part of this display device. Two multilayer thin film combiner coating systems with distinctive polarization selectivity and broad band spectral neutrality are discussed. One of the coating systems was designed to be located at the lower portion of the windshield. The coating reduced the exterior glare by approximately 45% and provided about 70% average see-through transmittance in addition to the interior information display. The other coating system was designed to be integrated with the sunshield located at the upper portion of the windshield. The coating reflected the interior information display while reducing direct sunlight penetration to 25%. Color fidelity for both interior and exterior images were maintained in both systems. This facilitated the display of full-color maps. Both coating systems were absorptionless and environmentally durable. Designs, fabrication, and performance of these coating systems are addressed.

  11. High Fidelity Electronic Display of Digital Mammographs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    quality of scattering processes are modeled with the Monte Carlo CRT devices has not been adequate for displaying digital method by randomly sampling the...Electronic Display of Digital Mammographs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael J. Flynn, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry Ford Health Systems Detroit...TYPE AND DATES COVERED October 1997 Annual (3 Sep 96 - 2 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS High Fidelity Electronic Display of Digital

  12. High-fidelity stack and system modeling for tubular solid oxide fuel cell system design and thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.; Colclasure, A. M.; Goldin, G.

    Effective thermal integration of system components is critical to the performance of small-scale (<10 kW) solid oxide fuel cell systems. This paper presents a steady-state design and simulation tool for a highly-integrated tubular SOFC system. The SOFC is modeled using a high fidelity, one-dimensional tube model coupled to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Recuperative heat exchange between SOFC tail-gas and inlet cathode air and reformer air/fuel preheat processes are captured within the CFD model. Quasi one-dimensional thermal resistance models of the tail-gas combustor (TGC) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) complete the balance of plant (BoP) and SOFC coupling. The simulation tool is demonstrated on a prototype 66-tube SOFC system with 650 W of nominal gross power. Stack cooling predominately occurs at the external surface of the tubes where radiation accounts for 66-92% of heat transfer. A strong relationship develops between the power output of a tube and its view factor to the relatively cold cylinder wall surrounding the bundle. The bundle geometry yields seven view factor groupings which correspond to seven power groupings with tube powers ranging from 7.6-10.8 W. Furthermore, the low effectiveness of the co-flow recuperator contributes to lower tube powers at the bundle outer periphery.

  13. Characterization of a novel, highly integrated tubular solid oxide fuel cell system using high-fidelity simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.

    2011-08-01

    A novel, highly integrated tubular SOFC system intended for small-scale power is characterized through a series of sensitivity analyses and parametric studies using a previously developed high-fidelity simulation tool. The high-fidelity tubular SOFC system modeling tool is utilized to simulate system-wide performance and capture the thermofluidic coupling between system components. Stack performance prediction is based on 66 anode-supported tubular cells individually evaluated with a 1-D electrochemical cell model coupled to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model of the cell surroundings. Radiation is the dominate stack cooling mechanism accounting for 66-92% of total heat loss at the outer surface of all cells at baseline conditions. An average temperature difference of nearly 125 °C provides a large driving force for radiation heat transfer from the stack to the cylindrical enclosure surrounding the tube bundle. Consequently, cell power and voltage disparities within the stack are largely a function of the radiation view factor from an individual tube to the surrounding stack can wall. The cells which are connected in electrical series, vary in power from 7.6 to 10.8 W (with a standard deviation, σ = 1.2 W) and cell voltage varies from 0.52 to 0.73 V (with σ = 81 mV) at the simulation baseline conditions. It is observed that high cell voltage and power outputs directly correspond to tubular cells with the smallest radiation view factor to the enclosure wall, and vice versa for tubes exhibiting low performance. Results also reveal effective control variables and operating strategies along with an improved understanding of the effect that design modifications have on system performance. By decreasing the air flowrate into the system by 10%, the stack can wall temperature increases by about 6% which increases the minimum cell voltage to 0.62 V and reduces deviations in cell power and voltage by 31%. A low baseline fuel utilization is increased by decreasing the

  14. High-fidelity superadiabatic population transfer of a two-level system with a linearly chirped Gaussian pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Fu-quan; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-bin

    2016-12-01

    We investigate high-fidelity superadiabatic quantum driving in a chirped Gaussian two-level model with a Gaussian temporal envelope and a linear detuning. We show that the nonadiabatic losses can be canceled to any desired order by constructing and adjusting an auxiliary Hamiltonian (counter-diabatic field) and a symmetry in the fidelity arises on the counter-diabatic field ratio. A high-fidelity, robust, and accelerated (in a shorter time) transitionless superadiabatic population transfer is achieved that ensures a perfect following of the instantaneous adiabatic ground state even in the nonadiabatic regime. The features make the superadiabatic protocol a potentially important tool for quantum information.

  15. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  16. High-fidelity bilateral teleoperation systems and the effect of multimodal haptics.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mahdi; Aziminejad, Arash; Patel, Rajni V; Moallem, Mehrdad

    2007-12-01

    In master-slave teleoperation applications that deal with a delicate and sensitive environment, it is important to provide haptic feedback of slave/environment interactions to the user's hand as it improves task performance and teleoperation transparency (fidelity), which is the extent of telepresence of the remote environment available to the user through the master-slave system. For haptic teleoperation, in addition to a haptics-capable master interface, often one or more force sensors are also used, which warrant new bilateral control architectures while increasing the cost and the complexity of the teleoperation system. In this paper, we investigate the added benefits of using force sensors that measure hand/master and slave/environment interactions and of utilizing local feedback loops on the teleoperation transparency. We compare the two-channel and the four-channel bilateral control systems in terms of stability and transparency, and study the stability and performance robustness of the four-channel method against nonidealities that arise during bilateral control implementation, which include master-slave communication latency and changes in the environment dynamics. The next issue addressed in the paper deals with the case where the master interface is not haptics capable, but the slave is equipped with a force sensor. In the context of robotics-assisted soft-tissue surgical applications, we explore through human factors experiments whether slave/environment force measurements can be of any help with regard to improving task performance. The last problem we study is whether slave/environment force information, with and without haptic capability in the master interface, can help improve outcomes under degraded visual conditions.

  17. High-fidelity video and still-image communication based on spectral information: natural vision system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Haneishi, Hideaki; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Junko; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Masaru; Iwama, Ryo; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the great advancement of high-resolution and large-screen imaging technology, the issue of color is now receiving considerable attention as another aspect than the image resolution. It is difficult to reproduce the original color of subject in conventional imaging systems, and that obstructs the applications of visual communication systems in telemedicine, electronic commerce, and digital museum. To breakthrough the limitation of conventional RGB 3-primary systems, "Natural Vision" project aims at an innovative video and still-image communication technology with high-fidelity color reproduction capability, based on spectral information. This paper summarizes the results of NV project including the development of multispectral and multiprimary imaging technologies and the experimental investigations on the applications to medicine, digital archives, electronic commerce, and computer graphics.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-03-01

    Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs' first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. There was an 8-9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs’ first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. Aim To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Design and setting Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Method Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. Results There was an 8–9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. Conclusion The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. PMID:28137782

  20. RF/microwave system high-fidelity modeling and simulation: application to airborne multi-channel receiver system for angle of arrival estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Rajan, Sreeraman; Young, Anne; O'Regan, Christina

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a high-fidelity RF modeling and simulation framework is demonstrated to model an airborne multi-channel receiver system that is used to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA) of received signals from a stationary emitter. The framework is based on System Tool Kit (STK®), Matlab and SystemVue®. The SystemVue-based multi-channel receiver estimates the AoA of incoming signals using adjacent channel amplitude and phase comparisons, and it estimates the Doppler frequency shift of the aircraft by processing the transmitted and received signals. The estimated AoA and Doppler frequency are compared with the ground-truth data provided by STK to validate the efficacy of the modeling process. Unlike other current RF electronic warfare simulation frameworks, the received signal described herein is formed using the received power, the propagation delay and the transmitted waveform, and does not require information such as Doppler frequency shift or radial velocity of the moving platform from the scenario; hence, the simulation is more computationally efficient. In addition, to further reduce the overall modeling and simulation time, since the high-fidelity model computation is costly, the high-fidelity electronic system model is evoked only when the received power is higher than a predetermined threshold.

  1. Optical design of a scalable imaging system with compact configuration and high fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yiqun; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-10-01

    Optical design of a novel optical imaging system is presented. It can overcome the scaling of the aberrations by dividing the imaging task between a single objective lens that achieves a partially corrected intermediate image on a spherical surface, and an array of micro-lens, each of which relays a small portion of the intermediate image to its respective sensor, correcting the residual aberrations. The system is aimed for obtaining large field-of-view without deteriorating its resolution, of which traditionally designed optical imaging systems have met great difficult. This progress not only breaks through the traditional restrictions, but also allows a wider application for optical imaging systems. Firstly, proper configuration, which satisfies both the requirement of compactness and high performance, is determined according to the working principle of the novel system and through the research of the design idea in this paper. Then, a design example is presented with the field-of-view 50°and its resolution 0.2mrad, which remains as the field-of-view scales. But the optimized scalable system is of close packed structure and its dimension is less than 300mm along the ray incidence.

  2. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  3. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  4. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  5. High-Fidelity Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aircraft System Simulation Development for Trajectory Prediction Under Off-Nominal Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Hartman, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project is conducting research to enable civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. A goal of this project is to develop probabilistic methods to quantify risk during failures and off nominal flight conditions. An important part of this effort is the reliable prediction of feasible trajectories during off-nominal events such as control failure, atmospheric upsets, or navigation anomalies that can cause large deviations from the intended flight path or extreme vehicle upsets beyond the normal flight envelope. Few examples of high-fidelity modeling and prediction of off-nominal behavior for small UAS (sUAS) vehicles exist, and modeling requirements for accurately predicting flight dynamics for out-of-envelope or failure conditions are essentially undefined. In addition, the broad range of sUAS aircraft configurations already being fielded presents a significant modeling challenge, as these vehicles are often very different from one another and are likely to possess dramatically different flight dynamics and resultant trajectories and may require different modeling approaches to capture off-nominal behavior. NASA has undertaken an extensive research effort to define sUAS flight dynamics modeling requirements and develop preliminary high fidelity six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations capable of more closely predicting off-nominal flight dynamics and trajectories. This research has included a literature review of existing sUAS modeling and simulation work as well as development of experimental testing methods to measure and model key components of propulsion, airframe and control characteristics. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to develop tools to support UTM risk analyses and for the real-time prediction of off-nominal trajectories for use in the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF). This paper focuses on modeling and simulation efforts for a generic quad-rotor configuration typical

  6. A High Fidelity Multi-Sensor Scene Understanding System for Autonomous Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Homegrown Texture approach a) road bounded by grass, b) entropy, c) horizontal transitions, and d) vertical transitions. Matrices [2], Gabor Filters ...biological vision that texture is one of the most powerful visual discriminants , however, the biological system almost never relies on texture alone...we choose effective sensing that inherently performs some level of scene discrimination at the phenomenology level, algorithms will be handed a

  7. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGall, James

    2014-10-01

    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  8. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  9. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  10. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  11. High-fidelity synthetic IR imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Michael; Drake, Richard

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a High Fidelity Synthetic IR Imaging Model which attempts to generate accurate static images as would be seen by a defined IR sensor given the target type and the atmospheric conditions. The model attempts to be quite general in its accommodation of physical processes yet maintain radiometric accuracy. Its main application are to assist in the validation of real-time IR scene generation software, and as a tool which can be used for range performance studies of electro-optical systems. The software model allows facet modeling of targets including temperature profiles and material properties. LOWTRAN/MODTRAN is used to provide atmospheric data for transmittance and self-radiation. Optical systems are described in terms of their transmittance and point spread function, both as functions of wavelength, and a self radiation term having temperature and material properties. At each wavelength desired the model generates descriptions of the flux distribution falling on the focal plane of the sensor system. The flux from different sources is added together to form the total flux distribution on the focal plane. Pixels on the focal plane are modeled by groups of facets with associated material properties allowing the shape and wavelength sensitivity to be expressed. The raw pixel output is obtained by integrating the flux distribution over the component facets and across wavelengths. Following non-uniformity modeling a convolution is applied which models readout smearing. Bandlimited noise is then added. The model is also able to generate and apply a matched filter to the output image. The model is designed to use common commercial software tools such as Multigen for target modeling and Open GL for the rendering. The model currently executes on Silicon Graphics hardware.

  12. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Fidelity Optimization of Microprocessor System Simulations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    I. TIT LE (end Su.btitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED " Fidelity Optimization of Microprocessor THESIS /DgW&YON/ System Simulations...MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM SIHULATIONS Earnest Taylor Landrum, Jr. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University in Partial Fulfillment of the...Taylor Landrum, Jr. Permission is herewith granted to Auburn University to make copies of this thesis at its discretion, upon the request of

  14. High Fidelity Raman Chemical Imaging of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobba, Venkata Nagamalli Koteswara Rao

    The development of high fidelity Raman imaging systems is important for a number of application areas including material science, bio-imaging, bioscience and healthcare, pharmaceutical analysis, and semiconductor characterization. The use of Raman imaging as a characterization tool for detecting the amorphous and crystalline regions in the biopolymer poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is the precis of my thesis. In the first chapter, a brief insight about the basics of Raman spectroscopy, Raman chemical imaging, Raman mapping, and Raman imaging techniques has been provided. The second chapter contains details about the successful development of tailored sample of PLLA. Biodegradable polymers are used in areas of tissue engineering, agriculture, packaging, and in medical field for drug delivery, implant devices, and surgical sutures. Detailed information about the sample preparation and characterization of these cold-drawn PLLA polymer substrates has been provided. Wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was demonstrated in the early 1990s. The AOTF contributed challenges such as image walk, distortion, and image blur. A wide-field AOTF Raman imaging system has been developed as part of my research and methods to overcome some of the challenges in performing AOTF wide-field Raman imaging are discussed in the third chapter. This imaging system has been used for studying the crystalline and amorphous regions on the cold-drawn sample of PLLA. Of all the different modalities that are available for performing Raman imaging, Raman point-mapping is the most extensively used method. The ease of obtaining the Raman hyperspectral cube dataset with a high spectral and spatial resolution is the main motive of performing this technique. As a part of my research, I have constructed a Raman point-mapping system and used it for obtaining Raman hyperspectral image data of various minerals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Chapter four offers

  15. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph; Williams, Brian; Figueroa, Victor

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  16. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph; Williams, Brian; Figueroa, Victor

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  17. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  18. Arbovirus high fidelity variant loses fitness in mosquitoes and mice.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Lark L; Beeharry, Yasnee; Bordería, Antonio V; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2011-09-20

    The error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) affects the mutation frequency in a population of viral RNAs. Using chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we describe a unique arbovirus fidelity variant with a single C483Y amino acid change in the nsP4 RdRp that increases replication fidelity and generates populations with reduced genetic diversity. In mosquitoes, high fidelity CHIKV presents lower infection and dissemination titers than wild type. In newborn mice, high fidelity CHIKV produces truncated viremias and lower organ titers. These results indicate that increased replication fidelity and reduced genetic diversity negatively impact arbovirus fitness in invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

  19. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  20. A High-Fidelity Solar System Model and High-Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Prototype for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, A. N.; McElwain, M. W.; Roberge, A.; Nesvold, E.; Stark, C. C.; Kuchner, M. J.; Robinson, T.; Meadows, V. S.; Straughn, A. N.; Turnbull, M. C.; Gong, Q.; Woodgate, B.; Brandt, T.; Staplefelt, K.; Heap, S.; Hilton, G.

    2014-03-01

    As the possibility of discovering habitable, Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars improves, the need for both accurate model representations of such systems and advanced, dedicated high-contrast instrumentation in order to characterize and understand such systems becomes ever more pressing. We present a model and an instrument to address this need. The signals of habitability will be buried within spectral information like needles in haystacks, so we present a complete model of the Solar System we call "Hackstacks" that can be readily placed at various distances and inclinations to simulate an exoplanetary system with a known habitable planet. The Haystacks data product is a three-dimensional spectral cube. The spatial x-y plane spans 150 AU in both directions, centered on the Sun. The spectral zdimension is divided into four hundred slices ranging from 0.3 µm to 2.5 µm, evenly spaced in wavelength, yielding R ~ 200 in the V-band. In the model, we include the Solar System planets, inner (exo)zodiacal dust, outer Kuiper Belt dust, and extragalactic background, all sourced from a combination of observations and models. This makes the Haystacks model the most comprehensive, robust, and detailed model available for prediction of noise levels, confusion, and the ability to measure biomarkers in a directly observed system. The final data cubes are available for download by the public. Any user who accesses our NASA-hosted webpage simply inputs a desire wavelength range, a distance, and an inclination, and they are provided with the corresponding spectral cube. We demonstrate the power of such data cubes with several simulations of observations with various telescopes and instruments using the PROPER suite of algorithms, and present preliminary results on detectability and necessary instrument/telescope capabilities. In order to both detect and analyze an Earth-like planet in another system, we need an instrument dedicated to such a task, with high-contrast imaging

  1. Quantum phase transition, quantum fidelity and fidelity susceptibility in the Yang-Baxter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taotao; Yang, Qi; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gangcheng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiaodan; Ren, Hang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ground-state fidelity and fidelity susceptibility in the many-body Yang-Baxter system and analyze their connections with quantum phase transition. The Yang-Baxter system was perturbed by a twist of e^{iφ} at each bond, where the parameter φ originates from the q-deformation of the braiding operator U with q = e^{-iφ} (Jimbo in Yang-Baxter equations in integrable systems, World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), and φ has a physical significance of magnetic flux (Badurek et al. in Phys. Rev. D 14:1177, 1976). We test the ground-state fidelity related by a small parameter variation φ which is a different term from the one used for driving the system toward a quantum phase transition. It shows that ground-state fidelity develops a sharp drop at the transition. The drop gets sharper as system size N increases. It has been verified that a sufficiently small value of φ used has no effect on the location of the critical point, but affects the value of F(gc,φ) . The smaller the twist φ, the more the value of F(gc,φ) is close to 0. In order to avoid the effect of the finite value of φ, we also calculate the fidelity susceptibility. Our results demonstrate that in the Yang-Baxter system, the quantum phase transition can be well characterized by the ground-state fidelity and fidelity susceptibility in a special way.

  2. High-fidelity entangled Bell states via shortcuts to adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Koushik; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a couple of protocols based on shortcut to adiabaticity techniques for rapid generation of robust entangled Bell states in a pair of two-state systems. Our protocol relies on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm and Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (LRI) method. Both TQD and LRI methods result in high fidelity in population transfer. Our study shows that it is possible to prepare an entangled state in extremely short time without losing robustness and efficiency.

  3. High fidelity simulations of infrared imagery with animated characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsström, F.; Persson, A.; Bergström, D.; Berggren, J.; Hedström, J.; Allvar, J.; Karlsson, M.

    2012-06-01

    High fidelity simulations of IR signatures and imagery tend to be slow and do not have effective support for animation of characters. Simplified rendering methods based on computer graphics methods can be used to overcome these limitations. This paper presents a method to combine these tools and produce simulated high fidelity thermal IR data of animated people in terrain. Infrared signatures for human characters have been calculated using RadThermIR. To handle multiple character models, these calculations use a simplified material model for the anatomy and clothing. Weather and temperature conditions match the IR-texture used in the terrain model. The calculated signatures are applied to the animated 3D characters that, together with the terrain model, are used to produce high fidelity IR imagery of people or crowds. For high level animation control and crowd simulations, HLAS (High Level Animation System) has been developed. There are tools available to create and visualize skeleton based animations, but tools that allow control of the animated characters on a higher level, e.g. for crowd simulation, are usually expensive and closed source. We need the flexibility of HLAS to add animation into an HLA enabled sensor system simulation framework.

  4. Towards robust dynamical decoupling and high fidelity adiabatic quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz, Gregory

    Quantum computation (QC) relies on the ability to implement high-fidelity quantum gate operations and successfully preserve quantum state coherence. One of the most challenging obstacles for reliable QC is overcoming the inevitable interaction between a quantum system and its environment. Unwanted interactions result in decoherence processes that cause quantum states to deviate from a desired evolution, consequently leading to computational errors and loss of coherence. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is one such method, which seeks to attenuate the effects of decoherence by applying strong and expeditious control pulses solely to the system. Provided the pulses are applied over a time duration sufficiently shorter than the correlation time associated with the environment dynamics, DD effectively averages out undesirable interactions and preserves quantum states with a low probability of error, or fidelity loss. In this study various aspects of this approach are studied from sequence construction to applications of DD to protecting QC. First, a comprehensive examination of the error suppression properties of a near-optimal DD approach is given to understand the relationship between error suppression capabilities and the number of required DD control pulses in the case of ideal, instantaneous pulses. While such considerations are instructive for examining DD efficiency, i.e., performance vs the number of control pulses, high-fidelity DD in realizable systems is difficult to achieve due to intrinsic pulse imperfections which further contribute to decoherence. As a second consideration, it is shown how one can overcome this hurdle and achieve robustness and recover high-fidelity DD in the presence of faulty control pulses using Genetic Algorithm optimization and sequence symmetrization. Thirdly, to illustrate the implementation of DD in conjunction with QC, the utilization of DD and quantum error correction codes (QECCs) as a protection method for adiabatic quantum

  5. High Fidelity, Efficiency and Functionalization of Ds-Px Unnatural Base Pairs in PCR Amplification for a Genetic Alphabet Expansion System.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Itaru; Miyatake, Yuya; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro

    2016-11-18

    Genetic alphabet expansion of DNA using an artificial extra base pair (unnatural base pair) could augment nucleic acid and protein functionalities by increasing their components. We previously developed an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Px), which exhibits high fidelity as a third base pair in PCR amplification. Here, the fidelity and efficiency of Ds-Px pairing using modified Px bases with functional groups, such as diol, azide, ethynyl and biotin, were evaluated by an improved method with optimized PCR conditions. The results revealed that all of the base pairs between Ds and either one of the modified Px bases functioned with high amplification efficiency (0.76-0.81), high selectivity (≥99.96% per doubling), and less sequence dependency, in PCR using 3'-exonuclease-proficient Deep Vent DNA polymerase. We also demonstrated that the azide-Px in PCR-amplified DNA was efficiently modified with any functional groups by copper-free click reaction. This genetic alphabet expansion system could endow nucleic acids with a wide variety of increased functionalities by the site-specific incorporation of modified Px bases at desired positions in DNA.

  6. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere,M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool.

  7. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takane; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Narumi

    2017-04-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, such as spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface including earthquakes, seismic wave propagation, and crustal deformation. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly on the sea floor, the obtained data are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1) & (2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2015, SC15) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 1.08 T DOF x 6.6 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Fujita et al. (2016, SC16) has improved the code for crustal deformation and achieved 2.05 T-DOF with 45m resolution on the plate interface. This high-resolution analysis enables computation of change of stress acting on the plate interface. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, AGU Fall Meeting) has improved the high-fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and

  8. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  10. Is high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation, simulation of learning?

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the application of evaluation of high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation emerging in nursing education. The ramifications for use in mental health nursing are examined. A question is posed: Is high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation limited to being a "simulation of learning"? Explicit research that traces learning outcomes from mannequin, to clinical practice and hence consumer outcomes, is absent in mental health. Piecing together research from psychology addressing cognitive load theory and considering the capacity for learners to imitate desired behaviour without experiencing deep learning, the possibility is real that simulation of learning is the outcome of high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation applications to mental health nursing.

  11. High-fidelity simulation enhances ACLS training.

    PubMed

    Langdorf, Mark I; Strom, Suzanne L; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Anderson, Craig L; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    , corresponding performance was 13 of 19 "VF" (68%, p=021) and 100% ECG and STEMI identification (p<.05). This course significantly improved knowledge and psychomotor skills. Critical actions required for resuscitation were much more common after training. ACLS training including high-fidelity simulation decreases time to CPR and DF and improves performance during resuscitation.

  12. Paleomagnetic recording fidelity of nonideal magnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Muxworthy, Adrian R; Krása, David; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P

    2014-06-01

    A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74-333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field directionWeak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences.

  13. High Fidelity Drug Repurposing, Molecular Profiling, and Cell Reprogramming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0288 TITLE: High Fidelity Drug Repurposing, Molecular Profiling, and Cell Reprogramming PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...SUBTITLE High Fidelity Drug Repurposing, Molecular Profiling, and Cell Reprogramming 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...network pharmacology and CRCs) to discover and test repurposed drugs that target PCa on an individual patient basis. Objective 1: We will enrich the FDA

  14. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L Bravo...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L...Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) L Bravo, CB Ivey, D

  15. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant at must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get a high fidelity simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  16. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso

    2012-06-01

    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  17. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures, mechanisms, and processes to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application-dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry while abrasion of some metal components may be highly dependent on trace components. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant it must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get an accurate simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  18. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  19. High-fidelity quantum state preparation using neighboring optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuchen; Gaitan, Frank

    2017-10-01

    We present an approach to single-shot high-fidelity preparation of an n-qubit state based on neighboring optimal control theory. This represents a new application of the neighboring optimal control formalism which was originally developed to produce single-shot high-fidelity quantum gates. To illustrate the approach, and to provide a proof-of-principle, we use it to prepare the two-qubit Bell state |β _{01}\\rangle = (1/√{2})[ |01\\rangle + |10\\rangle ] with an error probability ɛ ˜ 10^{-6} (10^{-5}) for ideal (non-ideal) control. Using standard methods in the literature, these high-fidelity Bell states can be leveraged to fault-tolerantly prepare the logical state |\\overline{β }_{01}\\rangle.

  20. Derivation Of Probabilistic Damage Definitions From High Fidelity Deterministic Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L D

    2004-10-26

    This paper summarizes a methodology used by the Underground Analysis and Planning System (UGAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the derivation of probabilistic damage curves for US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). UGAPS uses high fidelity finite element and discrete element codes on the massively parallel supercomputers to predict damage to underground structures from military interdiction scenarios. These deterministic calculations can be riddled with uncertainty, especially when intelligence, the basis for this modeling, is uncertain. The technique presented here attempts to account for this uncertainty by bounding the problem with reasonable cases and using those bounding cases as a statistical sample. Probability of damage curves are computed and represented that account for uncertainty within the sample and enable the war planner to make informed decisions. This work is flexible enough to incorporate any desired damage mechanism and can utilize the variety of finite element and discrete element codes within the national laboratory and government contractor community.

  1. COORDINATING DNA POLYMERASE TRAFFIC DURING HIGH AND LOW FIDELITY SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery that organisms possess multiple DNA polymerases (Pols) displaying different fidelities, processivities, and activities came the realization that mechanisms must exist to manage the actions of these diverse enzymes to prevent gratuitous mutations. Although many of the Pols encoded by most organisms are largely accurate, and participate in DNA replication and DNA repair, a sizeable fraction display a reduced fidelity, and act to catalyze potentially error-prone translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past lesions that persist in the DNA. Striking the proper balance between use of these different enzymes during DNA replication, DNA repair, and TLS is essential for ensuring accurate duplication of the cell’s genome. This review highlights mechanisms that organisms utilize to manage the actions of their different Pols. A particular emphasis is placed on discussion of current models for how different Pols switch places with each other at the replication fork during high fidelity replication and potentially error-pone TLS. PMID:19540941

  2. High-fidelity teleportation between light and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Polzik, E. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-12-15

    We show how high-fidelity quantum teleportation of light to atoms can be achieved in the same setup as was used in the recent experiment [J. Sherson et al., Nature 443, 557, 2006], where such an interspecies quantum state transfer was demonstrated for the first time. Our improved protocol takes advantage of the rich multimode entangled structure of the state of atoms and scattered light and requires simple postprocessing of homodyne detection signals and squeezed light in order to achieve fidelities up to 90% (85%) for teleportation of coherent (qubit) states under realistic experimental conditions. The remaining limitation is due to atomic decoherence and light losses.

  3. Competency: Does High Fidelity Simulation Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Alice M.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation is a well documented adjunctive teaching method in medical and nurse practitioner programs, but few studies of effectiveness on this technology on the development of competency have emphasized pre-licensure associate degree level programs. This study explored student competency in the application of the nursing process…

  4. Aerothermal Anchoring of CBAERO Using High Fidelity CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Based Aerodynamics (CBAERO) software package is used to predict the convective and radiative heating environments for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). A limited number of high fidelity CFD solutions are used to "anchor" the engineering level estimates obtained using CBAERO.

  5. Competency: Does High Fidelity Simulation Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Alice M.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation is a well documented adjunctive teaching method in medical and nurse practitioner programs, but few studies of effectiveness on this technology on the development of competency have emphasized pre-licensure associate degree level programs. This study explored student competency in the application of the nursing process…

  6. High Fidelity: Investing in Evaluation Training. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    High-quality training is a crucial investment in establishing and maintaining implementation fidelity as well as building educators' trust in the new process. Training approaches for educator evaluation vary both in format (i.e., how it's delivered) and content (i.e., what is provided). Train-the-trainer sessions, online professional learning…

  7. Carbonate minerals as high fidelity recorders of the longevity and scale of the aqueous system within CM carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Lindgren, P.; Sofe, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    by Fe,Ni sulphides and Mg,Fe phyllosilicates. The good correspondence between the complexity of the record of carbonate, silicate and sulphide mineralization of CMs and their degree of aqueous alteration shows that the carbonates preserve a high fidelity record of parent body evolution. The greater variety of carbonate minerals present in the highly altered CMs shows that solution compositions changed significantly during alteration and as mineral sequences and compositions vary little on the centimeter scale, water/rock ratios must have been high. The challenge remains to reconcile such a dynamic aqueous system with evidence from bulk meteorite compositions for little or no fluid flow.

  8. High fidelity simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Keith E

    2011-12-01

    Medical simulation has grown explosively over the last decade. Simulation is becoming commonplace in clinical education but can also be used as an investigative clinical tool in its own right. There are thus two arms of simulation in clinical research. The first is investigation of the clinical impact of simulation as an educational tool and the second as an instrument to assess the function of clinical practitioners and systems. This article reviews the terminology, current practice and current research in simulation. The use of simulation in assessment of the clinical performance of devices, people and systems will then be discussed and some current work in these areas presented. Finally, medical simulation will be discussed within the paradigm of translational research. Early examples of this 'tool-bench to bedside' model will be presented as possible prototypes for future work directed towards patient safety.

  9. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  10. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  11. High fidelity simulation of transcritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteriou, Marios; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Davis, Dustin

    2012-11-01

    Transcritical injection of a multi-component fluid occurs in many practical applications such as diesel and rocket engines. In this type of injection a liquid fuel at a supercritical pressure but subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where conditions are supercritical. The convoluted physics of the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state is linked to thermodynamic property variations and poses challenges to numerical simulation. For example, the temporary presence of surface tension implies that both the subcritical liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid need to be captured. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical, quiescent gaseous environment is performed. A coupled level set and volume of fluid method is adopted to capture the liquid-vapor interface, across which the continuity of mass and energy fluxes is preserved. The fluid state over the range of subcritical liquid to supercritical fluid is determined by incorporating the Peng-Robinson equation of state. To efficiently account for the sharp changes in properties near the liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. Analysis of results focuses on the impact of vanishing surface tension as conditions transition from sub-critical to supercritical.

  12. Small convolution kernels for high-fidelity image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for computing the mean-square-optimal values for small, image-restoration kernels. The algorithm is based on a comprehensive, end-to-end imaging system model that accounts for the important components of the imaging process: the statistics of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and display reconstruction. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernel values that restore the image with maximum fidelity, that is, the kernel minimizes the expected mean-square restoration error. The algorithm is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained kernel that, unlike the unconstrained filter, can be efficiently implemented by convolution. Simulation experiments demonstrate that for a wide range of imaging systems these small kernels can restore images with fidelity comparable to images restored with the unconstrained Wiener filter.

  13. Small convolution kernels for high-fidelity image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for computing the mean-square-optimal values for small, image-restoration kernels. The algorithm is based on a comprehensive, end-to-end imaging system model that accounts for the important components of the imaging process: the statistics of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and display reconstruction. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernel values that restore the image with maximum fidelity, that is, the kernel minimizes the expected mean-square restoration error. The algorithm is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained kernel that, unlike the unconstrained filter, can be efficiently implemented by convolution. Simulation experiments demonstrate that for a wide range of imaging systems these small kernels can restore images with fidelity comparable to images restored with the unconstrained Wiener filter.

  14. High-Fidelity Simulation for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Training

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lindsay E.; Storjohann, Tara D.; Spiegel, Jacqueline J.; Beiber, Kellie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a high-fidelity simulation technique compared with lecture would produce greater improvement in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge, confidence, and overall satisfaction with the training method. Design. This sequential, parallel-group, crossover trial randomized students into 2 groups distinguished by the sequence of teaching technique delivered for ACLS instruction (ie, classroom lecture vs high-fidelity simulation exercise). Assessment. Test scores on a written examination administered at baseline and after each teaching technique improved significantly from baseline in all groups but were highest when lecture was followed by simulation. Simulation was associated with a greater degree of overall student satisfaction compared with lecture. Participation in a simulation exercise did not improve pharmacy students’ knowledge of ACLS more than attending a lecture, but it was associated with improved student confidence in skills and satisfaction with learning and application. Conclusions. College curricula should incorporate simulation to complement but not replace lecture for ACLS education. PMID:23610477

  15. High-fidelity angle-modulated analog optical link.

    PubMed

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2016-07-25

    There has long existed a debate over whether analog or digital optical link is more suitable for wireless convergence applications. Digital link achieves the highest fidelity, with the sacrifice of huge bandwidth due to the high resolution of digitization, and large power consumption due to the exhaustive digital data recovery. Analog link avoids these drawbacks, but it inevitably suffers from the SNR degradation. In this paper, we propose the angle modulation for analog optical link, which successfully breaks the SNR ceiling of amplitude modulation, and achieves ultrahigh link fidelity. Using the digital link (CPRI) equivalent bandwidth, angle modulation exhibits around 30-dB SNR advantage over the conventional amplitude modulation. Combined with its high tolerance on link nonlinearity, angle modulation has great potential in the future SNR-hungry analog optical applications.

  16. Single High Fidelity Geometric Data Sets for LCM - Model Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Single High Fidelity Geometric Data Sets for LCM – Model Requirements D. Brennan T. Koko K. Mackay M...Brennan T. Koko K. Mackay M. Norwood S. Tobin E. Teng J. Wallace Martec Limited Martec Limited 1888 Brunswick Street, Suite 400 Halifax...result in SPMs for use in LCM analysis of existing and future classes of Canadian naval vessels. D. Brennan, T. Koko , K. Mackay, M. Norwood, S. Tobin, E

  17. Simulation System Fidelity Assessment at the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Steven D.; Reardon, Scott E.; Tobias, Eric L.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity is a word that is often used but rarely understood when talking about groundbased simulation. Assessing the cueing fidelity of a ground based flight simulator requires a comparison to actual flight data either directly or indirectly. Two experiments were conducted at the Vertical Motion Simulator using the GenHel UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter math model that was directly compared to flight data. Prior to the experiment the simulator s motion and visual system frequency responses were measured, the aircraft math model was adjusted to account for the simulator motion system delays, and the motion system gains and washouts were tuned for the individual tasks. The tuned motion system fidelity was then assessed against the modified Sinacori criteria. The first experiments showed similar handling qualities ratings (HQRs) to actual flight for a bob-up and sidestep maneuvers. The second experiment showed equivalent HQRs between flight and simulation for the ADS33 slalom maneuver for the two pilot participants. The ADS33 vertical maneuver HQRs were mixed with one pilot rating the flight and simulation the same while the second pilot rated the simulation worse. In addition to recording HQRs on the second experiment, an experimental Simulation Fidelity Rating (SFR) scale developed by the University of Liverpool was tested for applicability to engineering simulators. A discussion of the SFR scale for use on the Vertical Motion Simulator is included in this paper.

  18. Modeling of Passive Acoustic Liners from High Fidelity Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Marcello do Areal Souto

    Noise reduction in aviation has been an important focus of study in the last few decades. One common solution is setting up acoustic liners in the internal walls of the engines. However, measurements in the laboratory with liners are expensive and time consuming. The present work proposes a nonlinear physics-based time domain model to predict the acoustic behavior of a given liner in a defined flow condition. The parameters of the model are defined by analysis of accurate numerical solutions of the flow obtained from a high-fidelity numerical code. The length of the cavity is taken into account by using an analytical procedure to account for internal reflections in the interior of the cavity. Vortices and jets originated from internal flow separations are confirmed to be important mechanisms of sound absorption, which defines the overall efficiency of the liner. Numerical simulations at different frequency, geometry and sound pressure level are studied in detail to define the model parameters. Comparisons with high-fidelity numerical simulations show that the proposed model is accurate, robust, and can be used to define a boundary condition simulating a liner in a high-fidelity code.

  19. Undergraduate interprofessional education using high-fidelity paediatric simulation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Moira; Kennedy, Neil; Cuene-Grandidier, Hazel

    2010-06-01

    High-fidelity simulation is becoming increasingly important in the delivery of teaching and learning to health care professionals within a safe environment. Its use in an interprofessional context and at undergraduate level has the potential to facilitate the learning of good communication and teamworking, in addition to clinical knowledge and skills. Interprofessional teaching and learning workshops using high-fidelity paediatric simulation were developed and delivered to undergraduate medical and nursing students at Queen's University Belfast. Learning outcomes common to both professions, and essential in the clinical management of sick children, included basic competencies, communication and teamworking skills. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation was undertaken using published questionnaires. Quantitative results - the 32-item questionnaire was analysed for reliability using spss. Responses were positive for both groups of students across four domains - acquisition of knowledge and skills, communication and teamworking, professional identity and role awareness, and attitudes to shared learning. Qualitative results - thematic content analysis was used to analyse open-ended responses. Students from both groups commented that an interprofessional education (IPE) approach to paediatric simulation improved clinical and practice-based skills, and provided a safe learning environment. Students commented that there should be more interprofessional and simulation learning opportunities. High-fidelity paediatric simulation, used in an interprofessional context, has the potential to meet the requirements of undergraduate medical and nursing curricula. Further research is needed into the long-term benefits for patient care, and its generalisability to other areas within health care teaching and learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  20. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated. PMID:26553110

  1. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-11-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated.

  2. Proofreading genotyping assays mediated by high fidelity exo+ DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Li, Kai; Pardinas, Jose R; Sommer, Steve S; Yao, Kai-Tai

    2005-02-01

    DNA polymerases with 3'-5' proofreading function mediate high fidelity DNA replication but their application for mutation detection was almost completely neglected before 1998. The obstacle facing the use of exo(+) polymerases for mutation detection could be overcome by primer-3'-termini modification, which has been tested using allele-specific primers with 3' labeling, 3' exonuclease-resistance and 3' dehydroxylation modifications. Accordingly, three new types of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays have been developed to carry out genome-wide genotyping making use of the fidelity advantage of exo(+) polymerases. Such SNP assays might also provide a novel approach for re-sequencing and de novo sequencing. These new mutation detection assays are widely adaptable to a variety of platforms, including real-time PCR, multi-well plate and microarray technologies. Application of exo(+) polymerases to genetic analysis could accelerate the pace of personalized medicine.

  3. High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Lahini, Yoav; Englund, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    We propose and analyze the design of a programmable photonic integrated circuit for high-fidelity quantum computation and simulation. We demonstrate that the reconfigurability of our design allows us to overcome two major impediments to quantum optics on a chip: it removes the need for a full fabrication cycle for each experiment and allows for compensation of fabrication errors using numerical optimization techniques. Under a pessimistic fabrication model for the silicon-on-insulator process, we demonstrate a dramatic fidelity improvement for the linear optics controlled-not and controlled-phase gates and, showing the scalability of this approach, the iterative phase estimation algorithm built from individually optimized gates. We also propose and simulate an experiment that the programmability of our system would enable: a statistically robust study of the evolution of entangled photons in disordered quantum walks. Overall, our results suggest that existing fabrication processes are sufficient to build a quantum photonic processor capable of high-fidelity operation.

  4. Rapid High-Fidelity Single-Shot Dispersive Readout of Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, T.; Kurpiers, P.; Gasparinetti, S.; Magnard, P.; Potočnik, A.; Salathé, Y.; Pechal, M.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Eichler, C.; Wallraff, A.

    2017-05-01

    The speed of quantum gates and measurements is a decisive factor for the overall fidelity of quantum protocols when performed on physical qubits with a finite coherence time. Reducing the time required to distinguish qubit states with high fidelity is, therefore, a critical goal in quantum-information science. The state-of-the-art readout of superconducting qubits is based on the dispersive interaction with a readout resonator. Here, we bring this technique to its current limit and demonstrate how the careful design of system parameters leads to fast and high-fidelity measurements without affecting qubit coherence. We achieve this result by increasing the dispersive-interaction strength, by choosing an optimal linewidth of the readout resonator, by employing a Purcell filter, and by utilizing phase-sensitive parametric amplification. In our experiment, we measure 98.25% readout fidelity in only 48 ns, when minimizing readout time, and 99.2% in 88 ns, when maximizing the fidelity, limited predominantly by the qubit lifetime of 7.6 μ s . The presented scheme is also expected to be suitable for integration into a multiplexed readout architecture.

  5. Designing High Fidelity Simulation to Maximize Student Registered Nursing Decision-Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The current healthcare environment is a complex system of patients, procedures, and equipment that strives to deliver safe and effective medical care. High fidelity simulation provides healthcare educators with a tool to create safety conscious practitioners utilizing an environment that replicates practice without risk to patients. Using HFS…

  6. Designing High Fidelity Simulation to Maximize Student Registered Nursing Decision-Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The current healthcare environment is a complex system of patients, procedures, and equipment that strives to deliver safe and effective medical care. High fidelity simulation provides healthcare educators with a tool to create safety conscious practitioners utilizing an environment that replicates practice without risk to patients. Using HFS…

  7. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  8. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting zeeman degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-13

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200  μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  9. Demonstration of deterministic and high fidelity squeezing of quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Takei, Nobuyuki; Furusawa, Akira; Hayashi, Toshiki; Akiyama, Takayuki; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2007-12-15

    By employing a recent proposal [R. Filip, P. Marek, and U.L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042308 (2005)] we experimentally demonstrate a universal, deterministic, and high-fidelity squeezing transformation of an optical field. It relies only on linear optics, homodyne detection, feedforward, and an ancillary squeezed vacuum state, thus direct interaction between a strong pump and the quantum state is circumvented. We demonstrate three different squeezing levels for a coherent state input. This scheme is highly suitable for the fault-tolerant squeezing transformation in a continuous variable quantum computer.

  10. High-fidelity replication of Dammann gratings using soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Jia, Wei

    2008-04-01

    We report the experimental results of using the soft lithography method for replication of Dammann gratings. By using an elastomeric stamp, uniform grating structures were transferred to the UV-curable polymer. To evaluate the quality of the replication, diffraction images and light intensity were measured. Compared with the master devices, the replicas of Dammann gratings show a slight deviation in both surface relief profile and optical performance. Experimental results demonstrated that high-fidelity replication of Dammann gratings is realized by using soft lithography with low cost and high throughput.

  11. Installing the Communities that Care Prevention System: Implementation Progress and Fidelity in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Rose K.; Hanson, Koren; Brooke-Weiss, Blair; Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the degree to which high fidelity implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached during the first 18 months of intervention in 12 communities in the Community Youth Development Study, a 5-year group randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of the CTC system. CTC…

  12. High fidelity of base pairing by 2-selenothymidine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Sheng, Jia; Zhang, Wen; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-24

    The base pairs are the contributors to the sequence-dependent recognition of nucleic acids, genetic information storage, and high fidelity of DNA polymerase replication. However, the wobble base pairing, where T pairs with G instead of A, reduces specific base-pairing recognition and compromises the high fidelity of the enzymatic polymerization. Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo position, providing a unique chemical strategy to enhance the base pair specificity. We report here the first synthesis of the novel 2-Se-thymidine ((Se)T) derivative, its phosphoramidite, and the Se-DNAs. Our biophysical and structural studies of the 2-Se-T DNAs reveal that the bulky 2-Se atom with a weak hydrogen-bonding ability can largely increase mismatch discriminations (including T/G wobble and T/C mismatched base pairs) while maintaining the (Se)T/A virtually identical to the native T/A base pair. The 2-Se atom bulkiness and the electronic effect are probably the main factors responsible for the discrimination against the formation of the wobble (Se)T/G base pair. Our investigations provide a potential novel tool to investigate the specific recognition of base pairs, which is the basis of high fidelity during replication, transcription, and translation. Furthermore, this Se-atom-specific substitution and probing are useful for X-ray crystal structure and function studies of nucleic acids.

  13. High Fidelity of Base Paring by 2-Selenothymidine in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Sheng, J; Zhang, W; Huang, Z

    2010-01-01

    The base pairs are the contributors to the sequence-dependent recognition of nucleic acids, genetic information storage, and high fidelity of DNA polymerase replication. However, the wobble base pairing, where T pairs with G instead of A, reduces specific base-pairing recognition and compromises the high fidelity of the enzymatic polymerization. Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo position, providing a unique chemical strategy to enhance the base pair specificity. We report here the first synthesis of the novel 2-Se-thymidine ({sup Se}T) derivative, its phosphoramidite, and the Se-DNAs. Our biophysical and structural studies of the 2-Se-T DNAs reveal that the bulky 2-Se atom with a weak hydrogen-bonding ability can largely increase mismatch discriminations (including T/G wobble and T/C mismatched base pairs) while maintaining the {sup Se}T/A virtually identical to the native T/A base pair. The 2-Se atom bulkiness and the electronic effect are probably the main factors responsible for the discrimination against the formation of the wobble {sup Se}T/G base pair. Our investigations provide a potential novel tool to investigate the specific recognition of base pairs, which is the basis of high fidelity during replication, transcription, and translation. Furthermore, this Se-atom-specific substitution and probing are useful for X-ray crystal structure and function studies of nucleic acids.

  14. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael J.; Andrew McCammon, J.

    2008-05-19

    In this paper, we describe a combination of algorithms for high-fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). Finally, the availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  15. The use of high-fidelity simulation in the admissions process: one nurse anesthesia program's experience.

    PubMed

    Penprase, Barbara; Mileto, Lisa; Bittinger, Andrea; Hranchook, Anne Marie; Atchley, Jana A; Bergakker, Sarah A; Eimers, Treavor J; Franson, Holly E

    2012-02-01

    Nurse anesthesia programs across the country are frequently in search of better selection criteria and more efficient evaluation systems. The goal is to select qualified applicants who will successfully complete the program and represent the profession of nurse anesthesia. The primary method of assessing the quality of candidates' noncognitive attributes at the Oakland University Beaumont Program of Nurse Anesthesia (Royal Oak, Michigan) was by face-to-face interviews. The admissions committee believed that high-fidelity simulation may be a valuable tool to improve the overall admission process. For the 2008 application interview process, high-fidelity simulation was used as a method of simultaneously evaluating candidates' cognitive and noncognitive attributes, in addition to the traditional face-to-face interview. On completion of the admission interview process, a retrospective research design was used to identify a possible correlation between high-fidelity simulation performance scores and other candidate characteristics. The findings of this pilot study revealed a positive correlation between simulation and face-to-face interview scores, suggesting that candidates who exhibited desirable noncognitive attributes in the face-to-face interview also performed well in the simulation environment. The use of high-fidelity simulation as an interview tool may provide an innovative adjunct for admission committees in assessment of candidates.

  16. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  17. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol

    2010-09-01

    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice.

  18. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. A novel Bxb1 integrase RMCE system for high fidelity site-specific integration of mAb expression cassette in CHO Cells.

    PubMed

    Inniss, Mara C; Bandara, Kalpanie; Jusiak, Barbara; Lu, Timothy K; Weiss, Ron; Wroblewska, Liliana; Zhang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    As CHO cell line development for biotherapeutic production becomes more sophisticated through the availability of the CHO genome sequence, the ability to accurately and reproducibly engineer the host cell genome has become increasingly important. Multiple well characterized systems for site-specific integration will enable more complex cell line engineering to generate cell lines with desirable attributes. We built and characterized a novel recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) system using Bxb1 integrase and compared it to the commonly used Flp/FRT RMCE system. We first integrated a DNA construct flanked by either Bxb1 attachment sites or FRT sequences (referred to as a landing pad) into the Fer1L4 genomic locus of CHO-S cells using CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homologous recombination. We characterized the resulting clones harboring either the Bxb1 or Flp/FRT landing pad using whole genome resequencing to compare their genomes with the parental host cell line. We determined that each landing pad was specifically integrated into the Fer1L4 locus in the selected clones and observed no major structural changes in the genome or variations in copy number as a result of CRISPR/Cas9 modification. We subsequently tested the ability of the Bxb1 and Flp/FRT landing pad clones to perform proper RMCE with donor vectors containing identical mAb expression cassettes flanked by either Bxb1 attachment sites or FRT sites. We demonstrated that both RMCE systems were able to generate stable pools in a similar time frame with comparable mAb expression. Through genetic characterization of up to 24 clones derived from either system, we determined that the BxB1 RMCE system yielded higher fidelity RMCE events than the Flp/FRT system as evidenced by a higher percentage of clones with expected integration of the mAb cassette into the landing pad in the respective cell lines. We conclude that Bxb1 RMCE is an excellent alternative to Flp/FRT RMCE and valuable addition to our toolbox

  20. High Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Flow through Turbopumps and Flowliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter LH2 feedline flowliner. Computations were performed on the Columbia platform which is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processor each. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  1. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, James; Graziani, Frank; Marinak, Marty; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  2. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  3. Enhancing clinical practice and education with high-fidelity human patient simulators.

    PubMed

    Peteani, Leigh Ann

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that students exhibit increased autonomy and self-confidence when delivering patient care after practicing first with high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS). Practicing clinical skills on a high-fidelity HPS allows students to learn in a highly adaptable, safe educational environment that fosters autonomy, independence, and the development of sound analytical skills. The author discusses the use of patient simulators in nursing education, a definition of a high-fidelity HPS, and their value to clinical practice and education. A cost-effective example of how to acquire a high-fidelity HPS without going over budget is provided.

  4. High-Fidelity Simulation as an Experiential Model for Teaching Root Cause Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Kimatian, Stephen J.; Murray, W. Bosseau; Sinz, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for teaching root cause analysis (RCA) in graduate medical education. Methods Thirty clinical anesthesiology-1 through clinical anesthesiology-3 residents were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A participants received a 10-minute lecture on RCA and participated in a simulation exercise where a medical error occurs, and group B participants received the 10-minute lecture on RCA only. Participants completed baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up assessments, and they were evaluated on their attitude toward as well as understanding of RCA and “systems-based” care. Results All 30 residents completed the surveys. Baseline attitudes and knowledge scores were similar between groups. Postintervention knowledge scores were also similar between groups; however, group B was significantly more skeptical (P < .001) about the use of RCA and “systems improvement” strategies. Six months later, group A demonstrated retained knowledge scores and unchanged attitude, whereas group B demonstrated significantly worse knowledge scores (P  =  .001) as well as continued skepticism toward a systems-based approach (P < .001) to medical error reduction. Conclusion High-fidelity simulation in conjunction with focused didactics is an effective strategy for teaching RCA and systems theory in graduate medical education. Our findings also suggest that there is greater retention of knowledge and increased positive attitude toward systems improvement when focused didactics are coupled with a high-fidelity simulation exercise. PMID:23205203

  5. High-fidelity simulation as an experiential model for teaching root cause analysis.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Sadeq A; Kimatian, Stephen J; Murray, W Bosseau; Sinz, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for teaching root cause analysis (RCA) in graduate medical education. Thirty clinical anesthesiology-1 through clinical anesthesiology-3 residents were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A participants received a 10-minute lecture on RCA and participated in a simulation exercise where a medical error occurs, and group B participants received the 10-minute lecture on RCA only. Participants completed baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up assessments, and they were evaluated on their attitude toward as well as understanding of RCA and "systems-based" care. All 30 residents completed the surveys. Baseline attitudes and knowledge scores were similar between groups. Postintervention knowledge scores were also similar between groups; however, group B was significantly more skeptical (P < .001) about the use of RCA and "systems improvement" strategies. Six months later, group A demonstrated retained knowledge scores and unchanged attitude, whereas group B demonstrated significantly worse knowledge scores (P  =  .001) as well as continued skepticism toward a systems-based approach (P < .001) to medical error reduction. High-fidelity simulation in conjunction with focused didactics is an effective strategy for teaching RCA and systems theory in graduate medical education. Our findings also suggest that there is greater retention of knowledge and increased positive attitude toward systems improvement when focused didactics are coupled with a high-fidelity simulation exercise.

  6. Classical broadcasting is possible with arbitrarily high fidelity and resolution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas A; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2007-02-23

    We quantify the resolution with which any probability distribution may be distinguished from a displaced copy of itself in terms of a characteristic width. This width, which we call the resolution, is well defined for any normalizable probability distribution. We use this concept to study the broadcasting of classical probability distributions. Ideal classical broadcasting creates two (or more) output random variables each of which has the same distribution as the input random variable. We show that the universal broadcasting of probability distributions may be achieved with arbitrarily high fidelities for any finite resolution. By restricting probability distributions to any finite resolution we have therefore shown that the classical limit of quantum broadcasting is consistent with the actual classical case.

  7. High-fidelity modeling of airfoil interaction with upstream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodnick, Jacob

    To supplement past research on low speed unsteady airfoil responses to upstream disturbances, this work proposes and investigates a method to generate a turbulent momentum source to be convected downstream and interact with an SD7003 airfoil in a high-fidelity numerical simulation. A perturbation velocity field is generated from a summation of Fourier harmonics and applied to the forcing function in the momentum terms of the Navier Stokes Equations. The result is a three-dimensional, divergence-free, convected turbulent gust with applied statistical parameters. A parametric study has been done in 2D and 3D comparing the resultant flow fields and airfoil interactions for various numerical and physical parameters.

  8. Solvent-induced high fidelity switching between two discrete supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, José E; Martín-Hidalgo, Mariana; Gubala, Vladimir; Rivera, José M

    2009-03-11

    Here we show the reversible high fidelity switching between two discrete self-assembled supramolecules made from a lipophilic 8-phenyl-2'-deoxyguanosine derivative induced by an indirect solvent effect. A hexadecameric supramolecule containing four stacked tetramers is formed in acetonitrile aided by higher potassium concentrations. When the amount of weakly solvated potassium decreases, due the lower activity of potassium iodide in chloroform, an octamer is formed after the dissociation of the two outer tetramers in the hexadecamer. The switching process results from an unprecedented subtle interplay between the activity of potassium iodide and the steric crowding within the self-assembled structure. Besides the possible applications in nanoconstruction, this phenomenon sheds light into the mechanism of formation of self-assembled supramolecules made from guanosine derivatives.

  9. Hand ultrasound: a high-fidelity simulation of lung sliding.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Simulation training has been effectively used to integrate didactic knowledge and technical skills in emergency and critical care medicine. In this article, we introduce a novel model of simulating lung ultrasound and the features of lung sliding and pneumothorax by performing a hand ultrasound. The simulation model involves scanning the palmar aspect of the hand to create normal lung sliding in varying modes of scanning and to mimic ultrasound features of pneumothorax, including "stratosphere/barcode sign" and "lung point." The simple, reproducible, and readily available simulation model we describe demonstrates a high-fidelity simulation surrogate that can be used to rapidly illustrate the signs of normal and abnormal lung sliding at the bedside.

  10. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  11. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  12. [The development and current status of high-fidelity patient simulation teaching].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiah-Lian; Lee, Mei-Li; Liao, I-Chen; Liang, Tienli

    2013-04-01

    High-fidelity patient simulation teaching represents one of the most important innovations in healthcare education in the past two decades. In Taiwan, many medical centers and medical colleges now have clinical skill centers equipped with a high-fidelity patient simulator. Practicing clinical scenarios in this simulated environment can help strengthen students' professional essentials and competencies outside of classroom and clinical teaching settings. High-fidelity simulation teaching is an integrated teaching strategy that is continuing to receive greater attention. This article describes the historical development of high-fidelity patient simulation teaching, its current status, and applications in nursing education as a reference for nursing educators.

  13. Observational Requirements for High-Fidelity Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith; Peterson, Bradley M.; Collier, Stefan J.; Netzer, Hagai

    2004-05-01

    We present a series of simulations to demonstrate that high-fidelity velocity-delay maps of the emission-line regions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be obtained from time-resolved spectrophotometric data sets like those that will arise from the proposed Kronos satellite. While previous reverberation-mapping experiments have established the size scale R of the broad emission-line regions from the mean time delay τ=R/c between the line and continuum variations and have provided strong evidence for supermassive black holes, the detailed structure and kinematics of the broad-line region remain ambiguous and poorly constrained. Here we outline the technical improvements that will be required to successfully map broad-line regions by reverberation techniques. For typical AGN continuum light curves, characterized by power-law power spectra P(f)~f-α with α=-1.5+/-0.5, our simulations show that a small UV/optical spectrometer like Kronos will clearly distinguish between currently viable alternative kinematic models. From spectra sampled at time intervals Δt and sustained for a total duration Tdur, we can reconstruct high-fidelity velocity-delay maps with velocity resolution comparable to that of the spectra, and delay resolution Δτ~2Δt, provided that Tdur exceeds the broad-line region light crossing time by at least a factor of 3. Even very complicated kinematical models, such as a Keplerian flow with superimposed spiral wave pattern, are resolved in maps from our simulated Kronos data sets. Reverberation mapping with Kronos data is therefore likely to deliver the first clear maps of the geometry and kinematics in the broad emission-line regions 1-100 μas from supermassive black holes.

  14. Observational Requirements for High-Fidelity Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Peterson, Bradley M.; Collier, Stefan J.; Netzer, Hagai

    2004-01-01

    We present a series of simulations to demonstrate that high-fidelity velocity-delay maps of the emission-line regions in active galactic nuclei can be obtained from time-resolved spectrophotometric data sets like those that will arise from the proposed Kronos satellite. While previous reverberation-mapping experiments have established the size scale R of the broad emission-line regions from the mean time delay tau = R/c between the line and continuum variations and have provided strong evidence for supermassive black holes, the detailed structure and kinematics of the broad-line region remain ambiguous and poorly constrained. Here we outline the technical improvements that will be required to successfully map broad-line regions by reverberation techniques. For typical AGN continuum light curves, characterized by power-law power spectra P (f) is proportional to f(exp -alpha) with a = -1.5 +/- 0.5, our simulations show that a small UV/optical spectrometer like Kronos will clearly distinguish between currently viable alternative kinematic models. From spectra sampled at time intervals Delta t and sustained for a total duration T(sub dur), we can reconstruct high-fidelity velocity-delay maps with velocity resolution comparable to that of the spectra, and delay resolution Delta tau approx. 2 Delta t, provided T(sub dur) exceeds the broad-line region light crossing time by at least a factor of three. Even very complicated kinematical models, such as a Keplerian flow with superimposed spiral wave pattern, are resolved in maps from our simulated Kronos datasets. Reverberation mapping with Kronos data is therefore likely deliver the first clear maps of the geometry and kinematics in the broad emission-line regions 1-100 microarcseconds from supermassive black holes.

  15. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    To account for the thermal and chemical effects associated with the high CO2 concentrations in an oxy-combustion atmosphere, several refined gas-phase chemistry and radiative property models have been formulated for laminar to highly turbulent systems. This thesis examines the accuracies of several chemistry and radiative property models employed in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar to transitional oxy-methane diffusion flames by comparing their predictions against experimental data. Literature review about chemistry and radiation modeling in oxy-combustion atmospheres considered turbulent systems where the predictions are impacted by the interplay and accuracies of the turbulence, radiation and chemistry models. Thus, by considering a laminar system we minimize the impact of turbulence and the uncertainties associated with turbulence models. In the first section of this thesis, an assessment and validation of gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model in oxy-combustion scenarios was undertaken. Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. However, there were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The results of this section confirm that non-gray model predictions of radiative heat fluxes are more accurate than gray model predictions especially at steeper temperature gradients. In the second section, the accuracies of three gas-phase chemistry models were assessed by comparing their predictions against experimental measurements of temperature, species concentrations and flame lengths. The chemistry was modeled employing the Eddy

  16. Integration of Computational Geometry, Finite Element, and Multibody System Algorithms for the Development of New Computational Methodology for High-Fidelity Vehicle Systems Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-11

    suited for efficient communications with CAD systems. It is the main objective of phase I of this SBIR project to demonstrate the feasibility of...for efficient communications with CAD systems. It is the main objective of phase I of this SBIR project to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a...civilian wheeled and tracked vehicle models that include significant details. The new software technology will allow for: 1) preserving CAD geometry

  17. Integration of Computational Geometry, Finite Element, and Multibody System Algorithms for the Development of New Computational Methodology for High-Fidelity Vehicle Systems Modeling and Simulation. ADDENDUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    suited for efficient communications with CAD systems. It is the main objective of phase I and Phase I Option of this SBIR project to demonstrate the...with CAD systems. It is the main objective of phase I and Phase I Option of this SBIR project to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a new MBS...wheeled and tracked vehicle models that include significant details. The new software technology will allow for: 1) preserving CAD geometry when FE

  18. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    PubMed

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  19. High-fidelity self-assembly pathways for hydrogen-bonding molecular semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xu; Suzuki, Mika; Gushiken, Marina; Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Karatsu, Takashi; Kizaki, Takahiro; Tani, Yuki; Nakayama, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Yagai, Shiki

    2017-02-22

    The design of molecular systems with high-fidelity self-assembly pathways that include several levels of hierarchy is of primary importance for the understanding of structure-function relationships, as well as for controlling the functionality of organic materials. Reported herein is a high-fidelity self-assembly system that comprises two hydrogen-bonding molecular semiconductors with regioisomerically attached short alkyl chains. Despite the availability of both discrete cyclic and polymeric linear hydrogen-bonding motifs, the two regioisomers select one of the two motifs in homogeneous solution as well as at the 2D-confined liquid-solid interface. This selectivity arises from the high directionality of the involved hydrogen-bonding interactions, which renders rerouting to other self-assembly pathways difficult. In thin films and in the bulk, the resulting hydrogen-bonded assemblies further organize into the expected columnar and lamellar higher-order architectures via solution processing. The contrasting organized structures of these regioisomers are reflected in their notably different miscibility with soluble fullerene derivatives in the solid state. Thus, electron donor-acceptor blend films deliver a distinctly different photovoltaic performance, despite their virtually identical intrinsic optoelectronic properties. Currently, we attribute this high-fidelity control via self-assembly pathways to the molecular design of these supramolecular semiconductors, which lacks structure-determining long aliphatic chains.

  20. High-fidelity self-assembly pathways for hydrogen-bonding molecular semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xu; Suzuki, Mika; Gushiken, Marina; Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Karatsu, Takashi; Kizaki, Takahiro; Tani, Yuki; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Yagai, Shiki

    2017-01-01

    The design of molecular systems with high-fidelity self-assembly pathways that include several levels of hierarchy is of primary importance for the understanding of structure-function relationships, as well as for controlling the functionality of organic materials. Reported herein is a high-fidelity self-assembly system that comprises two hydrogen-bonding molecular semiconductors with regioisomerically attached short alkyl chains. Despite the availability of both discrete cyclic and polymeric linear hydrogen-bonding motifs, the two regioisomers select one of the two motifs in homogeneous solution as well as at the 2D-confined liquid-solid interface. This selectivity arises from the high directionality of the involved hydrogen-bonding interactions, which renders rerouting to other self-assembly pathways difficult. In thin films and in the bulk, the resulting hydrogen-bonded assemblies further organize into the expected columnar and lamellar higher-order architectures via solution processing. The contrasting organized structures of these regioisomers are reflected in their notably different miscibility with soluble fullerene derivatives in the solid state. Thus, electron donor-acceptor blend films deliver a distinctly different photovoltaic performance, despite their virtually identical intrinsic optoelectronic properties. Currently, we attribute this high-fidelity control via self-assembly pathways to the molecular design of these supramolecular semiconductors, which lacks structure-determining long aliphatic chains. PMID:28225029

  1. High-fidelity qubit measurement with a microwave-photon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govia, Luke C. G.; Pritchett, Emily J.; Xu, Canran; Plourde, B. L. T.; Vavilov, Maxim G.; Wilhelm, Frank K.; McDermott, R.

    2014-12-01

    High-fidelity, efficient quantum nondemolition readout of quantum bits is integral to the goal of quantum computation. As superconducting circuits approach the requirements of scalable, universal fault tolerance, qubit readout must also meet the demand of simplicity to scale with growing system size. Here we propose a fast, high-fidelity, scalable measurement scheme based on the state-selective ring-up of a cavity followed by photodetection with the recently introduced Josephson photomultiplier (JPM), a current-biased Josephson junction. This scheme maps qubit state information to the binary digital output of the JPM, circumventing the need for room-temperature heterodyne detection and offering the possibility of a cryogenic interface to superconducting digital control circuitry. Numerics show that measurement contrast in excess of 95% is achievable in a measurement time of 140 ns. We discuss perspectives to scale this scheme to enable readout of multiple qubit channels with a single JPM.

  2. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  3. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming <60 milliWatts. Furthermore, even though it is manufactured in a commercial 0.25-.mu.m CMOS technology (1 .mu.m=12.sup.-6 meters), it maintains this performance in harsh radiation environments. Specifically, the stated performance is sustained through a highest tested 2 megarad(Si) total dose, and the ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  4. High-fidelity simulation for continuing education in nurse anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cannon-Diehl, M Roseann; Rugari, Susan M; Jones, Terri S

    2012-06-01

    Simulation represents a true paradigm shift in teaching and learning that has revolutionized healthcare education. However, few continuing education opportunities for anesthesia providers exist using simulation of any type. This article explores the usefulness of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) as a valuable tool for continuing education and reports the results of a needs assessment conducted among 22 practicing nurse anesthetists. The questions related to their exposure to HFS and asked them to rank their experience with 11 anesthesia events. Next, respondents were asked to rank a similar list of anesthesia events that would be useful for continuing education using simulation. Of participants, 71% ranked advanced cardiac life support scenarios, anesthesia machine mishaps, and malignant hyperthermia as highly effective choices for using HFS. Eighty-one percent of participants identified that they envision simulation as a valuable tool to assess competency, but respondents had mixed written responses when asked if simulation should be used for recertification. This needs assessment represents a beginning, grassroots attempt to establish nurse anesthetists' perceptions related to using HFS as a tool for continuing education.

  5. Biosensor Architectures for High-Fidelity Reporting of Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Vaux, David J.; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling. PMID:25099816

  6. Advanced life simulation: High-fidelity simulation without the high technology.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Trudy; Reid Searl, Kerry; McAllister, Margaret; Guerin, Michael; Friel, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Simulation-based resuscitation education has emerged as a key to improving patient safety and numerous healthcare organisations have invested in high-fidelity simulation training centres. However, the high purchasing cost, limited portability, technical expertise and organisational skills required to coordinate these high-fidelity simulation centres are factors that limit their use as a wide-spread teaching and learning method. Creative innovation is required. The aim of this study was to pilot an inexpensive, portable, novel high fidelity humanistic simulation modality, for educating nurses and doctors in recognising and responding to the deteriorating patient. Analysis of five focus group discussions revealed the main theme of engagement in the simulation experience with three main subthemes of realism of the character, believability of the experience and being more connected. In conclusion, this innovative simulation modality offers a viable alternative for resuscitation training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  8. The Creation of a CPU Timer for High Fidelity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Aidan A.

    2011-01-01

    Using C and C++ programming languages, a tool was developed that measures the efficiency of a program by recording the amount of CPU time that various functions consume. By inserting the tool between lines of code in the program, one can receive a detailed report of the absolute and relative time consumption associated with each section. After adapting the generic tool for a high-fidelity launch vehicle simulation program called MAVERIC, the components of a frequently used function called "derivatives ( )" were measured. Out of the 34 sub-functions in "derivatives ( )", it was found that the top 8 sub-functions made up 83.1% of the total time spent. In order to decrease the overall run time of MAVERIC, a launch vehicle simulation program, a change was implemented in the sub-function "Event_Controller ( )". Reformatting "Event_Controller ( )" led to a 36.9% decrease in the total CPU time spent by that sub-function, and a 3.2% decrease in the total CPU time spent by the overarching function "derivatives ( )".

  9. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  10. Principal considerations for the contemporary high-fidelity endovascular simulator design used in training and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eslahpazir, Benjamin A; Goldstone, Jerry; Allemang, Matthew T; Wang, John C; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2014-04-01

    The simulation and rehearsal of virtual endovascular procedures are anticipated to improve the outcomes of actual procedures. Contemporary, high-fidelity simulation is based on feedback systems that combine concepts of mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems engineering to reproduce an interactive endovascular case. These sophisticated devices also include psychometric instruments for objective surgical skill assessment. The goal of this report is to identify the design characteristics of commercially available simulators for endovascular procedures and to provide a cross-section comparison across all devices to aid in the simulator selection process. Data were obtained (1) by a standard questionnaire issued to four simulator companies prompting for relevant design details of each model for the expressed purpose of publication, (2) from each manufacturer's respective website including appended sales brochures and specification sheets, and (3) by an evaluation of peer-reviewed literature. Focus topics include haptic technology, vessel segmentation, physiologic feedback, performance feedback, and physical logistics (ie, weight, dimensions, and portability). All data sources were surveyed between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. All of the commercially available, high-fidelity endovascular simulators use interactive virtual environments with preprogrammed physics and physiology models for accurate reproduction of surgical reality. The principal differences between devices are the number of access sites and haptic devices, the ability to reconstruct patient-specific anatomy for preprocedural rehearsal, and the available peripheral training modalities. Hardware and software options can also vary within the same device in comparing patient-specific with generic cases. Despite our limited knowledge about the potential of high-fidelity simulation within the endovascular world, today's currently available simulators successfully provide high-fidelity

  11. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, A.; Glickman, Y.; Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Ozeri, R.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  12. Computer image generation: Reconfigurability as a strategy in high fidelity space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The demand for realistic, high fidelity, computer image generation systems to support space simulation is well established. However, as the number and diversity of space applications increase, the complexity and cost of computer image generation systems also increase. One strategy used to harmonize cost with varied requirements is establishment of a reconfigurable image generation system that can be adapted rapidly and easily to meet new and changing requirements. The reconfigurability strategy through the life cycle of system conception, specification, design, implementation, operation, and support for high fidelity computer image generation systems are discussed. The discussion is limited to those issues directly associated with reconfigurability and adaptability of a specialized scene generation system in a multi-faceted space applications environment. Examples and insights gained through the recent development and installation of the Improved Multi-function Scene Generation System at Johnson Space Center, Systems Engineering Simulator are reviewed and compared with current simulator industry practices. The results are clear; the strategy of reconfigurability applied to space simulation requirements provides a viable path to supporting diverse applications with an adaptable computer image generation system.

  13. A new concept in underwater high fidelity low frequency sound generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Paulo J.; Alves, J. Maia

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on a new type of system for high fidelity underwater sound generation (patent pending PT105474). The system includes an underwater sound actuator and the corresponding electronic driver. The sound is generated by a rigid plate that is actuated (both for positioning/dumping and excitation) using purely electromagnetic forces, thus, avoiding the use of any elastic membrane. Since there is no compressible air inside the device, which is flooded by water, the operation of this device is independent from depth, broadening its applications to any water pressure. Characterization of the frequency response, the radiation characteristics, and the dynamic range of this new device for underwater sound generation is presented.

  14. A new concept in underwater high fidelity low frequency sound generation.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Paulo J; Alves, J Maia

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on a new type of system for high fidelity underwater sound generation (patent pending PT105474). The system includes an underwater sound actuator and the corresponding electronic driver. The sound is generated by a rigid plate that is actuated (both for positioning/dumping and excitation) using purely electromagnetic forces, thus, avoiding the use of any elastic membrane. Since there is no compressible air inside the device, which is flooded by water, the operation of this device is independent from depth, broadening its applications to any water pressure. Characterization of the frequency response, the radiation characteristics, and the dynamic range of this new device for underwater sound generation is presented.

  15. A high fidelity real-time simulation of a small turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.

    1988-01-01

    A high-fidelity component-type model and real-time digital simulation of the General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine were developed for use with current generation real-time blade-element rotor helicopter simulations. A control system model based on the specification fuel control system used in the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter is also presented. The modeling assumptions and real-time digital implementation methods particular to the simulation of small turboshaft engines are described. The validity of the simulation is demonstrated by comparison with analysis-oriented simulations developed by the manufacturer, available test data, and flight-test time histories.

  16. Effects of VR system fidelity on analyzing isosurface visualization of volume datasets.

    PubMed

    Laha, Bireswar; Bowman, Doug A; Socha, John J

    2014-04-01

    Volume visualization is an important technique for analyzing datasets from a variety of different scientific domains. Volume data analysis is inherently difficult because volumes are three-dimensional, dense, and unfamiliar, requiring scientists to precisely control the viewpoint and to make precise spatial judgments. Researchers have proposed that more immersive (higher fidelity) VR systems might improve task performance with volume datasets, and significant results tied to different components of display fidelity have been reported. However, more information is needed to generalize these results to different task types, domains, and rendering styles. We visualized isosurfaces extracted from synchrotron microscopic computed tomography (SR-μCT) scans of beetles, in a CAVE-like display. We ran a controlled experiment evaluating the effects of three components of system fidelity (field of regard, stereoscopy, and head tracking) on a variety of abstract task categories that are applicable to various scientific domains, and also compared our results with those from our prior experiment using 3D texture-based rendering. We report many significant findings. For example, for search and spatial judgment tasks with isosurface visualization, a stereoscopic display provides better performance, but for tasks with 3D texture-based rendering, displays with higher field of regard were more effective, independent of the levels of the other display components. We also found that systems with high field of regard and head tracking improve performance in spatial judgment tasks. Our results extend existing knowledge and produce new guidelines for designing VR systems to improve the effectiveness of volume data analysis.

  17. Performance of a High-Fidelity 4kW-Class Engineering Model PPU and Integration with HiVHAc System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, Hani; Shilo, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) propulsion system consists of a thruster,power processing unit (PPU), and propellant feed system. An engineering model PPU was developed by Colorado Power Electronics, Inc. funded by NASA's Small Business Innovative Research Program. This PPU uses an innovative 3-phase resonant converter to deliver 4 kW of discharge power over a wide range of input and output voltage conditions.The PPU includes a digital control interface unit that automatically controls the PPU and a xenon flow control module (XFCM). It interfaces with a control computer to receive high level commands and relay telemetry through a MIL-STD-1553B interface. The EM PPU was thoroughly tested at GRC for functionality and performance at temperature extremes and demonstrated total efficiencies a high as 95 percent. It was integrated with the HiVHAc thruster and the XFCM to demonstrate closed-loop control of discharge current with anode flow. Initiation of the main discharge and power throttling were also successfully demonstrated and discharge oscillations were characterized.

  18. Performance of a High-Fidelity 4kW-Class Engineering Model PPU and Integration with HiVHAc System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, Hani; Shilo, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    The High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) propulsion system consists of a thruster, power processing unit (PPU), and propellant feed system. An engineering model PPU was developed by Colorado Power Electronics, Inc. funded by NASA's Small Business Innovative Research Program. This PPU uses an innovative 3-phase resonant converter to deliver 4 kW of discharge power over a wide range of input and output voltage conditions. The PPU includes a digital control interface unit that automatically controls the PPU and a xenon flow control module (XFCM). It interfaces with a control computer to receive highlevel commands and relay telemetry through a MIL-STD-1553B interface. The EM PPU was thoroughly tested at GRC for functionality and performance at temperature limits and demonstrated total efficiencies a high as 95 percent. Integrated testing of the unit was performed with the HiVHAc thruster and the XFCM to demonstrate closed-loop control of discharge current with anode flow. Initiation of the main discharge and power throttling were also successfully demonstrated and discharge oscillations were characterized.

  19. A synthetic high fidelity, high cadence spectral Earth database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler D.; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Sparks, William B.; Cracraft, Misty

    2016-10-01

    Earth is currently our only, and will always be our best, example of a living planet. While Earth data model comparisons have been effectively used in recent years to validate spectral models, observations by interplanetary spacecraft are limited to "snapshots" in terms of viewing geometry and Earth's dynamic surface and atmosphere state. We use the well-validated Virtual Planetary Laboratory 3D spectral Earth model to generate both simulated disk-averaged spectra and high resolution, spatially resolved spectral data cubes of Earth at a viewing geometry consistent with Lunar viewing angles at wavelengths from the far UV (0.1 μm) the to the far IR (200 μm). The database includes disk-averaged spectra from dates 03/19/2008 to 04/23/2008 at one-hour cadence and fully spectral data cubes for a subset of those times. These spectral products have a wide range of applications including calibration of spacecraft instrumentation (Robinson et al. 2014), modeling the radiation environment of permanently shadowed Lunar craters due to Earthshine (Glenar et al., in prep), and testing the detectability of atmospheric and surface features of an Earth-like planet orbiting a distant star with a large space-based telescope mission concepts such as LUVOIR. These data include the phase and time-dependent changes in spectral biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4, VRE) and habitability markers (N2, H2O, CO2, ocean glint). The advantages of the VPL Earth model data products over 1D spectra traditionally used for testing instrument architectures include accurate modeling of Earth's surface inhomogeneity (continental distribution and ice caps), cloud cover and variability, pole to equator temperature gradients, obliquity, phase-dependent scattering effects, and rotation. We present a subset of this spectral data including anticipated signal-to-noise calculations of an exoEarth twin at different phases using a coronagraph instrument model (Robinson et al. 2015). We also calculate time

  20. High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

  1. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  2. High Fidelity Quantum Gates via Analytically Solvable Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    generally allow for higher fidelities as compared to their unchirped coun- terparts, an effect reminiscent of the robust population transfer to an...2 + λ), the effective pulse area is the same as that of the RZ sech pulse, so that for Ω/σ = integer, the induced evolution is cyclic. I focus on...larger detuning required for the same phase. Since the detuning is large, from a qualitative effective Rabi frequency argument, the relative

  3. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet–triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning ϵ, which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins. PMID:24255105

  4. Automatic generation of high-fidelity urban scenes for sensor simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Monnier, Camille; Kapali, Sudha; Snorrason, Magnús; Setterdahl, Duane; Lindquist, Eric

    2006-05-01

    The development and evaluation of precision strike weaponry requires high fidelity image simulation, as data collections involving moving platforms are difficult to schedule and costly to perform. Furthermore, live data collections where the weapon is being guided by an autonomous target acquisition (ATA) system cannot be performed in dense urban environments. The only solution is to develop high fidelity image and navigation simulations of realistic operating environments. We are currently developing a system that automatically generates a detailed urban scene requiring minimal user input. Given a set of parameters such as population, terrain, and city style, the system generates a two-dimensional city plan containing features such as road networks, buildings, vehicles, vegetation, and miscellaneous additional urban objects. The two-dimensional city representation is then processed by an interactive scene modeling and simulation environment that generates a textured, high-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the scene in a format compatible with well-known LADAR and IR sensor simulation suites such as IRMA. At each step in the process, the user has the ability to interact with the scene, whether to change specific scene parame-ters or to manually insert, remove, or modify targets and objects of interest.

  5. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, Ramy

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition

  6. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy.

  7. HIGH-FIDELITY SIMULATION-DRIVEN MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR COARSE-GRAINED COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Botros N.; Dinh, Nam T.; Bolotnov, Igor A.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear reactor safety analysis requires identifying various credible accident scenarios and determining their consequences. For a full-scale nuclear power plant system behavior, it is impossible to obtain sufficient experimental data for a broad range of risk-significant accident scenarios. In single-phase flow convective problems, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can provide us with high fidelity results when physical data are unavailable. However, these methods are computationally expensive and cannot be afforded for simulation of long transient scenarios in nuclear accidents despite extraordinary advances in high performance scientific computing over the past decades. The major issue is the inability to make the transient computation parallel, thus making number of time steps required in high-fidelity methods unaffordable for long transients. In this work, we propose to apply a high fidelity simulation-driven approach to model sub-grid scale (SGS) effect in Coarse Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics CG-CFD. This approach aims to develop a statistical surrogate model instead of the deterministic SGS model. We chose to start with a turbulent natural convection case with volumetric heating in a horizontal fluid layer with a rigid, insulated lower boundary and isothermal (cold) upper boundary. This scenario of unstable stratification is relevant to turbulent natural convection in a molten corium pool during a severe nuclear reactor accident, as well as in containment mixing and passive cooling. The presented approach demonstrates how to create a correction for the CG-CFD solution by modifying the energy balance equation. A global correction for the temperature equation proves to achieve a significant improvement to the prediction of steady state temperature distribution through the fluid layer.

  8. Using high-fidelity simulation as a learning strategy in an undergraduate intensive care course.

    PubMed

    Badir, Aysel; Zeybekoğlu, Zuhal; Karacay, Pelin; Göktepe, Nilgün; Topcu, Serpil; Yalcin, Begüm; Kebapci, Ayda; Oban, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Using high-fidelity simulations to facilitate student learning is an uncommon practice in Turkish nursing programs. The aim of the present study was to understand students' perceptions of the use of simulation in nursing courses. Subjects included 36 senior nursing students taking an intensive care course. This study revealed that high-fidelity simulation is an ideal method of promoting learning by helping students transfer theory into practice, build confidence and teamwork, and raise professional awareness.

  9. Visual Through Infrared: Modeling Components and Methodologies for Estimating High Fidelity Ground Vehicle Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Visual Through Infrared: Mo deling Comp onents and Metho dologies for Estimating High Fidelity Ground Vehicle Signatures William R. Reynolds...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Visual Through Infrared: Mo deling Comp onents and Metho dologies for Estimating High Fidelity Ground Vehicle...for each pixel is the weighted sum of the reflections from the surrounding hemisphere of spatially differentiated pixels of the calibrated panoramic

  10. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  11. High-Fidelity Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation for Mechanics Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0039 High-Fidelity Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation for Mechanics Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials Yongjie...0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...From - To) Oct 1, 2011-Sep 30, 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-Fidelity Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation for Mechanics Characterization of

  12. Extensible Adaptable Simulation Systems: Supporting Multiple Fidelity Simulations in a Common Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Common practice in the development of simulation systems is meeting all user requirements within a single instantiation. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) presents a unique challenge to establish a simulation environment that meets the needs of a diverse user community while also spanning a multi-mission environment over decades of operation. In response, the JPSS Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) is architected with an extensible infrastructure that supports the operation of multiple observatory simulations for a single mission and multiple mission within a common system perimeter. For the JPSS-1 satellite, multiple fidelity flight observatory simulations are necessary to support the distinct user communities consisting of the Common Ground System development team, the Common Ground System Integration & Test team, and the Mission Rehearsal Team/Mission Operations Team. These key requirements present several challenges to FVTS development. First, the FVTS must ensure all critical user requirements are satisfied by at least one fidelity instance of the observatory simulation. Second, the FVTS must allow for tailoring of the system instances to function in diverse operational environments from the High-security operations environment at NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) to the ground system factory floor. Finally, the FVTS must provide the ability to execute sustaining engineering activities on a subset of the system without impacting system availability to parallel users. The FVTS approach of allowing for multiple fidelity copies of observatory simulations represents a unique concept in simulator capability development and corresponds to the JPSS Ground System goals of establishing a capability that is flexible, extensible, and adaptable.

  13. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  14. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-30

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  15. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  16. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma

    2015-11-01

    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  17. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  18. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  19. High-fidelity simulator technology may not be superior to traditional low-fidelity equipment for neonatal resuscitation training.

    PubMed

    Finan, E; Bismilla, Z; Whyte, H E; Leblanc, V; McNamara, P J

    2012-04-01

    Despite completing accredited resuscitation training, neonatal trainees often feel unprepared to deal with real-life clinical emergencies. High-fidelity simulator (HFS) technology offers the potential of recreating a realistic stressful clinical environment to aid training and evaluation. To date, there are limited data examining the physiological impact of this training modality in comparison to less costly alternatives. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of low-fidelity simulator (LFS) versus HFS technology on performance levels, objective and subjective measures of stress in neonatal trainees. Sixteen neonatal fellows were invited to participate in a prospective randomized study. Subjects were divided into pairs and randomized to LFS or HFS for completion of scenario I. After an interval of 1 month, fellow teams crossed over to complete scenario II using the alternative simulator technology. Technical and non-technical skills were assessed using validated resuscitation scoring tools. Participants recorded subjective stress at sequential time points before and after each simulation. Buccal cortisol was measured at each corresponding time point and comparison between HFS and LFS groups was made. The mean overall resuscitation performance score was 75.8%±10, but there was no difference in performance between HFS and LFS groups. There was also no significant difference in non-technical skills performance between groups. Salivary cortisol increased over the duration of the simulated experience, but there were no differences between the two groups (P=0.001, two-way repeated measures analysis of variance). We also identified changes in subjective measures of stress (P<0.001, analysis of variance) over time, but again there were no differences between groups. Simulated neonatal resuscitations induce a significant stress response in neonatal trainees; however, we were unable to identify any difference in stress measures between HFS and LFS. These

  20. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Farmer, J.; Dixon, D.; Kapernick, R.; Dickens, R.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but to also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the sheath surface in the thermal simulator. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance was determined using SINDA-FLUINT analysis, and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs was compared to the expected nuclear performance. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts.

  1. High Fidelity Modeling of Evolutionary Structures in IMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melody, James W.; Levine-West, Marie

    1994-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for testing, modal identification, and model correlation of structures which are assembled in an evolutionary manner. The methodology prescribes initial testing of a base structure without any attached components. The experimental modal properties are used to update the physical properties of the base structure finite element model using a Bayesian Estimation Technique (BET). The BET is implemented in METLAB using IMOS functions. As components are added to the base structure, additional tests are performed. Three testing options are proposed, all of which enable estimation of the physical parameters of the components alone. Furthermore, improvements to the original BET implementation have been made, which contribute to higher fidelity models and more efficient computational times.

  2. Low fidelity, high quality: a model for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Morris; Chandratilake, Madawa; Baker, Paul

    2013-08-01

    E-learning continues to proliferate as a method to deliver continuing medical education. The effectiveness of e-learning has been widely studied, showing that it is as effective as traditional forms of education. However, most reports focus on whether the e-learning is effective, rather than discussing innovations to allow clinical educators to ask 'how' and 'why' it is effective, and to facilitate local reproduction. Previous work has set out a number of barriers to the introduction of e-learning interventions. Cost, the time to produce interventions, and the training requirements for educators and trainees have all been identified as barriers. We set out to design an e-learning intervention on paediatric prescribing that could address these issues using a low-fidelity approach, and report our methods so as to allow interested readers to use a similar approach. Using low-cost, readily accessible tools and applying appropriate educational theory, the intervention was produced in a short period of time. As part of a randomised controlled trial, long-term retention of prescribing skills was demonstrated, with significantly higher prescribing skill scores in the e-learning group at 4 and 12 weeks (p < 0.0001). Feedback was universally positive, with Likert responses suggesting that it was useful, convenient and easy to use. A low-fidelity approach to designing can successfully overcome many of the barriers to the introduction of e-learning. The design model described is simple and can be used by clinical teachers to support local development. Further research could investigate the experiences of these clinicians using this method of instructional design. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  4. SPARTAN: A High-Fidelity Simulation for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turbe, Michael A.; McDuffie, James H.; DeKock, Brandon K.; Betts, Kevin M.; Carrington, Connie K.

    2007-01-01

    bd Systems (a subsidiary of SAIC) has developed the Simulation Package for Autonomous Rendezvous Test and ANalysis (SPARTAN), a high-fidelity on-orbit simulation featuring multiple six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) vehicles. SPARTAN has been developed in a modular fashion in Matlab/Simulink to test next-generation automated rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation,and control algorithms for NASA's new Vision for Space Exploration. SPARTAN includes autonomous state-based mission manager algorithms responsible for sequencing the vehicle through various flight phases based on on-board sensor inputs and closed-loop guidance algorithms, including Lambert transfers, Clohessy-Wiltshire maneuvers, and glideslope approaches The guidance commands are implemented using an integrated translation and attitude control system to provide 6DOF control of each vehicle in the simulation. SPARTAN also includes high-fidelity representations of a variety of absolute and relative navigation sensors that maybe used for NASA missions, including radio frequency, lidar, and video-based rendezvous sensors. Proprietary navigation sensor fusion algorithms have been developed that allow the integration of these sensor measurements through an extended Kalman filter framework to create a single optimal estimate of the relative state of the vehicles. SPARTAN provides capability for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis, allowing for rigorous evaluation of the performance of the complete proposed AR&D system, including software, sensors, and mechanisms. SPARTAN also supports hardware-in-the-loop testing through conversion of the algorithms to C code using Real-Time Workshop in order to be hosted in a mission computer engineering development unit running an embedded real-time operating system. SPARTAN also contains both runtime TCP/IP socket interface and post-processing compatibility with bdStudio, a visualization tool developed by bd Systems, allowing for intuitive evaluation of simulation results. A

  5. Economical Unsteady High-Fidelity Aerodynamics for Structural Optimization with a Flutter Constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    Structural optimization with a flutter constraint for a vehicle designed to fly in the transonic regime is a particularly difficult task. In this speed range, the flutter boundary is very sensitive to aerodynamic nonlinearities, typically requiring high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations. However, the repeated application of unsteady computational fluid dynamics to guide an aeroelastic optimization process is very computationally expensive. This expense has motivated the development of methods that incorporate aspects of the aerodynamic nonlinearity, classical tools of flutter analysis, and more recent methods of optimization. While it is possible to use doublet lattice method aerodynamics, this paper focuses on the use of an unsteady high-fidelity aerodynamic reduced order model combined with successive transformations that allows for an economical way of utilizing high-fidelity aerodynamics in the optimization process. This approach is applied to the common research model wing structural design. As might be expected, the high-fidelity aerodynamics produces a heavier wing than that optimized with doublet lattice aerodynamics. It is found that the optimized lower skin of the wing using high-fidelity aerodynamics differs significantly from that using doublet lattice aerodynamics.

  6. High-fidelity simulation effects on CPR knowledge, skills, acquisition, and retention in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Ahmad A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-12-01

    There is a gap in the literature regarding learning outcomes linked to the use of high-fidelity simulators compared to that of traditional teaching methods. To examine the effect of using high-fidelity simulators on knowledge and skills acquisition and retention with university students. A randomized two-arm trial using two different educational approaches on 90 nursing students assigned randomly to two groups was used at two points of time. The results showed significant differences in favor of the participants in the high-fidelity simulator group on both the acquisition and retention of knowledge and skills over time. However, a significant loss of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills occurred at 3 months after training in both groups. The findings of this study may assist educators in integrating high-fidelity simulators in education and training. In addition, the findings may help nursing educators to arrange additional cardiopulmonary resuscitation training sessions in order to improve cardiac arrested patients' outcomes. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) provides students with interactive learning experiences in a safe controlled environment. HFS enables teachers to implement critical clinical scenarios, such as cardiac arrest, without risk to patients. Integrating the simulation training into nursing curricula will help to overcome the challenges that face many courses, specifically the shortage of clinical areas for training and the increase in numbers of nursing students. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Implementing a high-fidelity simulation program in a community college setting.

    PubMed

    Tuoriniemi, Pamela; Schott-Baer, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    Despite their relatively high cost, there is heightened interest by faculty in undergraduate nursing programs to implement high-fidelity simulation (HFS) programs. High-fidelity simulators are appealing because they allow students to experience high-risk, low-volume patient problems in a realistic setting. The decision to purchase a simulator is the first step in the process of implementing and maintaining an HFS lab. Knowledge, technical skill, commitment, and considerable time are needed to develop a successful program. The process, as experienced by one community college nursing program, is described.

  8. High Fidelity Virtual Environments: Does Shader Quality or Higher Polygon Count Models Increase Presence and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Scott

    This research study investigated the effects of high fidelity graphics on both learning and presence, or the "sense of being there," inside a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Four versions of a VLE on the subject of the element mercury were created, each with a different combination of high and low fidelity polygon models and high and low fidelity shaders. A total of 76 college age (18+ years of age) participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants interacted with the VLE and then completed several posttest measures on learning, presence, and attitudes towards the VLE experience. Demographic information was also collected, including age, computer gameplay experience, number of virtual environments interacted with, gender and time spent in this virtual environment. The data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 between subjects ANOVA. The main effects of shader fidelity and polygon fidelity were both non-significant for both learning and all presence subscales inside the VLE. In addition, there was no significant interaction between shader fidelity and model fidelity. However, there were two significant results on the supplementary variables. First, gender was found to have a significant main effect on all the presence subscales. Females reported higher average levels of presence than their male counterparts. Second, gameplay hours, or the number of hours a participant played computer games per week, also had a significant main effect on participant score on the learning measure. The participants who reported playing 15+ hours of computer games per week, the highest amount of time in the variable, had the highest score as a group on the mercury learning measure while those participants that played 1-5 hours per week had the lowest scores.

  9. A low complexity, low spur digital IF conversion circuit for high-fidelity GNSS signal playback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fei; Ying, Rendong

    2016-01-01

    A low complexity high efficiency and low spur digital intermediate frequency (IF) conversion circuit is discussed in the paper. This circuit is key element in high-fidelity GNSS signal playback instrument. We analyze the spur performance of a finite state machine (FSM) based numerically controlled oscillators (NCO), by optimization of the control algorithm, a FSM based NCO with 3 quantization stage can achieves 65dB SFDR in the range of the seventh harmonic. Compare with traditional lookup table based NCO design with the same Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) performance, the logic resource require to implemented the NCO is reduced to 1/3. The proposed design method can be extended to the IF conversion system with good SFDR in the range of higher harmonic components by increasing the quantization stage.

  10. Challenges in the development of high-fidelity LWR core neutronics tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Modern computing has made possible the solution of extremely large-scale reactor simulations, and the literature has numerous examples of high-resolution methods (often Monte Carlo) applied to full-core reactor problems. However, there are currently no examples in the literature of application of such 'High-Fidelity' or 'First Principles' methods to operating Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. This paper seeks to remind code developers, project managers, and analysts of the many important aspects of LWR simulation that must be incorporated to produce truly high-fidelity analysis tools. The authors offer a monetary prize to the first person (or group) that successfully solves a new two-cycle operational PWR depletion benchmark problem using high-fidelity tools and demonstrates acceptable accuracy by comparison with measured operational plant data (open source) provided to the reactor analysis community. (authors)

  11. High fidelity imaging of geosynchronous satellites with the MROI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John; Haniff, Christopher; Buscher, David; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Payne, Ifan

    2016-08-01

    Interferometry currently provides the only practicable way to image satellites in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is being funded by the US Air Force Research Laboratory to demonstrate the 9.5 magnitude sensitivity (at 2.2 μm wavelength) and baseline-bootstrapping capability that will be needed to realize a useful turn-key GEO imaging capability. This program will utilize the central three telescopes of the MROI and will aim to validate routine acquisition of fringe data on faint well-resolved targets. In parallel with this effort, the University of Cambridge are investigating the spatial resolution and imaging fidelity that can be achieved with different numbers of array elements. We present preliminary simulations of snapshot GEO satellite imaging with the MROI. Our results indicate that faithful imaging of the main satellite components can be obtained with as few as 7 unit telescopes, and that increasing the number of telescopes to 10 improves the effective spatial resolution from 0.75 meter to 0.5 meter and enables imaging of more complex targets.

  12. Novel high-fidelity realistic explosion damage simulation for urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob; Zhu, Youding; Raju, Chaitanya; Bhagavathula, Jaya

    2010-04-01

    Realistic building damage simulation has a significant impact in modern modeling and simulation systems especially in diverse panoply of military and civil applications where these simulation systems are widely used for personnel training, critical mission planning, disaster management, etc. Realistic building damage simulation should incorporate accurate physics-based explosion models, rubble generation, rubble flyout, and interactions between flying rubble and their surrounding entities. However, none of the existing building damage simulation systems sufficiently faithfully realize the criteria of realism required for effective military applications. In this paper, we present a novel physics-based high-fidelity and runtime efficient explosion simulation system to realistically simulate destruction to buildings. In the proposed system, a family of novel blast models is applied to accurately and realistically simulate explosions based on static and/or dynamic detonation conditions. The system also takes account of rubble pile formation and applies a generic and scalable multi-component based object representation to describe scene entities and highly scalable agent-subsumption architecture and scheduler to schedule clusters of sequential and parallel events. The proposed system utilizes a highly efficient and scalable tetrahedral decomposition approach to realistically simulate rubble formation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically simulate rubble generation, rubble flyout and their primary and secondary impacts on surrounding objects including buildings, constructions, vehicles and pedestrians in clusters of sequential and parallel damage events.

  13. An Automatic Medium to High Fidelity Low-Thrust Global Trajectory Toolchain; EMTG-GMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Ryne T.; Englander, Jacob A.; Hughes, Steven P.; Schadegg, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Solving the global optimization, low-thrust, multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectory problem with high-fidelity dynamical models requires an unreasonable amount of computational resources. A better approach, and one that is demonstrated in this paper, is a multi-step process whereby the solution of the aforementioned problem is solved at a lower-fidelity and this solution is used as an initial guess for a higher-fidelity solver. The framework presented in this work uses two tools developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) and the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). EMTG is a medium to medium-high fidelity low-thrust interplanetary global optimization solver, which now has the capability to automatically generate GMAT script files for seeding a high-fidelity solution using GMAT's local optimization capabilities. A discussion of the dynamical models as well as thruster and power modeling for both EMTG and GMAT are given in this paper. Current capabilities are demonstrated with examples that highlight the toolchains ability to efficiently solve the difficult low-thrust global optimization problem with little human intervention.

  14. Examining the impact of high and medium fidelity simulation experiences on nursing students' knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Hoffman, Kerry; Arthur, Carol; Roche, Jan

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a study that measured and compared knowledge acquisition in nursing students exposed to medium or high fidelity human patient simulation manikins. In Australia and internationally the use of simulated learning environments has escalated. Simulation requires a significant investment of time and money and in a period of economic rationalisation this investment must be justified. Assessment of knowledge acquisition with multiple choice questions is the most common approach used to determine the effectiveness of simulation experiences. This study was conducted in an Australian school of nursing; 84 third year nursing students participated. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of the level of manikin fidelity on knowledge acquisition. Data were collected at three points in time: prior to the simulation, immediately following and two weeks later. Differences in mean scores between the control (medium fidelity) and experimental (high fidelity) groups for Tests 1, 2 and 3 were calculated using independent t tests and were not statistically significant. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to determine whether changes in knowledge scores occurred over time and, while an improvement in scores was observed, it was not statistically significant. The results of this study raise questions about the value of investing in expensive simulation modalities when the increased costs associated with high fidelity manikins may not be justified by a concomitant increase learning outcomes. This study also suggests that multiple choice questions may not be the most appropriate measure of simulation effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-fidelity patient simulation mannequins to facilitate aerodigestive endoscopy training.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Ellen S

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the perceived value of aerodigestive endoscopy training using high-fidelity simulation. Self-reported survey. Pediatric tertiary care hospital. Consecutive sample of otolaryngology residents and 1 fellow during the 2006-2007 academic year. Foreign body aspiration and ingestion were simulated in a high-fidelity, computer-assisted infant simulation mannequin. Avoidance of complications and successful removal required teamwork and responsiveness to the mannequin's physiologic characteristics in addition to dexterity with instruments. Postcourse 5-point Likert scale and subjective evaluation of perceived realism reported by participants. Participant response was generally positive. Ratings were highest for training cognitive and psychomotor endoscopy skills, preventing and managing complications, and facilitating team process. Overall realism and appropriate "feel" showed opportunity for improvement. Pediatric otolaryngology trainees perceive that high-fidelity patient simulation facilitates acquisition of aerodigestive endoscopy skills, especially in training cognitive and psychomotor endoscopy skills, preventing and managing complications, and facilitating team process.

  16. Designing a practical high-fidelity long-time quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Sastrawan, Jarrah; Hayes, David; Green, Todd J.; Biercuk, Michael J.; Viola, Lorenza

    2013-06-01

    Quantum memory is a central component for quantum information processing devices, and will be required to provide high-fidelity storage of arbitrary states, long storage times and small access latencies. Despite growing interest in applying physical-layer error-suppression strategies to boost fidelities, it has not previously been possible to meet such competing demands with a single approach. Here we use an experimentally validated theoretical framework to identify periodic repetition of a high-order dynamical decoupling sequence as a systematic strategy to meet these challenges. We provide analytic bounds—validated by numerical calculations—on the characteristics of the relevant control sequences and show that a ‘stroboscopic saturation’ of coherence, or coherence plateau, can be engineered, even in the presence of experimental imperfection. This permits high-fidelity storage for times that can be exceptionally long, meaning that our device-independent results should prove instrumental in producing practically useful quantum technologies.

  17. Integrating the Electronic Health Record into high-fidelity interprofessional intensive care unit simulations.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey A; Tutsch, Alycia S R; Gorsuch, Adriel; Mohan, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR), there is a growing appreciation for the central role they play in clinical decision making and team communication, with many studies documenting new safety issues with integration of the EHR into the clinical enterprise. To study these issues, we created a high-fidelity simulation instance of our clinical EHR. In this paper, we describe the impact of integrating the EHR into high-fidelity, interprofessional intensive care unit (ICU) simulations, and the errors induced. We found a number of safety issues directly related to the EHR including alert fatigue, negative impacts on interprofessional communication, and problems with selective data gathering, and these issues were present for all members of the interprofessional team. Through successful integration of the EHR into high-fidelity team-based simulations, we now have an infrastructure to focus educational initiative and deploy informatics solutions to mitigate these safety issues.

  18. A critical examination of high-fidelity human patient simulation within the context of nursing pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Parker, Brian C; Myrick, Florence

    2009-04-01

    The use of high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) have been embraced by nursing education programs in the development of immersive clinical simulations despite the lack of research into a pedagogy or educational philosophy appropriate to guide this technology-based learning tool. In this article, we explore this approach to clinical teaching through a critical examination of the application of behaviorist and constructivist pedagogy to high-fidelity scenario-based simulation sessions. Practical guidelines for developing simulation-based learning sessions that reflect both philosophical paradigms are provided. Consideration is also given to societal trends such as the digital revolution and the incoming millennial generation who represent the aptitude of the modern nursing student to utilize high-fidelity realistic and immersive simulation. Depending on the desired goal of simulator utilization, the nurse educator may want to draw on constructivism or behaviorism or a blend of both educational philosophies to best meet the needs of the adult learner.

  19. High-fidelity cataract surgery simulation and third world blindness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Strauss, Glenn H

    2015-04-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery.

  20. Multispectral photometric stereo for acquiring high-fidelity surface normals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giljoo; Kim, Min H

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging and photometric stereo are common in 3D imaging but rarely have been combined. Reconstructing a 3D object's shape using photometric stereo is challenging owing to indirect illumination, specular reflection, and self-shadows, and removing interreflection in photometric stereo is problematic. A new multispectral photometric-stereo method removes interreflection on diffuse materials using multispectral-reflectance information and reconstructs 3D shapes with high accuracy. You can integrate this method into photometric-stereo systems by simply substituting the original camera with a multispectral camera.

  1. High-Fidelity Cataract Surgery Simulation and Third World Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery. PMID:24996918

  2. Use of High Fidelity Methods in Multidisciplinary Optimization-A Preliminary Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multidisciplinary optimization is a key element of design process. To date multidiscipline optimization methods that use low fidelity methods are well advanced. Optimization methods based on simple linear aerodynamic equations and plate structural equations have been applied to complex aerospace configurations. However, use of high fidelity methods such as the Euler/ Navier-Stokes for fluids and 3-D (three dimensional) finite elements for structures has begun recently. As an activity of Multidiscipline Design Optimization Technical Committee (MDO TC) of AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics), an effort was initiated to assess the status of the use of high fidelity methods in multidisciplinary optimization. Contributions were solicited through the members MDO TC committee. This paper provides a summary of that survey.

  3. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  4. High-Fidelity Simulation Meets Athletic Training Education: An Innovative Collaborative Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Taylor; Racchini, James

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently used in nursing education to provide students with simulated experiences prior to and throughout clinical coursework that involves direct patient care. These high-tech exercises take advantage of the benefits of a standardized patient or mock patient encounter, while eliminating some of the drawbacks…

  5. High-Fidelity Simulation Meets Athletic Training Education: An Innovative Collaborative Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Taylor; Racchini, James

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently used in nursing education to provide students with simulated experiences prior to and throughout clinical coursework that involves direct patient care. These high-tech exercises take advantage of the benefits of a standardized patient or mock patient encounter, while eliminating some of the drawbacks…

  6. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Comparison of High-Fidelity Computational Tools for Wing Design of a Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Stoll, Alex M.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of tools, from fundamental to high order, have been used to better understand applications of distributed electric propulsion to aid the wing and propulsion system design of the Leading Edge Asynchronous Propulsion Technology (LEAPTech) project and the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Three high-fidelity, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes used during the project with results presented here are FUN3D, STAR-CCM+, and OVERFLOW. These codes employ various turbulence models to predict fully turbulent and transitional flow. Results from these codes are compared for two distributed electric propulsion configurations: the wing tested at NASA Armstrong on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck, and the wing designed for the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Results from these computational tools for the high-lift wing tested on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck and the X-57 high-lift wing presented compare reasonably well. The goal of the X-57 wing and distributed electric propulsion system design achieving or exceeding the required ?? (sub L) = 3.95 for stall speed was confirmed with all of the computational codes.

  8. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  9. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-01

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O2-O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O2-O and O2-O2 collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O2-O2 collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O3 complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O2 vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  10. High-fidelity adiabatic inversion of a {sup 31}P electron spin qubit in natural silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Laucht, Arne Kalra, Rachpon; Muhonen, Juha T.; Dehollain, Juan P.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Hudson, Fay; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-03-03

    The main limitation to the high-fidelity quantum control of spins in semiconductors is the presence of strongly fluctuating fields arising from the nuclear spin bath of the host material. We demonstrate here a substantial improvement in single-qubit inversion fidelities for an electron spin qubit bound to a {sup 31}P atom in natural silicon, by applying adiabatic sweeps instead of narrow-band pulses. We achieve an inversion fidelity of 97%, and we observe signatures in the spin resonance spectra and the spin coherence time that are consistent with the presence of an additional exchange-coupled donor. This work highlights the effectiveness of simple adiabatic inversion techniques for spin control in fluctuating environments.

  11. Robust high-fidelity teleportation of an atomic state through the detection of cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Bo; Zhou Zhengwei; Zhang Yong; Xiang Guoyong; Guo Guangcan

    2004-07-01

    We propose a scheme for the quantum teleportation of an atomic state based on the detection of cavity decay. The internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity can be disembodiedly transferred to another atom trapped in a distant cavity by measuring interference of polarized photons through single-photon detectors. In comparison with the original proposal by Bose, Knight, Plenio, and Vedral [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5158 (1999)], our protocol of teleportation has a high fidelity of almost unity, and inherent robustness, such as the insensitivity of fidelity to randomness in the atom's position, and to detection inefficiency. All these favorable features make the scheme feasible with the current experimental technology.

  12. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; McDermott, R.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-04-14

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  13. Amplified light storage with high fidelity based on electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Gang; Tang, Guoyu; Xue, Yan

    2016-06-01

    By using slow and stored light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we theoretically realize the storage of optical pulses with enhanced efficiency and high fidelity in ensembles of warm atoms in 85Rb vapor cells. The enhancement of storage efficiency is achieved by introducing a pump field beyond three-level configuration to form a N-type scheme, which simultaneously inhibits the undesirable four-wave mixing effect while preserves its fidelity. It is shown that the typical storage efficiency can be improved from 29% to 53% with the application of pump field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this efficiency decreases with storage time and increases over unity with optical depth.

  14. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.; McDermott, R.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  15. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  16. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  17. Global Geometric Affinity for Revealing High Fidelity Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Benjamin, William; Sun, Mengtian; Ramani, Karthik

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis presents an essential role in understanding the functional relationship among proteins in a living biological system. Despite the success of current approaches for understanding the PPI network, the large fraction of missing and spurious PPIs and a low coverage of complete PPI network are the sources of major concern. In this paper, based on the diffusion process, we propose a new concept of global geometric affinity and an accompanying computational scheme to filter the uncertain PPIs, namely, reduce the spurious PPIs and recover the missing PPIs in the network. The main concept defines a diffusion process in which all proteins simultaneously participate to define a similarity metric (global geometric affinity (GGA)) to robustly reflect the internal connectivity among proteins. The robustness of the GGA is attributed to propagating the local connectivity to a global representation of similarity among proteins in a diffusion process. The propagation process is extremely fast as only simple matrix products are required in this computation process and thus our method is geared toward applications in high-throughput PPI networks. Furthermore, we proposed two new approaches that determine the optimal geometric scale of the PPI network and the optimal threshold for assigning the PPI from the GGA matrix. Our approach is tested with three protein-protein interaction networks and performs well with significant random noises of deletions and insertions in true PPIs. Our approach has the potential to benefit biological experiments, to better characterize network data sets, and to drive new discoveries. PMID:21559288

  18. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  19. Developing High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinier, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate scenarios is critical in high-fidelity simulation training. They need to be developed to address specific learning objectives, while not preventing other learning points from emerging. Buying a patient simulator, finding a volunteer to act as the patient, or even obtaining ready-made scenarios from another simulation…

  20. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  1. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  2. Structural Basis of High-Fidelity DNA Synthesis by Yeast DNA Polymerase δ

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) has a crucial role in eukaryotic replication. Now the crystal structure of the yeast DNA Pol ? catalytic subunit in complex with template primer and incoming nucleotide is presented at 2.0-A resolution, providing insight into its high fidelity and a framework to understand the effects of mutations involved in tumorigenesis.

  3. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  4. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  5. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  6. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    PubMed

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  7. Becoming a High-Fidelity--"Super"--Imitator: What Are the Contributions of Social and Individual Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M.; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation)--involving a demonstration--and two…

  8. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  9. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  10. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  11. Becoming a High-Fidelity--"Super"--Imitator: What Are the Contributions of Social and Individual Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M.; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation)--involving a demonstration--and two…

  12. Progress in the utilization of high-fidelity simulation in basic science education.

    PubMed

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  14. A Coupled-Adjoint Method for High-Fidelity Aero-Structural Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity...22 2.3.1 Geometry Engine and Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.2 Displacement Transfer...86 5-6 Airfoil geometry at the root. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5-7 Airfoil geometry at mid semi-span

  15. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism.

  16. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel; Yersin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High- fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications. PMID:23745086

  17. Comparative effectiveness of low- and high-fidelity bronchoscopy simulation for training in conventional transbronchial needle aspiration and user preferences.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mohsen; Wahidi, Momen M; Zamanian Rohani, Nazanin; Colt, Henri G

    2010-01-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) can be learned using high-fidelity virtual-reality platforms and low-fidelity models comprised of molded silicone or excised animal airways. The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions and preferences of learners and instructors regarding the comparative effectiveness of low-fidelity and high-fidelity bronchoscopy simulation for training in TBNA. During the 2008 annual CHEST conference, a prospective randomized crossover design was used to train study participants in three methods of conventional TBNA using low- and high-fidelity models. Likert style questions were administered to learners and instructors in order to elicit preferences and opinions regarding educational effectiveness of the models. Results were tabulated and depicted in graphic format, with medians calculated. Learners felt that the models were equally enjoyable (13-13) and enthusiasm generating (low 17-high 15). There was preference for low-fidelity in terms of realism (23-17), ease of learning (20-6), and learning all three TBNA methods (31-7 for hub-against-wall, 31-6 for jabbing, 29-6 for piggyback). Low-fidelity was preferred as an ideal model overall (19-11). Instructors thought that low-fidelity was more useful in teaching TBNA (9-0 for all three methods). Instructors perceived the low-fidelity model overall as an ideal tool for learning TBNA (8-0) and a more effective teaching instrument (8-0). Based on learner and instructor perceptions, a low-fidelity model is superior to a high-fidelity platform for training in three methods of conventional TBNA. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  19. Test Before You Fly - High Fidelity Planetary Environment Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Nehls, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The lunar surface environment will present many challenges to the survivability of systems developed for long duration lunar habitation and exploration of the lunar, or any other planetary, surface. Obstacles will include issues pertaining especially to the radiation environment (solar plasma and electromagnetic radiation) and lunar regolith dust. The Planetary Environments Chamber is one piece of the MSFC capability in Space Environmental Effects Test and Analysis. Comprised of many unique test systems, MSFC has the most complete set of SEE test capabilities in one location allowing examination of combined space environmental effects without transporting already degraded, potentially fragile samples over long distances between tests. With this system, the individual and combined effects of the lunar radiation and regolith environment on materials, sub-systems, and small systems developed for the lunar return can be investigated. This combined environments facility represents a unique capability to NASA, in which tests can be tailored to any one aspect of the lunar environment (radiation, temperature, vacuum, regolith) or to several of them combined in a single test.

  20. Novel Architecture for High Speed and High Fidelity Readout of a Quantum Annealing Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altomare, Fabio; Berkley, Andrew J.; Harris, Richard; Hoskinson, Emile M.; Johnson, Mark W.; Lanting, Trevor M.; Uchaikin, Sergey; Whittaker, Jed D.; Bunyk, Paul; Tolkacheva, Elena; Perminov, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Hysteretic dc SQUIDs provide an easy method to read the state of hundreds of qubits[1]. However, this approach becomes impractical for circuits with an even larger number of qubits due to heating when dc SQUIDs switch, the relatively slow retrapping dynamics of high quality devices, and suboptimal scaling of the number of control lines with increasing numbers of qubits. The D-Wave Two processor uses an architecture that addresses all three of these issues. This new architecture makes use of Quantum Flux Parametron based shift registers that transfer the classical information produced as the output of the quantum annealing algorithm to a small number of fast non-dissipative and high fidelity microwave readout devices. We will provide an introduction to our implementation, and present data pertaining to readout performance from a 512-qubit quantum annealing processor.

  1. High fidelity, low cost moulage as a valid simulation tool to improve burns education.

    PubMed

    Pywell, M J; Evgeniou, E; Highway, K; Pitt, E; Estela, C M

    2016-06-01

    Simulation allows the opportunity for repeated practice in controlled, safe conditions. Moulage uses materials such as makeup to simulate clinical presentations. Moulage fidelity can be assessed by face validity (realism) and content validity (appropriateness). The aim of this project is to compare the fidelity of professional moulage to non-professional moulage in the context of a burns management course. Four actors were randomly assigned to a professional make-up artist or a course faculty member for moulage preparation such that two actors were in each group. Participants completed the actor-based burn management scenarios and answered a ten-question Likert-scale questionnaire on face and content validity. Mean scores and a linear mixed effects model were used to compare professional and non-professional moulage. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency. Twenty participants experienced three out of four scenarios and at the end of the course completed a total of 60 questionnaires. Professional moulage had higher average ratings for face (4.30 v 3.80; p=0.11) and content (4.30 v 4.00; p=0.06) validity. Internal consistency of face (α=0.91) and content (α=0.85) validity questions was very good. The fidelity of professionally prepared moulage, as assessed by content validity, was higher than non-professionally prepared moulage. We have shown that using professional techniques and low cost materials we can prepare quality high fidelity moulage simulations.

  2. Towards developing high-fidelity simulated learning environment training modules in audiology.

    PubMed

    Dzulkarnain, A A; Rahmat, S; Mohd Puzi, N A F; Badzis, M

    2017-02-01

    This discussion paper reviews and synthesises the literature on simulated learning environment (SLE) from allied health sciences, medical and nursing in general and audiology specifically. The focus of the paper is on discussing the use of high-fidelity (HF) SLE and describing the challenges for developing a HF SLE for clinical audiology training. Through the review of the literature, this paper discusses seven questions, (i) What is SLE? (ii) What are the types of SLEs? (iii) How is SLE classified? (iv) What is HF SLE? (v) What types of SLEs are available in audiology and their level of fidelity? (vi) What are the components needed for developing HF SLE? (vii) What are the possible types of HF SLEs that are suitable for audiology training? Publications were identified by structured searches from three major databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo and from the reference lists of relevant articles. The authors discussed and mapped the levels of fidelity of SLE audiology training modules from the literature and the learning domains involved in the clinical audiology courses. The discussion paper has highlighted that most of the existing SLE audiology training modules consist of either low- or medium-fidelity types of simulators. Those components needed to achieve a HF SLE for audiology training are also highlighted. Overall, this review recommends that the combined approach of different levels and types of SLE could be used to obtain a HF SLE training module in audiology training.

  3. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Using an Integrated Design Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-14

    oii the (olifiguration (poteiit~iall ’v using adjoint iiethods a111( a hiighdi-(imeisiorial shape p~aramelterizat~ ioni ). However, it is uiniblhe to p...dt’siretd state of the system ! ,J aiid the ctirr-erit state of the system I’. MoIcreoiver, H’qtiat ioni (17) cleairly shows that thle Adjoirit...0.3 0.30 0.A 0 00b 01 0.10 0.2 0.25 0.3 0 3 04 0-m 1-".)0S bm. (b. t) Figuiire 33: Variat ioni of p1lunge hb c wvithI ti rile: Conutrolledl anrd unoni

  4. SLS-1 crewmembers in high fidelity mockup of the Spacelab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-02-01

    S85-26582 (Feb 1985) --- Training on the rebreathing assembly, astronaut James P. Bagian, STS-40 mission specialist, inhales a predetermined gas composition. A gas analyzer mass spectrometer determines the composition of the gases he exhales. The rebreathing assembly and gas analyzer system are part of an investigation that explores how lung function is altered. Dr. Bagian will be joined by two other mission specialists, the mission commander, the pilot and two payload specialists for the scheduled 10-day Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. The flight is totally dedicated to biological and medical experimentation.

  5. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  6. Scattering approach to fidelity decay in closed systems and parametric level correlations.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; López Vázquez, P C

    2013-07-01

    Based on an exact analytical approach to describe scattering fidelity experiments [Köber et al., Phys. Rev. E 82, 036207 (2010)], we obtain an expression for the fidelity amplitude decay of quantum chaotic or diffusive systems under arbitrary Hermitian perturbations. This allows us to rederive previous separately obtained results in a simpler and unified manner, as is shown explicitly for the case of a global perturbation. The general expression is also used to derive a so far unpublished exact analytical formula for the case of a moving S-wave scatterer. In the second part of the paper, we extend a relation between fidelity decay and parametric level correlations from the universal case of global perturbations to an arbitrary combination of global and local perturbations. Thereby, the relation becomes a versatile tool for the analysis of unknown perturbations.

  7. Optoelectronic image scanning with high spatial resolution and reconstruction fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craubner, Siegfried I.

    2002-02-01

    In imaging systems the detector arrays deliver at the output time-discrete signals, where the spatial frequencies of the object scene are mapped into the electrical signal frequencies. Since the spatial frequency spectrum cannot be bandlimited by the front optics, the usual detector arrays perform a spatial undersampling and as a consequence aliasing occurs. A means to partially suppress the backfolded alias band is bandwidth limitation in the reconstruction low-pass, at the price of resolution loss. By utilizing a bilinear detector array in a pushbroom-type scanner, undersampling and aliasing can be overcome. For modeling the perception, the theory of discrete systems and multirate digital filter banks is applied, where aliasing cancellation and perfect reconstruction play an important role. The discrete transfer function of a bilinear array can be imbedded into the scheme of a second-order filter bank. The detector arrays already build the analysis bank and the overall filter bank is completed with the synthesis bank, for which stabilized inverse filters are proposed, to compensate for the low-pass characteristics and to approximate perfect reconstruction. The synthesis filter branch can be realized in a so-called `direct form,' or the `polyphase form,' where the latter is an expenditure-optimal solution, which gives advantages when implemented in a signal processor. This paper attempts to introduce well-established concepts of the theory of multirate filter banks into the analysis of scanning imagers, which is applicable in a much broader sense than for the problems addressed here. To the author's knowledge this is also a novelty.

  8. Error propagation and metamodeling for a fidelity tradeoff capability in complex systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Robert A.

    Complex man-made systems are ubiquitous in modern technological society. The national air transportation infrastructure and the aircraft that operate within it, the highways stretching coast-to-coast and the vehicles that travel on them, and global communications networks and the computers that make them possible are all complex systems. It is impossible to fully validate a systems analysis or a design process. Systems are too large, complex, and expensive to build test and validation articles. Furthermore, the operating conditions throughout the life cycle of a system are impossible to predict and control for a validation experiment. Error is introduced at every point in a complex systems design process. Every error source propagates through the complex system in the same way information propagates, feedforward, feedback, and coupling are all present with error. As with error propagation through a single analysis, error sources grow and decay when propagated through a complex system. These behaviors are made more complex by the complex interactions of a complete system. This complication and the loss of intuition that accompanies it makes proper error propagation calculations even more important to aid the decision maker. Error allocation and fidelity trade decisions answer questions like: Is the fidelity of a complex systems analysis adequate, or is an improvement needed? If an improvement is needed, how is that improvement best achieved? Where should limited resources be invested for the improvement of fidelity? How does knowledge of the imperfection of a model impact design decisions based on the model and the certainty of the performance of a particular design? In this research, a fidelity trade environment was conceived, formulated, developed, and demonstrated. This development relied on the advancement of enabling techniques including error propagation, metamodeling, and information management. A notional transport aircraft is modeled in the fidelity trade

  9. Modeling methods for high-fidelity rotorcraft flight mechanics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.; Chaimovich, Menahem; Rosen, Aviv; Rand, Omri

    1992-01-01

    The cooperative effort being carried out under the agreements of the United States-Israel Memorandum of Understanding is discussed. Two different models of the AH-64 Apache Helicopter, which may differ in their approach to modeling the main rotor, are presented. The first model, the Blade Element Model for the Apache (BEMAP), was developed at Ames Research Center, and is the only model of the Apache to employ a direct blade element approach to calculating the coupled flap-lag motion of the blades and the rotor force and moment. The second model was developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and uses an harmonic approach to analyze the rotor. The approach allows two different levels of approximation, ranging from the 'first harmonic' (similar to a tip-path-plane model) to 'complete high harmonics' (comparable to a blade element approach). The development of the two models is outlined and the two are compared using available flight test data.

  10. High-Fidelity Coupled Monte-Carlo/Thermal-Hydraulics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Aleksandar; Sanchez, Victor; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been used as reference reactor physics calculation tools worldwide. The advance in computer technology allows the calculation of detailed flux distributions in both space and energy. In most of the cases however, those calculations are done under the assumption of homogeneous material density and temperature distributions. The aim of this work is to develop a consistent methodology for providing realistic three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic distributions by coupling the in-house developed sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW with the standard Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP. In addition to the innovative technique of on-the fly material definition, a flux-based weight-window technique has been introduced to improve both the magnitude and the distribution of the relative errors. Finally, a coupled code system for the simulation of steady-state reactor physics problems has been developed. Besides the problem of effective feedback data interchange between the codes, the treatment of temperature dependence of the continuous energy nuclear data has been investigated.

  11. High-fidelity translation of recombinant human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weickert, M J; Apostol, I

    1998-05-01

    Coexpression of di-alpha-globin and beta-globin in Escherichia coli in the presence of exogenous heme yielded high levels of soluble, functional recombinant human hemoglobin (rHb1.1). High-level expression of rHb1.1 provides a good model for measuring mistranslation in heterologous proteins. rHb1.1 does not contain isoleucine; therefore, any isoleucine present could be attributed to mistranslation, most likely mistranslation of one or more of the 200 codons that differ from an isoleucine codon by 1 bp. Sensitive amino acid analysis of highly purified rHb1.1 typically revealed < or = 0.2 mol of isoleucine per mol of hemoglobin. This corresponds to a translation error rate of < or = 0.001, which is not different from typical translation error rates found for E. coli proteins. Two different expression systems that resulted in accumulation of globin proteins to levels equivalent to approximately 20% of the level of E. coli soluble proteins also resulted in equivalent translational fidelity.

  12. High-Fidelity Translation of Recombinant Human Hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, Michael J.; Apostol, Izydor

    1998-01-01

    Coexpression of di-α-globin and β-globin in Escherichia coli in the presence of exogenous heme yielded high levels of soluble, functional recombinant human hemoglobin (rHb1.1). High-level expression of rHb1.1 provides a good model for measuring mistranslation in heterologous proteins. rHb1.1 does not contain isoleucine; therefore, any isoleucine present could be attributed to mistranslation, most likely mistranslation of one or more of the 200 codons that differ from an isoleucine codon by 1 bp. Sensitive amino acid analysis of highly purified rHb1.1 typically revealed ≤0.2 mol of isoleucine per mol of hemoglobin. This corresponds to a translation error rate of ≤0.001, which is not different from typical translation error rates found for E. coli proteins. Two different expression systems that resulted in accumulation of globin proteins to levels equivalent to ∼20% of the level of E. coli soluble proteins also resulted in equivalent translational fidelity. PMID:9572921

  13. A High-Fidelity Simulation of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine and Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Csank, Jeffrey; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    A new high-fidelity simulation of a generic 40,000 lb thrust class commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller, known as CMAPSS40k, has been developed. Based on dynamic flight test data of a highly instrumented engine and previous engine simulations developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, this non-proprietary simulation was created especially for use in the development of new engine control strategies. C-MAPSS40k is a highly detailed, component-level engine model written in MATLAB/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.). Because the model is built in Simulink, users have the ability to use any of the MATLAB tools for analysis and control system design. The engine components are modeled in C-code, which is then compiled to allow faster-than-real-time execution. The engine controller is based on common industry architecture and techniques to produce realistic closed-loop transient responses while ensuring that no safety or operability limits are violated. A significant feature not found in other non-proprietary models is the inclusion of transient stall margin debits. These debits provide an accurate accounting of the compressor surge margin, which is critical in the design of an engine controller. This paper discusses the development, characteristics, and capabilities of the C-MAPSS40k simulation

  14. High Fidelity of Yellow Fever Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Pugachev, Konstantin V.; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Ocran, Simeon W.; Mitchell, Fred; Parsons, Megan; Penal, Caroline; Girakhoo, Soheila; Pougatcheva, Svetlana O.; Arroyo, Juan; Trent, Dennis W.; Monath, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Three consecutive plaque purifications of four chimeric yellow fever virus-dengue virus (ChimeriVax-DEN) vaccine candidates against dengue virus types 1 to 4 were performed. The genome of each candidate was sequenced by the consensus approach after plaque purification and additional passages in cell culture. Our data suggest that the nucleotide sequence error rate for SP6 RNA polymerase used in the in vitro transcription step to initiate virus replication was as high as 1.34 × 10−4 per copied nucleotide and that the error rate of the yellow fever virus RNA polymerase employed by the chimeras for genome replication in infected cells was as low as 1.9 × 10−7 to 2.3 × 10−7. Clustering of beneficial mutations that accumulated after multiple virus passages suggests that the N-terminal part of the prM protein, a specific site in the middle of the E protein, and the NS4B protein may be essential for nucleocapsid-envelope interaction during flavivirus assembly. PMID:14694136

  15. Beginning and advanced students' perceptions of the use of low- and high-fidelity mannequins in nursing simulation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tulay; Unver, Vesile; Moss, Jacqueline; Watts, Penni; Gaioso, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There is little research evidence that demonstrates the difference between the use of low- and high-fidelity mannequins in assisting students to acquire their skills when students are at different points in their nursing education experience. Our study examined differences between the use of low- and high-fidelity mannequins on student outcomes with both beginner and advanced students. A quasi-experimental investigation. Participants performed two simulations, one simulation using a low-fidelity mannequin and the other simulation using a high-fidelity mannequin. First and fourth semester pre-licensure students from a Bachelor of Science in Nursing program and an accelerated nursing entry program participated in this study. A Students' Satisfaction and Self-confidence Scale and Simulation Design Scale were used to obtain data. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows version 17.0. The results obtained from scales were compared using Wilcoxon sign test and Mann-Whitney U test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The student satisfaction score of the students in the low-fidelity mannequin group was 3.62±1.01, while that of the students in the high-fidelity mannequin group was 4.67±0.44'dir (p=0.01). The total score of the simulation design scale in the low-fidelity mannequin group was 4.15±0.63, while it was 4.73±0.33 in the high-fidelity mannequin group (p=0.01). Students' perceptions of simulation experiences using high-fidelity mannequins were found to be higher in contrast to their perceptions of experiences using low-fidelity mannequins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  17. High-fidelity simulations of simple models of biomorphic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Jeff; Hector, Daniel; Wilson, Megan

    2007-11-01

    Aquatic creatures self-propel and maneuver with an incredible diversity of mechanics, even at the moderate Reynolds numbers appropriate for bio-inspired autonomous vehicles. In this work, we explore simple two-dimensional abstractions of two such mechanisms---undulatory and jellyfish-like locomotion---effected by prescribed hinge motion in articulated rigid body systems. These mechanisms are explored using a high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver based on the viscous vortex particle method, strongly coupled with the rigid-body dynamics of the system. Such coupling enables an investigation of untethered swimming and maneuvering, which is essential for developing reduced-order models for motion planning and control. In the case of undulatory locomotion, it is shown that swimming effectiveness depends on both the relative phase and amplitude of the oscillatory hinge motions. The optimal shape control at these finite Reynolds numbers is contrasted with optima found for zero Reynolds number and inviscid swimmers. The jellyfish motion is enabled by periodic contractions of the bell shape, adapted from experimentally-measured kinematics of medusan swimmers (Dabiri et al., J. Exp. Biol., 2005). The vortex formation processes, energy budgets and fluid forces are explored for their relationship with forward propulsion.

  18. Creation of a High-fidelity, Low-cost Pediatric Skull Fracture Ultrasound Phantom.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Zachary P; Mills, Lisa; Rose, John S; Kelley, Kenneth; Ramirez, Francisco; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, point-of-care ultrasound has become a common tool used for both procedures and diagnosis. Developing high-fidelity phantoms is critical for training in new and novel point-of-care ultrasound applications. Detecting skull fractures on ultrasound imaging in the younger-than-2-year-old patient is an emerging area of point-of-care ultrasound research. Identifying a skull fracture on ultrasound imaging in this age group requires knowledge of the appearance and location of sutures to distinguish them from fractures. There are currently no commercially available pediatric skull fracture models. We outline a novel approach to building a cost-effective, simple, high-fidelity pediatric skull fracture phantom to meet a unique training requirement.

  19. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry: Spray Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.

    2009-04-26

    The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.

  20. High-fidelity local addressing of trapped ions and atoms by composite sequences of laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2011-04-01

    A vital requirement for a quantum computer is the ability to locally address, with high fidelity, any of its qubits without affecting their neighbors. We propose an addressing method using composite sequences of laser pulses that dramatically reduces the addressing error in a lattice of closely spaced atoms or ions and at the same time significantly enhances the robustness of qubit manipulations. To this end, we design novel (to our knowledge) high-fidelity composite pulses for the most important single-qubit operations. In principle, this method allows one to beat the diffraction limit, for only atoms situated in a small spatial region around the center of the laser beam are excited, well within the laser beam waist.

  1. Self-Reflection of Video-Recorded High-Fidelity Simulations and Development of Clinical Judgment.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Michelle E

    2016-09-01

    Nurse educators are increasingly using high-fidelity simulators to improve prelicensure nursing students' ability to develop clinical judgment. Traditionally, oral debriefing sessions have immediately followed the simulation scenarios as a method for students to connect theory to practice and therefore develop clinical judgment. Recently, video recording of the simulation scenarios is being incorporated. This qualitative, interpretive description study was conducted to identify whether self-reflection on video-recorded high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios helped prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. Tanner's clinical judgment model was the framework for this study. Four themes emerged from this study: Confidence, Communication, Decision Making, and Change in Clinical Practice. This study indicated that self-reflection of video-recorded HFS scenarios is beneficial for prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):522-527.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. High-fidelity simulation and the development of clinical judgment: students' experiences.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie

    2007-06-01

    Nursing education programs across the country are making major capital investments in alternative learning strategies, such as human patient simulators; yet, little research exists to affirm this new innovation. At the same time, nursing programs must become even more effective in the development of students' clinical judgment to better prepare graduates to take on increasingly complex care management. This qualitative study examined the experiences of students in one nursing program's first term of using high-fidelity simulation as part of its regular curriculum. On the basis of these experiences, it seems that high-fidelity simulation has potential to support and affect the development of clinical judgment in nursing students and to serve as a value-added adjunct to their clinical practica.

  3. Electrophoretic chip for high-fidelity fractionation of double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Li, Zheyu; Ueno, Kosei; Juodkazis, Saulius; Noji, Sumihare; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2007-05-01

    We report the high fidelity, on-chip fractionation of selected segments from an electrophoretic flow of separated fragments. dsDNA fragments (10-330 base pairs (bp)) were initially separated using a 6.5 cm long channel with an electric field strength of 150 V/cm. As an example of the fractionation process, a target fragment of 20 bp was selected and extracted from the separation channel. The extraction was confirmed and evaluated by fluorescence imaging. High resolution and extraction fidelity were achieved by introducing new procedures for (i) extraction channel-blocking and (ii) segment transfer with cleaning. These procedures are necessary for the development of a practical, fully automated multitarget fractionation electrophoretic chip. A kind of CCD image processing method was introduced to monitor, control, and evaluate the procedure of fractionation. The resolution limits of the separation and extraction are discussed.

  4. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-06-30

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host {sup 14}N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  5. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-10-21

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability.

  6. Rotorcraft brownout mitigation through flight path optimization using a high fidelity rotorcraft simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfred, Jillian Samantha

    Brownout conditions often occur during approach, landing, and take off in a desert environment and involve the entrainment and mobilization of loose sediment and dust into the rotor flow field. For this research, a high fidelity flight dynamics model is used to perform a study on brownout mitigation through operational means of flight path. In order for the high fidelity simulation to model an approach profile, a method for following specific profiles was developed. An optimization study was then performed using this flight dynamics model in a comprehensive brownout simulation. The optimization found a local shallow optimum approach and a global steep optimum approach minimized the intensity of the resulting brownout clouds. These results were consistent previous mitigation studies and operational methods. The results also demonstrated that the addition of a full rotorcraft model into the brownout simulation changed the characteristics of the velocity flow field, and hence changing the character of the brownout cloud that was produced.

  7. Adjoint-field errors in high fidelity compressible turbulence simulations for sound control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    A consistent discrete adjoint for high-fidelity discretization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is used to quantify the error in the sensitivity gradient predicted by the continuous adjoint method, and examine the aeroacoustic flow-control problem for free-shear-flow turbulence. A particular quadrature scheme for approximating the cost functional makes our discrete adjoint formulation for a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with high-order finite differences practical and efficient. The continuous adjoint-based sensitivity gradient is shown to to be inconsistent due to discretization truncation errors, grid stretching and filtering near boundaries. These errors cannot be eliminated by increasing the spatial or temporal resolution since chaotic interactions lead them to become O (1) at the time of control actuation. Although this is a known behavior for chaotic systems, its effect on noise control is much harder to anticipate, especially given the different resolution needs of different parts of the turbulence and acoustic spectra. A comparison of energy spectra of the adjoint pressure fields shows significant error in the continuous adjoint at all wavenumbers, even though they are well-resolved. The effect of this error on the noise control mechanism is analyzed.

  8. A novel low temperature PCR assured high-fidelity DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Shaoxia; Hong, Guofan

    2013-06-20

    As previously reported, a novel low temperature (LoTemp) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) catalyzed by a moderately heat-resistant (MHR) DNA polymerase with a chemical-assisted denaturation temperature set at 85 °C instead of the conventional 94-96 °C can achieve high-fidelity DNA amplification of a target DNA, even after up to 120 PCR thermal cycles. Furthermore, such accurate amplification is not achievable with conventional PCR. Now, using a well-recognized L1 gene segment of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 (HPV-52) as the template for experiments, we demonstrate that the LoTemp high-fidelity DNA amplification is attributed to an unusually high processivity and stability of the MHR DNA polymerase whose high fidelity in template-directed DNA synthesis is independent of non-existent 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Further studies and understanding of the characteristics of the LoTemp PCR technology may facilitate implementation of DNA sequencing-based diagnostics at the point of care in community hospital laboratories.

  9. Demonstration of a High-Fidelity Predictive/Preview Display Technique for Telerobotic Servicing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    A highly effective predictive/preview display technique for telerobotic servicing in space under several seconds communication time delay has been demonstrated on a large laboratory scale in May 1993, involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as the simulated ground control station and, 2500 miles away, the Goddard Space Flight Center as the simulated satellite servicing set-up. The technique is based on a high-fidelity calibration procedure that enables a high-fidelity overlay of 3-D graphics robot arm and object models over given 2-D TV camera images of robot arm and objects. To generate robot arm motions, the operator can confidently interact in real time with the graphics models of the robot arm and objects overlaid on an actual camera view of the remote work site. The technique also enables the operator to generate high-fidelity synthetic TV camera views showing motion events that are hidden in a given TV camera view or for which no TV camera views are available. The positioning accuracy achieved by this technique for a zoomed-in camera setting was about +/-5 mm, well within the allowable +/-12 mm error margin at the insertion of a 45 cm long tool in the servicing task.

  10. SOWFA Super-Controller: A High-Fidelity Tool for Evaluating Wind Plant Control Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Michalakes, J.; Johnson, K.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for testing wind plant controllers in the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA). SOWFA is a high-fidelity simulator for the interaction between wind turbine dynamics and the fluid flow in a wind plant. The new super-controller testing environment in SOWFA allows for the implementation of the majority of the wind plant control strategies proposed in the literature.

  11. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shashikant; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Akhilesh; Ganatra, Pradeep; Sabnis, Ravindra B; Desai, Mahesh R

    2011-10-01

    We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS). Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR) models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer™; Endo-Urologie-Modell™) and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor™). The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS). The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3). Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05). The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  12. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    simulation for over 20 years • Many key JPL/NASA missions require high- fidelity simulations – Spacecraft missions (Cassini, MER, MSL) – Planetary ...rovers (Pathfinder, MER, MSL, research rovers) • The DARTS lab team created ROAMS for ground vehicle simulations of planetary rovers (http...EDL & Aero-Flight DSENDS Airships Planetary & Terrain models SimScape Simulation framework Dshell Flex & Multibody dynamics DARTS 3D

  13. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    over range of urban and off-road scenarios. Moreover, integrated simulation capabilities that are high-fidelity, fast, and have scalable...the loop for a representative TARDEC autonomous vehicle. Leveraging prior work done at JPL for autonomous planetary rovers, the team adapted the JPL’s...ROAMS planetary rover simulations and are representative of moderately firm sandy soil [3]. Figure 2: HMMWV Simulation Model Closed-Chain

  14. Progress in Computational Aeroelasticity Using High Fidelity Flow and Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Byun, Chansup; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional supercomputers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENASERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  15. Nursing students' perception of high-fidelity simulation activity instead of clinical placement: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Au, Mio Leng; Lo, Man Sao; Cheong, Wan; Wang, Si Chen; Van, Iat Kio

    2016-04-01

    The high-fidelity simulation (HFS) has been utilized in nursing education for more than 20 years. Advantages of the use of high-fidelity simulation in nursing education have been documented in the literature. Based on the advantages, it has been arranged as a part of the clinical study course of the first year baccalaureate nursing program in one of the nursing colleges in Macau recently. The aim of this study is to explore undergraduate nursing students' perception of using high-fidelity simulation as part of their clinical study course in Macau. This is a qualitative study using open-ended questionnaire. This study was implemented at the nursing laboratory between 1 April and 17 April 2015, which was the period of preliminary clinical study course of year one nursing students. A purposive sample was sought from the voluntary year one undergraduate nursing students who participated in the clinical study course. Students received two high-fidelity simulation sections during the course, while a self-administered open-ended questionnaire was allocated afterward. Qualitative content analysis was performed after data collection. Two themes emerged in this study, which included "appreciation" and "misunderstanding". They were further divided into five categories; as "positive feelings", "gaining a suitable atmosphere for learning", "assist of adequate emergency preparation: resourceful ability", "contempt", and "rote learning". This was the first time to utilize HFS activities as a part of the clinical study course in one nursing college in Macau. These HFS activities instead of a part of real clinical placement were appreciated by nursing students. And it mainly contributed to the resourceful ability in students' view. During the HFS activities, nursing educators should consider the misunderstanding of HFS activities of students that a few nursing students despised simulator's life and got rote learning method. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  16. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Raghurama Reddy; Roberto Gomez; Junwoo Lim; Yang Wang; Sergiu Sanielevici

    2004-10-15

    This SciDAC project enabled a multidisciplinary research consortium to develop a high fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) software package for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows. Within this collaboration, the authors, based at CMU's Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), focused on extensive new developments in Sandia National Laboratories' "S3D" software to address more realistic combustion features and geometries while exploiting Terascale computational possibilities. This work significantly advances the state-of-the-art of DNS of turbulent reacting flows.

  17. High-fidelity patient simulation in nursing education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Amy

    2011-01-01

    An integrative review was undertaken to analyze studies published since 1998 on the use of high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) in undergraduate nursing education. This review found that HFPS benefits nursing students in terms of knowledge, value, realism, and learner satisfaction;findings were mixed in the areas of student confidence, knowledge transfer, and stress. Further research in these and other areas will determine whether its increased use is warranted.

  18. Implementing high-fidelity simulations with large groups of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Barbara; Shaw, Luanne; Zamzam, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are increasing the use of simulation as a teaching strategy. Simulations are conducted typically with a small group of students. This article describes the process for implementing 6 high-fidelity simulations with a large group of undergraduate nursing students. The goal was to evaluate if student knowledge increased on postsimulation quiz scores when only a few individuals actively participated in the simulation while the other students observed.

  19. High-Fidelity, Computational Modeling of Non-Equilibrium Discharges for Combustion Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    pulsed ignition of supersonic combustion Plasma OFF Plasma ON OH PLIF 14 Approach 15  High fidelity multi- dimensional computational simulations...pulse freq. Ref: H. Do, M. G. Mungal and M. A. Cappelli., “ Jet Flame Ignition in a Supersonic Crossflow using a Pulsed Nonequilibrium Plasma...TACC) • Problems with large two - dimensional meshes and large chemistries scales well to a few 100 processors, cutting simulation times from

  20. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  1. A Scalable, Parallel Approach for Multi-Point, High-Fidelity Aerostructural Optimization of Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenway, Gaetan K. W.

    This thesis presents new tools and techniques developed to address the challenging problem of high-fidelity aerostructural optimization with respect to large numbers of design variables. A new mesh-movement scheme is developed that is both computationally efficient and sufficiently robust to accommodate large geometric design changes and aerostructural deformations. A fully coupled Newton-Krylov method is presented that accelerates the convergence of aerostructural systems and provides a 20% performance improvement over the traditional nonlinear block Gauss-Seidel approach and can handle more exible structures. A coupled adjoint method is used that efficiently computes derivatives for a gradient-based optimization algorithm. The implementation uses only machine accurate derivative techniques and is verified to yield fully consistent derivatives by comparing against the complex step method. The fully-coupled large-scale coupled adjoint solution method is shown to have 30% better performance than the segregated approach. The parallel scalability of the coupled adjoint technique is demonstrated on an Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with more than 80 million state variables coupled to a detailed structural finite-element model of the wing with more than 1 million degrees of freedom. Multi-point high-fidelity aerostructural optimizations of a long-range wide-body, transonic transport aircraft configuration are performed using the developed techniques. The aerostructural analysis employs Euler CFD with a 2 million cell mesh and a structural finite element model with 300 000 DOF. Two design optimization problems are solved: one where takeoff gross weight is minimized, and another where fuel burn is minimized. Each optimization uses a multi-point formulation with 5 cruise conditions and 2 maneuver conditions. The optimization problems have 476 design variables are optimal results are obtained within 36 hours of wall time using 435 processors. The TOGW

  2. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  3. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  4. The effectiveness of the use of high fidelity simulators in obstetric ultrasound training: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Parange, Nayana; Thoirs, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The benefits of the use of ultrasound technology for point of care obstetric health evaluation have led to increased focus on training programs for physicians wanting to develop skills in this area. Simulation, in a variety of formats, has always played a role in medical and health training, with proven benefits. This systematic review determines the level of evidence available to support the use of high fidelity ultrasound simulators in the training of obstetric ultrasound scanning skills to health professionals. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to define previous investigations into the incorporation of high fidelity ultrasound simulators into obstetric ultrasound training programs. The included studies were reviewed by the authors to evaluate their overall strength and quality. Data surrounding the study participants, simulator types, study design, training program format, outcome measures, and results were extracted. Results and conclusions: While the small body of evidence discovered in this review demonstrates positive results for the use of high fidelity simulators in obstetric ultrasound training, the studies included in this review demonstrate a moderate level of evidence, with some potential of bias throughout. A number of gaps in the literature were identified that could be addressed in further research. PMID:28191251

  5. Pharmacy students' learning and satisfaction with high-fidelity simulation to teach drug-induced dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Branch, Cleopatra

    2013-03-12

    To assess second-year pharmacy students' acquisition of pharmacotherapy knowledge and clinical competence from participation in a high-fidelity simulation, and to determine the impact on the simulation experience of implementing feedback from previous students. A high-fidelity simulation was used to present a patient case scenario of drug-induced dyspepsia with gastrointestinal bleeding. The simulation was revised based on feedback from a previous class of students to include a smaller group size, provision of session material to students in advance, and an improved learning environment. Student performance on pre- and post-simulation knowledge and clinical competence tests documented significant improvements in students' knowledge of dyspepsia and associated symptoms, with the greatest improvement on questions relating to the hemodynamic effects of gastrointestinal bleeding. Students were more satisfied with the simulation experience compared to students in the earlier study. Participation in a high-fidelity simulation allowed pharmacy students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom. Improved student satisfaction with the simulation suggests that implementing feedback obtained through student course evaluations can be an effective means of improving the curriculum.

  6. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  7. Pharmacy Students' Learning and Satisfaction With High-Fidelity Simulation to Teach Drug-Induced Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess second-year pharmacy students’ acquisition of pharmacotherapy knowledge and clinical competence from participation in a high-fidelity simulation, and to determine the impact on the simulation experience of implementing feedback from previous students. Design. A high-fidelity simulation was used to present a patient case scenario of drug-induced dyspepsia with gastrointestinal bleeding. The simulation was revised based on feedback from a previous class of students to include a smaller group size, provision of session material to students in advance, and an improved learning environment. Assessment. Student performance on pre- and post-simulation knowledge and clinical competence tests documented significant improvements in students' knowledge of dyspepsia and associated symptoms, with the greatest improvement on questions relating to the hemodynamic effects of gastrointestinal bleeding. Students were more satisfied with the simulation experience compared to students in the earlier study. Conclusion. Participation in a high-fidelity simulation allowed pharmacy students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom. Improved student satisfaction with the simulation suggests that implementing feedback obtained through student course evaluations can be an effective means of improving the curriculum. PMID:23519773

  8. Low vs. high fidelity: the importance of 'realism' in the simulation of a stone treatment procedure.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Piyush; Voss, Jim; Ho, Adrian; Veneziano, Domenico; Somani, Bhaskar

    2017-07-01

    Simulation training for stone surgery is now increasingly used as part of training curricula worldwide. A combination of low and high fidelity simulators has been used with varying degrees of 'realism' provided by them. In this review, we discuss low and high fidelity simulators used for ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) stone procedures with their advantages, disadvantages and future direction for endourological simulation surgery. The final goal will be to understand whether or not 'realism' has to be considered as a critical element in simulation for this field. There is a wide range of simulators available for URS and PCNL training ranging from basic bench-type model to advanced virtual reality and cadaveric models, all providing various levels of realism. Although basic models might be more useful to novices, advanced models allow for complex and more realistic simulation training. With a wide variety of simulators now available and given the latest novelties in modular training curriculums, combination of low and high fidelity simulators that provide a realistic and cost-effective option seems to be the way forward. It is unavoidable that simulators will play an increasing role in endourological training.

  9. Using high-fidelity simulation to develop nurse-physician teams.

    PubMed

    Klipfel, Janee M; Gettman, Matthew T; Johnson, Kristine M; Olson, Marianne E; Derscheid, Della J; Maxson, Pamela M; Arnold, Jacqueline J; Moehnke, Darcie E; Nelson, Elise A S; Vierstraete, Helen T

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether interdisciplinary high-fidelity simulation training improves group cohesion in nurse-physician teams. In addition, perceptions of collaboration and satisfaction with patient care decisions were measured in nurse-physician participants. Clinical scenarios relevant to the general surgical urology inpatient unit were conducted in an interdisciplinary high-fidelity simulation center. Participants included physicians and staff nurses. Participants reported a positive shift in group cohesion over time. In addition, the results suggested a positive shift in perceptions of collaboration and satisfaction with patient care decisions over time. The youngest participants (Millennial Generation, born in the 1980s and 1990s) showed the most significant growth in response to the training. This study provides evidence of benefits of high-fidelity simulation that extend beyond the training. Simulation training may be a strategy to build and strengthen relationships across nurse-physician teams. In addition, this type of training may positively affect collaboration and satisfaction with patient care decisions. When data were analyzed by generational grouping, the most significant growth occurred in the Millennial Generation participants. These influences need to be explored further. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. MFLOP to GFLOP: The Impact on High Fidelity Based Computational Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. Even at moderate angles of attack supersonic aircraft can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations. Near transonic speeds buffet associated structural oscillations are possible. Aircraft flying in transonic regime may experience a dip in the flutter speed. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional supercomputers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overco me the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations. Modifications required in both fluids and structural solvers in order to run efficiently on parallel computers will be discussed. Implementation of moving grids and fluid/structural interface on parallel computers will be discussed.

  11. High-fidelity continuous-variable quantum teleportation toward multistep quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Benichi, Hugo

    2008-02-15

    The progress in quantum operations of continuous-variable (CV) schemes can be reduced to that in CV quantum teleportation. The fidelity of quantum teleportation of an optical setup is limited by the finite degree of quantum correlation that can be prepared with a pair of finitely squeezed states. Reports of improvement of squeezing level have appeared recently, and we adopted the improved methods in our experimental system of quantum teleportation. As a result, we teleported a coherent state with a fidelity F=0.83{+-}0.01, which is better than any other figures reported to date, to our knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a measure n{sub s}, the number of teleportations expected to be carried out sequentially. Our result corresponds to n{sub s}=5.0{+-}0.4. It suggests that our improvement would enable us to proceed toward more advanced quantum operations involving multiple steps.

  12. High-fidelity gate operations for quantum computing beyond dephasing time limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Alexandre M.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Suter, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of quantum gates with fidelities that exceed the threshold for reliable quantum computing requires robust gates whose performance is not limited by the precision of the available control fields. The performance of these gates also should not be affected by the noisy environment of the quantum register. Here we use randomized benchmarking of quantum gate operations to compare the performance of different families of gates that compensate errors in the control field amplitudes and decouple the system from the environmental noise. We obtain average fidelities of up to 99.8%, which exceeds the threshold value for some quantum error correction schemes as well as the expected limit from the dephasing induced by the environment.

  13. Designing High-Fidelity Single-Shot Three-Qubit Gates: A Machine-Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-11-01

    Three-qubit quantum gates are key ingredients for quantum error correction and quantum-information processing. We generate quantum-control procedures to design three types of three-qubit gates, namely Toffoli, controlled-not-not, and Fredkin gates. The design procedures are applicable to a system comprising three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. For each three-qubit gate, the numerical simulation of the proposed scheme achieves 99.9% fidelity, which is an accepted threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our procedure in the presence of decoherence-induced noise and show its robustness against random external noise generated by the control electronics. The three-qubit gates are designed via the machine-learning algorithm called subspace-selective self-adaptive differential evolution.

  14. High-Fidelity Single-Shot Toffoli Gate via Quantum Control.

    PubMed

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C

    2015-05-22

    A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-not, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (nontopological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which require much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to construct a single-shot Toffoli gate for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems such that the fidelity is 99.9% and is as fast as an entangling two-qubit gate under the same realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a nongreedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the differential evolution algorithm.

  15. The importance of water for high fidelity information processing and for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehler, T. M.; Pohorille, A.

    2011-12-01

    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity of approximately 10^7:1 at each position, for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular association representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity of 10^7 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical

  16. The Importance of Water for High Fidelity Information Processing and for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g ., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity > 107 : 1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular complex representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity > 107 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical prerequisite for life.

  17. Identifying quantum states capable of high-fidelity transmission over a spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Gu, Yong-Jian; Byrd, Mark S; Bishop, Clifford A

    2013-01-01

    A uniformly coupled double-quantum Hamiltonian for a spin chain has recently been implemented experimentally. We propose a method for the determination of initial quantum states that will provide perfect or near-perfect state transmission for an arbitrary Hamiltonian including this one. By calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a unitary operator obtained from the free evolution plus an exchange operator, we find that the double-quantum Hamiltonian spin chain will support a three-spin initial encoding that will transfer along the chain with remarkably high fidelity. The fidelity is also found to decrease very slowly with increasing chain length. In addition, we are able to explain previous results showing exceptional transfer using this method.

  18. Retrieval of high-fidelity memory arises from distributed cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Wais, Peter E; Jahanikia, Sahar; Steiner, Daniel; Stark, Craig E L; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) function is well established as necessary for memory of facts and events. It is likely that lateral cortical regions critically guide cognitive control processes to tune in high-fidelity details that are most relevant for memory retrieval. Here, convergent results from functional and structural MRI show that retrieval of detailed episodic memory arises from lateral cortical-MTL networks, including regions of inferior frontal and angular gyrii. Results also suggest that recognition of items based on low-fidelity, generalized information, rather than memory arising from retrieval of relevant episodic details, is not associated with functional connectivity between MTL and lateral cortical regions. Additionally, individual differences in microstructural properties in white matter pathways, associated with distributed MTL-cortical networks, are positively correlated with better performance on a mnemonic discrimination task.

  19. High-Fidelity Qubit Measurement using a Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer Microwave Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorbeck, Ted; Hover, David; Zhu, Shaojiang; Ribeill, Guilhem; Sank, Daniel; Barends, Rami; Martinis, John; McDermott, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We describe a high-fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting Xmon qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). We will show a qubit measurement fidelity of 99% in 700 ns with the SLUG, compared to 60% without the SLUG. The SLUG amplifier has a gain of 19 dB at 6.6 GHZ. It also improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 9 dB, compared the same circuit without the SLUG. Also, the SLUG amplifier has a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to around 600 photons in the readout cavity. All of these properties make the SLUG a promising microwave amplifier for more complex quantum circuits.

  20. High-fidelity single-shot three-qubit gates via machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C.

    Three-qubit quantum gates play a crucial role in quantum error correction and quantum information processing. Here I discuss how to generate policies for quantum control to design three-qubit gates namely, Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates for an architecture of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. The resulted fidelity for each gate is above the 99.9% which is the threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our policy in the presence of decoherence-induced noise as well as show its robustness under random external noise. The three-qubit gates are designed via our machine learning algorithm called Subspace-Selective Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SuSSADE). NSERC, AITF and University of Calgarys Eyes High Fellowship Program.

  1. Tunable multi-qubit quantum phase gates with high fidelity based on graphene wrapped particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun; Zhang, Weixuan; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    A graphene wrapped dielectric particle has been proposed theoretically to realize tunable multi-qubit quantum phase gates (QPGs) with ultrahigh fidelity. By using a first-principles Green's function technique, the interactions between quantum emitters mediated by graphene plasmons have been investigated. We find that the spontaneous decay rates of these emitters can be strongly enhanced and controlled by means of the efficient excitations of eigenmodes in graphene. The collective subradiance and superradiance resulting from the graphene-mediated interactions have been predicted. Based on these phenomena, we propose the tunable multi-qubit QPGs. These phase gates have the advantage of sensitive adjustability by changing the Fermi level or the electrostatic gating in graphene, at the same time they possess very high fidelities due to the small dissipation in the graphene monolayer.

  2. Objective Assessment of Checklist Fidelity Using Digital Audio Recording and a Standardized Scoring System Audit.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Douglas; Barber, Kimberly R; Danic, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The use of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been reported to significantly reduce operative morbidity and mortality rates. Recent findings have cast doubt on the efficacy of such checklists in improving patient safety. The effectiveness of surgical safety checklists cannot be fully measured or understood without an accurate assessment of implementation fidelity, most effectively through direct observations of the checklist process. Here, we describe the use of a secure audio recording protocol in conjunction with a novel standardized scoring system to assess checklist compliance rates. We used a black box digital audio recording protocol to observe the execution of SSCs in real time. A novel checklist scoring system was used to quantify the implementation fidelity of a modified version of the SSC. Physician and staff perception of patient safety was also surveyed before and after implementation. Audio-recorded audits revealed a precisely executed checklist 73.6% of the time compared with a previously reported compliance rate of 97.6%. Implementation fidelity was highest during preanesthesia and preincision checklist sections, whereas postprocedure checklist compliance and fidelity was consistently the lowest. Positive attitudes on patient safety by surgical staff increased by 11% from baseline. The use of a secure digital audio recording protocol is a simple yet effective tool for observing checklist performance. Moreover, the implementation of a standardized scoring system allows for the objective evaluation of checklist fidelity. Together, they provide a powerful auditing tool for identifying improvement.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  3. Can Inner Experience Be Apprehended in High Fidelity? Examining Brain Activation and Experience from Multiple Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the historical context for explorations of “pristine inner experience,” attempts to apprehend and describe the inner experiences that directly present themselves in natural environments. There is no generally accepted method for determining whether such apprehensions/descriptions should be considered high fidelity. By analogy from musical recording, we present and discuss one strategy for establishing experiential fidelity: the examining of brain activation associated with a variety of experiential perspectives that had not been specified at the time of data collection. We beeped participants in an fMRI scanner at randomly-determined times and recorded time-locked brain activations. We used Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) to apprehend and describe the participant's experience that was ongoing at each beep. These apprehensions/descriptions were obtained with no specific theoretical perspective or experimental intention when originally collected. If these apprehensions/descriptions were of high fidelity, then these pairings of moments of experience and brain activations should be able to be productively examined and re-examined in multiple ways and from multiple theoretical perspectives. We discuss a small set of such re-examinations and conclude that this strategy is worthy of further examination. PMID:28191000

  4. Can Inner Experience Be Apprehended in High Fidelity? Examining Brain Activation and Experience from Multiple Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the historical context for explorations of "pristine inner experience," attempts to apprehend and describe the inner experiences that directly present themselves in natural environments. There is no generally accepted method for determining whether such apprehensions/descriptions should be considered high fidelity. By analogy from musical recording, we present and discuss one strategy for establishing experiential fidelity: the examining of brain activation associated with a variety of experiential perspectives that had not been specified at the time of data collection. We beeped participants in an fMRI scanner at randomly-determined times and recorded time-locked brain activations. We used Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) to apprehend and describe the participant's experience that was ongoing at each beep. These apprehensions/descriptions were obtained with no specific theoretical perspective or experimental intention when originally collected. If these apprehensions/descriptions were of high fidelity, then these pairings of moments of experience and brain activations should be able to be productively examined and re-examined in multiple ways and from multiple theoretical perspectives. We discuss a small set of such re-examinations and conclude that this strategy is worthy of further examination.

  5. High-Fidelity Two-Qubit Gates in a Surface Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobser, Daniel; Blain, Matthew; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Fortier, Kevin; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Nielsen, Erik; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sterk, Jonathan; Stick, Daniel; Maunz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are capable of supporting a variety of exotic trapping geometries and provide a scalable system for trapped ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP). However, the feasibility of using surface traps for QIP has long been a point of contention because the close proximity of the ions to trap electrodes increases heating rates and might lead to laser-induced charging of the trap. As surface traps continue to evolve at a remarkable rate, their performance is rapidly approaching that of macroscopic electrode traps. Using Sandia's High-Optical-Access surface trap, we demonstrate robust single-qubit gates, both laser- and microwave-based. Our gates are accurately characterized by Gate Set Tomography (GST) and we report the first diamond norm measurements near the fault-tolerance threshold. Extending these techniques, we've realized a Mølmer-Sørensen two-qubit gate that is stable for several hours. This stability has allowed us to perform the first GST measurements of a two-qubit gate, yielding a process fidelity of 99.58(6)%. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. High fidelity simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux on enhanced structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Miad; Alahyari, Abbas; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios

    2015-11-01

    Surface enhancement is often is the primary approach for improved heat transfer performance of two-phase thermal systems particularly when they operate in nucleate boiling regime. This paper exploits the modeling capability developed by Yazdani et al. for simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux to study the nucleation phenomenon on various enhanced structures. The multi-scale of two-phase flow associated with boiling phenomena is addressed through combination of deterministic CFD for the macro-scale transport, asymptotic based representation of micro-layer, and stochastic representation of surface roughness so as to allow a high-fidelity simulation of boiling on an arbitrary surface. In addition, given the excessive complexity of surface structures often used for enhancement of boiling heat transfer, a phase-field-based method is developed to generate the structures where the numerical parameters in the phase-field model determine the topology of a given structure. The ``generated'' structure is then embedded into the two-phase flow model through virtual boundary method for the boiling simulation. The model is validated against experimental data for the boiling curve and the critical heat flux as well as nucleation and bubble dynamics characteristics.

  7. High-fidelity simulations for clean and efficient combustion of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oefelein, J. C.; Chen, J. H.; Sankaran, R.

    2009-07-01

    There is an urgent and growing demand for high-fidelity simulations that capture complex turbulence-chemistry interactions in propulsion and power systems, and in particular, that capture and discriminate the effects of fuel variability. This project addresses this demand using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique (led by Oefelein) and the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) technique (led by Chen). In particular, we are conducting research under the INCITE program that is tightly coupled with funded projects established under the DOE Basic Energy Sciences and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy programs that will provide the foundational science required to develop a predictive modeling capability for design of advanced engines for transportation. Application of LES provides the formal ability to treat the full range of multidimensional time and length scales that exist in turbulent reacting flows in a computationally feasible manner and thus provides a way to simulate reacting flow phenomena in complex internal-combustion engine geometries at device relevant conditions. Application of DNS provides a way to study fundamental issues related to small-scale combustion processes in canonical configurations to understand dynamics that occur over a range of reactive-diffusive scales. Here we describe the challenges and present representative examples of the types of simulations each respective tool has been used for as part of the INCITE program. We focus on recent experiences on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) Cray-XT Platform (i.e., Jaguar).

  8. The validity and incremental validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations for predicting job performance in advanced-level high-stakes selection.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-09-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations in advanced-level high-stakes settings. A model and hypotheses of how these 3 predictors work in combination to predict job performance were developed. In a sample of 196 applicants, all 3 predictors were significantly related to job performance. Both the SJT and the AC had incremental validity over the knowledge test. Moreover, the AC had incremental validity over the SJT. Model tests showed that the SJT fully mediated the effects of declarative knowledge on job performance, whereas the AC partially mediated the effects of the SJT.

  9. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  10. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  11. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  12. The Kepler End-to-End Model: Creating High-Fidelity Simulations to Test Kepler Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Peters, Dan J.; Tenenbaum, Peter P.; Klaus, Todd C.; Gunter, Jay P.; Cote, Miles T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to detect the transit of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars by observing 100,000 stellar targets. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in particular the data analysis pipeline, requires high-fidelity simulated data. This simulated data is provided by the Kepler End-to-End Model (ETEM). ETEM simulates the astrophysics of planetary transits and other phenomena, properties of the Kepler spacecraft and the format of the downlinked data. Major challenges addressed by ETEM include the rapid production of large amounts of simulated data, extensibility and maintainability.

  13. Becoming a high-fidelity - super - imitator: what are the contributions of social and individual learning?

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation) - involving a demonstration - and two asocial conditions (trial-and-error, recall) - involving individual learning - using two touchscreen tasks. The tasks required responding to either three different pictures in a specific picture order (Cognitive: Airplane→Ball→Cow) or three identical pictures in a specific spatial order (Motor-Spatial: Up→Down→Right). There were age-related improvements across all conditions and imitation, emulation and recall performance were significantly better than trial-and-error learning. Generalized linear models demonstrated that motor-spatial imitation fidelity was associated with age and motor-spatial emulation performance, but cognitive imitation fidelity was only associated with age. While this study provides evidence for multiple imitation mechanisms, the development of one of those mechanisms - motor-spatial imitation - may be bootstrapped by the development of another social learning skill - motor-spatial emulation. Together, these findings provide important clues about the development of imitation, which is arguably a distinctive feature of the human species.

  14. High-fidelity conformation of graphene to SiO2 topographic features.

    PubMed

    Cullen, W G; Yamamoto, M; Burson, K M; Chen, J H; Jang, C; Li, L; Fuhrer, M S; Williams, E D

    2010-11-19

    High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy of SiO2 reveals previously unresolved roughness at the few-nm length scale, and scanning tunneling microscopy of graphene on SiO2 shows graphene to be slightly smoother than the supporting SiO2 substrate. A quantitative energetic analysis explains the observed roughness of graphene on SiO2 as extrinsic, and a natural result of highly conformal adhesion. Graphene conforms to the substrate down to the smallest features with nearly 99% fidelity, indicating conformal adhesion can be highly effective for strain engineering of graphene.

  15. Effects of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Experience on Self-Efficacy, Motivation and Learning of First Semester Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznar, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the newest methodologies in nursing education is high-fidelity human patient simulation (HPS). Many nursing educators have embraced the method as it offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Despite their popularity, however, HPS systems are costly and, in an era of cost containment and tuition…

  16. Effects of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Experience on Self-Efficacy, Motivation and Learning of First Semester Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznar, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the newest methodologies in nursing education is high-fidelity human patient simulation (HPS). Many nursing educators have embraced the method as it offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Despite their popularity, however, HPS systems are costly and, in an era of cost containment and tuition…

  17. A structured literature review on the use of high fidelity patient simulators for teaching in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    McFetrich, J

    2006-01-01

    High fidelity simulators are commonly used educational tools, mainly in anaesthesia. This literature review examines the use of simulators for teaching in emergency medicine and covers some of their advantages and disadvantages, and evidence for their use. PMID:16794089

  18. A cost effective and high fidelity fluoroscopy simulator using the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Jenkins, Brad; Sze, Raymond W.; Yaniv, Ziv

    2014-03-01

    The skills required for obtaining informative x-ray fluoroscopy images are currently acquired while trainees provide clinical care. As a consequence, trainees and patients are exposed to higher doses of radiation. Use of simulation has the potential to reduce this radiation exposure by enabling trainees to improve their skills in a safe environment prior to treating patients. We describe a low cost, high fidelity, fluoroscopy simulation system. Our system enables operators to practice their skills using the clinical device and simulated x-rays of a virtual patient. The patient is represented using a set of temporal Computed Tomography (CT) images, corresponding to the underlying dynamic processes. Simulated x-ray images, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), are generated from the CTs using ray-casting with customizable machine specific imaging parameters. To establish the spatial relationship between the CT and the fluoroscopy device, the CT is virtually attached to a patient phantom and a web camera is used to track the phantom's pose. The camera is mounted on the fluoroscope's intensifier and the relationship between it and the x-ray source is obtained via calibration. To control image acquisition the operator moves the fluoroscope as in normal operation mode. Control of zoom, collimation and image save is done using a keypad mounted alongside the device's control panel. Implementation is based on the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), and the use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) for accelerated image generation. Our system was evaluated by 11 clinicians and was found to be sufficiently realistic for training purposes.

  19. Fidelity decay and entropy production in many-particle systems after random interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Chavda, N. D.; Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effect of spin degree of freedom on fidelity decay and entropy production of a many-particle fermionic (bosonic) system in a mean-field, quenched by a random two-body interaction preserving many-particle spin S. The system Hamiltonian is represented by embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices (for time-reversal and rotationally invariant systems) with one plus two-body interactions preserving S for fermions/bosons. EGOE are paradigmatic models to study the dynamical transition from integrability to chaos in interacting many-body quantum systems. A simple general picture, in which the variances of the eigenvalue density play a central role, is obtained for describing the short-time dynamics of fidelity decay and entropy production. Using some approximations, an EGOE formula for the time (t sat) for the onset of saturation of entropy, is also derived. These analytical EGOE results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. Moreover, both fermion and boson systems show significant spin dependence on the relaxation dynamics of the fidelity and entropy.

  20. Nonspecific PCR amplification by high-fidelity polymerases: implications for next-generation sequencing of AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Brelsford, Alan; Collin, Hélène; Perrin, Nicolas; Fumagalli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity 'proofreading' polymerases are often used in library construction for next-generation sequencing projects, in an effort to minimize errors in the resulting sequence data. The increased template fidelity of these polymerases can come at the cost of reduced template specificity, and library preparation methods based on the AFLP technique may be particularly susceptible. Here, we compare AFLP profiles generated with standard Taq and two versions of a high-fidelity polymerase. We find that Taq produces fewer and brighter peaks than high-fidelity polymerase, suggesting that Taq performs better at selectively amplifying templates that exactly match the primer sequences. Because the higher accuracy of proofreading polymerases remains important for sequencing applications, we suggest that it may be more effective to use alternative library preparation methods. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Acceleration of PIC and CR algorithms for High Fidelity In-Space Propulsion Modeling (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-29

    RQRS M&S FUTURE WORK Integrate R&D w/ Production TODO: High-Order Fluid/ MHD GPU Models (Le/Cole*/Bilyeu PhD Research) GPU Accelerated Chemical Kinetics...propulsion modeling (Briefing Charts) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) R. Martin, H. Le, C...August 2013. 14. ABSTRACT We describe enhancements under development for multi-scale methods to be applied to the high-fidelity modeling of spacecraft

  2. Click Reaction on Solid Phase Enables High Fidelity Synthesis of Nucleobase-Modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Rosenthal, Malte; Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-03-16

    The post-synthetic functionalization of nucleic acids via click chemistry (CuAAC) has seen tremendous implementation, extending the applicability of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids in fields like fluorescent labeling, nanotechnology, and in vitro selection. However, the production of large quantities of high-density functionalized material via solid phase synthesis has been hampered by oxidative by-product formation associated with the alkaline workup conditions. Herein, we describe a rapid and cost-effective protocol for the high fidelity large-scale production of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids, exemplified with a recently described nucleobase-modified aptamer.

  3. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  4. Frequency-dependent variation in mimetic fidelity in an intraspecific mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Iserbyt, Arne; Bots, Jessica; Van Dongen, Stefan; Ting, Janice J.; Van Gossum, Hans; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theory predicts that the degree of mimetic similarity of mimics towards their model should increase as the mimic/model ratio increases. Thus, when the mimic/model ratio is high, then the mimic has to resemble the model very closely to still gain protection from the signal receiver. To date, empirical evidence of this effect is limited to a single example where mimicry occurs between species. Here, for the first time, we test whether mimetic fidelity varies with mimic/model ratios in an intraspecific mimicry system, in which signal receivers are the same species as the mimics and models. To this end, we studied a polymorphic damselfly with a single male phenotype and two female morphs, in which one morph resembles the male phenotype while the other does not. Phenotypic similarity of males to both female morphs was quantified using morphometric data for multiple populations with varying mimic/model ratios repeated over a 3 year period. Our results demonstrate that male-like females were overall closer in size to males than the other female morph. Furthermore, the extent of morphological similarity between male-like females and males, measured as Mahalanobis distances, was frequency-dependent in the direction predicted. Hence, this study provides direct quantitative support for the prediction that the mimetic similarity of mimics to their models increases as the mimic/model ratio increases. We suggest that the phenomenon may be widespread in a range of mimicry systems. PMID:21367784

  5. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  6. High-Fidelity Simulation Training for Sleep Technologists in a Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin T.; Lozano, David J.; White, Marjorie L.; Youngblood, Amber Q.; Zinkan, Lynn; Niebauer, Julia M.; Tofil, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Severe events of respiratory distress can be life threatening. Although rare in some outpatient settings, effective recognition and management are essential to improving outcomes. The value of high-fidelity simulation has not been assessed for sleep technologists (STs). We hypothesized that knowledge of and comfort level in managing emergent pediatric respiratory events would improve with this innovative method. Methods: We designed a course that utilized high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) and that focused on rapid pediatric assessment of young children in the first 5 minutes of an emergency. We assessed knowledge of and comfort with critical emergencies that STs may encounter in a pediatric sleep center utilizing a pre/post-test study design. Results: Ten STs enrolled in the study, and scores from the pre- and posttest were compared utilizing a paired samples t-test. Mean participant age was 42 ± 11 years, with average of 9.3 ± 3.3 years of ST experience but minimal experience in managing an actual emergency. Average pretest score was 54% ± 17% correct and improved to 69% ± 16% after the educational intervention (p < 0.05). Participant ratings indicated the course was a well-received, innovative educational methodology. Conclusions: A simulation course focusing on respiratory emergencies requiring basic life support skills during the first 5 min of distress can significantly improve the knowledge of STs. Simulation may provide a highly useful methodology for training STs in the management of rare life-threatening events. Citation: Avis KT; Lozano DJ; White ML; Youngblood AQ; Zinkan L; Niebauer JM; Tofil NM. High-fidelity simulation training for sleep technologists in a pediatric sleep disorders center. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):97-101. PMID:22334815

  7. Evaluating Intervention Fidelity: An Example from a High-Intensity Interval Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn L.; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Intervention fidelity refers to the degree to which an experimental manipulation has been implemented as intended, but simple, robust methods for quantifying fidelity have not been well documented. Therefore, we aim to illustrate a rigorous quantitative evaluation of intervention fidelity, using data collected during a high-intensity interval training intervention. Design Single-group measurement study. Methods Seventeen adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) attended a 10-week high-intensity interval training intervention, comprising two exercise sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 4-7 45-s maximal effort repetitions, interspersed with 90-s rest. We collected heart rate data at 5-s intervals and recorded the peak heart rate for each repetition. The high-intensity exercise criterion was ≥90% of individual maximal heart rate. For each participant, we calculated the proportion of total exercise repetitions exceeding this threshold. A linear mixed model was applied to properly separate the variability in peak heart rate between- and within-subjects. Results are presented both as intention to treat (including missed sessions) and per protocol (only participants with 100% attendance; n=8). Results For intention to treat, the median (interquartile range) proportion of repetitions meeting the high-intensity criterion was 58% (42% to 68%). The mean peak heart rate was 85% of maximal, with a between-subject SD of 7.8 (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 11.3) percentage points and a within-subject SD of 15.1 (14.6 to 15.6) percentage points. For the per protocol analysis, the median proportion of high-intensity repetitions was 68% (47% to 86%). The mean peak heart rate was 91% of maximal, with between- and within-subject SDs of 3.1 (-1.3 to 4.6) and 3.4 (3.2 to 3.6) percentage points, respectively. Conclusions Synthesising information on exercise session attendance and compliance (exercise intensity) quantifies the intervention dose and

  8. High-Fidelity Adaptive Qubit Detection through Repetitive Quantum Nondemolition Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-09-21

    Using two trapped ion species ({sup 27}Al{sup +} and {sup 9}Be{sup +}) as primary and ancillary quantum systems, we implement qubit measurements based on the repetitive transfer of information and quantum nondemolition detection. The repetition provides a natural mechanism for an adaptive measurement strategy, which leads to exponentially lower error rates compared to using a fixed number of detection cycles. For a single qubit we demonstrate 99.94% measurement fidelity. We also demonstrate a technique for adaptively measuring multiple qubit states using a single ancilla, and apply the technique to spectroscopy of an optical clock transition.

  9. High-Fidelity Adaptive Qubit Detection through Repetitive Quantum Nondemolition Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    Using two trapped ion species (Al+27 and Be+9) as primary and ancillary quantum systems, we implement qubit measurements based on the repetitive transfer of information and quantum nondemolition detection. The repetition provides a natural mechanism for an adaptive measurement strategy, which leads to exponentially lower error rates compared to using a fixed number of detection cycles. For a single qubit we demonstrate 99.94% measurement fidelity. We also demonstrate a technique for adaptively measuring multiple qubit states using a single ancilla, and apply the technique to spectroscopy of an optical clock transition.

  10. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E; Gauld, Ian C; Romano, Catherine E; Trellue, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent

  11. Cost analysis and feasibility of high-fidelity simulation based radiology contrast reaction curriculum.

    PubMed

    Petscavage, Jonelle M; Wang, Carolyn L; Schopp, Jennifer G; Paladin, Angelisa M; Richardson, Michael L; Bush, William H

    2011-01-01

    Radiology residents have variable training in managing acute nonrenal adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media because of their rarity. Preliminary results show positive feedback and knowledge gain with high-fidelity simulation-based training. Financial costs and the time required to implement a high-fidelity simulation curriculum are higher than for a lecture series. The objective of this study was to provide a financial and time cost-benefit analysis for high-fidelity simulation training of acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. Forty-four radiology residents were divided into lecture and simulation groups. Five simulation scenarios were created, with core education content mirrored in the lecture. Lengths of faculty time commitment and resident training were recorded. Financial costs, including manikin and simulation facility rates, were recorded and divided by the number of residents to obtain per resident simulation and lecture costs. A written evaluation of the experience, with Likert-type items and unstructured response items, was conducted. Cost per resident for simulation training setup was $259.76, and $203.46 for subsequent years, compared to <$5 for lecture. Faculty time was 7 academic days for simulation versus 2 days for lecture format. Resident simulation commitment was 3 hours 30 minutes. Time to train technologists to run the simulation was 3 hours. All residents provided positive feedback regarding the simulation curriculum, with mean feedback scores statistically higher than lecture group (P < .05). This study illustrates that financial costs of implementation are low compared to the potential cost of morbidity associated with the life-threatening event of an acute adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Applying theory to practice in undergraduate education using high fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Pamela J; Cleave-Hogg, Doreen; Desousa, Susan; Lam-McCulloch, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    High-fidelity patient simulation allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge of pharmacology and physiology to practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if experiential education using high-fidelity simulation improves undergraduate performance scores on simulation-based and written examinations. After receiving research ethics board approval, students completed a consent form and then answered a ten question multiple-choice quiz to identify their knowledge regarding the management of cardiac arrhythmias. Four simulation scenarios were presented and students worked through each scenario as a team. Faculty facilitated the sessions and feedback was given using students' videotaped performances as a template for discussion. Performance evaluation scores using predetermined checklists and global rating scales were completed. Students then reviewed the American Heart Association guidelines for the management of unstable cardiac arrhythmias. The afternoon session involved repetition of the four case scenarios with the same teams involved but different team leaders. Students then repeated the quiz they received in the morning. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse results. Two hundred and ninety-nine students completed the study. There was a statistically significant improvement in performance on the pharmacology written test. Simulation team performance also statistically improved and a good correlation between checklist and global rating scores were demonstrated in all but one scenario. Student evaluation of the experience was extremely positive. High-fidelity simulation can be used to allow students to apply theoretical knowledge to practice in a safe and realistic environment. Results of this study indicate that simulation is a valuable learning experience and bridges the gap between theory and practice. Simulation technology has the potential to provide an enriching venue to

  13. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-12-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.

  14. Mixed-Species Logic Gates and High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for Trapped-Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting Rei

    2016-05-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. For trapped-ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. We demonstrate an entangling gate between two atomic ions of different elements that can serve as an important building block of quantum information processing (QIP), quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. An entangling geometric phase gate between a 9 Be+ ion and a 25 Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces. A mixed-species Bell state is thereby created with a fidelity of 0 . 979(1) . We use the gate to construct a SWAP gate that interchanges the quantum states of the two dissimilar qubits. We also report a high-fidelity universal gate set for 9 Be+ ion qubits, achieved through a combination of improved laser beam quality and control, improved state preparation, and reduced electric potential noise on trap electrodes. Supported by Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  15. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Developed for the Response of Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-fidelity micromechanics model has been developed under funding from the NASA Glenn Research Center for predicting the response of multiphase materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed in constructing the higher order theory for functionally graded materials. The resulting closed-form macroscopic and microscopic constitutive equations, valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading of periodic materials with elastic and inelastic constitutive phases, can be incorporated into a structural analysis computer code. Consequently, this model now provides an alternative, accurate method.

  16. High-fidelity AFM scanning stage based on multilayer ceramic capacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2016-05-01

    A kind of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) has been verified to have good micro-actuating properties, thus making them good candidates for nano-positioning. In this paper, we successfully employed the MLCCs as lateral scanners for a tripod scanning stage. The MLCC-based lateral scanners display hysteresis under 1.5% and a nonlinearity less than 2% even with the simplest open-loop voltage drive. The developed scanning stage was integrated into a commercial AFM to evaluate its imaging performance. Experimental results showed that sample images with high fidelities were obtained. SCANNING 38:184-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Suppressing Leakage in High Fidelity Single Qubit Gates for Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Kelly, J.; Quintana, C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Lucero, E.; Jeffrey, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Korotkov, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    Recent results show that superconducting qubits are approaching the threshold for fault tolerant quantum error correction. However, leakage into non-qubit states remains a significant hurdle because leakage errors are highly detrimental for error correction schemes such as the surface code. I will demonstrate that with a simple addition to DRAG pulse shaping, leakage can be suppressed to the 10-5 level while simultaneously maintaining 10-3 gate fidelity. I will also show that the remaining leakage errors are due to heating of the qubit, suggesting further avenues for improvement. The work was supported by Google Inc., and by the NSFGRF under Grant No. DGE 1144085.

  18. GIS management system of power plant staff based on wireless fidelity indoor location technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    The labor conditions and environment of electric power production are quite complicated. It is very difficult to realize the real-time supervision of the employees' working conditions and safety. Using the existing base stations in the power plant, the wireless fidelity network is established to realize the wireless coverage of the work site. We can use mobile phone to communicate and achieve positioning. The main content of this project is based on the special environment of the power plant, designed a suitable for ordinary Android mobile phone indoor wireless fidelity positioning system, real-time positioning and record the scene of each employee's movement trajectory, has achieved real-time staff check Gang, Staff in place, and for the safety of employees to provide a guarantee.

  19. Link between statistical equilibrium fidelity and forecasting skill for complex systems with model error.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Gershgorin, Boris

    2011-08-02

    Understanding and improving the predictive skill of imperfect models for complex systems in their response to external forcing is a crucial issue in diverse applications such as for example climate change science. Equilibrium statistical fidelity of the imperfect model on suitable coarse-grained variables is a necessary but not sufficient condition for this predictive skill, and elementary examples are given here demonstrating this. Here, with equilibrium statistical fidelity of the imperfect model, a direct link is developed between the predictive fidelity of specific test problems in the training phase where the perfect natural system is observed and the predictive skill for the forced response of the imperfect model by combining appropriate concepts from information theory with other concepts based on the fluctuation dissipation theorem. Here a suite of mathematically tractable models with nontrivial eddy diffusivity, variance, and intermittent non-Gaussian statistics mimicking crucial features of atmospheric tracers together with stochastically forced standard eddy diffusivity approximation with model error are utilized to illustrate this link.

  20. A high-quality high-fidelity visualization of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu; Hoffmann, Christoph; Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    In this application paper, we describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary team towards producing a visualization of the September 11 Attack on the North Tower of New York's World Trade Center. The visualization was designed to meet two requirements. First, the visualization had to depict the impact with high fidelity, by closely following the laws of physics. Second, the visualization had to be eloquent to a nonexpert user. This was achieved by first designing and computing a finite-element analysis (FEA) simulation of the impact between the aircraft and the top 20 stories of the building, and then by visualizing the FEA results with a state-of-the-art commercial animation system. The visualization was enabled by an automatic translator that converts the simulation data into an animation system 3D scene. We built upon a previously developed translator. The translator was substantially extended to enable and control visualization of fire and of disintegrating elements, to better scale with the number of nodes and number of states, to handle beam elements with complex profiles, and to handle smoothed particle hydrodynamics liquid representation. The resulting translator is a powerful automatic and scalable tool for high-quality visualization of FEA results.

  1. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    PubMed Central

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585

  2. Development of the orpheus perfusion simulator for use in high-fidelity extracorporeal membrane oxygenation simulation.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, William; Machin, David; Grant, David J

    2012-12-01

    Despite its life-sustaining potential, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains a complex treatment modality for which close teamwork is imperative with a high risk of adverse events leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The provision of adequate training and continuing education is key in mitigating these risks. Traditional training for ECMO has relied predominantly on didactic education and hands-on water drills. These methods may overemphasize cognitive skills while underemphasizing technical skills and completely ignoring team and human factor skills. These water drills are often static, lacking the time pressure, typical alarms, and a sense of urgency inherent to actual critical ECMO scenarios. Simulation-based training provides an opportunity for staff to develop and maintain technical proficiency in high-risk, infrequent events without fear of harming patients. In addition, it provides opportunities for interdisciplinary training and improved communication and teamwork among team members (1). Although simulation has become widely accepted for training of practitioners from many disciplines, there are currently, to our knowledge, no commercially available dedicated high-fidelity ECMO simulators. Our article describes the modification of the Orpheus Perfusion Simulator and its incorporation into a fully immersive, high-fidelity, point-of-care ECMO simulation model.

  3. Generation of a Genetically Stable High-Fidelity Influenza Vaccine Strain.

    PubMed

    Naito, Tadasuke; Mori, Kotaro; Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Naoki; Nobusawa, Eri; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L; Nagata, Kyosuke; Saito, Mineki

    2017-03-15

    Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive means for influenza control. The development of a master virus with high growth and genetic stability, which may be used for the preparation of vaccine viruses by gene reassortment, is crucial for the enhancement of vaccine performance and efficiency of production. Here, we describe the generation of a high-fidelity and high-growth influenza vaccine master virus strain with a single V43I amino acid change in the PB1 polymerase of the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) master virus. The PB1-V43I mutation was introduced to increase replication fidelity in order to design an H1N1 vaccine strain with a low error rate. The PR8-PB1-V43I virus exhibited good replication compared with that of the parent PR8 virus. In order to compare the efficiency of egg adaptation and the occurrence of gene mutations leading to antigenic alterations, we constructed 6:2 genetic reassortant viruses between the A(H1N1)pdm09 and the PR8-PB1-V43I viruses; hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the other genes were from the PR8 virus. Mutations responsible for egg adaptation mutations occurred in the HA of the PB1-V43I reassortant virus during serial egg passages; however, in contrast, antigenic mutations were introduced into the HA gene of the 6:2 reassortant virus possessing the wild-type PB1. This study shows that the mutant PR8 virus possessing the PB1 polymerase with the V43I substitution may be utilized as a master virus for the generation of high-growth vaccine viruses with high polymerase fidelity, low error rates of gene replication, and reduced antigenic diversity during virus propagation in eggs for vaccine production.IMPORTANCE Vaccination represents the most effective prophylactic option against influenza. The threat of emergence of influenza pandemics necessitates the ability to generate vaccine viruses rapidly. However, as the influenza virus exhibits a high mutation rate

  4. Relations between quantum correlations, purity and teleportation fidelity for the two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Yan-Biao; Wu, Fang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and understanding quantum correlations may give a direct reply for many issues regarding the interesting behaviors of quantum system. To explore the quantum correlations in quantum teleportation, we have used a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system with spin-orbit interaction as a quantum channel to teleport an unknown state. By using different measures and standard teleportation protocols, we have derived the analytical expressions for quantum discord, entanglement of formation, purity, and maximal teleportation fidelity of the system. We compare their different characteristics and analyze the relationships between these quantities.

  5. Improving model fidelity and sensitivity for complex systems through empirical information theory

    PubMed Central

    Majda, Andrew J.; Gershgorin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In many situations in contemporary science and engineering, the analysis and prediction of crucial phenomena occur often through complex dynamical equations that have significant model errors compared with the true signal in nature. Here, a systematic information theoretic framework is developed to improve model fidelity and sensitivity for complex systems including perturbation formulas and multimodel ensembles that can be utilized to improve both aspects of model error simultaneously. A suite of unambiguous test models is utilized to demonstrate facets of the proposed framework. These results include simple examples of imperfect models with perfect equilibrium statistical fidelity where there are intrinsic natural barriers to improving imperfect model sensitivity. Linear stochastic models with multiple spatiotemporal scales are utilized to demonstrate this information theoretic approach to equilibrium sensitivity, the role of increasing spatial resolution in the information metric for model error, and the ability of imperfect models to capture the true sensitivity. Finally, an instructive statistically nonlinear model with many degrees of freedom, mimicking the observed non-Gaussian statistical behavior of tracers in the atmosphere, with corresponding imperfect eddy-diffusivity parameterization models are utilized here. They demonstrate the important role of additional stochastic forcing of imperfect models in order to systematically improve the information theoretic measures of fidelity and sensitivity developed here. PMID:21646534

  6. Improving model fidelity and sensitivity for complex systems through empirical information theory.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Gershgorin, Boris

    2011-06-21

    In many situations in contemporary science and engineering, the analysis and prediction of crucial phenomena occur often through complex dynamical equations that have significant model errors compared with the true signal in nature. Here, a systematic information theoretic framework is developed to improve model fidelity and sensitivity for complex systems including perturbation formulas and multimodel ensembles that can be utilized to improve both aspects of model error simultaneously. A suite of unambiguous test models is utilized to demonstrate facets of the proposed framework. These results include simple examples of imperfect models with perfect equilibrium statistical fidelity where there are intrinsic natural barriers to improving imperfect model sensitivity. Linear stochastic models with multiple spatiotemporal scales are utilized to demonstrate this information theoretic approach to equilibrium sensitivity, the role of increasing spatial resolution in the information metric for model error, and the ability of imperfect models to capture the true sensitivity. Finally, an instructive statistically nonlinear model with many degrees of freedom, mimicking the observed non-Gaussian statistical behavior of tracers in the atmosphere, with corresponding imperfect eddy-diffusivity parameterization models are utilized here. They demonstrate the important role of additional stochastic forcing of imperfect models in order to systematically improve the information theoretic measures of fidelity and sensitivity developed here.

  7. Visual long-term memory stores high-fidelity representations of observed actions.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen Jiang; Wood, Justin N

    2013-04-01

    The ability to remember others' actions is fundamental to social cognition, but the precision of action memories remains unknown. To probe the fidelity of the action representations stored in visual long-term memory, we asked observers to view a large number of computer-animated actions. Afterward, observers were shown pairs of actions and indicated which of the two actions they had seen for each pair. On some trials, the previously viewed action was paired with an action from a different action category, and on other trials, it was paired with an action from the same category. Accuracy on both types of trials was remarkably high (81% and 82%, respectively). Further, results from a second experiment showed that the action representations maintained in visual long-term memory can be nearly as precise as the action representations maintained in visual working memory. Together, these findings provide evidence for a mechanism in visual long-term memory that maintains high-fidelity representations of observed actions.

  8. Concept and modeling analysis of a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Li, Yun; Wang, Anding; Xing, Tingwen

    2015-06-10

    Conventional deformable mirrors (DM) cannot meet the requirement of aberration controlling for advanced lithography tools. This paper illustrates an approach using the property that deformation of a thin plate is similar to optical modes to realize a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror whose deformation has characteristics of optical aberration modes. The way to arrange actuators is also examined. In this paper, a 36-actuator deformable mirror is taken as an example to generate low-order Zernike modes. The result shows that this DM generates the fourth fringe Zernike mode (Z4) defocus, and primary aberration Z5-Z8 with an error less than 0.5%, generates the fifth-order aberration Z10-Z14, and generates the seventh-order aberration Z17-Z20 with an error less than 1.1%. The high fidelity replication of the Zernike mode indicates that the DM satisfies the demand of controlling aberrations corresponding to the first 20 Zernike modes in an advanced lithography tool.

  9. A Taxonomy of Delivery and Documentation Deviations During Delivery of High-Fidelity Simulations.

    PubMed

    McIvor, William R; Banerjee, Arna; Boulet, John R; Bekhuis, Tanja; Tseytlin, Eugene; Torsher, Laurence; DeMaria, Samuel; Rask, John P; Shotwell, Matthew S; Burden, Amanda; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Gaba, David M; Levine, Adam; Park, Christine; Sinz, Elizabeth; Steadman, Randolph H; Weinger, Matthew B

    2017-02-01

    We developed a taxonomy of simulation delivery and documentation deviations noted during a multicenter, high-fidelity simulation trial that was conducted to assess practicing physicians' performance. Eight simulation centers sought to implement standardized scenarios over 2 years. Rules, guidelines, and detailed scenario scripts were established to facilitate reproducible scenario delivery; however, pilot trials revealed deviations from those rubrics. A taxonomy with hierarchically arranged terms that define a lack of standardization of simulation scenario delivery was then created to aid educators and researchers in assessing and describing their ability to reproducibly conduct simulations. Thirty-six types of delivery or documentation deviations were identified from the scenario scripts and study rules. Using a Delphi technique and open card sorting, simulation experts formulated a taxonomy of high-fidelity simulation execution and documentation deviations. The taxonomy was iteratively refined and then tested by 2 investigators not involved with its development. The taxonomy has 2 main classes, simulation center deviation and participant deviation, which are further subdivided into as many as 6 subclasses. Inter-rater classification agreement using the taxonomy was 74% or greater for each of the 7 levels of its hierarchy. Cohen kappa calculations confirmed substantial agreement beyond that expected by chance. All deviations were classified within the taxonomy. This is a useful taxonomy that standardizes terms for simulation delivery and documentation deviations, facilitates quality assurance in scenario delivery, and enables quantification of the impact of deviations upon simulation-based performance assessment.

  10. Scalable gene synthesis by selective amplification of DNA pools from high-fidelity microchips.

    PubMed

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Leproust, Emily M; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M

    2010-12-01

    Development of cheap, high-throughput and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful owing to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols and enzymatic error correction to develop a method for highly parallel gene synthesis. We tested our approach by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ∼35 kilobase pairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ∼2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than in previously published attempts.

  11. A cost-utility analysis of medium vs. high-fidelity human patient simulation manikins in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2011-12-01

    This study presents a cost-utility analysis that compared medium- vs. high-fidelity human patient simulation manikins in nursing education. The analysis sought to determine whether the extra costs associated with high-fidelity manikins can justify the differences, if any, in the outcomes of clinical reasoning, knowledge acquisition and student satisfaction. Investment in simulated learning environments has increased at an unprecedented pace. One of the driving forces is the potential for simulation experiences to improve students' learning and engagement. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to inform decisions related to investment in and use of simulation equipment. Costs associated with the use of medium- and high-fidelity manikins were calculated to determine the total cost for each. A cost-utility analysis using multiattribute utility function was then conducted to combine costs and three outcomes of clinical reasoning, knowledge acquisition and student satisfaction from a quasi-experimental study to arrive at an overall cost utility. The cost analysis indicated that to obtain equivalent clinical reasoning, knowledge acquisition and student satisfaction scores, it required $AU1·21 (US$ 1·14; €0·85) using medium-fidelity as compared with $AU6·28 (US$6·17; €4·40) for high-fidelity human patient simulation manikins per student. Based on the results of the cost-utility analysis, medium-fidelity manikins are more cost effective requiring one-fifth of the cost of high-fidelity manikins to obtain the same effect on clinical reasoning, knowledge acquisition and student satisfaction. It is important that decision-makers have an economic analysis that considers both the costs and outcomes of simulation to identify the approach that has the lowest cost for any particular outcome measure or the best outcomes for a particular cost. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Satisfaction and gains perceived by nursing students with medium and high-fidelity simulation: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Rui C N; Paiva, Luís A R; Gonçalves, Rui F L; Oliveira, Luís M N; Pereira, Maria de Fátima C R; Martins, José C A

    2016-11-01

    The use of simulation to reproduce the experience of health care settings and its use as a strategy in the teaching of nurses has grown at an unprecedented rate. There is little scientific evidence to examine the differences in satisfaction and gains perceived by the students with the use of medium and high fidelity. To analyse and benchmark gains and satisfaction perceived by nursing students, according to their participation in medium- and high-fidelity simulated practice. Randomized control trial post-test only design with control group. Students of the 4th year of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing who performed medium and high-fidelity simulated practice in a Simulation Centre environment. A satisfaction scale and a scale of perceived gains from the simulation were applied to the students who underwent simulated practice in a medium-fidelity environment (control group) and high-fidelity environment (experimental group). Statistical analysis was performed and a significance level of p<0.05 was established. Of the 85 students who participated in the study, the majority were female (92.94%), with an average age of 21.89years (SD=2.81years). Satisfaction is statistically significant in the realism dimension and overall satisfaction. In the gains perceived with the simulation there is a statistically significant difference in the dimension recognition/decision. Students are very satisfied with the realism of high-fidelity simulated practice and consider that this helps them more with recognition and decision compared with the medium-fidelity simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space-time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge-Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that its

  14. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-15

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  15. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  16. Assessment of high-fidelity collision models in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Andrew B.

    Advances in computer technology over the decades has allowed for more complex physics to be modeled in the DSMC method. Beginning with the first paper on DSMC in 1963, 30,000 collision events per hour were simulated using a simple hard sphere model. Today, more than 10 billion collision events can be simulated per hour for the same problem. Many new and more physically realistic collision models such as the Lennard-Jones potential and the forced harmonic oscillator model have been introduced into DSMC. However, the fact that computer resources are more readily available and higher-fidelity models have been developed does not necessitate their usage. It is important to understand how such high-fidelity models affect the output quantities of interest in engineering applications. The effect of elastic and inelastic collision models on compressible Couette flow, ground-state atomic oxygen transport properties, and normal shock waves have therefore been investigated. Recommendations for variable soft sphere and Lennard-Jones model parameters are made based on a critical review of recent ab-initio calculations and experimental measurements of transport properties.

  17. Nursing students' perceptions of high- and low-fidelity simulation used as learning methods.

    PubMed

    Tosterud, Randi; Hedelin, Birgitta; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2013-07-01

    Due to the increasing focus on simulation used in nursing education, there is a need to examine how the scenarios and different simulation methods used are perceived by students. The aim of this study was to examine nursing students' perceptions of scenarios played out in different simulation methods, and whether their educational level influenced their perception. The study had a quantitative, evaluative and comparative design. The sample consisted of baccalaureate nursing students (n = 86) within various educational levels. The students were randomly divided into groups. They solved a patient case adapted to their educational level by using a high-fidelity patient simulator, a static mannequin or a paper/pencil case study. Data were collected by three instruments developed by the National League for Nursing. The results showed that the nursing students reported satisfaction with the implementation of the scenarios regardless of the simulation methods used. The findings indicated that the students who used the paper/pencil case study were the most satisfied. Moreover, educational level did not seem to influence their perceptions. Independent of educational level, the findings indicated that simulation with various degrees of fidelity could be used in nursing education. There is a need for further research to examine more closely the rationale behind the students' perception of the simulation methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Fidelity Entangling Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerfontaine, Pascal; Mehl, Sebastian; Divincenzo, David P.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Recently, we have shown that single-qubit gates for singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs can be pulse-engineered to reduce systematic errors and mitigate magnetic field fluctuations from the abundant nuclear spins, leading to experimentally demonstrated gate fidelities of 98.5%. We expect that a similar approach will be successful for two-qubit gates. We now describe short gating sequences for exchange-based two-qubit gates, showing that gate infidelities below 0.1% can be reached in realistic quantum dot setups. Additionally, we perform numerical pulse optimization to fully take the experimentally important imperfections into account, minimizing systematic errors and noise sensitivity. Since transferring the optimal control pulses to an experimental setting will inevitably incur systematic errors, we discuss how these errors can be calibrated on the experiment Supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, DFG Grant BL 1197/2- 1, and the Deutsche Telekom Foundation.

  19. Acquisition of high-fidelity flyer characteristics using PDV and streak imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olles, Joseph; Wixom, Ryan; Ball, J. Patrick; Kosiba, Graham

    2016-11-01

    Acquisition of experimental flight characteristics of electrically driven flyers (EDFs) is important in understanding the flyer's role in initiating detonator explosives. The velocity throughout a plastic flyer's flight was measured, as well as the magnitude and duration of the impulse while impacting an acrylic window. Despite the small size, thickness, and large accelerations of the EDFs, diagnostic techniques now have the temporal and spatially fidelity to measure validation-quality flyer characteristics. Using multipoint photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) in conjunction with streak imaging through a fiber array the velocity profile, bow shock (air cushion), time of impact, flyer shape at impact, and shock duration were measured. Shock physics simulations were then compared to this high fidelity data as a means of validating equations of state. Through the combination of experiments and simulations we can achieve a greater fundamental understanding of the energy transfer from the EDF to the energetic material prior to initiation. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  1. Teaching Elliptical Excision Skills to Novice Medical Students: A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Low- and High-Fidelity Bench Models

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Rafael; Oshiiwa, Marie; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims: To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills’ training (n = 8): didactic materials (control); organic bench model (low-fidelity); ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity); chicken legs’ skin bench model (high-fidelity); or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity). Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results: The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P < 0.0000) and felt more confident to perform elliptical excision skills (all P < 0.0000) when compared to the control. There was no significant difference (all P > 0.05) between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills’ training) was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. Conclusion: The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials. PMID:24700937

  2. A High Fidelity Approach to Data Simulation for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, S.; Ellis, H., Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is vital to maintaining our Space Superiority. A high fidelity, time-based simulation tool, PROXOR™ (Proximity Operations and Rendering), supports SSA by generating realistic mission scenarios including sensor frame data with corresponding truth. This is a unique and critical tool for supporting mission architecture studies, new capability (algorithm) development, current/future capability performance analysis, and mission performance prediction. PROXOR™ provides a flexible architecture for sensor and resident space object (RSO) orbital motion and attitude control that simulates SSA, rendezvous and proximity operations scenarios. The major elements of interest are based on the ability to accurately simulate all aspects of the RSO model, viewing geometry, imaging optics, sensor detector, and environmental conditions. These capabilities enhance the realism of mission scenario models and generated mission image data. As an input, PROXOR™ uses a library of 3-D satellite models containing 10+ satellites, including low-earth orbit (e.g., DMSP) and geostationary (e.g., Intelsat) spacecraft, where the spacecraft surface properties are those of actual materials and include Phong and Maxwell-Beard bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) coefficients for accurate radiometric modeling. We calculate the inertial attitude, the changing solar and Earth illumination angles of the satellite, and the viewing angles from the sensor as we propagate the RSO in its orbit. The synthetic satellite image is rendered at high resolution and aggregated to the focal plane resolution resulting in accurate radiometry even when the RSO is a point source. The sensor model includes optical effects from the imaging system [point spread function (PSF) includes aberrations, obscurations, support structures, defocus], detector effects (CCD blooming, left/right bias, fixed pattern noise, image persistence, shot noise, read noise, and quantization

  3. Morphosynthesis: high fidelity inorganic replica of the fibrous network of loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica).

    PubMed

    Mazali, Italo O; Alves, Oswaldo L

    2005-03-01

    High fidelity calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite (bio) inorganic replicas of the fibrous network of the dried fruit of Luffa cylindrica are described, utilizing a facile synthetic route. The loofa sponge is a highly complex macroscopic architectural template, an inexpensive and sustainable resource. In the context of the morphosynthesis, the capability of replication of the loofa sponge opens the possibility of the use of biodiversity in obtaining new materials. We would like to emphasize that the template proposed in this paper, makes possible the preparation of inorganic replicas with a very desirable size, on the centimeter scale. This fact is innovative with respect to inorganic replicas described in the literature, which predominate at the micrometric scale, limited to the original size of the template.

  4. High Fidelity Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Frequency Sweep Encoding and Fourier Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Xiang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Using a RF pulse with linear frequency sweep and a simultaneous encoding gradient, magnetization is sequentially excited accompanied by a quadratic phase profile. This quadratic dependence of magnetization phase on position dephases magnetization away from its vertices, allowing direct spatial encoding and image formation in the time domain. In this work we extend this spatial encoding scheme to include nonlinear frequency sweep and show that Fourier decoding or least square fitting in combination with frequency sweep spatial encoding schemes can generate high fidelity images. Application to in vivo multiscan susceptibility-weighted imaging is demonstrated. Our results show that Fourier-decoded, spatially encoded images compare favorably with conventional high resolution images while preserving the unique features of sequential excitation. PMID:20223688

  5. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (˜98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron-nuclear spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  6. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 1: Experimental method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Neal, William

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Correspondingly, experimental methods have in general been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA and ALE-MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions, predicting a much greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately validated. In this first paper of a three part study, the experimental method for determining the current, voltage, flyer velocity and multi-dimensional profile of detonator components is presented. This improved capability, along with high fidelity simulations, offer an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the processes behind the functioning of EBW and EFI detonators.

  7. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  8. Effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for pediatric staff nurse education.

    PubMed

    Bultas, Margaret W; Hassler, Margaret; Ercole, Patrick M; Rea, Gail

    2014-01-01

    A pre-test post-test control group design was used to compare the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) with traditional static mannequins as a teaching strategy for pediatric staff nurse education. Thirty-three nurses from a metropolitan pediatric Magnet hospital completed the study that evaluated knowledge retention, skill performance, and team confidence during the American Heart Association's (AHA) Pediatric Emergency Assessment, Recognition and Stabilization (PEARS) course. Written exams, competency and skill performance measures, and the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS) were used to compare the outcomes between the two groups. Results indicated that knowledge retention was maintained, skill performance improved, and teamwork performance scores increased in the experimental group. This study provides a foundation supporting the use of HFS as an effective teaching modality when educating pediatric staff nurses in the identification and intervention of the deteriorating pediatric patient.

  9. Digital spall radiograph analysis system: Report on simulated three- dimensional digital spall image reconstruction fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring momentum and kinetic energy of spall for the Advanced Technology Assessment Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (A{sup 3}) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated spall motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z- number of the spall material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed spall image) that approximates the original spall cloud. From the model the mass of spall fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the spall configuration at two instants of time. Spall fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected spall analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques. The purpose of this document is to report the results of analysis of the fidelity of best reconstruction procedure (for one radiograph set) investigated to date. The reconstruction procedure uses data from four simultaneous radiographs representing two sides and two diagonals of a cube. The procedure makes use of an available space algorithm, two probabilistic devices (a mass placement probability heuristic, and a mass clumping heuristic), and a stochastic procedure for mass that cannot be placed by the algorithm or either of the heuristics. The procedure is fully described in the body of the report.

  10. High-Fidelity Contrast Reaction Simulation Training: Performance Comparison of Faculty, Fellows, and Residents.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Staib, Lawrence; Arango, Jennifer; Kirsch, John; Arici, Mel; Kappus, Liana; Pahade, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to contrast material are uncommon in diagnostic radiology, and vary in clinical presentation from urticaria to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Prior studies have demonstrated a high error rate in contrast reaction management, with smaller studies using simulation demonstrating variable data on effectiveness. We sought to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation in teaching contrast reaction management for residents, fellows, and attendings. A 20-question multiple-choice test assessing contrast reaction knowledge, with Likert-scale questions assessing subjective comfort levels of management of contrast reactions, was created. Three simulation scenarios that represented a moderate reaction, a severe reaction, and a contrast reaction mimic were completed in a one-hour period in a simulation laboratory. All participants completed a pretest and a posttest at one month. A six-month delayed posttest was given, but was optional for all participants. A total of 150 radiologists participated (residents = 52; fellows = 24; faculty = 74) in the pretest and posttest; and 105 participants completed the delayed posttest (residents = 31; fellows = 17; faculty = 57). A statistically significant increase was found in the one-month posttest (P < .00001) and the six-month posttest scores (P < .00001) and Likert scores (P < .001) assessing comfort level in managing all contrast reactions, compared with the pretest. Test scores and comfort level for moderate and severe reactions significantly decreased at six months, compared with the one-month posttest (P < .05). High-fidelity simulation is an effective learning tool, allowing practice of "high-acuity" situation management in a nonthreatening environment; the simulation training resulted in significant improvement in test scores, as well as an increase in subjective comfort in management of reactions, across all levels of training. A six-month refresher course is suggested, to maintain knowledge and comfort level in

  11. Using "The Burns Suite" as a Novel High Fidelity Simulation Tool for Interprofessional and Teamwork Training.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide

  12. High Fidelity Simulations of Plume Impingement to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, Forrest E., III; Marichalar, Jeremiah; Stewart, Benedicte D.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States now depends on recently developed commercial spacecraft to supply the International Space Station (ISS) with cargo. These new vehicles supplement ones from international partners including the Russian Progress, the European Autonomous Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Furthermore, to carry crew to the ISS and supplement the capability currently provided exclusively by the Russian Soyuz, new designs and a refinement to a cargo vehicle design are in work. Many of these designs include features such as nozzle scarfing or simultaneous firing of multiple thrusters resulting in complex plumes. This results in a wide variety of complex plumes impinging upon the ISS. Therefore, to ensure safe "proximity operations" near the ISS, the need for accurate and efficient high fidelity simulation of plume impingement to the ISS is as high as ever. A capability combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) techniques has been developed to properly model the large density variations encountered as the plume expands from the high pressure in the combustion chamber to the near vacuum conditions at the orbiting altitude of the ISS. Details of the computational tools employed by this method, including recent software enhancements and the best practices needed to achieve accurate simulations, are discussed. Several recent examples of the application of this high fidelity capability are presented. These examples highlight many of the real world, complex features of plume impingement that occur when "visiting vehicles" operate in the vicinity of the ISS.

  13. Development and verification of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics model of canine nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Craven, Brent A; Paterson, Eric G; Settles, Gary S; Lawson, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains a complex airway labyrinth, dedicated to respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. The small and contorted anatomical structure of the nasal turbinates has, to date, precluded a proper study of nasal airflow in the dog. This study describes the development of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway from a three-dimensional reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans of the canine anatomy. Unstructured hexahedral grids are generated, with large grid sizes ((10-100) x 10(6) computational cells) required to capture the details of the nasal airways. High-fidelity CFD solutions of the nasal airflow for steady inspiration and expiration are computed over a range of physiological airflow rates. A rigorous grid refinement study is performed, which also illustrates a methodology for verification of CFD calculations on complex unstructured grids in tortuous airways. In general, the qualitative characteristics of the computed solutions for the different grid resolutions are fairly well preserved. However, quantitative results such as the overall pressure drop and even the regional distribution of airflow in the nasal cavity are moderately grid dependent. These quantities tend to converge monotonically with grid refinement. Lastly, transient computations of canine sniffing were carried out as part of a time-step study, demonstrating that high temporal accuracy is achievable using small time steps consisting of 160 steps per sniff period. Here we demonstrate that acceptable numerical accuracy (between approximately 1% and 15%) is achievable with practical levels of grid resolution (approximately 100 x 10(6) computational cells). Given the popularity of CFD as a tool for studying flow in the upper airways of humans and animals, based on this work we recommend the necessity of a grid dependence study and quantification of numerical error when

  14. The experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; Turcksin, Rivka; Van Winkel, Lies; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Peersman, Wim; Swinnen, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method in healthcare. It allows students to develop essential competences that are often difficult to achieve during internships. High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation exposes them to real-life scenarios in a safe environment. Although student midwives' experiences need to be considered to make the simulation training work, these have been overlooked so far. To explore the experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. A qualitative descriptive study, using three focus group conversations with last-year student midwives (n=24). Audio tapes were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was performed. The entire data set was coded according to recurrent or common themes. To achieve investigator triangulation and confirm themes, discussions among the researchers was incorporated in the analysis. Students found High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training to be a positive learning method that increased both their competence and confidence. Their experiences varied over the different phases of the High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. Although uncertainty, tension, confusion and disappointment were experienced throughout the simulation trajectory, they reported that this did not affect their learning and confidence-building. As High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training constitutes a helpful learning experience in midwifery education, it could have a positive influence on maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the long term, it could therefore enhance the midwifery profession in several ways. The present study is an important first step in opening up the debate about the pedagogical use of High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training within midwifery education. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

  16. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  17. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  18. High-Fidelity Reproduction of Spatiotemporal Visual Signals for Retinal Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Lauren H.; Hottowy, Pawel; Weiner, Geoffrey A.; Dabrowski, Władys1aw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Natural vision relies on spatiotemporal patterns of electrical activity in the retina. We investigated the feasibility of veridically reproducing such patterns with epiretinal prostheses. Multielectrode recordings and visual and electrical stimulation were performed on populations of identified ganglion cells in isolated peripheral primate retina. Electrical stimulation patterns were designed to reproduce recorded waves of activity elicited by a moving visual stimulus. Electrical responses in populations of ON parasol cells exhibited high spatial and temporal precision, matching or exceeding the precision of visual responses measured in the same cells. Computational readout of electrical and visual responses produced similar estimates of stimulus speed, confirming the fidelity of electrical stimulation for biologically relevant visual signals. These results suggest the possibility of producing rich spatiotemporal patterns of retinal activity with a prosthesis and that temporal multiplexing may aid in reproducing the neural code of the retina. PMID:24910077

  19. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  20. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Breton, S-P; Sumner, J; Sørensen, J N; Hansen, K S; Sarmast, S; Ivanell, S

    2017-04-13

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  1. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting in real time the residual strength of flight structures with discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. A residual strength test of a metallic, integrally-stiffened panel is simulated to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data would, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high-fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  2. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting, during flight, the residual strength of aircraft structures that sustain discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. Two ductile fracture simulations are presented to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data does, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  3. The centricity of presence in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation: a model.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing immersive presence has been shown to have influence on learning outcomes in virtual types of simulation. Scenario-based human patient simulation, a mixed reality form, may pose unique challenges for inducing the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. A model for enhancing the centricity of presence in scenario-based human patient simulation is presented here. The model represents a theoretical linkage among the interaction of pedagogical, individual, and group factors that influence the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. Presence may have an important influence on the learning experiences and learning outcomes in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation. This report is a follow-up to an article published in 2014 by the author where connections were made to the theoretical basis of presence as articulated by nurse scholars. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Using high-fidelity simulation to bridge clinical and classroom learning in undergraduate pediatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Iorianni-Cimbak, Angela; Curley, Martha A Q

    2013-06-01

    In Patricia Benner's book, Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation, she recommends essential changes in policy, curriculum, and in the way nursing programs approach student learning. This study explored how two of Benner's key recommendations, (1) integrating the theoretical component and the clinical component and (2) moving education from an emphasis on critical thinking to an emphasis on clinical reasoning, could be achieved by integrating the use of high-fidelity patient simulation in a pediatric curriculum. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the group of traditional and nontraditional baccalaureate students (n=131). The quantitative data revealed learning objectives were met over 80% of the time in simulation exercises and the qualitative themes revealed a positive experience with the simulation exercises with a large proportion of students offering the sentiments that these scenarios become requirement prior to the start of clinical rotations.

  5. Photonic synthesis of high fidelity microwave arbitrary waveforms using near field frequency to time mapping.

    PubMed

    Dezfooliyan, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M

    2013-09-23

    Photonic radio-frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) based on spectral shaping and frequency-to-time mapping has received substantial attention. This technique, however, is critically constrained by the far-field condition which imposes strict limits on the complexity of the generated waveforms. The time bandwidth product (TBWP) decreases as the inverse of the RF bandwidth which limits one from exploiting the full TBWP available from modern pulse shapers. Here we introduce a new RF-AWG technique which we call near-field frequency-to-time mapping. This approach overcomes the previous restrictions by predistorting the amplitude and phase of the spectrally shaped optical signal to achieve high fidelity waveforms with radically increased TBWP in the near field region.

  6. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  7. The impact of high fidelity human simulation on self-efficacy of communication skills.

    PubMed

    Kameg, Kirstyn; Howard, Valerie M; Clochesy, John; Mitchell, Ann M; Suresky, Jane M

    2010-05-01

    Communication is a critical component of nursing education as well as a necessity in maintaining patient safety. Psychiatric nursing is a specialty that emphasizes utilization of communication skills to develop therapeutic relationships. Nursing students are frequently concerned and anxious about entering the mental health setting for their first clinical placement. High fidelity human simulation (HFHS) is one method that can be used to allow students to practice and become proficient with communication skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two educational delivery methods, traditional lecture and HFHS, on senior level nursing student's self-efficacy with respect to communicating with patients experiencing mental illness. The results of this study support the use of HFHS to assist in enhancing undergraduate students' self-efficacy in communicating with patients who are experiencing mental illness.

  8. High-fidelity spatially resolved multiphoton counting for quantum imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2014-09-01

    We present a method for spatially resolved multiphoton counting based on an intensified camera with the retrieval of multimode photon statistics fully accounting for nonlinearities in the detection process. The scheme relies on one-time quantum tomographic calibration of the detector. Faithful, high-fidelity reconstruction of single- and two-mode statistics of multiphoton states is demonstrated for coherent states and their statistical mixtures. The results consistently exhibit classical values of the Mandel parameter and the noise reduction factor in contrast to raw statistics of camera photo-events. Detector operation is reliable for illumination levels up to the average of one detected photon per an event area-substantially higher than in previous approaches to characterize quantum statistical properties of light with spatial resolution.

  9. Fast cavity-enhanced atom detection with low noise and high fidelity.

    PubMed

    Goldwin, J; Trupke, M; Kenner, J; Ratnapala, A; Hinds, E A

    2011-08-09

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics describes the fundamental interactions between light and matter, and how they can be controlled by shaping the local environment. For example, optical microcavities allow high-efficiency detection and manipulation of single atoms. In this regime, fluctuations of atom number are on the order of the mean number, which can lead to signal fluctuations in excess of the noise on the incident probe field. Here we demonstrate, however, that nonlinearities and multi-atom statistics can together serve to suppress the effects of atomic fluctuations when making local density measurements on clouds of cold atoms. We measure atom densities below 1 per cavity mode volume near the photon shot-noise limit. This is in direct contrast to previous experiments where fluctuations in atom number contribute significantly to the noise. Atom detection is shown to be fast and efficient, reaching fidelities in excess of 97% after 10 μs and 99.9% after 30 μs.

  10. Practical and cost-effective high-fidelity optical carrier dissemination using coherent communication techniques.

    PubMed

    Sooudi, Ehsan; O'Gorman, James; Gunning, Paul; Ellis, Andrew D; Gunning, Fatima C Garcia; Manning, Robert J

    2015-08-24

    We report a unidirectional frequency dissemination scheme for high-fidelity optical carriers deployable over telecommunication networks. For the first time, a 10 Gb/s Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signal from an ultra-narrow linewidth laser was transmitted through a field-installed optical fibre with round-trip length of 124 km between Cork City and town of Clonakilty, without inline optical amplification. At the receiver, using coherent communication techniques and optical injection-locking the carrier was recovered with noise suppression. The beat signal between the original carrier at the transmitter and recovered carrier at the receiver shows a linewidth of 2.8 kHz. Long term stability measurements revealed fractional instabilities (True Allan deviation) of 3.3 × 10(-14) for 1 s averaging time, prior to phase noise cancellation.

  11. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-25

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths.

  12. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Hughes, Kyle; Mashiku, Alinda; Longuski, James

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith EXPlorer) is an asteroid sample return mission to Bennu (RQ36) that is scheduled to launch in 2016. The planned science operations precluding the small retrieval involve operations in terminator orbits (orbit plane is perpendicular to the sun). Over longer durations the solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs the orbit causing it to precess. Our work involves: modeling high fidelity SRP model to capture the perturbations during attitude changes; design a stable orbit from the high fidelity models to analyze the stability over time.

  13. Theory-based research of high fidelity simulation use in nursing education: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Liam; Schmidt, Megan; Garga, Neera

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore the extent to which theory-based research is informing our understanding of high-fidelity simulation use in nursing education. We reviewed the primary literature archived in the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Applied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Proquest Dissertation and Theses for empirical reports using the key terms high-fidelity simulation and nursing from the years 1989 to 2009. Of the articles that matched our inclusion criteria: 45% made no use of theory; 45% made minimal use; and 10% made adequate use. We argue that theory-based research could bring coherence and external validity to this domain.

  14. High-Fidelity and Ultrafast Initialization of a Hole Spin Bound to a Te Isoelectronic Center in ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jean, P.; Éthier-Majcher, G.; André, R.; Francoeur, S.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the optical initialization of a hole-spin qubit bound to an isoelectronic center (IC) formed by a pair of Te impurities in ZnSe, an impurity-host system providing high optical homogeneity, large electric dipole moments, and potentially advantageous coherence times. The initialization scheme is based on the spin-preserving tunneling of a resonantly excited donor-bound exciton to a positively charged Te IC, thus forming a positive trion. The radiative decay of the trion within less than 50 ps leaves a heavy hole in a well-defined polarization-controlled spin state. The initialization fidelity exceeds 98.5% for an initialization time of less than 150 ps.

  15. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  16. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm2, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  17. Integration of high-fidelity simulator in third-year paediatrics clerkship.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Nerian; Pedrogo, Yasmin; Bonet, Nydia

    2011-06-01

    Simulation in medicine is a useful tool for assessing clinical competencies. The liaison committee on medical education expects students to have simulation experiences in the curriculum. The integration of simulators has been encouraged for clinical clerkships. The use of the human simulator in a safe environment should result in enhanced teamworking, communication and critical thinking skills. During the academic year 2007-08, a formative activity using the simulator was implemented in the paediatrics clerkship. The objectives included exposing students to an emergent general paediatric medical scenario using the human simulator. It was imperative that students would adequately go through the critical thinking process. The paediatrics clerkship has incorporated a formative activity using the high-fidelity simulator. A faculty member debriefed the students, and feedback was offered. A total of 124 students participated in the activity. Ninety-eight percent agreed that the use of the simulator in a scenario such as the one presented allowed for a better understanding of the clinical issues studied in the clerkship. More than 85 percent of the students recommended the integration of the simulator in other major clinical clerkships. Performance in the objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) at the end of the clerkship has improved after the implementation of this formative activity. The use of the high-fidelity simulator during the paediatrics clerkship has been identified as an excellent teaching tool. This formative activity has been deemed successful by the students, who feel that it serves as an extra tool to strengthen learned concepts and skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  18. High-fidelity medical simulation as an assessment tool for pediatric residents' airway management skills.

    PubMed

    Overly, Frank L; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Shapiro, Marc J

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate high-fidelity medical simulation as an assessment tool for pediatric residents' ability to manage an acute airway. We performed a prospective, observational study in which 16 pediatric residents were consented and then brought to the medical simulation center. They were placed in 2 different computer-driven scenarios and asked to manage the cases. The first scenario was a 3-month-old infant with bronchiolitis and severe respiratory distress and was programmed to develop respiratory failure. The second case was a 16-year-old adolescent with alcohol intoxication and respiratory depression and was programmed for emesis and aspiration. Both cases included a nurse, parent, and intern. We recorded performance of predetermined critical actions and any harmful actions. There were 47 attempts at intubation with 27 successes (56%). Appropriate preoxygenation was performed in 15 (47%) of 32 cases. Appropriate rapid sequence induction was administered in 21 (66%) of 32 cases. Cricoid pressure was applied in 20 (63%) of 32 cases. End-tidal carbon dioxide detector was used in 11 (34%) of 32 cases. A nasogastric tube was placed in 14 (44%) of 32 cases. Harmful actions included rapid sequence induction administered before intubation equipment setup, bag-valve mask not connected to oxygen, inappropriate endotracheal tube size, pulling cuffed endotracheal tube out while inflated, and placing the laryngoscope blade on backwards. Our data identified many areas of concern with resident skills in managing an airway. This project suggests that high-fidelity medical simulation can assess a resident's ability to manage an airway as well as a program's effectiveness in teaching the skills necessary to manage an acute pediatric airway.

  19. Phosphate-binding pocket in Dicer-2 PAZ domain for high-fidelity siRNA production.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Suresh K; Fukunaga, Ryuya

    2016-12-06

    The enzyme Dicer produces small silencing RNAs such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In Drosophila, Dicer-1 produces ∼22-24-nt miRNAs from pre-miRNAs, whereas Dicer-2 makes 21-nt siRNAs from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). How Dicer-2 precisely makes 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity is unknown. Here we report that recognition of the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate by a phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ (Piwi, Argonaute, and Zwille/Pinhead) domain is crucial for the length fidelity, but not the efficiency, in 21-nt siRNA production. Loss of the length fidelity, meaning increased length heterogeneity of siRNAs, caused by point mutations in the phosphate-binding pocket of the Dicer-2 PAZ domain decreased RNA silencing activity in vivo, showing the importance of the high fidelity to make 21-nt siRNAs. We propose that the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate is anchored by the phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ domain and the distance between the pocket and the RNA cleavage active site in the RNaseIII domain corresponds to the 21-nt pitch in the A-form duplex of a long dsRNA substrate, resulting in high-fidelity 21-nt siRNA production. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism by which Dicer-2 produces 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity for efficient RNA silencing.

  20. High-fidelity simulation of a standing-wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2016-12-01

    We have carried out wall-resolved unstructured fully-compressible Navier--Stokes simulations of a complete standing-wave thermoacoustic piezoelectric (TAP) engine model inspired by the experimental work of Smoker et al. (2012). The model is axisymmetric and comprises a 51 cm long resonator divided into two sections: a small diameter section enclosing a thermoacoustic stack, and a larger diameter section capped by a piezoelectric diaphragm tuned to the thermoacoustically amplified mode (388 Hz). The diaphragm is modelled with multi-oscillator broadband time-domain impedance boundary conditions (TDIBCs), providing higher fidelity over single-oscillator approximations. Simulations are first carried out to the limit cycle without energy extraction. The observed growth rates are shown to be grid-convergent and are verified against a numerical dynamical model based on Rott's theory. The latter is based on a staggered grid approach and allows jump conditions in the derivatives of pressure and velocity in sections of abrupt area change and the inclusion of linearized minor losses. The stack geometry maximizing the growth rate is also found. At the limit cycle, thermoacoustic heat leakage and frequency shifts are observed, consistent with experiments. Upon activation of the piezoelectric diaphragm, steady acoustic energy extraction and a reduced pressure amplitude limit cycle are obtained. A heuristic closure of the limit cycle acoustic energy budget is presented, supported by the linear dynamical model and the nonlinear simulations. The developed high-fidelity simulation framework provides accurate predictions of thermal-to-acoustic and acoustic-to-mechanical energy conversion (via TDIBCs), enabling a new paradigm for the design and optimization of advanced thermoacoustic engines.

  1. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by evaluating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process. This paper documents the status of a focused effort to compare and understand the predictive capabilities and computational requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of single element injector model problems. The steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) and three different approaches using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique were used to simulate the initial model problem, a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. While one high-fidelity LES result matches the experimental combustion chamber wall heat flux very well, there is no monotonic convergence to the data with increasing computational tool fidelity. Systematic evaluation of key flow field regions such as the flame zone, the head end recirculation zone and the downstream near wall zone has shed significant, though as of yet incomplete, light on the complex, underlying causes for the performance level of each technique. 1 Aerospace Engineer and Combustion CFD Team Leader, MS ER42, NASA MSFC, AL 35812, Senior Member, AIAA. 2 Professor and Director, Computational Combustion Laboratory, School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, Associate Fellow, AIAA. 3 Reilly Professor of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fellow, AIAA. 4 Principal Member of Technical Staff, Combustion Research Facility, 7011 East Avenue, MS9051, Livermore, CA 94550, Associate

  2. High fidelity optogenetic control of individual prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Precise spatial and temporal manipulation of neural activity in specific genetically defined cell populations is now possible with the advent of optogenetics. The emerging field of optogenetics consists of a set of naturally-occurring and engineered light-sensitive membrane proteins that are able to activate (e.g. channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2) or silence (e.g. halorhodopsin, NpHR) neural activity. Here we demonstrate the technique and the feasibility of using novel adeno-associated viral (AAV) tools to activate (AAV-CaMKllα-ChR2-eYFP) or silence (AAV-CaMKllα-eNpHR3.0-eYFP) neural activity of rat prefrontal cortical prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons  in vivo.  In vivo single unit extracellular recording of ChR2-transduced pyramidal neurons showed that delivery of brief (10 ms) blue (473 nm) light-pulse trains up to 20 Hz via a custom fiber optic-coupled recording electrode (optrode) induced spiking with high fidelity at 20 Hz for the duration of recording (up to two hours in some cases). To silence spontaneously active neurons, we transduced them with the NpHR construct and administered continuous green (532 nm) light to completely inhibit action potential activity for up to 10 seconds with 100% fidelity in most cases. These versatile photosensitive tools, combined with optrode recording methods, provide experimental control over activity of genetically defined neurons and can be used to investigate the functional relationship between neural activity and complex cognitive behavior. PMID:24555016

  3. A Multi-Level Parallelization Concept for High-Fidelity Multi-Block Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatay, Ferhat F.; Jespersen, Dennis C.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Byun, Chansup; Gee, Ken; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The integration of high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis tools with the industrial design process benefits greatly from the robust implementations that are transportable across a wide range of computer architectures. In the present work, a hybrid domain-decomposition and parallelization concept was developed and implemented into the widely-used NASA multi-block Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) packages implemented in ENSAERO and OVERFLOW. The new parallel solver concept, PENS (Parallel Euler Navier-Stokes Solver), employs both fine and coarse granularity in data partitioning as well as data coalescing to obtain the desired load-balance characteristics on the available computer platforms. This multi-level parallelism implementation itself introduces no changes to the numerical results, hence the original fidelity of the packages are identically preserved. The present implementation uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor message passing and memory accessing. By choosing an appropriate combination of the available partitioning and coalescing capabilities only during the execution stage, the PENS solver becomes adaptable to different computer architectures from shared-memory to distributed-memory platforms with varying degrees of parallelism. The PENS implementation on the IBM SP2 distributed memory environment at the NASA Ames Research Center obtains 85 percent scalable parallel performance using fine-grain partitioning of single-block CFD domains using up to 128 wide computational nodes. Multi-block CFD simulations of complete aircraft simulations achieve 75 percent perfect load-balanced executions using data coalescing and the two levels of parallelism. SGI PowerChallenge, SGI Origin 2000, and a cluster of workstations are the other platforms where the robustness of the implementation is tested. The performance behavior on the other computer platforms with a variety of realistic problems will be included as this on

  4. High fidelity optogenetic control of individual prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinya; Baratta, Michael V; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Dolzani, Samuel D; Cooper, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Precise spatial and temporal manipulation of neural activity in specific genetically defined cell populations is now possible with the advent of optogenetics. The emerging field of optogenetics consists of a set of naturally-occurring and engineered light-sensitive membrane proteins that are able to activate (e.g. channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2) or silence (e.g. halorhodopsin, NpHR) neural activity. Here we demonstrate the technique and the feasibility of using novel adeno-associated viral (AAV) tools to activate (AAV-CaMKllα-ChR2-eYFP) or silence (AAV-CaMKllα-eNpHR3.0-eYFP) neural activity of rat prefrontal cortical prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons  in vivo.  In vivo single unit extracellular recording of ChR2-transduced pyramidal neurons showed that delivery of brief (10 ms) blue (473 nm) light-pulse trains up to 20 Hz via a custom fiber optic-coupled recording electrode (optrode) induced spiking with high fidelity at 20 Hz for the duration of recording (up to two hours in some cases). To silence spontaneously active neurons, we transduced them with the NpHR construct and administered continuous green (532 nm) light to completely inhibit action potential activity for up to 10 seconds with 100% fidelity in most cases. These versatile photosensitive tools, combined with optrode recording methods, provide experimental control over activity of genetically defined neurons and can be used to investigate the functional relationship between neural activity and complex cognitive behavior.

  5. Integrated line-by-line optical pulse shaper for high-fidelity and rapidly reconfigurable RF-filtering.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Andrew J; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Leaird, Daniel E; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; McKinzie, Keith A; Lal, Vikrant; Hosseini, Amir; Hoefler, Gloria E; Kish, Fred; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-10-17

    We present a 32 channel indium phosphide integrated pulse shaper with 25 GHz channel spacing, where each channel is equipped with a semiconductor optical amplifier allowing for programmable line-by-line gain control with submicrosecond reconfigurability. We critically test the integrated pulse shaper by using it in comb-based RF-photonic filtering experiments where the precise gain control is leveraged to synthesize high-fidelity RF filters which we reconfigure on a microsecond time scale. Our on-chip pulse shaping demonstration is unmatched in its combination of speed, fidelity, and flexibility, and will likely open new avenues in the field of advanced broadband signal generation and processing.

  6. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  7. High-Fidelity Modelng and Simulation for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Low-Enriched Uranium Core Design

    DOE PAGES

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Chandler, David; Davidson, Eva E.; ...

    2017-05-08

    A high-fidelity model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design and a representative experiment loading has been developed to serve as a new reference model for LEU conversion studies. With the exception of the fuel elements, this HFIR LEU model is completely consistent with the current highly enriched uranium HFIR model. Results obtained with the new LEU model provide a baseline for analysis of alternate LEU fuel designs and further optimization studies. The newly developed HFIR LEU model has an explicit representation of the HFIR-specific involute fuel plate geometry, including the within-plate fuelmore » meat contouring, and a detailed geometry model of the fuel element side plates. Such high-fidelity models are necessary to accurately account for the self-shielding from 238U and the depletion of absorber materials present in the side plates. In addition, a method was developed to account for fuel swelling in the high-density LEU fuel plates during the depletion simulation. In conclusion, calculated time-dependent metrics for the HFIR LEU model include fission rate and cumulative fission density distributions, flux and reaction rates for relevant experiment locations, point kinetics data, and reactivity coefficients.« less

  8. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-02

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.

  9. Production of high-fidelity electropherograms results in improved and consistent DNA interpretation: Standardizing the forensic validation process.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kelsey C; Swaminathan, Harish; Sheehan, Jennifer; Duffy, Ken R; Lun, Desmond S; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2017-09-08

    Samples containing low-copy numbers of DNA are routinely encountered in casework. The signal acquired from these sample types can be difficult to interpret as they do not always contain all of the genotypic information from each contributor, where the loss of genetic information is associated with sampling and detection effects. The present work focuses on developing a validation scheme to aid in mitigating the effects of the latter. We establish a scheme designed to simultaneously improve signal resolution and detection rates without costly large-scale experimental validation studies by applying a combined simulation and experimental based approach. Specifically, we parameterize an in silico DNA pipeline with experimental data acquired from the laboratory and use this to evaluate multifarious scenarios in a cost-effective manner. Metrics such as signal1copy-to-noise resolution, false positive and false negative signal detection rates are used to select tenable laboratory parameters that result in high-fidelity signal in the single-copy regime. We demonstrate that the metrics acquired from simulation are consistent with experimental data obtained from two capillary electrophoresis platforms and various injection parameters. Once good resolution is obtained, analytical thresholds can be determined using detection error tradeoff analysis, if necessary. Decreasing the limit of detection of the forensic process to one copy of DNA is a powerful mechanism by which to increase the information content on minor components of a mixture, which is particularly important for probabilistic system inference. If the forensic pipeline is engineered such that high-fidelity electropherogram signal is obtained, then the likelihood ratio (LR) of a true contributor increases and the probability that the LR of a randomly chosen person is greater than one decreases. This is, potentially, the first step towards standardization of the analytical pipeline across operational laboratories

  10. Motivation and Technological Readiness in the Use of High-Fidelity Simulation: A Descriptive Comparative Study of Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Judy Jo

    2012-01-01

    There are many driving forces to increase the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in nursing education, as well as many factors that may influence the implementation of this teaching strategy. These include the motivation of nurse educators to use HFS, the technological readiness of nurse educators to use HFS and the changing demographics of the…

  11. Testing the Predictive Capability of the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells Using an Efficient Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor); Bansal, Yogesh; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells is a new micromechanics model for unidirectionally reinforced periodic multiphase materials that was developed to overcome the original model's shortcomings. The high-fidelity version predicts the local stress and strain fields with dramatically greater accuracy relative to the original model through the use of a better displacement field representation. Herein, we test the high-fidelity model's predictive capability in estimating the elastic moduli of periodic composites characterized by repeating unit cells obtained by rotation of an infinite square fiber array through an angle about the fiber axis. Such repeating unit cells may contain a few or many fibers, depending on the rotation angle. In order to analyze such multi-inclusion repeating unit cells efficiently, the high-fidelity micromechanics model's framework is reformulated using the local/global stiffness matrix approach. The excellent agreement with the corresponding results obtained from the standard transformation equations confirms the new model's predictive capability for periodic composites characterized by multi-inclusion repeating unit cells lacking planes of material symmetry. Comparison of the effective moduli and local stress fields with the corresponding results obtained from the original Generalized Method of Cells dramatically highlights the original model's shortcomings for certain classes of unidirectional composites.

  12. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  13. Motivation and Technological Readiness in the Use of High-Fidelity Simulation: A Descriptive Comparative Study of Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Judy Jo

    2012-01-01

    There are many driving forces to increase the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in nursing education, as well as many factors that may influence the implementation of this teaching strategy. These include the motivation of nurse educators to use HFS, the technological readiness of nurse educators to use HFS and the changing demographics of the…

  14. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  15. Faculty and Student Perceptions of Preparation for and Implementation of High Fidelity Simulation Experiences in Associate Degree Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejo, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation technology is being used as an alternative way to expose students to complex patient care. Research has shown that simulation experiences can improve critical thinking skills and increase students' self-confidence (Jeffries & Rizzolo, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine nurse educator and nursing student…

  16. The Lived Experience of Nursing Students Participating in High-Fidelity Simulation at a School Grounded in Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gail Dove

    2016-01-01

    The education of nursing students in traditional clinical settings has become increasing challenging because of a multitude of factors affecting healthcare delivery. A decreasing number of clinical sites has precipitated a corresponding increase in the use of high-fidelity simulation-based learning experiences (HFSLEs). Because HFSLEs are being…

  17. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  18. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  19. The Effects of Moderate- and High-Fidelity Patient Simulator Use on Critical Thinking in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieck, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate- and high-fidelity patient simulator use on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design and the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to evaluate the critical thinking skills of third semester nursing…

  20. A Scalable Gene Synthesis Platform Using High-Fidelity DNA Microchips

    PubMed Central

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; LeProust, Emily; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of cheap, high-throughput, and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology1. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis2. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude3,4,5, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful due to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols, and enzymatic error correction to develop a highly parallel gene synthesis platform. We tested our platform by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ~35 kilo-basepairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ~2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than previously published attempts. PMID:21113165

  1. High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer. and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics and assess potential design improvements at relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design is developed

  2. High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer. and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics and assess potential design improvements at relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design is developed

  3. Use of high-fidelity simulation to improve communication skills regarding death and dying: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, A; Tredgett, K

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore medical students' experiences of communicating with patients and their carers about death and dying, and to assess whether using high-fidelity simulation improved students' confidence in discussing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This qualitative study was carried out at a hospital in the south of England. Participants were 7 final-year medical students. Tutorials were developed using high-fidelity simulation to teach communication skills regarding discussion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with patients and carers. Scenarios involved a simulated ward environment, a high-fidelity simulation mannequin and actor playing the role of a carer. Data were collected through joint interviews carried out by one researcher which were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The same researcher analysed the data using framework analysis. Students reported a lack of experience observing conversations with patients and carers about death and dying. They also reported a lack of opportunities to interact with dying patients during their training. Barriers reported by students included healthcare professionals' and patients' attitudes. Students reported a lack of confidence and preparedness to have consultations with patients and carers about death, dying and cardiopulmonary resuscitation as junior doctors. They perceived role-play scenarios observed by their peers to be stressful, and this detracted from the learning experience. Students reported that the high-fidelity simulation scenarios were more realistic than low-fidelity ('role-play') scenarios. This improved the learning gained from the sessions and improved confidence among some students. This study has suggested that high-fidelity simulation may be a useful adjunct for undergraduate communication skills training in palliative medicine. Further research is required to assess whether improvements in confidence described by students in this study translate to discernible

  4. BeamDyn: a high-fidelity wind turbine blade solver in the FAST modular framework

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qi; Sprague, Michael A.; Jonkman, Jason; ...

    2017-03-14

    Here, this paper presents a numerical implementation of the geometrically exact beam theory based on the Legendre-spectral-finite-element (LSFE) method. The displacement-based geometrically exact beam theory is presented, and the special treatment of three-dimensional rotation parameters is reviewed. An LSFE is a high-order finite element with nodes located at the Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto points. These elements can be an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than low-order finite elements for a given accuracy level. The new module, BeamDyn, is implemented in the FAST modularization framework for dynamic simulation of highly flexible composite-material wind turbine blades within the FAST aeroelastic engineering model. The frameworkmore » allows for fully interactive simulations of turbine blades in operating conditions. Numerical examples are provided to validate BeamDyn and examine the LSFE performance as well as the coupling algorithm in the FAST modularization framework. BeamDyn can also be used as a stand-alone high-fidelity beam tool.« less

  5. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.

  6. High-fidelity global optimization of shape design by dimensionality reduction, metamodels and deterministic particle swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Diez, Matteo; Kandasamy, Manivannan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Campana, Emilio F.; Stern, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    Advances in high-fidelity shape optimization for industrial problems are presented, based on geometric variability assessment and design-space dimensionality reduction by Karhunen-Loève expansion, metamodels and deterministic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Hull-form optimization is performed for resistance reduction of the high-speed Delft catamaran, advancing in calm water at a given speed, and free to sink and trim. Two feasible sets (A and B) are assessed, using different geometric constraints. Dimensionality reduction for 95% confidence is applied to high-dimensional free-form deformation. Metamodels are trained by design of experiments with URANS; multiple deterministic PSOs achieve a resistance reduction of 9.63% for A and 6.89% for B. Deterministic PSO is found to be effective and efficient, as shown by comparison with stochastic PSO. The optimum for A has the best overall performance over a wide range of speed. Compared with earlier optimization, the present studies provide an additional resistance reduction of 6.6% at 1/10 of the computational cost.

  7. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance.

  8. Barriers and enablers to the use of high-fidelity patient simulation manikins in nurse education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghareeb, Amal Z; Cooper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    This integrative review identified, critically appraised and synthesised the existing evidence on the barriers and enablers to using high-fidelity human patient simulator manikins (HPSMs) in undergraduate nursing education. In nursing education, specifically at the undergraduate level, a range of low to high-fidelity simulations have been used as teaching aids. However, nursing educators encounter challenges when introducing new teaching methods or technology, despite the prevalence of high-fidelity HPSMs in nursing education. An integrative review adapted a systematic approach. Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, PsychINFO, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Cochrane database, Joanna Brigge Institute, ProQuest, California Simulation Alliance, Simulation Innovative Recourses Center and the search engine Google Scholar were searched. Keywords were selected and specific inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. The review included all research designs for papers published between 2000 and 2015 that identified the barriers and enablers to using high-fidelity HPSMs in undergraduate nursing education. Studies were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme criteria. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes were extracted. Twenty-one studies were included in the review. These studies adopted quasi-experimental, prospective non-experimental and descriptive designs. Ten barriers were identified, including "lack of time," "fear of technology" and "workload issues." Seven enablers were identified, including "faculty training," "administrative support" and a "dedicated simulation coordinator." Barriers to simulation relate specifically to the complex technologies inherent in high-fidelity HPSMs approaches. Strategic approaches that support up-skilling and provide dedicated technological support may overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective randomized comparison of standard didactic lecture versus high-fidelity simulation for radiology resident contrast reaction management training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Carolyn L; Schopp, Jennifer G; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Richardson, Michael L; Bush, William H

    2011-06-01

    The objective of our study was to assess whether high-fidelity simulation-based training is more effective than traditional didactic lecture to train radiology residents in the management of contrast reactions. This was a prospective study of 44 radiology residents randomized into a simulation group versus a lecture group. All residents attended a contrast reaction didactic lecture. Four months later, baseline knowledge was assessed with a written test, which we refer to as the "pretest." After the pretest, the 21 residents in the lecture group attended a repeat didactic lecture and the 23 residents in the simulation group underwent high-fidelity simulation-based training with five contrast reaction scenarios. Next, all residents took a second written test, which we refer to as the "posttest." Two months after the posttest, both groups took a third written test, which we refer to as the "delayed posttest," and underwent performance testing with a high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario graded on predefined critical actions. There was no statistically significant difference between the simulation and lecture group pretest, immediate posttest, or delayed posttest scores. The simulation group performed better than the lecture group on the severe contrast reaction simulation scenario (p = 0.001). The simulation group reported improved comfort in identifying and managing contrast reactions and administering medications after the simulation training (p ≤ 0.04) and was more comfortable than the control group (p = 0.03), which reported no change in comfort level after the repeat didactic lecture. When compared with didactic lecture, high-fidelity simulation-based training of contrast reaction management shows equal results on written test scores but improved performance during a high-fidelity severe contrast reaction simulation scenario.

  10. High-Fidelity Aerostructural Optimization of Nonplanar Wings for Commercial Transport Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Shahriar

    Although the aerospace sector is currently responsible for a relatively small portion of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the growth of the airline industry raises serious concerns about the future of commercial aviation. As a result, the development of new aircraft design concepts with the potential to improve fuel efficiency remains an important priority. Numerical optimization based on high-fidelity physics has become an increasingly attractive tool over the past fifteen years in the search for environmentally friendly aircraft designs that reduce fuel consumption. This approach is able to discover novel design concepts and features that may never be considered without optimization. This can help reduce the economic costs and risks associated with developing new aircraft concepts by providing a more realistic assessment early in the design process. This thesis provides an assessment of the potential efficiency improvements obtained from nonplanar wings through the application of fully coupled high-fidelity aerostructural optimization. In this work, we conduct aerostructural optimization using the Euler equations to model the flow along with a viscous drag estimate based on the surface area. A major focus of the thesis is on finding the optimal shape and performance benefits of nonplanar wingtip devices. Two winglet configurations are considered: winglet-up and winglet-down. These are compared to optimized planar wings of the same projected span in order to quantify the possible drag reductions offered by winglets. In addition, the drooped wing is studied in the context of exploratory optimization. The main results show that the winglet-down configuration is the most efficient winglet shape, reducing the drag by approximately 2% at the same weight in comparison to a planar wing. There are two reasons for the superior performance of this design. First, this configuration moves the tip vortex further away from the wing. Second, the winglet

  11. Statistical abstraction of high-fidelity CO2 pressure histories in 2-D, uniform, cylindrical domains

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, Bruce C; Sanzo, Dean L; Pawar, Rajesh J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, deep, geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is being evaluated as a world-wide strategy for limiting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. A key element of this evaluation is quantification of the ancillary risks associated with this fundamentally new linkage between the global energy economy and the subsurface ecosphere. Quantitative risk assessment methods traditionally enumerate operational scenarios and describe the multiple physical responses that may ensue from each scenario depending on the quality of information that is available to describe identified system dependencies. For example, multiplepoint injection of compressed CO{sub 2} into a geologic reservoir having a nominal stratigraphy will create a pressurized zone of liquid that migrates through the rock. Scenarios that postulate CO{sub 2} encountering previously undetected wells or natural fractures in the caprock that represent leakage paths to the surface must be treated in a probabilistic format that accommodates unknown details in the subsurface geology. Fluid pressure in the reservoir at the location of the potential transport path drives any potential leakage that might occur, so the spatial and temporal distribution of CO{sub 2} overpressure represents an important metric for numeric simulation. State-of-the-art geologic transport models like FEHM, TUFF, and ECLIPSE (Refs. 1, 2, 3) can accurately simulate multi phase gas migration in a fully characterized geologic domain. However, each simulation can require time periods ranging between minutes and hours to achieve acceptable numerical performance, so it is often impractical to link predictive physics models directly in a quantitative risk assessment that will require transport estimates for thousands of scenarios. When direct computation is not possible, a library of high-fidelity calculations can sometimes be distilled to a simplified statistical correlation that spans the variability in all relevant input

  12. High Fidelity Aeroelasticity Simulations of Aircraft and Turbomachinery with Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jiaye

    The purpose of this research is to develop high fidelity numerical methods to investigate the complex aeroelasticity fluid-structural problems of aircraft and aircraft engine turbomachinery. Unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates are solved to simulate the complex fluid dynamic problems in aeroelasticity. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used as a Riemann solver to capture shock waves in transonic and supersonic flows. An improved hybrid turbulence modeling, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), is implemented to simulate shock induced separation and rotating stall flows. High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structures, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. A rotor/stator sliding interpolation technique is developed to accurately capture the blade rows interaction at the interface with general grid distribution. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are applied to consider the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI methodology. The accuracy and robustness of RANS, URANS and DDES turbulence models with high order schemes for predicting the lift and drag of the DLR-F6 configuration are verified. The DDES predicts the drag very well whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. DDES of a finned projectile base flows is conducted to further validate the high fidelity methods with vortical flow. The

  13. High Fidelity Solar and Heliospheric Imaging at Low Radio Frequencies: Progress and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; Kozarev, K. A.; Morgan, J.; Benkevitch, L. V.; Erickson, P. J.; Crowley, M.; McCauley, P.; Cairns, I.

    2016-12-01

    The latest generation of low frequency interferometric arrays is revolutionizing solar and heliospheric imaging capabilities. Via a combination of large numbers of independent antennas and greatly increased computing capacity, sufficient information can now be gathered and processed to generate high fidelity images at high time and frequency resolution. For the first time, it is possible to reconstruct spatially, temporally and spectrally complex solar emissions in detail, to measure interplanetary scintillation for many sources simultaneously over wide fields of view, and to track heliospheric disturbances via rapidly evolving propagation effects. These new and rapidly improving capabilities will help to address a range of long-standing scientific questions in the field. We review the current state of the art of low frequency imaging instruments, with particular emphasis on, and examples from, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The limitations and challenges of such arrays are explored, and the prospects for next-generation ground and space based arrays yielding additional major advances in capability are reviewed.

  14. High fidelity adaptive vector quantization at very low bit rates for progressive transmission of radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Yang, Shu Y.

    1999-01-01

    An adaptive vector quantizer (VQ) using a clustering technique known as adaptive fuzzy leader clustering (AFLC) that is similar in concept to deterministic annealing for VQ codebook design has been developed. This vector quantizer, AFLC-VQ, has been designed to vector quantize wavelet decomposed sub images with optimal bit allocation. The high- resolution sub images at each level have been statistically analyzed to conform to generalized Gaussian probability distributions by selecting the optimal number of filter taps. The adaptive characteristics of AFLC-VQ result from AFLC, an algorithm that uses self-organizing neural networks with fuzzy membership values of the input samples for upgrading the cluster centroids based on well known optimization criteria. By generating codebooks containing codewords of varying bits, AFLC-VQ is capable of compressing large color/monochrome medical images at extremely low bit rates (0.1 bpp and less) and yet yielding high fidelity reconstructed images. The quality of the reconstructed images formed by AFLC-VQ has been compared with JPEG and EZW, the standard and the well known wavelet based compression technique (using scalar quantization), respectively, in terms of statistical performance criteria as well as visual perception. AFLC-VQ exhibits much better performance than the above techniques. JPEG and EZW were chosen as comparative benchmarks since these have been used in radiographic image compression. The superior performance of AFLC-VQ over LBG-VQ has been reported in earlier papers.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Translesion DNA Synthesis Catalyzed by a High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Anvesh; Deodhar, Tejal; Berdis, Anthony J

    2017-07-21

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is the ability of DNA polymerases to incorporate nucleotides opposite and beyond damaged DNA. TLS activity is an important risk factor for the initiation and progression of genetic diseases such as cancer. In this study, we evaluate the ability of a high-fidelity DNA polymerase to perform TLS with 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G), a highly pro-mutagenic DNA lesion formed by reactive oxygen species. Results of kinetic studies monitoring the incorporation of modified nucleotide analogs demonstrate that the binding affinity of the incoming dNTP is controlled by the overall hydrophobicity of the nucleobase. However, the rate constant for the polymerization step is regulated by hydrogen-bonding interactions made between the incoming nucleotide with 8-oxo-G. Results generated here for replicating the miscoding 8-oxo-G are compared to those published for the replication of the non-instructional abasic site. During the replication of both lesions, binding of the nucleotide substrate is controlled by energetics associated with nucleobase desolvation, whereas the rate constant for the polymerization step is influenced by the physical nature of the DNA lesion, that is, miscoding versus non-instructional. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of nucleobase desolvation as a key physical feature that enhances the misreplication of structurally diverse DNA lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accurate determination of succinimide degradation products using high fidelity trypsin digestion peptide map analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, X Christopher; Joe, Koman; Zhang, Yu; Adriano, Andrea; Wang, Yaning; Gazzano-Santoro, Helene; Keck, Rodney G; Deperalta, Galahad; Ling, Victor

    2011-08-01

    We report an efficient, high fidelity trypsin digestion method for peptide map analysis. This method minimizes artifacts caused by the sample preparation process, and we show its utility for the accurate determination of succinimide formation in a degraded monoclonal antibody product. A basic charge variant was detected by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing and was shown with reduced antigen binding and biological activity. Samples were reduced under denaturing conditions at pH 5.0, and digestion of the reduced protein with porcine trypsin was performed at pH 7.0 for 1 h. Following reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and online mass spectrometric analysis, succinimide formation was identified at Asp30 in the light chain. This result contrasts with the observation of only iso-Asp and Asp residues under conventional sample preparation conditions, which are therefore concluded to be artificially generated. The Asp30 residue is seen in the cocrystal structure model to participate in favorable charge interaction with an antigen molecule. Formation of succinimide and the resulting loss of negative charge are therefore hypothesized to be the degradation mechanism. After treatment of the degraded antibody sample to mildly alkaline pH conditions, we observed only Asp residue as the succinimide hydrolysis product and concurrent recovery of biological activity.

  17. High-fidelity, broadband stimulated-Brillouin-scattering-based slow light using fast noise modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhui; Lee, Myungjun; Neifeld, Mark A; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate a 5-GHz-broadband tunable slow-light device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a standard highly-nonlinear optical fiber pumped by a noise-current-modulated laser beam. The noisemodulation waveform uses an optimized pseudo-random distribution of the laser drive voltage to obtain an optimal flat-topped gain profile, which minimizes the pulse distortion and maximizes pulse delay for a given pump power. In comparison with a previous slow-modulation method, eye-diagram and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis show that this broadband slow-light technique significantly increases the fidelity of a delayed data sequence, while maintaining the delay performance. A fractional delay of 0.81 with a SNR of 5.2 is achieved at the pump power of 350 mW using a 2-km-long highly nonlinear fiber with the fast noise-modulation method, demonstrating a 50% increase in eye-opening and a 36% increase in SNR in the comparison.

  18. Synaptotagmin-7-Mediated Asynchronous Release Boosts High-Fidelity Synchronous Transmission at a Central Synapse.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fujun; Südhof, Thomas C

    2017-05-17

    Synchronous release triggered by Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-1, -2, or -9 is thought to drive fast synaptic transmission, whereas asynchronous release induced by Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-7 is thought to produce delayed synaptic signaling, enabling prolonged synaptic computations. However, it is unknown whether synaptotagmin-7-dependent asynchronous release performs a physiological function at fast synapses lacking a prolonged signaling mode, such as the calyx of Held synapse. Here, we show at the calyx synapse that synaptotagmin-7-dependent asynchronous release indeed does not produce a prolonged synaptic signal after a stimulus train and does not contribute to short-term plasticity, but induces a steady-state, asynchronous postsynaptic current during stimulus trains. This steady-state postsynaptic current does not increase overall synaptic transmission but instead sustains reliable generation of postsynaptic spikes that are precisely time locked to presynaptic spikes. Thus, asynchronous release surprisingly functions, at least at some synapses, to sustain high-fidelity neurotransmission driven by synchronous release during high-frequency stimulus trains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Validation of a High-Fidelity Porcine Laryngeal Surgical Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dedmon, Matthew M; Paddle, Paul M; Phillips, Jeananne; Kobayashi, Leo; Franco, Ramon A; Song, Phillip C

    2015-09-01

    Design and validate a laryngeal surgical simulator to teach phonomicrosurgical techniques. Device development and prospective validation. Tertiary medical center. A novel laryngeal fixation device and custom laryngoscope were produced for use with ex vivo porcine larynx specimens. Vocal fold lesions such as nodules and keratotic lesions were simulated with silicone injections and epithelial markings. A prospective validation using postsimulation surveys, global rating scales, and procedure-specific checklists was performed with a group of 15 medical students, otolaryngology residents, fellows, and attending laryngologists. Three procedures were performed: vocal fold augmentation, excision of a simulated vocal fold nodule, and excision of a simulated vocal fold keratosis. Participants overwhelmingly agreed that the simulator provided a realistic dissection experience that taught skills that would transfer to real operating scenarios. Expert performance was statistically superior to novice performance for excision of simulated vocal fold nodules and keratotic lesions, while no difference was observed for injection laryngoplasty. The ability to learn and rehearse surgical procedures in a safe environment is invaluable, particularly for delicate and highly technical phonomicrosurgical operations. We have developed a high-fidelity laryngeal surgical simulator complete with pathological lesions such as nodules and keratoses to teach these procedures. A prospective study demonstrated validity of our global rating scale and checklist assessments for vocal fold nodule and keratosis excision procedures, allowing them to be confidently incorporated into phonomicrosurgical training programs for surgeons of all levels of expertise. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    PubMed

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking.

  1. A high-fidelity, six-degree-of-freedom batch simulation environment for tactical guidance research and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment, the tactical maneuvering simulator (TMS), is presented. The TMS is a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics, but it can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS can simulate air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics, and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulations. Data bases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system, the tactical autopilot (TA), is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands by computerized maneuvering logics from desired angle of attack and wind-axis bank-angle inputs to the inner loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. The capabilities and operation of the TMS and the TA are described.

  2. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hong G. Im; Arnaud Trouve; Christopher J. Rutland; Jacqueline H. Chen

    2009-02-02

    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Hong G; Trouve, Arnaud; Rutland, Christopher J; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2012-08-13

    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Analysis of Fiber Clustering in Composite Materials Using High-Fidelity Multiscale Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    A new multiscale micromechanical approach is developed for the prediction of the behavior of fiber reinforced composites in presence of fiber clustering. The developed method is based on a coupled two-scale implementation of the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells theory, wherein both the local and global scales are represented using this micromechanical method. Concentration tensors and effective constitutive equations are established on both scales and linked to establish the required coupling, thus providing the local fields throughout the composite as well as the global properties and effective nonlinear response. Two nondimensional parameters, in conjunction with actual composite micrographs, are used to characterize the clustering of fibers in the composite. Based on the predicted local fields, initial yield and damage envelopes are generated for various clustering parameters for a polymer matrix composite with both carbon and glass fibers. Nonlinear epoxy matrix behavior is also considered, with results in the form of effective nonlinear response curves, with varying fiber clustering and for two sets of nonlinear matrix parameters.

  5. The use of high-fidelity simulation to teach cultural competence in the nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stasha-Gae; Warda, Maria; Garbutt, Susan; Curry, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The United States population is undergoing a major demographic shift, by the year 2050, it is predicted that minority populations will constitute half of the general population. This evolving population change is significant due to the overwhelming burden of disease that minorities face in the nation. Cultural competence training is currently being used to prepare practitioners to provide care to a diverse population in an effort to eliminate health disparities. With the increasing demands of the nursing curriculum and the limited time frame to prepare competent clinicians, the search continues for innovative strategies that will produce culturally competent providers. Patient simulation is a technique that replicates real-world scenarios in a controlled and nonthreatening environment. However, despite the legal and moral obligations that nurses have to provide culturally competent care, a lack of evidence exists regarding how to properly integrate simulation methods for cultural competence training into the nursing curriculum. In the nursing curriculum, patient simulation has been used mainly to teach the biomedical aspects of care with less focus on the psychological, cultural, and environmental context. The potential exists for the use of high-fidelity patient simulation as an effective teaching strategy for cultural competence training. © 2014.

  6. Analysis of vehicle rollover dynamics using a high-fidelity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawel Czechowicz, Maciej; Mavros, George

    2014-05-01

    Recent data show that 35% of fatal crashes in sport utility vehicles included vehicle rollover. At the same time, experimental testing to improve safety is expensive and dangerous. Therefore, multi-body simulation is used in this research to improve the understanding of rollover dynamics. The majority of previous work uses low-fidelity models. Here, a complex and highly nonlinear multi-body model with 165 degrees of freedom is correlated to vehicle kinematic and compliance (K&C) measurements. The Magic Formula tyre model is employed. Design of experiment methodology is used to identify tyre properties affecting vehicle rollover. A novel, statistical approach is used to link suspension K&C characteristics with rollover propensity. Research so far reveals that the tyre properties that have the greatest influence on vehicle rollover are friction coefficient, friction variation with load, camber stiffness and tyre vertical stiffness. Key K&C characteristics affecting rollover propensity are front and rear suspension rate, front roll stiffness, front camber gain, front and rear camber compliance and rear jacking force.

  7. A coupled-adjoint method for high-fidelity aero-structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Joaquim Rafael Rost A.

    A new integrated aero-structural design method for aerospace vehicles is presented. The approach combines an aero-structural analysis solver, a coupled aero-structural adjoint solver, a geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity models for the aerodynamics, structures, and coupling procedure. The coupled aero-structural adjoint solver is used to calculate the sensitivities of aerodynamic and structural cost functions with respect to both aerodynamic shape and structural variables. The aero-structural adjoint sensitivities are compared with those given by the complex-step derivative approximation and finite differences. The proposed method is shown to be both accurate and efficient, exhibiting a significant cost advantage when the gradient of a small number of functions with respect to a large number of design variables is needed. The optimization of a supersonic business jet configuration demonstrates the usefulness and importance of computing aero-structural sensitivities using the coupled-adjoint method.

  8. Robust content-dependent high-fidelity watermark for tracking in digital cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Jeffrey; Bloom, Jeffrey A.; Cheng, Hui

    2003-06-01

    Forensic digital watermarking is a promising tool in the fight against piracy of copyrighted motion imagery content, but to be effective it must be (1) imperceptibly embedded in high-definition motion picture source, (2) reliably retrieved, even from degraded copies as might result from camcorder capture and subsequent very-low-bitrate compression and distribution on the Internet, and (3) secure against unauthorized removal. No existing watermarking technology has yet to meet these three simultaneous requirements of fidelity, robustness, and security. We describe here a forensic watermarking approach that meets all three requirements. It is based on the inherent robustness and imperceptibility of very low spatiotemporal frequency watermark carriers, and on a watermark placement technique that renders jamming attacks too costly in picture quality, even if the attacker has complete knowledge of the embedding algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on HD Cinemascope source material exhibited in a digital cinema viewing room. The watermark is imperceptible, yet recoverable after exhibition capture with camcorders, and after the introduction of other distortions such as low-pass filtering, noise addition, geometric shifts, and the manipulation of brightness and contrast.

  9. Establishment of consistent benchmark framework for performing high-fidelity whole core transport/diffusion calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergiers, C.; Ivanov, B.; Ivanov, K.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a benchmark framework established as a basis for investigation of the validity of multi-group approximation with respect to the continuous energy approach, of the level of spatial homogenization with respect to heterogeneous solution, and of the level of angular approximation to the linear Boltzmann transport equation in respect to the Monte Carlo reference solution. Several steady-state solutions of this benchmark have been generated using three different computer codes focusing on the two-dimensional (2-D) geometry model. MCNP5 has been used to generate the reference solution using the continuous energy library. HELIOS is then used for both to solve the problem using a 45 group cross-section library and to generate new sets of few-group cross-sections for the core simulator NEM. The results from the diffusion option of the NEM code on pin-by-pin and Fuel Assembly (FA) basis are presented and discussed in the paper. The benchmark is being designed for evaluation of number of energy groups (number of energy groups and energy cut off points) and spatial (homogenized assembly level vs. homogenized pin cell level) representation needed for high-fidelity reactor core calculation schemes developed at the Pennsylvania State Univ. such as NEM SP3, hybrid NEM-BEM and some recent developments of embedded three-dimensional pin-by-pin diffusion / SP3 finite element calculation schemes. (authors)

  10. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  11. DSMC study of oxygen shockwaves based on high-fidelity vibrational relaxation and dissociation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges Sebastião, Israel; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Alexeenko, Alina

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates high-fidelity vibrational-translational (VT) energy relaxation and dissociation models for pure O2 normal shockwave simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The O2-O collisions are described using ab initio state-specific relaxation and dissociation models. The Macheret-Fridman (MF) dissociation model is adapted to the DSMC framework by modifying the standard implementation of the total collision energy (TCE) model. The O2-O2 dissociation is modeled with this TCE+MF approach, which is calibrated with O2-O ab initio data and experimental equilibrium dissociation rates. The O2-O2 vibrational relaxation is modeled via the Larsen-Borgnakke model, calibrated to experimental VT rates. All the present results are compared to experimental data and previous calculations available in the literature. It is found that, in general, the ab initio dissociation model is better than the TCE model at matching the shock experiments. Therefore, when available, efficient ab initio models are preferred over phenomenological models. We also show that the proposed TCE + MF formulation can be used to improve the standard TCE model results when ab initio data are not available or limited.

  12. High-fidelity Modeling of Local Effects of Damage for Derated Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Phillip W.; Griffith, D. Todd; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2014-06-01

    Offshore wind power production is an attractive clean energy option, but the difficulty of access can lead to expensive and rare opportunities for maintenance. As part of the Structural Health and Prognostics Management (SHPM) project at Sandia National Laboratories, smart loads management (controls) are investigated for their potential to increase the fatigue life of offshore wind turbine rotor blades. Derating refers to altering the rotor angular speed and blade pitch to limit power production and loads on the rotor blades. High- fidelity analysis techniques like 3D finite element modeling (FEM) should be used alongside beam models of wind turbine blades to characterize these control strategies in terms of their effect to mitigate fatigue damage and extend life of turbine blades. This study will consider a commonly encountered damage type for wind turbine blades, the trailing edge disbond, and show how FEM can be used to quantify the effect of operations and control strategies designed to extend the fatigue life of damaged blades. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) will be used to post-process the displacement and stress results to provide estimates of damage severity/criticality and provide a means to estimate the fatigue life under a given operations and control strategy.

  13. Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.

    2002-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  14. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model. Part 2; Unsteady Surface Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Danny H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present unsteady surface pressure measurements for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model. This high-fidelity model is being used to perform detailed studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear, flap components, and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aerodynamic segment of the tests, conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, was completed in November 2010. To discern the characteristics of the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the prominent noise sources, unsteady sensors were installed on the inboard and outboard flap edges, and on the main gear wheels, struts, and door. Various configurations were tested, including flap deflections of 0?, 20?, and 39?, with and without the main landing gear. The majority of unsteady surface pressure measurements were acquired for the nominal landing configuration where the main gear was deployed and the flap was deflected 39?. To assess the Mach number variation of the surface pressure amplitudes, measurements were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Comparison of the unsteady surface pressures with the main gear on and off shows significant interaction between the gear wake and the inboard flap edge, resulting in higher amplitude fluctuations when the gear is present.

  15. Clean assembly and integration techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    1994-01-01

    A mechanical simulator of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Aft Shroud was built to perform verification testing of the Servicing Mission Scientific Instruments (SI's) and to provide a facility for astronaut training. All assembly, integration, and test activities occurred under the guidance of a contamination control plan, and all work was reviewed by a contamination engineer prior to implementation. An integrated approach was followed in which materials selection, manufacturing, assembly, subsystem integration, and end product use were considered and controlled to ensure that the use of the High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator (HFMS) as a verification tool would not contaminate mission critical hardware. Surfaces were cleaned throughout manufacturing, assembly, and integration, and reverification was performed following major activities. Direct surface sampling was the preferred method of verification, but access and material constraints led to the use of indirect methods as well. Although surface geometries and coatings often made contamination verification difficult, final contamination sampling and monitoring demonstrated the ability to maintain a class M5.5 environment with surface levels less than 400B inside the HFMS.

  16. On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  17. About the prediction of Organic Rankine Cycles performances integrating local high-fidelity turbines simulation and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Pietro; de Santis, Dante; Geraci, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are of key-importance when exploiting energy systems with a high efficiency. The variability of renewable heat sources makes more complex the global performance prediction of a cycle. The thermodynamic properties of the complex fluids used in the process are another source of uncertainty. The need for a predictive and robust simulation tool of ORCs remains strong. A high-order accurate Residual Distribution scheme has been recently developed for efficiently computing a turbine stage on unstructured grids, including advanced equations of state in order to take into account the complex fluids used in ORCs. Advantages in using high-order methods have been highlighted, in terms of number of degrees of freedom and computational time used, for computing the numerical solution with a greater accuracy compared to lower-order methods, even for shocked flows. The objective of this work is to quantify the numerical error with respect to the various sources of uncertainty of the ORC turbine, thus providing a very high-fidelity prediction in the coupled physical/stochastic space.

  18. High fidelity simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase mutants have impaired replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sarah B; Lichtfuss, Marit; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Alcantara, Sheilajen; De Rose, Robert; Tachedjian, Gilda; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Venturi, Vanessa; Davenport, Miles P; Winnall, Wendy R; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The low fidelity of HIV replication facilitates immune and drug escape. Some reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor drug-resistance mutations increase RT fidelity in biochemical assays but their effect during viral replication is unclear. We investigated the effect of RT mutations K65R, Q151N and V148I on SIV replication and fidelity in vitro, along with SIV replication in pigtailed macaques. SIVmac239-K65R and SIVmac239-V148I viruses had reduced replication capacity compared to wild-type SIVmac239. Direct virus competition assays demonstrated a rank order of wild-type>K65R>V148I mutants in terms of viral fitness. In single round in vitro-replication assays, SIVmac239-K65R demonstrated significantly higher fidelity than wild-type, and rapidly reverted to wild-type following infection of macaques. In contrast, SIVmac239-Q151N was replication incompetent in vitro and in pigtailed macaques. Thus, we showed that RT mutants, and specifically the common K65R drug-resistance mutation, had impaired replication capacity and higher fidelity. These results have implications for the pathogenesis of drug-resistant HIV.

  19. High-fidelity national carbon mapping for resource management and REDD+

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fidelity carbon mapping has the potential to greatly advance national resource management and to encourage international action toward climate change mitigation. However, carbon inventories based on field plots alone cannot capture the heterogeneity of carbon stocks, and thus remote sensing-assisted approaches are critically important to carbon mapping at regional to global scales. We advanced a high-resolution, national-scale carbon mapping approach applied to the Republic of Panama – one of the first UN REDD + partner countries. Results Integrating measurements of vegetation structure collected by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with field inventory plots, we report LiDAR-estimated aboveground carbon stock errors of ~10% on any 1-ha land parcel across a wide range of ecological conditions. Critically, this shows that LiDAR provides a highly reliable replacement for inventory plots in areas lacking field data, both in humid tropical forests and among drier tropical vegetation types. We then scale up a systematically aligned LiDAR sampling of Panama using satellite data on topography, rainfall, and vegetation cover to model carbon stocks at 1-ha resolution with estimated average pixel-level uncertainty of 20.5 Mg C ha-1 nationwide. Conclusions The national carbon map revealed strong abiotic and human controls over Panamanian carbon stocks, and the new level of detail with estimated uncertainties for every individual hectare in the country sets Panama at the forefront in high-resolution ecosystem management. With this repeatable approach, carbon resource decision-making can be made on a geospatially explicit basis, enhancing human welfare and environmental protection. PMID:23866822

  20. High-fidelity simulation and reduced-order modelling of integrally-actuated membrane wings with feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, Stefano; Palacios, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a numerical framework for the simulation and design of integrally actuated membrane wings with feedback control. The performance of the aeroelastic system are evaluated using a high-fidelity model. It consists in a fluid solver based on the direct numerical integration of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations implicitly coupled with a geometrically non-linear dynamic structural model which has been calibrated using experimental data. The rate-dependent constitutive law for the dielectric elastomer considered for the integral wing actuation is based on a non-linear formulation. The framework also includes a methodology for the model reduction of the fully-coupled system. The resulting low-order description showed to retain the main system dynamics, and can therefore be used for the design of the control scheme for the wing. Results highlights the potential to achieve on-demand aerodynamics using the actuation concept proposed. In particular, it is shown that the wing aerodynamic performance is noticeably enhanced through the actuation and the disturbances on the lift in case of gusts can be reduced up to 60%.

  1. Scalable high-fidelity growth of semiconductor nanorod arrays with controlled geometry for photovoltaic devices using block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Pelligra, Candice I; Huang, Su; Singer, Jonathan P; Mayo, Anthony T; Mu, Richard R; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2014-11-12

    Controlled density semiconducting oxide arrays are highly desirable for matching nanometer length scales specific to emerging applications. This work demonstrates a facile one-step method for templating hydrothermal growth which provides arrays with high-fidelity tuning of nanorod spacing and diameter. This solution-based method leverages the selective swelling of block copolymer micelle templates, which can be rationally designed by tuning molecular weight and volume fraction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Geological structure guided well log interpolation for high-fidelity full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Hanming; Xiang, Kui; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-11-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising technique for inverting a high-resolution subsurface velocity model. The success of FWI highly depends on a fairly well initial velocity model. We propose a method for building a good initial velocity model that can be put into the FWI framework for inverting a nearly perfect velocity structure. We use a well log interpolated velocity model as a high-fidelity initial model for the subsequent FWI. The interpolation problem is solved via a least-squares method with a geological structural regularization. In order to obtain the geological structure of subsurface reflectors, an initial reverse time migration (RTM) with a fairly realistic initial velocity model is conducted, and the local slope of subsurface structure is roughly calculated from the RTM image. The well log interpolated initial velocity model can be very close to the true velocity while containing a small velocity anomaly or oversmoothing caused by the imperfect velocity interpolation. The anomaly and oversmoothing effect can be compensated during the subsequent FWI iterations. We use a relatively simple-layered model and the more complicated Marmousi velocity model to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. We start from a very smooth velocity model and obtain a nearly perfect FWI result which is much better than the traditional FWI result without the velocity interpolation. The migrated images from the RTM method using different velocity models are also compared to further confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Regarding the field deployment, we suggest that future drilling of exploration wells can be seismic-oriented, which can help fully utilize the information of well logs for building initial subsurface velocity model and will facilitate a wide application of the proposed methodology.

  3. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  4. Different rates of spontaneous mutation of chloroplastic and nuclear viroids as determined by high-fidelity ultra-deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Ballesteros, Cristina; Sentandreu, Vicente; Delgado, Sonia; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Flores, Ricardo; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Mutation rates vary by orders of magnitude across biological systems, being higher for simpler genomes. The simplest known genomes correspond to viroids, subviral plant replicons constituted by circular non-coding RNAs of few hundred bases. Previous work has revealed an extremely high mutation rate for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid, a chloroplast-replicating viroid. However, whether this is a general feature of viroids remains unclear. Here, we have used high-fidelity ultra-deep sequencing to determine the mutation rate in a common host (eggplant) of two viroids, each representative of one family: the chloroplastic eggplant latent viroid (ELVd, Avsunviroidae) and the nuclear potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd, Pospiviroidae). This revealed higher mutation frequencies in ELVd than in PSTVd, as well as marked differences in the types of mutations produced. Rates of spontaneous mutation, quantified in vivo using the lethal mutation method, ranged from 1/1000 to 1/800 for ELVd and from 1/7000 to 1/3800 for PSTVd depending on sequencing run. These results suggest that extremely high mutability is a common feature of chloroplastic viroids, whereas the mutation rates of PSTVd and potentially other nuclear viroids appear significantly lower and closer to those of some RNA viruses.

  5. High Fidelity Modeling of Turbulent Mixing and Chemical Kinetics Interactions in a Post-Detonation Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Zambon, Andrea; Ott, James; Demagistris, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Driven by the continuing rapid advances in high-performance computing, multi-dimensional high-fidelity modeling is an increasingly reliable predictive tool capable of providing valuable physical insight into complex post-detonation reacting flow fields. Utilizing a series of test cases featuring blast waves interacting with combustible dispersed clouds in a small-scale test setup under well-controlled conditions, the predictive capabilities of a state-of-the-art code are demonstrated and validated. Leveraging physics-based, first principle models and solving large system of equations on highly-resolved grids, the combined effects of finite-rate/multi-phase chemical processes (including thermal ignition), turbulent mixing and shock interactions are captured across the spectrum of relevant time-scales and length scales. Since many scales of motion are generated in a post-detonation environment, even if the initial ambient conditions are quiescent, turbulent mixing plays a major role in the fireball afterburning as well as in dispersion, mixing, ignition and burn-out of combustible clouds in its vicinity. Validating these capabilities at the small scale is critical to establish a reliable predictive tool applicable to more complex and large-scale geometries of practical interest.

  6. Investigation of the impact of high liquid viscosity on jet atomization in crossflow via high-fidelity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Gao, Hui; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2017-08-01

    Atomization of extremely high viscosity liquid can be of interest for many applications in aerospace, automotive, pharmaceutical, and food industries. While detailed atomization measurements usually face grand challenges, high-fidelity numerical simulations offer the advantage to comprehensively explore the atomization details. In this work, a previously validated high-fidelity first-principle simulation code HiMIST is utilized to simulate high-viscosity liquid jet atomization in crossflow. The code is used to perform a parametric study of the atomization process in a wide range of Ohnesorge numbers (Oh = 0.004-2) and Weber numbers (We = 10-160). Direct comparisons between the present study and previously published low-viscosity jet in crossflow results are performed. The effects of viscous damping and slowing on jet penetration, liquid surface instabilities, ligament formation/breakup, and subsequent droplet formation are investigated. Complex variations in near-field and far-field jet penetrations with increasing Oh at different We are observed and linked with the underlying jet deformation and breakup physics. Transition in breakup regimes and increase in droplet size with increasing Oh are observed, mostly consistent with the literature reports. The detailed simulations elucidate a distinctive edge-ligament-breakup dominated process with long surviving ligaments for the higher Oh cases, as opposed to a two-stage edge-stripping/column-fracture process for the lower Oh counterparts. The trend of decreasing column deflection with increasing We is reversed as Oh increases. A predominantly unimodal droplet size distribution is predicted at higher Oh, in contrast to the bimodal distribution at lower Oh. It has been found that both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz linear stability theories cannot be easily applied to interpret the distinct edge breakup process and further study of the underlying physics is needed.

  7. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. J.; Harty, T. P.; Linke, N. M.; Sepiol, M. A.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99 % minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μ s and 520 μ s , and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  8. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    The objectives of this research are to develop a high fidelity simulation methodology for turbomachinery aeromechanical problems and to investigate the mechanism of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of an aircraft engine axial compressor. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding technique is developed to accurately capture the unsteadiness and interaction between adjacent blade rows. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are implemented to take into account the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structure, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. An advanced mesh deformation method that generates the blade tip block mesh moving with the blade displacement is developed to ensure the mesh quality. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme as a Riemann solver designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used with an improved hybrid RANS/LES turbulence strategy, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI simulation methodology. The validated cases include: (1) DDES of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack with massive separation. The DDES accurately predicts the drag whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. (2) The AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter boundary is accurately predicted including the point at supersonic incoming flow. (3) NASA Rotor 67 validation for steady state speed line and radial profiles at peak efficiency point and near stall point. The

  9. Hi-Fi SELEX: A High-Fidelity Digital-PCR Based Therapeutic Aptamer Discovery Platform.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Eric; Foley, Jonathan H; Conway, Edward M; Haynes, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Current technologies for aptamer discovery typically leverage the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) concept by recursively panning semi-combinatorial ssDNA or RNA libraries against a molecular target. The expectation is that this iterative selection process will be sufficiently stringent to identify a candidate pool of specific high-affinity aptamers. However, failure of this process to yield promising aptamers is common, due in part to (i) limitations in library designs, (ii) retention of non-specific aptamers during screening rounds, (iii) excessive accumulation of amplification artifacts, and (iv) the use of screening criteria (binding affinity) that does not reflect therapeutic activity. We report a new selection platform, High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) SELEX, that introduces fixed-region blocking elements to safeguard the functional diversity of the library. The chemistry of the target-display surface and the composition of the equilibration solvent are engineered to strongly inhibit non-specific retention of aptamers. Partition efficiencies approaching 10(6) are thereby realized. Retained members are amplified in Hi-Fi SELEX by digital PCR in a manner that ensures both elimination of amplification artifacts and stoichiometric conversion of amplicons into the single-stranded library required for the next selection round. Improvements to aptamer selections are first demonstrated using human α-thrombin as the target. Three clinical targets (human factors IXa, X, and D) are then subjected to Hi-Fi SELEX. For each, rapid enrichment of ssDNA aptamers offering an order-nM mean equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) is achieved within three selection rounds, as quantified by a new label-free qPCR assay reported here. Therapeutic candidates against factor D are identified.

  10. High-Fidelity Simulation of Primary Blast: Direct Effects on the Head.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Thomas W; Wang, Yushan; Ritzel, David V; Josey, Tyson; Villanueva, Mercy; Shei, Yimin; Nelson, Peggy; Hennes, Grant; Weiss, Tracy; Vair, Cory; Fan, Changyang; Barnes, Julia

    2016-07-01

    The role of primary blast in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is controversial in part due to the technical difficulties of generating free-field blast conditions in the laboratory. The use of traditional shock tubes often results in artifacts, particularly of dynamic pressure, whereas the forces affecting the head are dependent on where the animal is placed relative to the tube, whether the exposure is whole-body or head-only, and on how the head is actually exposed to the insult (restrained or not). An advanced blast simulator (ABS) has been developed that enables high-fidelity simulation of free-field blastwaves, including sharply defined static and dynamic overpressure rise times, underpressures, and secondary shockwaves. Rats were exposed in head-only fashion to single-pulse blastwaves of 15 to 30 psi static overpressure. Head restraints were configured so as to eliminate concussive and minimize whiplash forces exerted on the head, as shown by kinematic analysis. No overt signs of trauma were present in the animals post-exposure. However, significant changes in brain 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase) and neurofilament heavy chain levels were evident by 7 days. In contrast to most studies of primary blast-induced TBI (PbTBI), no elevation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels was noted when head movement was minimized. The ABS described in this article enables the generation of shockwaves highly representative of free-field blast. The use of this technology, in concert with head-only exposure, minimized head movement, and the kinematic analysis of the forces exerted on the head provide convincing evidence that primary blast directly causes changes in brain function and that GFAP may not be an appropriate biomarker of PbTBI.

  11. High-Fidelity Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis and DNS with Discontinuous-Galerkin Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel Alan Wendell

    High-fidelity numerical tools based on high-order Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods and Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) theory are developed and validated for the study of separated, vortex-dominated flows over complex geometry. The numerical framework couples prediction of separated turbulent flows using DG with time-dependent analysis of the flow through LCS and is intended for the development of separation control strategies for aerodynamic surfaces. The compressible viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil is solved with a DG based Navier-Stokes solver in two and three dimensions. A method is presented in which high-order polynomial element edges adjacent to curved boundaries are matched to boundaries defined by non-smooth splines. Artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation of straight-sided meshes results in the simulation of incorrect physics, including wake instabilities and spurious time-dependent modes. Spectral accuracy in the boundary approximation is not achieved for non-analytic boundary functions, particularly in high curvature regions. An algorithm is developed for the high-order computation of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields simultaneously and efficiently with two and three dimensional DG-based flow solvers. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element and form the high-order basis for a flow map at later time. Gradients of the flow map and FTLE are evaluated with DG operators. Multiple flow maps are determined from a single particle trace by remapping the flow map to the quadrature nodes on deformed mesh elements. For large integration times, excessive subdomain deformation deteriorates the interpolating conditioning. The conditioning provides information on the fluid deformation and identifies subdomains that contain LCS. An exponential filter smooths the flow map in highly deformed areas. The algorithm is tested on several benchmarks and is shown

  12. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.; Hughes, Kyle M.; Mashiku, Alinda K.; Longuski, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure is one of the largest perturbing forces on the OSIRISRex trajectory as it orbits the asteroid Bennu. In this work, we investigate how forces due to solar radiation perturb the OSIRIS-REx trajectory in a high-fidelity model. The model accounts for Bennu's non-spherical gravity field, third-body gravity forces from the Sun and Jupiter, as well as solar radiation forces acting on a simplified spacecraft model. Such high-fidelity simulations indicate significant solar radiation pressure perturbations from the nominal orbit. Modifications to the initial design of the nominal orbit are found using a variation of parameters approach that reduce the perturbation in eccentricity by a factor of one-half.

  13. Microwave waveform generation with reconfigurable envelope and high fidelity based on spectrum compensated frequency-to-time mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qidi; Yan, Juanjuan; Xin, Fengdan

    2017-07-01

    A photonic approach for generating radio frequency (RF) chirped and non-chirped waveforms with reconfigurable envelope and high fidelity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on frequency-to-time mapping (FTM). A space light modulator based pulse shaper is used for spectral shaping. To make full use of the available bandwidth of the pulse shaper, the output of an amplified mode-locked laser is used as a broadband optical source. A feedback scheme is proposed to compensate the absence of the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum in frequency-to-time mapping. Based on the spectrum compensated FTM, chirped and non-chirped waveforms with different envelopes and high fidelity are experimentally generated.

  14. How we developed an emergency psychiatry training course for new residents using principles of high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Alex B; Cross, Sean; Key, Suzie; Jaye, Peter; Iversen, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    New psychiatry residents must rapidly acquire new clinical skills and learn to work effectively with new colleagues. In medical and surgical specialties, high-fidelity simulation with structured debriefing is widely used, but so far this has not been applied to psychiatry. We have developed a one-day simulation-based training course for emergency psychiatry which incorporates clinical and team-working skills training. Five scenarios covering key psychiatric emergencies are delivered in a purpose-built simulation facility. Patients are played by an actor or a high-fidelity manikin. Each scenario is followed by a 45-minute group debrief. Evaluation of a pilot group found that the course was well received and improved participants' workplace confidence. We are now planning to expand the course, provide it to all new residents and conduct further evaluation.

  15. The nature of reality represented in high fidelity human patient simulation: philosophical perspectives and implications for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2014-01-01

    Simulation technology is increasingly being used in nursing education. Previously used primarily for teaching procedural, instrumental, or critical incident types of skills, simulation is now being applied to training related to more dynamic, complex, and interpersonal human contexts. While high fidelity human patient simulators have significantly increased in authenticity, human responses have greater complexity and are qualitatively different than current technology represents. This paper examines the texture of representation by simulation. Through a tracing of historical and contemporary philosophical perspectives on simulation, the nature and limits of the reality of human health responses represented by high fidelity human patient simulation (HF-HPS) are explored. Issues concerning nursing education are raised around the nature of reality represented in HF-HPS. Drawing on Waks, a framework for guiding pedagogical considerations around simulation in nursing education is presented for the ultimate purpose of promoting an educative experience with simulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High-Fidelity Dynamic Modeling of Spacecraft in the Continuum--Rarefied Transition Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turansky, Craig P.

    The state of the art of spacecraft rarefied aerodynamics seldom accounts for detailed rigid-body dynamics. In part because of computational constraints, simpler models based upon the ballistic and drag coefficients are employed. Of particular interest is the continuum-rarefied transition regime of Earth's thermosphere where gas dynamic simulation is difficult yet wherein many spacecraft operate. The feasibility of increasing the fidelity of modeling spacecraft dynamics is explored by coupling rarefied aerodynamics with rigid-body dynamics modeling similar to that traditionally used for aircraft in atmospheric flight. Presented is a framework of analysis and guiding principles which capitalize on the availability of increasing computational methods and resources. Aerodynamic force inputs for modeling spacecraft in two dimensions in a rarefied flow are provided by analytical equations in the free-molecular regime, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo method in the transition regime. The application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to this class of problems is examined in detail with a new code specifically designed for engineering-level rarefied aerodynamic analysis. Time-accurate simulations of two distinct geometries in low thermospheric flight and atmospheric entry are performed, demonstrating non-linear dynamics that cannot be predicted using simpler approaches. The results of this straightforward approach to the aero-orbital coupled-field problem highlight the possibilities for future improvements in drag prediction, control system design, and atmospheric science. Furthermore, a number of challenges for future work are identified in the hope of stimulating the development of a new subfield of spacecraft dynamics.

  17. Analysis of the photometric and astrometric fidelity of high-resistivity, p- channel CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunaemeh, Malek Amir Mahmoud

    Photometry and astrometry performed with charge coupled devices (CCDs) at the focal planes of large telescopes are indispensable tools of modern observational cosmology, astrophysics and astronomy. In the modern era of precision cosmology, variations in the sub-pixel sensitivity and spectral response of CCDs can affect the science yield of observations and must be characterized. Unfortunately, there have been very few studies to measure the sub-pixel response variations of CCDs, particularly in the context of observational cosmology. It is the aim of this thesis to perform the first measurement of the photometric and astrometric fidelity of high-resistivity, p- channel CCDs. These devices have been selected for major upcoming observational cosmology missions such as the space-based Supernova Acceleration Probe satellite (SNAP) and the ground-based Dark Energy Survey. An experimental study has been performed to make detailed measurements of the intrapixel response variations of these devices at a precision exceeding 2%, which is the level of precision required for the missions mentioned above. A 300 mm thick, 10.5 mm pixel pitch, 1.4k×1.4k format, high-resistivity, p-channel CCD operated fully depleted was illuminated by a 1.3 mm pinhole projector. The illuminated spot was moved in sub-pixel steps through various patterns to measure several properties of the device including the lateral charge diffusion, the intrapixel sensitivity variations, the effective diffusion near the edge of the device active region where electric field lines in the device may diverge, to test the photometric performance of a new technique for acquiring dithered astronomical observations coined "CCD Phase Dithering." It was determined that the intrapixel sensitivity variations were less than ˜ 0.5% in most cases. The lateral diffusion in the device was measured to be 7.41 mm in the device center, consistent with theoretical predictions. Charge spreading near the device edge resulted in an

  18. Thermophysical properties of Almahata Sitta meteorites (asteroid 2008 TC3) for high-fidelity entry modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehle, Stefan; Jenniskens, Peter; Böhrk, Hannah; Bauer, Thomas; Elsäßer, Henning; Sears, Derek W.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2017-02-01

    Asteroid 2008 TC3 was characterized in a unique manner prior to impacting Earth's atmosphere, making its October 7, 2008, impact a suitable field test for or validating the application of high-fidelity re-entry modeling to asteroid entry. The accurate modeling of the behavior of 2008 TC3 during its entry in Earth's atmosphere requires detailed information about the thermophysical properties of the asteroid's meteoritic materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to the point of ablation (T 1400 K). Here, we present measurements of the thermophysical properties up to these temperatures (in a 1 atm. pressure of argon) for two samples of the Almahata Sitta meteorites from asteroid 2008 TC3: a thick flat-faced ureilite suitably shaped for emissivity measurements and a thin flat-faced EL6 enstatite chondrite suitable for diffusivity measurements. Heat capacity was determined from the elemental composition and density from a 3-D laser scan of the sample. We find that the thermal conductivity of the enstatite chondrite material decreases more gradually as a function of temperature than expected, while the emissivity of the ureilitic material decreases at a rate of 9.5 × 10-5 K-1 above 770 K. The entry scenario is the result of the actual flight path being the boundary to the load the meteorite will be affected with when entering. An accurate heat load prediction depends on the thermophysical properties. Finally, based on these data, the breakup can be calculated accurately leading to a risk assessment for ground damage.

  19. Characterization of Flap Edge Noise Radiation from a High-Fidelity Airframe Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David P.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Bahr, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the noise generated by a baseline high-fidelity airframe model are presented. The test campaign was conducted in the open-jet test section of the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel on an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream airframe model incorporating a trailing edge flap and main landing gear. Unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained from a series of sensors positioned along the two flap edges, and far field acoustic measurements were obtained using a 97-microphone phased array that viewed the pressure side of the airframe. The DAMAS array deconvolution method was employed to determine the locations and strengths of relevant noise sources in the vicinity of the flap edges and the landing gear. A Coherent Output Power (COP) spectral method was used to couple the unsteady surface pressures measured along the flap edges with the phased array output. The results indicate that outboard flap edge noise is dominated by the flap bulb seal cavity with very strong COP coherence over an approximate model-scale frequency range of 1 to 5 kHz observed between the array output and those unsteady pressure sensors nearest the aft end of the cavity. An examination of experimental COP spectra for the inboard flap proved inconclusive, most likely due to a combination of coherence loss caused by decorrelation of acoustic waves propagating through the thick wind tunnel shear layer and contamination of the spectra by tunnel background noise at lower frequencies. Directivity measurements obtained from integration of DAMAS pressure-squared values over defined geometric zones around the model show that the baseline flap and landing gear are only moderately directional as a function of polar emission angle.

  20. High-fidelity optical excitation of cortico-cortical projections at physiological frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hass, Charles A; Glickfeld, Lindsey L

    2016-11-01

    Optogenetic activation of axons is a powerful approach for determining the synaptic properties and impact of long-range projections both in vivo and in vitro. However, because of the difficulty of measuring activity in axons, our knowledge of the reliability of optogenetic axonal stimulation has relied on data from somatic recordings. Yet, there are many reasons why activation of axons may not be comparable to cell bodies. Thus we have developed an approach to more directly assess the fidelity of optogenetic activation of axonal projections. We expressed opsins (ChR2, Chronos, or oChIEF) in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and recorded extracellular, pharmacologically isolated presynaptic action potentials in response to axonal activation in the higher visual areas. Repetitive stimulation of axons with ChR2 resulted in a 70% reduction in the fiber volley amplitude and a 60% increase in the latency at all frequencies tested (10-40 Hz). Thus ChR2 cannot reliably recruit axons during repetitive stimulation, even at frequencies that are reliable for somatic stimulation, likely due to pronounced channel inactivation at the high light powers required to evoke action potentials. By comparison, oChIEF and Chronos evoked photocurrents that inactivated minimally and could produce reliable axon stimulation at frequencies up to 60 Hz. Our approach provides a more direct and accurate evaluation of the efficacy of new optogenetic tools and has identified Chronos and oChIEF as viable tools to interrogate the synaptic and circuit function of long-range projections.

  1. Prospective analysis of an interprofessional team training program using high-fidelity simulation of contrast reactions.

    PubMed

    Niell, Bethany L; Kattapuram, Taj; Halpern, Elkan F; Salazar, Gloria M; Penzias, Alexandra; Bonk, Shawn S; Forde, Joanne C; Hayden, Emily; Sande, Margaret; Minehart, Rebecca D; Gordon, James A

    2015-06-01

    Successful management of a contrast reaction requires prompt recognition and treatment and effective team dynamics among radiologists, technologists, and nurses. A radiology department implemented a simulation program in which teams of nurses, technologists, and physicians managed simulated contrast reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether simulation improved the participants' abilities to manage a contrast reaction and work in a team during an emergency. Physicians, nurses, and technologists worked in inter-professional teams to manage two high-fidelity simulated adverse contrast reactions. Participants completed surveys before and after the simulation that included knowledge-based questions about the appropriate management of contrast reactions. Surveys also included questions for assessing participants' perceptions of their ability to manage adverse contrast reactions, measured with a 6-point Likert scale. Before and after comparisons were made with the McNemar test with a Bonferroni correction requiring p ≤ 0.003 for significance. For the other analyses, p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. After completion of the simulation exercises, participants had significant improvement in knowledge (p < 0.001). After the simulation, participants reported significant improvement in their ability to manage an anaphylactoid reaction and their ability to work in a team (p < 0.00001). Participants requested repeat simulation exercises every 6-12 months. Simulation exercises improved the self-reported ability of radiology personnel to manage contrast reactions and work in a team during an emergency. Simulation should be incorporated into future educational initiatives to improve patient safety in radiology practices.

  2. Anxiety and stress among anaesthesiology and critical care residents during high-fidelity simulation sessions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christian; Rimmelé, Thomas; Duclos, Antoine; Prieto, Nathalie; Cejka, Jean-Christophe; Carry, Pierre-Yves; Grousson, Sébastien; Friggeri, Arnaud; Secco, Julien; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Lilot, Marc; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) calls heavily upon cognitive capacities and generates stress and anxiety. The objectives of this prospective, observational study were to assess trait anxiety and fear of negative evaluation (FNE) in anaesthesiology and critical care residents and appraise their state anxiety levels and cardiovascular responses during HFS training sessions. First-year anaesthesiology and critical care residents completed the French-Canadian adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (IASTA Y-1: state anxiety, IASTA Y-2: trait anxiety) and the French adaptation of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Their heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed before and after the training session. Twenty-three residents (8 women, 15 men) were included in the study. IASTA Y-1 and Y-2 scores were low (respectively 40.2±9.9 and 39.7±8) and FNE scores were moderate (16.7±5.5). HR measurements before and after the training sessions were significantly higher than at rest (respectively 78±19, 80±17 and 63±9b/min; P<0.001). BP measurements before and after the HFS sessions were not significantly different. The IASTA Y-2 and FNE scores of female residents were significantly higher than those of male residents (respectively P=0.004 and P=0.049). First-year anaesthesiology and critical care residents had low trait anxiety and FNE. HFS training increased their HR but not their BP. Their state anxiety also remained low. Several differences between individuals were noted, particularly between men and women. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of traditional versus high-fidelity simulation in the retention of ACLS knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bruce M; Devine, Alicia S; Evans, David P; Byars, Donald V; Lamm, Olive Y; Lee, Rusty J; Lowe, Sean M; Walker, Laura L

    2011-11-01

    We performed a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the retention of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge between high-fidelity simulation training (HFST) and traditional training (TT) in medical students. Medical students were randomized to HFST or TT for their ACLS training. Students were then tested on 2 different mega-code scenarios immediately after their training and then 1-year later. A survey was performed asking their satisfaction of ACLS training and confidence of ACLS knowledge with a 10-point rating scale. 93 students were randomized with 86 completing the study (HFST=45, TT=41). The HFST group scored a higher percentage correct on initial testing than the TT group (83% vs. 70%, P<0.0001). However at 1-year follow up, both groups performed the same (66% vs. 66%, P=0.84). Satisfaction with training was higher with the HFST compared to the TT group (9.0 vs. 7.8, P<0.0001). Confidence in ACLS knowledge between HFST and TT groups were similar at baseline (6.9 vs. 6.5, P=0.18) and at 1-year (4.8 vs. 4.5, P=0.46). Students demonstrated greater ACLS knowledge initially with HFST than with TT. However, after 1-year, both groups performed the same. Satisfaction with training was higher with HFST compared to TT. Confidence in ACLS knowledge was the same initially and decreased similarly over a 1-year time period regardless of the type of ACLS training. Further studies will need to determine optimal strategies to retain ACLS knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing Nurse and Physician Collaboration in Clinical Decision Making Through High-fidelity Interdisciplinary Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Pamela M.; Dozois, Eric J.; Holubar, Stefan D.; Wrobleski, Diane M.; Dube, Joyce A. Overman; Klipfel, Janee M.; Arnold, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interdisciplinary simulation team training can positively affect registered nurse and/or physician perceptions of collaboration in clinical decision making. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between March 1 and April 21, 2009, a convenience sample of volunteer nurses and physicians was recruited to undergo simulation training consisting of a team response to 3 clinical scenarios. Participants completed the Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions (CSACD) survey before training and at 2 weeks and 2 months after training. Differences in CSACD summary scores between the time points were assessed with paired t tests. RESULTS: Twenty-eight health care professionals (19 nurses, 9 physicians) underwent simulation training. Nurses were of similar age to physicians (27.3 vs 34.5 years; p=.82), were more likely to be women (95.0% vs 12.5%; p<.001), and were less likely to have undergone prior simulation training (0% vs 37.5%; p=.02). The pretest showed that physicians were more likely to perceive that open communication exists between nurses and physicians (p=.04) and that both medical and nursing concerns influence the decision-making process (p=.02). Pretest CSACD analysis revealed that most participants were dissatisfied with the decision-making process. The CSACD summary score showed significant improvement from baseline to 2 weeks (4.2 to 5.1; p<.002), a trend that persisted at 2 months (p<.002). CONCLUSION: Team training using high-fidelity simulation scenarios promoted collaboration between nurses and physicians and enhanced the patient care decision-making process. PMID:21193653

  5. High-Fidelity Nonlinear Analysis of Compression-Loaded Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the effects of initial imperfections on the buckling and postbuckling response of unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells are presented. The shells considered in the study have four different shell-wall laminates and two different shell-radius-to-thickness ratios. The shell-wall laminates include two different orthotropic laminates and two different quasi-isotropic laminates. The shell-radius-to-thickness ratios include shell-radius-to-thickness ratios equal to 100 and 200. The results identify the effects of traditional and nontraditional initial imperfections on the nonlinear response characteristics and buckling loads of the shells. The traditional imperfections include the geometric shell-wall mid-surface imperfections that are commonly discussed in the literature on thin shell buckling. The nontraditional imperfections include shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and variations in the boundary conditions including the effects of elastic boundary conditions. A high-fidelity nonlinear shell analysis procedure that accurately accounts for the effects of these traditional and nontraditional imperfections on the nonlinear response characteristics and buckling loads of the shells is described. The analysis procedure includes a nonlinear static analysis that predicts the stable response characteristics of the shells, and a nonlinear transient analysis that predicts the unstable response characteristics. The results of a local shell-wall stress analysis used to estimate failure stresses are also described.

  6. Aurora A kinase amplifies a midzone phosphorylation gradient to promote high fidelity cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Anna A.; Torabi, Julia; Maresca, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Aurora B kinase (ABK) re-localizes from centromeres to the spindle midzone during cytokinesis where it is thought to provide a spatial cue for cytokinesis. While global ABK inhibition in Drosophila S2 cells results in macro- and multi-nucleated large cells, mis-localization of midzone ABK (mABK) by depletion of Subito (Drosophila MKLP2) does not cause notable cytokinesis defects. Subito depletion was; therefore, used to investigate the contribution of other molecules and redundant pathways to cytokinesis in the absence of mABK. Inhibiting potential polar relaxation pathways via removal of centrosomes (CNN RNAi) or a kinetochore-based phosphatase-gradient (Sds22 RNAi) did not result in cytokinesis defects on their own or in combination with loss of mABK. Disruption of Aurora A kinase (AAK) activity resulted in midzone assembly defects but did not significantly affect contractile ring positioning or cytokinesis. Live-cell imaging of a FRET-based aurora kinase phosphorylation sensor revealed that midzone substrates were less phosphorylated in AAK-inhibited cells, despite the fact that midzone levels of active phosphorylated ABK (pABK) were normal. Interestingly, an increased number of binucleated cells were observed following AAK inhibition in the absence of mABK. The data suggest that equatorial stimulation rather than polar relaxation mechanisms are the major determinants of contractile ring positioning and high-fidelity cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells. Furthermore, we propose that equatorial stimulation is mediated primarily by the delivery of factors to the cortex by non-centrosomal microtubules (MTs) as well as a midzone-derived phosphorylation gradient that is amplified by the concerted activities of mABK and a soluble pool of AAK. PMID:27638695

  7. High-fidelity simulation in anesthesiology training: a survey of Canadian anesthesiology residents' simulator experience.

    PubMed

    Price, James W; Price, John R; Pratt, Dan D; Collins, John B; McDonald, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this survey was to explore Canadian anesthesiology residents' educational experience with high-fidelity simulation and to improve understanding of the factors perceived to have either a positive or a negative effect on residents' learning. In 2008, all Canadian anesthesiology residents (n = 599) were invited to complete a ten-minute anonymous online survey. Survey questions were derived from two sources, a literature search of MEDLINE (1966 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), and the Cochrane and Campbell collaboration libraries and the experience of 25 pilot residents and the lead author. The survey response rate was 27.9% (n = 167). Junior residents (PGY1-3) responded that it would be helpful to have an introductory simulation course dealing with common intraoperative emergencies. The introduction of multidisciplinary scenarios (where nurses and colleagues from different specialties were involved in scenarios) was strongly supported. With respect to gender, male anesthesia residents indicated their comfort in making mistakes and asking for help in the simulator more frequently than female residents. In accordance with the ten Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) principles of successful simulator education, Canadian centres could improve residents' opportunities for repetitive practice (with feedback), individualization of scenarios, and defined learning outcomes for scenarios. Anesthesiology residents indicate that simulation-based education is an anxiety provoking experience, but value its role in promoting safe practice and enhancing one's ability to deal with emergency situations. Suggestions to improve simulation training include increasing residents' access, adopting a more student-centred approach to learning, and creating a safer learning environment.

  8. Development and testing of a multimedia internet-based system for fidelity and monitoring of multidimensional treatment foster care.

    PubMed

    Feil, Edward G; Sprengelmeyer, Peter G; Davis, Betsy; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-10-16

    The fields of mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice are jointly faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior among adolescents. In the last 20 years, conduct disorders have moved from being considered intractable difficulties to having complex but available solutions. The treatments for even long-standing offending behavior among adolescents are now well documented and supported by a growing and compelling body of evidence. These empirically validated interventions are being widely disseminated, but the replication of the results from clinical trials in community settings has yet to be documented. The treatments, which produced impressive effects in a research context, are difficult to replicate without intensive monitoring of fidelity by the developers. Such monitoring is a barrier toward adoption; as the distance between the adopter and developer increases, so does cost. At the same time, states, communities, and agencies are under increasing pressure to implement those intervention services that have been shown to be most effective. The use of the Internet offers a potential solution in that existing reporting and data collection by clinicians can be subject to remote supervision. Such a system would have the potential to provide dissemination teams with more direct access to higher-quality data and would make adopters more likely to be able to implement services at the highest possible conformity to research protocols. To create and test such an innovative system for use with the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) program, which is an in-home treatment (alternative to a residential- or group-home setting) for antisocial youths. This research could advance the knowledge base about developing innovative infrastructures in community settings to disseminate empirically validated treatments. The fidelity system was used and reviewed by parent and professional users: 20 foster parent users of the Parent Daily

  9. Improving the process of community-based student nurse practice through a high-fidelity simulated clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Gotwals, Beth; Yeager, Shelley T

    2014-01-01

    Simulation can be used to facilitate knowledge and practice with clients/families in the community. Because student nurses appreciate the opportunity to practice skills in a nonthreatening environment, and faculty welcome the opportunity to observe all students providing a home visit to a similar type of client, the authors developed such a simulation. In this article, they outline the process taken to develop and evaluate a high-fidelity community simulated clinical experience.

  10. Development and Testing of a Multimedia Internet-Based System for Fidelity and Monitoring of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Sprengelmeyer, Peter G; Davis, Betsy; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background The fields of mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice are jointly faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior among adolescents. In the last 20 years, conduct disorders have moved from being considered intractable difficulties to having complex but available solutions. The treatments for even long-standing offending behavior among adolescents are now well documented and supported by a growing and compelling body of evidence. These empirically validated interventions are being widely disseminated, but the replication of the results from clinical trials in community settings has yet to be documented. The treatments, which produced impressive effects in a research context, are difficult to replicate without intensive monitoring of fidelity by the developers. Such monitoring is a barrier toward adoption; as the distance between the adopter and developer increases, so does cost. At the same time, states, communities, and agencies are under increasing pressure to implement those intervention services that have been shown to be most effective. The use of the Internet offers a potential solution in that existing reporting and data collection by clinicians can be subject to remote supervision. Such a system would have the potential to provide dissemination teams with more direct access to higher-quality data and would make adopters more likely to be able to implement services at the highest possible conformity to research protocols. Objective To create and test such an innovative system for use with the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) program, which is an in-home treatment (alternative to a residential- or group-home setting) for antisocial youths. This research could advance the knowledge base about developing innovative infrastructures in community settings to disseminate empirically validated treatments. Methods The fidelity system was used and reviewed by parent and professional users: 20 foster parent

  11. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-12-01

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  12. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-12-15

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  13. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D; Harte, T L; Chardonnet, V; De Groot, C; Denny, S J; Le Goc, G; Anderson, M; Ireland, P; Cassettari, D; Bruce, G D

    2017-05-15

    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function, which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region, is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of F = 0.999997 is achieved for a pattern resembling an LG10 mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of 41.5%. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with F = 0.97 and 7.8% light efficiency.

  14. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Harte, T. L.; Chardonnet, V.; De Groot, C.; Denny, S. J.; Le Goc, G.; Anderson, M.; Ireland, P.; Cassettari, D.; Bruce, G. D.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of $F=0.999997$ is achieved for a pattern resembling an $LG^{0}_{1}$ mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of $41.5\\%$. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with $F = 0.97$ and $7.8\\%$ light efficiency.

  15. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  16. Reliability-based aeroelastic optimization of a composite aircraft wing via fluid-structure interaction of high fidelity solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbay, M.; Fakkusoglu, N.; Kuru, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    We consider reliability based aeroelastic optimization of a AGARD 445.6 composite aircraft wing with stochastic parameters. Both commercial engineering software and an in-house reliability analysis code are employed in this high-fidelity computational framework. Finite volume based flow solver Fluent is used to solve 3D Euler equations, while Gambit is the fluid domain mesh generator and Catia-V5-R16 is used as a parametric 3D solid modeler. Abaqus, a structural finite element solver, is used to compute the structural response of the aeroelastic system. Mesh based parallel code coupling interface MPCCI-3.0.6 is used to exchange the pressure and displacement information between Fluent and Abaqus to perform a loosely coupled fluid-structure interaction by employing a staggered algorithm. To compute the probability of failure for the probabilistic constraints, one of the well known MPP (Most Probable Point) based reliability analysis methods, FORM (First Order Reliability Method) is implemented in Matlab. This in-house developed Matlab code is embedded in the multidisciplinary optimization workflow which is driven by Modefrontier. Modefrontier 4.1, is used for its gradient based optimization algorithm called NBI-NLPQLP which is based on sequential quadratic programming method. A pareto optimal solution for the stochastic aeroelastic optimization is obtained for a specified reliability index and results are compared with the results of deterministic aeroelastic optimization.

  17. Isolated Spin Qubits in SiC with a High-Fidelity Infrared Spin-to-Photon Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christle, David J.; Klimov, Paul V.; de las Casas, Charles F.; Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Koehl, William F.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-04-01

    The divacancies in SiC are a family of paramagnetic defects that show promise for quantum communication technologies due to their long-lived electron spin coherence and their optical addressability at near-telecom wavelengths. Nonetheless, a high-fidelity spin-photon interface, which is a crucial prerequisite for such technologies, has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that such an interface exists in isolated divacancies in epitaxial films of 3C-SiC and 4H-SiC. Our data show that divacancies in 4H-SiC have minimal undesirable spin mixing, and that the optical linewidths in our current sample are already similar to those of recent remote entanglement demonstrations in other systems. Moreover, we find that 3C-SiC divacancies have a millisecond Hahn-echo spin coherence time, which is among the longest measured in a naturally isotopic solid. The presence of defects with these properties in a commercial semiconductor that can be heteroepitaxially grown as a thin film on Si shows promise for future quantum networks based on SiC defects.

  18. Efficient partially implicit integration method for stiff chemistry in high-fidelity simulations of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    High-fidelity turbulent reactive flow simulations are typically associated with small time step sizes (h <=10-8 sec) due to the CFL condition imposed by the fine gird. Although the step size is not sufficiently small to allow fully explicit time integration in the presence of stiff chemistry, it makes the use of classical implicit multi-step ODE solvers (e.g. VODE) an inefficient approach in combustion simulations due to the reduced number of internal iterations and excessive implicitness. In this study, an improved 4th-order Rosenbrock-Krylov (ROK4L) scheme is developed for the system of chemical reactions. This class of schemes replaces the Jacobian matrix by its low-rank Krylov approximation, thus introducing partial implicitness. The scheme is improved in both accuracy and efficiency by fulfilling additional order conditions and reducing the number of function evaluations. The ROK4L scheme is demonstrated to possess superior efficiency in comparison to CVODE due to the minimal degree of implicitness for small time-step sizes and the avoidance of other overhead associated with the start-up process of multi-step methods. Financial support from NASA Transformational Tools and Technologies Project with Award No. NNX15AV04A.

  19. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  20. A High Fidelity Multiphysics Framework for Modeling CRUD Deposition on PWR Fuel Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Daniel John

    Corrosion products on the fuel cladding surfaces within pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies have had a significant impact on reactor operation. These types of deposits are referred to as CRUD and can lead to power shifts, as a consequence of the accumulation of solid boron phases on the fuel rod surfaces. Corrosion deposits can also lead to fuel failure resulting from localized corrosion, where the increased thermal resistance of the deposit leads to higher cladding temperatures. The prediction of these occurrences requires a comprehensive model of local thermal hydraulic and chemical processes occurring in close proximity to the cladding surface, as well as their driving factors. Such factors include the rod power distribution, coolant corrosion product concentration, as well as the feedbacks between heat transfer, fluid dynamics, chemistry, and neutronics. To correctly capture the coupled physics and corresponding feedbacks, a high fidelity framework is developed that predicts three-dimensional CRUD deposition on a rod-by-rod basis. Multiphysics boundary conditions resulting from the coupling of heat transfer, fluid dynamics, coolant chemistry, CRUD deposition, neutron transport, and nuclide transmutation inform the CRUD deposition solver. Through systematic parametric sensitivity studies of the CRUD property inputs, coupled boundary conditions, and multiphysics feedback mechanisms, the most important variables of multiphysics CRUD modeling are identified. Moreover, the modeling framework is challenged with a blind comparison of plant data to predictions by a simulation of a sub-assembly within the Seabrook nuclear plant that experienced CRUD induced fuel failures. The physics within the computational framework are loosely coupled via an operator-splitting technique. A control theory approach is adopted to determine the temporal discretization at which to execute a data transfer from one physics to another. The coupled stepsize selection is viewed as a