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Sample records for high frequency oscillation

  1. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  2. High Frequency Stable Oscillate boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fenfang; Gonzalez-Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Ohl, Claus Dieter

    2015-11-01

    We present an unexpected regime of resonant bubble oscillations on a thin metal film submerged in water, which is continuously heated with a focused CW laser. The oscillatory bubble dynamics reveals a remarkably stable frequency of several 100 kHz and is resolved from the side using video recordings at 1 million frames per second. The emitted sound is measured simultaneously and shows higher harmonics. Once the laser is switched on the water in contact with the metal layer is superheated and an explosively expanding cavitation bubble is generated. However, after the collapse a microbubble is nucleated from the bubble remains which displays long lasting oscillations. Generally, pinch-off from of the upper part of the microbubble is observed generating a continuous stream of small gas bubbles rising upwards. The cavitation expansion, collapse, and the jetting of gas bubbles are detected by the hydrophone and are correlated to the high speed video. We find the bubble oscillation frequency is dependent on the bubble size and surface tension. A preliminary model based on Marangoni flow and heat transfer can explain the high flow velocities observed, yet the origin of bubble oscillation is currently not well understood.

  3. High-frequency resonant-tunneling oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Calawa, A. R.; Manfra, M. J.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-frequency resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators are described. Oscillations up to a frequency of 420 GHz have been achieved in the GaAs/AlAs system. Recent results obtained with In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs and InAs/AlSb RTDs show a greatly increased power density and indicate the potential for fundamental oscillations up to about 1 THz. These results are consistent with a lumped-element equivalent circuit model of the RTD. The model shows that the maximum oscillation frequency of the GaAs/AlAs RTDs is limited primarily by series resistance, and that the power density is limited by low peak-to-valley current ratio.

  4. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  5. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  6. High frequency oscillators for chaotic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, A. N.; Blakely, J. N.; Corron, N. J.; Dean, R. N.

    2016-05-01

    This work focuses on implementing a class of exactly solvable chaotic oscillators at speeds that allow real world radar applications. The implementation of a chaotic radar using a solvable system has many advantages due to the generation of aperiodic, random-like waveforms with an analytic representation. These advantages include high range resolution, no range ambiguity, and spread spectrum characteristics. These systems allow for optimal detection of a noise-like signal by the means of a linear matched filter using simple and inexpensive methods. This paper outlines the use of exactly solvable chaos in ranging systems, while addressing electronic design issues related to the frequency dependence of the system's stretching function introduced by the use of negative impedance converters (NICs).

  7. High vs low frequency neural oscillations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Hong, L Elliot

    2011-07-01

    There is growing recognition that neural oscillations are important in a wide range of perceptual and cognitive functions. One of the key issues in electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia is whether high or low frequency oscillations, or both, are related to schizophrenia because many brain functions are modulated with frequency specificities. Many recent electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia have focused on high frequency oscillations at gamma band and in general support gamma band dysfunction in schizophrenia. We discuss the concept that gamma oscillation abnormalities in schizophrenia often occur in the background of oscillation abnormalities of lower frequencies. The review discusses the basic neurobiology for the emergence of oscillations of all frequency bands in association with networks of inhibitory interneurons and the convergence and divergence of such mechanisms in generating high vs low frequency oscillations. We then review the literature of oscillatory frequency abnormalities identified in each frequency band in schizophrenia. By describing some of the key functional roles exerted by gamma, low frequencies, and their cross-frequency coupling, we conceptualize that even isolated alterations in gamma or low frequency oscillations may impact the interactions of high and low frequency bands that are involved in key cognitive functions. The review concludes that studying the full spectrum and the interaction of gamma and low frequency oscillations may be critical for deciphering the complex electrophysiological abnormalities observed in schizophrenia patients.

  8. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Eliyahu, D.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than −60 dBc Hz−1 at 10 Hz, −90 dBc Hz−1 at 100 Hz and −170 dBc Hz−1 at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10−10 at 1–100 s integration time—orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption. PMID:26260955

  9. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Ilchenko, V S; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2015-08-11

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than -60 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 Hz, -90 dBc Hz(-1) at 100 Hz and -170 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10(-10) at 1-100 s integration time-orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption.

  10. Modulating action of low frequency oscillations on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Liqiu, Wei E-mail: weiliqiu@hit.edu.cn; Liang, Han; Ziyi, Yang; Jing, Li; Yong, Cao; Daren, Yu; Jianhua, Du

    2015-02-07

    It is found that the low frequency oscillations have modulating action on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters. The physical mechanism of this modulation is discussed and verified by numerical simulations. Theoretical analyses indicate that the wide-range fluctuations of plasma density and electric field associated with the low frequency oscillations affect the electron drift velocity and anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field. The amplitude and frequency of high frequency oscillations are modulated by low frequency oscillations, which show the periodic variation in the time scale of low frequency oscillations.

  11. High-frequency oscillations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    PubMed

    Bánsági, Tamás; Leda, Marcin; Toiya, Masahiro; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M; Epstein, Irving R

    2009-05-14

    Chemical oscillations in the classic Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) system typically have a period of a few minutes, which can be increased significantly by changing the organic substrate. Here we show that by changing the temperature and concentrations, an increase of 3-4 orders of magnitude in the frequency of BZ oscillations can be obtained. At elevated temperatures, in high concentration mixtures, the cerium-catalyzed reaction exhibits sinusoidal oscillations with frequencies of 10 Hz or greater. We report the effect of temperature on the frequency and shape of oscillations in experiments under batch conditions and in a four-variable model. We show that our simple model accurately captures the complex temporal behavior of the system and suggests paths toward even higher frequencies.

  12. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2005-09-27

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, a feedback network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, the feedback network being configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and a tuning circuit connected to the input of the amplifier, wherein the tuning circuit is continuously variable and consists of solid state electrical components with no mechanically adjustable devices including a pair of diodes connected to each other at their respective cathodes with a control voltage connected at the junction of the diodes. Another oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, a feedback network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, the feedback network being configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and transmission lines connected to the input of the amplifier with an input pad and a perpendicular transmission line extending from the input pad and forming a leg of a resonant "T", and wherein the feedback network is coupled to the leg of the resonant "T".

  13. High-frequency Oscillations in Eyewalls of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weibiao; Chen, Shumin

    2017-04-01

    High-frequency oscillations, with periods of about 2 hours, are first identified by applying wavelet analysis to observed minutely wind speeds around the eye and eyewall of tropical cyclones (TCs). Analysis of a model simulation of Typhoon Hagupit (2008) shows that the oscillations also occur in the intensity of TC, vertical motion, convergence activity and air density around the eyewall. Sequences of oscillations in these variables follow a certain order. In a typical cycle, the drop of density in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is followed by an increase in the inward radial wind; this enhanced frictional convergence causes increase in density, followed by a decrease in the inward radial wind. The increase in convergence in the PBL causes increase of updraft at the top of the PBL, followed by high vertical velocity at high altitude of 8-10 km, then the increase of the maximum wind speed, and vice versa. Key words: tropical cyclone, high-frequency oscillations, eyewall, intensity

  14. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Singer, Wolf

    2013-09-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area.

  15. High frequency microbubble-switched oscillations modulated by microfluidic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fanghao; Dai, Xianming; Li, Chen

    2012-08-01

    Creating high frequency two-phase oscillations (HF-TPOs) remains an important goal in advancing microscale fluidic logic devices, micro-mixers, micro-actuators, and flow controls. However, thermally driven TPO frequency has been hindered by confinements of compressible vapor bubbles and low thermal diffusivity in microfluidic systems. In this study, a mechanism creating high frequency microbubbles growth/collapse cycle has been developed to achieve HF-TPOs. A "microfluidic transistor" was conceptualized and fabricated to passively sustain and modulate HF-TPOs. Three orders of magnitude higher TPO frequency has been achieved compared to TPOs reported in literatures under similar working conditions.

  16. High-frequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall.

    PubMed

    Fink, James B; Mahlmeister, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    High-frequency oscillation (HFO), applied to either the airway or chest wall, has been associated with changes in sputum attributes and clearance. The evolution of evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the use of HFO is reviewed. Devices that apply HFO to the airway range from the relatively simple mechanical Flutter and Acapella devices to the more complex Percussionaire Intrapercussive Ventilators. and the Hayek Oscillator are designed to provide high-frequency chest wall compression. Operation and use of these devices are described with examples of differentiation of device types by characterization of flows, and airway and esophageal pressures. Although HFO devices span a broad range of costs, they provide a reasonable therapeutic option to support secretion clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  17. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Singer, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area. PMID:24174902

  18. Frequencies and amplitudes of high-degree solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, James Morris

    Measurements of some of the properties of high-degree solar p- and f-mode oscillations are presented. Using high-resolution velocity images from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have measured mode frequencies, which provide information about the composition and internal structure of the Sun, and mode velocity amplitudes (corrected for the effects of atmospheric seeing), which tell us about the oscillation excitation and damping mechanisms. We present a new and more accurate table of the Sun's acoustic vibration frequencies, nunl, as a function of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l. These frequencies are averages over azimuthal order m and approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating spherically symmetric Sun near solar minimum. The frequencies presented here are for solar p- and f-modes with 180 less than or = l less than or = 1920, 0 less than or = n less than or = 8, and 1.7 mHz less than or = nunl less than or = 5.3 mHz. The uncertainties, sigmanl, in the frequencies areas are as low as 3.1 micro-Hz. The theoretically expected f-mode frequencies are given by omega squared = gkh approx. = gl/R, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface, kh is the horizontal component of the wave vector, and R is the radius of the Sun. We find that the observed frequencies are significantly less than expected for l greater than 1000, for which we have no explanation. Observations of high-degree oscillations, which have very small spatial features, suffer from the effects of atmospheric image blurring and image motion (or 'seeing'), thereby reducing the amplitudes of their spatial-frequency components. In an attempt to correct the velocity amplitudes for these effects, we simultaneously measured the atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) by looking at the effects of seeing on the solar limb. We are able to correct the velocity amplitudes using the MTF out to l approx. = 1200. We find that the frequency of the peak velocity power (as a

  19. High-frequency voltage oscillations in cultured astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Wiebke; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Holland, Christine; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Because of their close interaction with neuronal physiology, astrocytes can modulate brain function in multiple ways. Here, we demonstrate a yet unknown astrocytic phenomenon: Astrocytes cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) exhibited extracellular voltage fluctuations in a broad frequency spectrum (100–600 Hz) after electrical stimulation. These aperiodic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) could last several seconds and did not spread across the MEA. The voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine dose-dependently decreased the power of the oscillations. While intracellular calcium was pivotal, incubation with bafilomycin A1 showed that vesicular release of transmitters played only a minor role in the emergence of HFOs. Gap junctions and volume-regulated anionic channels had just as little functional impact, which was demonstrated by the addition of carbenoxolone (100 μmol/L) and NPPB (100 μmol/L). Hyperpolarization with low potassium in the extracellular solution (2 mmol/L) dramatically raised oscillation power. A similar effect was seen when we added extra sodium (+50 mmol/L) or if we replaced it with NMDG+ (50 mmol/L). The purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS suppressed the oscillation power, while the agonist ATP (100 μmol/L) had only an increasing effect when the bath solution pH was slightly lowered to pH 7.2. From these observations, we conclude that astrocytic voltage oscillations are triggered by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and driven by a downstream influx of cations through channels that are permeable for large ions such as NMDG+. Most likely candidates are subtypes of pore-forming P2X channels with a low affinity for ATP. PMID:25969464

  20. Classification of high frequency oscillations in epileptic intracerebral EEG.

    PubMed

    Jrad, Nisrine; Kachenoura, Amar; Merlet, Isabelle; Nica, Anca; Benar, Christian G; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs 40-500 Hz), recorded from intracerebral electroencephalography (iEEG) in epileptic patients, are categorized into four distinct sub-bands (Gamma, High-Gamma, Ripples and Fast Ripples). They have recently been used as a reliable biomarker of epileptogenic zones. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of discriminating between the different classes of HFOs which physiological/pathological value is critical for diagnostic but remains to be clarified. The proposed method is based on the definition of a relevant feature vector built from energy ratios (computed using Wavelet Transform-WT) in a-priori-defined frequency bands. It makes use of a multiclass Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and is applied to iEEG signals recorded in patients candidate to epilepsy surgery. Results obtained from bootstrap on training/test datasets indicate high performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Recording and analysis techniques for high-frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Worrell, G A; Jerbi, K; Kobayashi, K; Lina, J M; Zelmann, R; Le Van Quyen, M

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, new recording technologies have advanced such that, at high temporal and spatial resolutions, high-frequency oscillations (HFO) can be recorded in human partial epilepsy. However, because of the deluge of multichannel data generated by these experiments, achieving the full potential of parallel neuronal recordings depends on the development of new data mining techniques to extract meaningful information relating to time, frequency and space. Here, we aim to bridge this gap by focusing on up-to-date recording techniques for measurement of HFO and new analysis tools for their quantitative assessment. In particular, we emphasize how these methods can be applied, what property might be inferred from neuronal signals, and potentially productive future directions.

  2. Recording and analysis techniques for high-frequency oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, G.A.; Jerbi, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Lina, J.M.; Zelmann, R.; Le Van Quyen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new recording technologies have advanced such that, at high temporal and spatial resolutions, high-frequency oscillations (HFO) can be recorded in human partial epilepsy. However, because of the deluge of multichannel data generated by these experiments, achieving the full potential of parallel neuronal recordings depends on the development of new data mining techniques to extract meaningful information relating to time, frequency and space. Here, we aim to bridge this gap by focusing on up-to-date recording techniques for measurement of HFO and new analysis tools for their quantitative assessment. In particular, we emphasize how these methods can be applied, what property might be inferred from neuronal signals, and potentially productive future directions. PMID:22420981

  3. The spatial and signal characteristics of physiologic high frequency oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Gaspard, Nicolas; Goncharova, Irina I.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Zaveri, Hitten; Duckrow, Robert B.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To study the incidence, spatial distribution, and signal characteristics of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) outside the epileptic network. Methods We included patients who underwent invasive evaluations at Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 to 2013, had all major lobes sampled, and had localizable seizure onsets. Segments of non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep prior to the first seizure were analyzed. We implemented a semiautomated process to analyze oscillations with peak frequencies >80 Hz (ripples 80–250 Hz; fast ripples 250–500 Hz). A contact location was considered epileptic if it exhibited epileptiform discharges during the intracranial evaluation or was involved ictally within 5 s of seizure onset; otherwise it was considered nonepileptic. Results We analyzed recordings from 1,209 electrode contacts in seven patients. The nonepileptic contacts constituted 79.1% of the total number of contacts. Ripples constituted 99% of total detections. Eighty-two percent of all HFOs were seen in 45.2% of the nonepileptic contacts (82.1%, 47%, 34.6%, and 34% of the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal nonepileptic contacts, respectively). The following sublobes exhibited physiologic HFOs in all patients: Perirolandic, basal temporal, and occipital subregions. The ripples from nonepileptic sites had longer duration, higher amplitude, and lower peak frequency than ripples from epileptic sites. A high HFO rate (>1/min) was seen in 110 nonepileptic contacts, of which 68.2% were occipital. Fast ripples were less common, seen in nonepileptic parietooccipital regions only in two patients and in the epileptic mesial temporal structures. Conclusions There is consistent occurrence of physiologic HFOs over vast areas of the neocortex outside the epileptic network. HFOs from nonepileptic regions were seen in the occipital lobes and in the perirolandic region in all patients. Although duration of ripples and peak frequency of HFOs are the most

  4. The spatial and signal characteristics of physiologic high frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Gaspard, Nicolas; Goncharova, Irina I; Spencer, Dennis D; Gerrard, Jason L; Zaveri, Hitten; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2014-12-01

    To study the incidence, spatial distribution, and signal characteristics of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) outside the epileptic network. We included patients who underwent invasive evaluations at Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 to 2013, had all major lobes sampled, and had localizable seizure onsets. Segments of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep prior to the first seizure were analyzed. We implemented a semiautomated process to analyze oscillations with peak frequencies >80 Hz (ripples 80-250 Hz; fast ripples 250-500 Hz). A contact location was considered epileptic if it exhibited epileptiform discharges during the intracranial evaluation or was involved ictally within 5 s of seizure onset; otherwise it was considered nonepileptic. We analyzed recordings from 1,209 electrode contacts in seven patients. The nonepileptic contacts constituted 79.1% of the total number of contacts. Ripples constituted 99% of total detections. Eighty-two percent of all HFOs were seen in 45.2% of the nonepileptic contacts (82.1%, 47%, 34.6%, and 34% of the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal nonepileptic contacts, respectively). The following sublobes exhibited physiologic HFOs in all patients: Perirolandic, basal temporal, and occipital subregions. The ripples from nonepileptic sites had longer duration, higher amplitude, and lower peak frequency than ripples from epileptic sites. A high HFO rate (>1/min) was seen in 110 nonepileptic contacts, of which 68.2% were occipital. Fast ripples were less common, seen in nonepileptic parietooccipital regions only in two patients and in the epileptic mesial temporal structures. There is consistent occurrence of physiologic HFOs over vast areas of the neocortex outside the epileptic network. HFOs from nonepileptic regions were seen in the occipital lobes and in the perirolandic region in all patients. Although duration of ripples and peak frequency of HFOs are the most effective measures in distinguishing pathologic

  5. High-frequency oscillations and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Maxime; Shiri, Zahra; Chen, Li-Yuan; Avoli, Massimo

    2017-01-20

    The interest of epileptologists has recently shifted from the macroscopic analysis of interictal spikes and seizures to the microscopic analysis of short events in the EEG that are not visible to the naked eye but are observed once the signal has been filtered in specific frequency bands. With the use of new technologies that allow multichannel recordings at high sampling rates and the development of computer algorithms that permit the automated analysis of extensive amounts of data, it is now possible to extract high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500Hz from the EEG; HFOs have been further categorised as ripples (80-200Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz). Within the context of epileptic disorders, HFOs should reflect the pathological activity of neural networks that sustain seizure generation, and could serve as biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. We review here the presumptive cellular mechanisms of ripples and fast ripples in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We also focus on recent findings regarding the occurrence of HFOs during epileptiform activity observed in in vitro models of epileptiform synchronization, in in vivo models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in epileptic patients. Finally, we address the effects of anti-epileptic drugs on HFOs and raise some questions and issues related to the definition of HFOs.

  6. High-frequency resonant tunnelling diode oscillator with high-output power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Alharbi, Khalid; Ofiare, Afesomeh; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, David; Wasige, Edward

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a prototype G-band (140 GHz-220 GHz) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillator is reported. The oscillator employs two In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTD devices in the circuit to increase the output power. The measured output power was about 0.34 mW (-4.7 dBm) at 165.7 GHz, which is the highest power reported for RTD oscillator in G-band frequency range. This result demonstrates the validity of the high frequency/high power RTD oscillator design. It indicates that RTD devices, as one of the terahertz (THz) source candidates, have promising future for room-temperature THz applications in such as imaging, wireless communication and spectroscopy analysis, etc. By optimizing RTD oscillator design, it is expected that considerably higher power (>1 mW) at THz frequencies (>300 GHz) will be obtained.

  7. Measurement of high-degree solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, K. T.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Hill, F.

    1995-01-01

    We present m-averaged solar p- and f-mode oscillation frequencies over the frequency range nu greater than 1.8 and less than 5.0 mHz and the spherical harmonic degree range l greater than or equal to 100 and less than or equal to 1200 from full-disk, 1000 x 1024 pixel, Ca II intensity images collected 1993 June 22-25 with a temporal cadence of 60 s. We itemize the sources and magnitudes of statistical and systematic uncertainties and of small frequency corrections, and we show that our frequencies represent an improvement in accuracy and coverage over previous measurements. Our frequencies agree at the 2 micro Hz level with Mount Wilson frequencies determined for l less than or equal to 600 from full-disk images, and we find systematic offsets of 10-20 micro Hz with respect to frequencies measured from Big Bear and La Palma observations. We give evidence that these latter offsets are indicative of spatial scaling uncertainties associated with the analysis of partial-disk images. In comparison with theory, our p-mode frequencies agree within 10 micro Hz of frequencies predicted by the Los Alamos model but are as much as 100 micro Hz smaller than frequencies predicted by the Denmark and Yale models at degrees near 1000. We also find systematic differences between our n = 0 frequencies and the frequencies closely agreed upon by all three models.

  8. Temporal changes of neocortical high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Allison; Wulsin, Drausin; Blanco, Justin A; Krieger, Abba; Litt, Brian; Stacey, William C

    2013-09-01

    High-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations (HFOs) recorded from intracranial electrodes are a potential biomarker for epileptogenic brain. HFOs are commonly categorized as ripples (100-250 Hz) or fast ripples (250-500 Hz), and a third class of mixed frequency events has also been identified. We hypothesize that temporal changes in HFOs may identify periods of increased the likelihood of seizure onset. HFOs (86,151) from five patients with neocortical epilepsy implanted with hybrid (micro + macro) intracranial electrodes were detected using a previously validated automated algorithm run over all channels of each patient's entire recording. HFOs were characterized by extracting quantitative morphologic features and divided into four time epochs (interictal, preictal, ictal, and postictal) and three HFO clusters (ripples, fast ripples, and mixed events). We used supervised classification and nonparametric statistical tests to explore quantitative changes in HFO features before, during, and after seizures. We also analyzed temporal changes in the rates and proportions of events from each HFO cluster during these periods. We observed patient-specific changes in HFO morphology linked to fluctuation in the relative rates of ripples, fast ripples, and mixed frequency events. These changes in relative rate occurred in pre- and postictal periods up to thirty min before and after seizures. We also found evidence that the distribution of HFOs during these different time periods varied greatly between individual patients. These results suggest that temporal analysis of HFO features has potential for designing custom seizure prediction algorithms and for exploring the relationship between HFOs and seizure generation.

  9. High frequency oscillations can pinpoint seizures progressing to status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Pariya; Lévesque, Maxime; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a seizure lasting more than 5 min or a period of recurrent seizures without recovery between them. SE is a serious emergency condition that requires immediate intervention; therefore, identifying SE electrophysiological markers may translate in prompt care to stop it. Here, we analyzed the EEG signals recorded from the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex in rats that responded to systemic administration of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) by generating either isolated seizures or seizures progressing to SE. We found that high frequency oscillations (HFOs) – which can be categorized as ripples (80–200 Hz) and fast ripples (250–500 Hz) – had different patterns of occurrence in the two groups (n = 5 for each group). Specifically, fast ripples in CA3 and entorhinal cortex of the SE group occurred at higher rates than ripples, both during the ictal and post-ictal periods when compared to the HFOs recorded from the isolated seizure group. Our data reveal that different patterns of HFO occurrence can pinpoint seizures progressing to SE, thus suggesting the involvement of different neuronal networks at the termination of seizure discharges. PMID:27018321

  10. Transport of pulmonary secretions by asymmetric high frequency oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenauer, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Asymmetric high frequency oscillation (AHFO) was investigated as a mechanism for augmenting the clearance of excess pulmonary secretions from the airways of the lungs. In vitro and in vivo models were developed to test its ability to predictably transport pulmonary secretions. The augmentation of mucus transport by 10 Hz AHFO was investigated in the canine trachea. Ventilation of eight dogs (2 studies each) was performed with three AHFO power settings in random order and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) before or after the AHFO trials. Prior to each trial, 35-45 ..mu..l of canine muscus mixed with a radiotagged colloid (/sup 99/Tc/sup m/) was instilled in the distal trachea. As the radiotagged mixture traveled up the trachea, tracheal muscus velocities (TMV) were recorded on six channels with a multidetector probe. CMV mean TMVs before and after AHFO were not significantly different. The mean TMV of 6.3 +/- 2.6 mm/min at 30% power AHFO was faster than the CMV mean TVM of 4.1 +/- 2.1 mm/min (p <0.05).

  11. Synchrony of high frequency oscillations in the human epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Cotic, Marija; Zalay, Osbert; Carlen, Peter L; Chinvarun, Yotin; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-01-01

    We have applied wavelet phase coherence (WPC) to human iEEG data to characterize the spatial and temporal interactions of high frequency oscillations (HFOs; >80 Hz). Quantitative analyses were performed on iEEG segments from four patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Interelectrode synchrony was measured using WPC before, during and after seizure activity. The WPC profiles of HFOs were able to elucidate the seizure from non-seizure state in all four patients and for all seizures studied (n=10). HFO synchrony was consistently transient and of weak to moderate strength during non-seizure activity, while weak to very strong coherence, of prolonged duration, was observed during seizures. Several studies have suggested that HFOs may have a significant role in the process of epileptogenesis and seizure genesis. As epileptic seizures result from disturbances in the regular electrical activity present in given areas of the brain, studying the interactions between fast brain waves, recorded simultaneously and from many different brain regions, may provide more information of which brain areas are interacting during ictal and interictal activity.

  12. Postural stabilization on a moving platform oscillating at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, I; Aalto, H; Starck, J; Ishizaki, H

    1993-04-01

    The effect of a fore-aft oscillating platform on postural stability was studied in nine healthy volunteers. The force platform technique was used with automatic analysis that evaluated the position of the center point of force as a function of time. The duration of stimulation lasted 90 s and the perturbation frequencies ranged from 8 to 24 Hz, and were given at constant rms acceleration of 4 m/s2. When compared with a vibration-free baseline stance, horizontal vibration of the platform caused significantly worse postural stability in all subjects. Test frequencies of 8 and 10 Hz produced greater sway velocities than perturbation at frequencies of 14 and 16 Hz. The results indicate that horizontal perturbation of the support surface leads to postural instability that is frequency-dependent.

  13. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in clinical epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.; Staba, R.; Asano, E.; Otsubo, H.; Wu, J.Y.; Zijlmans, M.; Mohamed, I.; Kahane, P.; Dubeau, F.; Navarro, V.; Gotman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. In focal medically refractory epilepsies, successful surgical treatment largely depends on the identification of epileptogenic zone. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500 Hz, which can be recorded with EEG, may be novel markers of the epileptogenic zone. This review discusses the clinical importance of HFOs as markers of epileptogenicity and their application in different types of epilepsies. HFOs are clearly linked to the seizure onset zone, and the surgical removal of regions generating them correlates with a seizure free post-surgical outcome. Moreover, HFOs reflect the seizure-generating capability of the underlying tissue, since they are more frequent after the reduction of antiepileptic drugs. They can be successfully used in pediatric epilepsies such as epileptic spasms and help to understand the generation of this specific type of seizures. While mostly recorded on intracranial EEGs, new studies suggest that identification of HFOs on scalp EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) is possible as well. Thus not only patients with refractory epilepsies and invasive recordings but all patients might profit from the analysis of HFOs. Despite these promising results, the analysis of HFOs is not a routine clinical procedure; most results are derived from relatively small cohorts of patients and many aspects are not yet fully understood. Thus the review concludes that even if HFOs are promising biomarkers of epileptic tissue, there are still uncertainties about mechanisms of generation, methods of analysis, and clinical applicability. Large multicenter prospective studies are needed prior to widespread clinical application. PMID:22480752

  14. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in clinical epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J; Staba, R; Asano, E; Otsubo, H; Wu, J Y; Zijlmans, M; Mohamed, I; Kahane, P; Dubeau, F; Navarro, V; Gotman, J

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. In focal medically refractory epilepsies, successful surgical treatment largely depends on the identification of epileptogenic zone. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500Hz, which can be recorded with EEG, may be novel markers of the epileptogenic zone. This review discusses the clinical importance of HFOs as markers of epileptogenicity and their application in different types of epilepsies. HFOs are clearly linked to the seizure onset zone, and the surgical removal of regions generating them correlates with a seizure free post-surgical outcome. Moreover, HFOs reflect the seizure-generating capability of the underlying tissue, since they are more frequent after the reduction of antiepileptic drugs. They can be successfully used in pediatric epilepsies such as epileptic spasms and help to understand the generation of this specific type of seizures. While mostly recorded on intracranial EEGs, new studies suggest that identification of HFOs on scalp EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) is possible as well. Thus not only patients with refractory epilepsies and invasive recordings but all patients might profit from the analysis of HFOs. Despite these promising results, the analysis of HFOs is not a routine clinical procedure; most results are derived from relatively small cohorts of patients and many aspects are not yet fully understood. Thus the review concludes that even if HFOs are promising biomarkers of epileptic tissue, there are still uncertainties about mechanisms of generation, methods of analysis, and clinical applicability. Large multicenter prospective studies are needed prior to widespread clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low Frequency High Amplitude Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rodriguez, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the low frequency high amplitude temperature oscillations observed in loop heat pipe operations. The topics include: 1) Proposed Theory; 2) Test Loop and Test Results; and 3) Effects of Various Parameters. The author also presents a short summary on the conditiions that must be met in order to sustain a low frequency high amplitude temperature oscillation.

  16. High frequency oscillations mirror disease activity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Karolin; LeVan, Pierre; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Fauser, Susanne; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2013-08-01

    The study analyzes the occurrence of high frequency oscillations in different types of focal cortical dysplasia in 22 patients with refractory epilepsy. High frequency oscillations are biomarkers for epileptic tissue, but it is unknown whether they can reflect increasingly dysplastic tissue changes as well as epileptic disease activity. High frequency oscillations (80-450 Hz) were visually marked by two independent reviewers in all channels of intracranial implanted grid, strips, and depth electrodes in patients with focal cortical dysplasia and refractory epilepsy. Rates of high frequency oscillations in patients with pathologically confirmed focal cortical dysplasia of Palmini type 1a and b were compared with those in type 2a and b. Patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 had significantly more seizures than those with type 1 (p < 0.001). Rates of high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 versus type 1 (p < 0.001). In addition, it could be confirmed that rates of high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in presumed epileptogenic areas than outside (p < 0.001). Activity of high frequency oscillations mirrors the higher epileptogenicity of focal cortical dysplasia type 2 lesions compared to type 1 lesions. Therefore, rates of high frequency oscillations can reflect disease activity of a lesion. This has implications for the use of high frequency oscillations as biomarkers for epileptogenic areas, because a detailed analysis of their rates may be necessary to use high frequency oscillations as a predictive tool in epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. An algorithm for on-line detection of high frequency oscillations related to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    López-Cuevas, Armando; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Medina-Ceja, Laura; Ventura-Mejía, Consuelo; Pardo-Peña, Kenia

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that the appearance of signals with high frequency oscillations components in specific regions of the brain is related to the incidence of epilepsy. These oscillations are in general small in amplitude and short in duration, making them difficult to identify. The analysis of these oscillations are particularly important in epilepsy and their study could lead to the development of better medical treatments. Therefore, the development of algorithms for detection of these high frequency oscillations is of great importance. In this work, a new algorithm for automatic detection of high frequency oscillations is presented. This algorithm uses approximate entropy and artificial neural networks to extract features in order to detect and classify high frequency components in electrophysiological signals. In contrast to the existing algorithms, the one proposed here is fast and accurate, and can be implemented on-line, thus reducing the time employed to analyze the experimental electrophysiological signals.

  18. Data mining neocortical high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy and controls.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Justin A; Stead, Matt; Krieger, Abba; Stacey, William; Maus, Douglas; Marsh, Eric; Viventi, Jonathan; Lee, Kendall H; Marsh, Richard; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2011-10-01

    Transient high-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations of the local field potential have been studied extensively in human mesial temporal lobe. Previous studies report that both ripple (100-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) oscillations are increased in the seizure-onset zone of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Comparatively little is known, however, about their spatial distribution with respect to seizure-onset zone in neocortical epilepsy, or their prevalence in normal brain. We present a quantitative analysis of high-frequency oscillations and their rates of occurrence in a group of nine patients with neocortical epilepsy and two control patients with no history of seizures. Oscillations were automatically detected and classified using an unsupervised approach in a data set of unprecedented volume in epilepsy research, over 12 terabytes of continuous long-term micro- and macro-electrode intracranial recordings, without human preprocessing, enabling selection-bias-free estimates of oscillation rates. There are three main results: (i) a cluster of ripple frequency oscillations with median spectral centroid = 137 Hz is increased in the seizure-onset zone more frequently than a cluster of fast ripple frequency oscillations (median spectral centroid = 305 Hz); (ii) we found no difference in the rates of high frequency oscillations in control neocortex and the non-seizure-onset zone neocortex of patients with epilepsy, despite the possibility of different underlying mechanisms of generation; and (iii) while previous studies have demonstrated that oscillations recorded by parenchyma-penetrating micro-electrodes have higher peak 100-500 Hz frequencies than penetrating macro-electrodes, this was not found for the epipial electrodes used here to record from the neocortical surface. We conclude that the relative rate of ripple frequency oscillations is a potential biomarker for epileptic neocortex, but that larger prospective studies correlating high-frequency

  19. Stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations are present in neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Newman, Jonathan P.; Shoemaker, James T.; Killian, Nathan J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (250–600 Hz) are present in the brains of epileptic animals and humans. The etiology of these oscillations and how they contribute to the diseased state remains unclear. This work identifies the presence of microstimulation-evoked high frequency oscillations (250–400 Hz) in dissociated neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Oscillations are more apparent with higher stimulus voltages. As with in vivo studies, activity is isolated to a single electrode, however, the MEA provides improved spatial resolution with no spread of the oscillation to adjacent electrodes 200 μm away. Oscillations develop across four weeks in vitro. Oscillations still occur in the presence of tetrodotoxin and synaptic blockers, and they cause no apparent disruption in the ability of oscillation-presenting electrodes to elicit directly evoked action potentials (dAPs) or promote the spread of synaptic activity throughout the culture. Chelating calcium with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) causes a temporal prolongation of the oscillation. Finally, carbenoxolone significantly reduces or eliminates the high frequency oscillations. Gap junctions may play a significant role in maintaining the oscillation given the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, the propagating effect of reduced calcium conditions and the isolated nature of the activity as demonstrated in previous studies. This is the first demonstration of stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations in dissociated cultures. Unlike current models that rely on complex in vivo recording conditions, this work presents a simple controllable model in neuronal cultures on MEAs to further investigate how the oscillations occur at the molecular level and how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease. PMID:22615686

  20. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  1. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  2. Suppressing high-frequency temperature oscillations in microchannels with surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yangying; Antao, Dion S.; Bian, David W.; Rao, Sameer R.; Sircar, Jay D.; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-01-01

    Two-phase microchannel heat sinks are attractive for thermal management of high heat flux electronic devices, yet flow instability which can lead to thermal and mechanical fatigue remains a significant challenge. Much work has focused on long-timescale (˜seconds) flow oscillations which are usually related to the compressible volume in the loop. The rapid growth of vapor bubbles which can also cause flow reversal, however, occurs on a much shorter timescale (˜tens of milliseconds). While this high-frequency oscillation has often been visualized with high-speed imaging, its effect on the instantaneous temperature has not been fully investigated due to the typical low sampling rates of the sensors. Here, we investigate the temperature response as a result of the high-frequency flow oscillation in microchannels and the effect of surface microstructures on this temperature oscillation with a measurement data acquisition rate of 1000 Hz. For smooth surface microchannels, fluid flow oscillated between complete dry-out and rewetting annular flow due to the short-timescale flow instability, which caused high-frequency and large amplitude temperature oscillations (10 °C in 25 ms). In comparison, hydrophilic surface structures on the microchannel promoted capillary flow which delayed and suppressed dry-out in each oscillation cycle, and thus significantly reduced the temperature oscillation at high heat fluxes. This work suggests that promoting capillary wicking via surface structures is a promising technique to reduce thermal fatigue in high heat flux two-phase microchannel thermal management devices.

  3. Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskell, J.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T.; Eaves, L.; Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.

    2015-09-07

    We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable.

  4. Synchronization of high power vortex oscillators at multiple of the fundamental frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraduc, Claire; Martin, Sylvain; Thirion, Christophe; Liu, Yue; Dovek, Moris; Diény, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    RF vortex spin-transfer oscillators based on low RA magnetic tunnel junctions were investigated. A very high power of excitations has been obtained characterized by a power spectral density containing a very sharp peak at the fundamental frequency and a series of harmonics. The observed behaviour is attributed to the combined effect of Oersted-Ampère field generated by the large applied dc-current and of the spin transfer torque. We furthermore show the synchronization of a vortex oscillation by applying a RF bias microwave which frequency is twice the oscillator fundamental frequency.

  5. Twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We

  6. The detection and characterization of high frequency and high wavenumber solar oscillations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, David Neil

    1992-01-01

    Doppler shift measurements of the Na D(sub 1) absorption line have revealed solar oscillations in a new regime of frequency and wavenumber. Oscillations of vertical velocities in the temperature minimum and low chromosphere of the Sun are observed with frequencies ranging up to 9.5 mHz. There is no evidence for chromospheric modes of 3 minute period. This indicates that the chromosphere does not form a good cavity for acoustic waves. The fundamental-modes appear with wavenumbers up to 5.57 M per m (equivalent spherical harmonic degree, 3877). The frequencies lie below the predicted values at wavenumbers above 1 M per m. The values are in agreement with previous measurements that exist for wavenumbers up to 2.67 M per m. Spatial maps of velocity power show that high wavenumber oscillations are suppressed in active regions. The shape of the power depression indicates that wave motion is affected in the layer of atmosphere where the measurement is made. The f-modes are suppressed in the same way as p-modes, indicating that the mechanism for wave suppression affects velocity fluctuations. Mode frequencies are not affected by the magnetic fields by more than 50 micro Hz, the precision of the measurement.

  7. Quantitative prediction of intermittent high-frequency oscillations in neural networks with supralinear dendritic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2010-01-01

    The explanation of higher neural processes requires an understanding of the dynamics of complex, spiking neural networks. So far, modeling studies have focused on networks with linear or sublinear dendritic input summation. However, recent single-neuron experiments have demonstrated strongly supralinear dendritic enhancement of synchronous inputs. What are the implications of this amplification for networks of neurons? Here, I show numerically and analytically that such networks can generate intermittent, strong increases of activity with high-frequency oscillations; the models developed predict the shape of these events and the oscillation frequency. As an example, for the hippocampal region CA1, events with 200-Hz oscillations are predicted. I argue that these dynamics provide a plausible explanation for experimentally observed sharp-wave/ripple events. High-frequency oscillations can involve the replay of spike patterns. The models suggest that these patterns may reflect underlying network structures. PMID:20511534

  8. A Resonantly Excited Disk-Oscillation Model of High-Frequency QPOs of Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    A possible model of twin high-frequency QPOs (HF QPOs) of microquasars is examined. The disk is assumed to have global magnetic fields and to be deformed with a two-armed pattern. In this deformed disk, a set of a two-armed (m = 2) vertical p-mode oscillation and an axisymmetric (m = 0) g-mode oscillation is considered. They resonantly interact through the disk deformation when their frequencies are the same. This resonant interaction amplifies the set of the above oscillations in the case where these two oscillations have wave energies of opposite signs. These oscillations are assumed to be excited most efficiently in the case where the radial group velocities of these two waves vanish at the same place. The above set of oscillations is not unique, depending on the node number n, of oscillations in the vertical direction. We consider that the basic two sets of oscillations correspond to the twin QPOs. The frequencies of these oscillations depend on the disk parameters, such as the strength of the magnetic fields. For observational mass ranges of GRS 1915+ 105, GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and HEAO H1743-322, the spins of these sources are estimated. High spins of these sources can be described if the disks have weak poloidal magnetic fields as well as toroidal magnetic fields of moderate strength. In this model the 3:2 frequency ratio of high-frequency QPOs is not related to their excitation, but occurs by chance.

  9. Atomic fountain clock with very high frequency stability employing a pulse-tube-cryocooled sapphire oscillator.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hagimoto, Ken; Hirano, Iku; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Hartnett, John G

    2014-09-01

    The frequency stability of an atomic fountain clock was significantly improved by employing an ultra-stable local oscillator and increasing the number of atoms detected after the Ramsey interrogation, resulting in a measured Allan deviation of 8.3 × 10(-14)τ(-1/2)). A cryogenic sapphire oscillator using an ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler and cryostat, without the need for refilling with liquid helium, was applied as a local oscillator and a frequency reference. High atom number was achieved by the high power of the cooling laser beams and optical pumping to the Zeeman sublevel m(F) = 0 employed for a frequency measurement, although vapor-loaded optical molasses with the simple (001) configuration was used for the atomic fountain clock. The resulting stability is not limited by the Dick effect as it is when a BVA quartz oscillator is used as the local oscillator. The stability reached the quantum projection noise limit to within 11%. Using a combination of a cryocooled sapphire oscillator and techniques to enhance the atom number, the frequency stability of any atomic fountain clock, already established as primary frequency standard, may be improved without opening its vacuum chamber.

  10. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations: Toward high-speed spin-lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, Markus Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2016-01-25

    Spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) offer a high potential to overcome several limitations of conventional purely charged-based laser devices. Presumably, the highest potential of spin-VCSELs lies in their ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics, which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. Here, we experimentally demonstrate polarization oscillations in spin-VCSELs with frequencies up to 44 GHz. The results show that the oscillation frequency mainly depends on the cavity birefringence, which can be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the VCSEL structure. A tuning range of about 34 GHz is demonstrated. By measuring the polarization oscillation frequency and the birefringence governed mode splitting as a function of the applied strain simultaneously, we are able to investigate the correlation between birefringence and polarization oscillations in detail. The experimental findings are compared to numerical calculations based on the spin-flip model.

  11. [High-frequency ventilation. I. Distribution of alveolar pressure amplitudes during high frequency oscillation in the lung model].

    PubMed

    Theissen, J; Lunkenheimer, P P; Niederer, P; Bush, E; Frieling, G; Lawin, P

    1987-09-01

    The pattern of intrapulmonary pressure distribution was studied during high-frequency ventilation in order to explain the inconsistent results reported in the literature. Methods. Pressure and flow velocity (hot-wire anemometry) were measured in different lung compartments: 1. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of dried pig lungs; 2. In emphysema-simulating airbags sealed to the isolated bronchial trees of dried pig lungs; and 3. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of freshly excised pig lungs. Results. 1. The pressure amplitudes change from one area to another and depending on the exciting frequency. 2. High-frequency oscillation is associated with an increase in pressure amplitude when the exciting frequency rises, whereas with conventional high-frequency jet ventilation the pressure amplitude is more likely to decrease with frequency. 3. During high-frequency jet ventilation the local pressure amplitude changes with the position of the tube in the trachea rather than with the exciting frequency. 4. When the volume of the measuring chamber is doubled the resulting pressure amplitude falls to half the control value. 5. The pressure amplitude and mean pressure measured in the transalveolar chamber vary more or less independently from the peak flow velocity. High-frequency ventilation is thus seen to be a frequency-dependant, inhomogeneous mode of ventilation that can essentially be homogenized by systematically changing the exciting frequency. The frequency-dependant response to different lung areas to excitation is likely to result from an intrabronchially-localized aerodynamic effect rather than the mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma.

  12. High-frequency neural oscillations and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Heng-Ru May; Lana, Luiz; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual information is fundamental to how we understand our environment, make predictions, and interact with others. Recent research has underscored the importance of visuo-perceptual dysfunctions for cognitive deficits and pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia. In the current paper, we review evidence for the relevance of high frequency (beta/gamma) oscillations towards visuo-perceptual dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the first part of the paper, we examine the relationship between beta/gamma band oscillations and visual processing during normal brain functioning. We then summarize EEG/MEG-studies which demonstrate reduced amplitude and synchrony of high-frequency activity during visual stimulation in schizophrenia. In the final part of the paper, we identify neurobiological correlates as well as offer perspectives for future research to stimulate further inquiry into the role of high-frequency oscillations in visual processing impairments in the disorder. PMID:24130535

  13. Self-determining high-frequency oscillation from an external-cavity laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Émeric; Uy, Chi-Hak; Weicker, Lionel; Virte, Martin; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc

    2016-12-01

    We report on a bifurcation mechanism following which an external-cavity laser diode emits regular oscillating output power at a high frequency. This frequency does not vary with the external-cavity length and it can be adjusted by varying the feedback strength. We observe this phenomenon numerically by investigating the external-cavity modes generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a phase-conjugate optical feedback. Particularly, we explore the effects of both the feedback rate and the time delay induced by the feedback on the frequency of the external-cavity modes. Counterintuitively, we evidence that having a short cavity does not necessarily yield oscillations at higher frequencies. We show that the key parameter in order to generate high-frequency solutions is the feedback rate. This parameter fixes the frequency of the solutions obtained independently of the time delay. We finally relate our observations to Hopf bifurcation phenomena.

  14. High power single frequency solid state master oscillator power amplifier for gravitational wave detection.

    PubMed

    Basu, Chandrajit; Wessels, Peter; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar

    2012-07-15

    High power single frequency, single mode, linearly polarized laser output at the 1 μm regime is in demand for the interferometric gravitational wave detectors (GWDs). A robust single frequency solid state master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is a promising candidate for such applications. We present a single frequency solid state multistage MOPA system delivering 177 W of linearly polarized output power at 1 μm with 83.5% TEM(00) mode content.

  15. Cellular mechanisms of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy: on the diverse sources of pathological activities.

    PubMed

    Menendez de la Prida, Liset; Trevelyan, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    A major goal in epilepsy research is to understand the cellular basis of pathological forms of network oscillations, particularly those classified as high-frequency activity. What are the underlying mechanisms, and how do they arise? The topic of this review is the pattern of high-frequency oscillations that have been recorded in epileptic tissue, and how they might differ from physiological activity. We discuss recent experimental and clinical data with a major focus on the diverse sources of extracellular signals and the contribution of different neuronal populations, including GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic principal cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ictal high frequency oscillations distinguish two types of seizure territories in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shennan A.; Banks, Garrett P.; McKhann, Guy M.; Goodman, Robert R.; Emerson, Ronald G.; Trevelyan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    High frequency oscillations have been proposed as a clinically useful biomarker of seizure generating sites. We used a unique set of human microelectrode array recordings (four patients, 10 seizures), in which propagating seizure wavefronts could be readily identified, to investigate the basis of ictal high frequency activity at the cortical (subdural) surface. Sustained, repetitive transient increases in high gamma (80–150 Hz) amplitude, phase-locked to the low-frequency (1–25 Hz) ictal rhythm, correlated with strong multi-unit firing bursts synchronized across the core territory of the seizure. These repetitive high frequency oscillations were seen in recordings from subdural electrodes adjacent to the microelectrode array several seconds after seizure onset, following ictal wavefront passage. Conversely, microelectrode recordings demonstrating only low-level, heterogeneous neural firing correlated with a lack of high frequency oscillations in adjacent subdural recording sites, despite the presence of a strong low-frequency signature. Previously, we reported that this pattern indicates a failure of the seizure to invade the area, because of a feedforward inhibitory veto mechanism. Because multi-unit firing rate and high gamma amplitude are closely related, high frequency oscillations can be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish the core seizure territory from the surrounding penumbra. We developed an efficient measure to detect delayed-onset, sustained ictal high frequency oscillations based on cross-frequency coupling between high gamma amplitude and the low-frequency (1–25 Hz) ictal rhythm. When applied to the broader subdural recording, this measure consistently predicted the timing or failure of ictal invasion, and revealed a surprisingly small and slowly spreading seizure core surrounded by a far larger penumbral territory. Our findings thus establish an underlying neural mechanism for delayed-onset, sustained ictal high frequency oscillations, and

  17. High frequency oscillations are associated with cognitive processing in human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Cimbalnik, Jan; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Vasoli, Vincent; Sulc, Vlastimil; Meyer, Fred; Marsh, W R; Stead, S M; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-08-01

    High frequency oscillations are associated with normal brain function, but also increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain. Their role in human cognition has been predominantly studied in classical gamma frequencies (30-100 Hz), which reflect neuronal network coordination involved in attention, learning and memory. Invasive brain recordings in animals and humans demonstrate that physiological oscillations extend beyond the gamma frequency range, but their function in human cognitive processing has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigate high frequency oscillations spanning the high gamma (50-125 Hz), ripple (125-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) frequency bands using intracranial recordings from 12 patients (five males and seven females, age 21-63 years) during memory encoding and recall of a series of affectively charged images. Presentation of the images induced high frequency oscillations in all three studied bands within the primary visual, limbic and higher order cortical regions in a sequence consistent with the visual processing stream. These induced oscillations were detected on individual electrodes localized in the amygdala, hippocampus and specific neocortical areas, revealing discrete oscillations of characteristic frequency, duration and latency from image presentation. Memory encoding and recall significantly modulated the number of induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple detections in the studied structures, which was greater in the primary sensory areas during the encoding (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.002) and in the higher-order cortical association areas during the recall (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.001) of memorized images. Furthermore, the induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple responses discriminated the encoded and the affectively charged images. In summary, our results show that high frequency oscillations, spanning a wide range of frequencies, are associated with memory processing and

  18. High-frequency current oscillations in graphene-boron nitride resonant tunnel diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenaway, Mark; Gaskell, Jenn; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya; Mishchenko, Artem; Geim, Andre; Fromhold, Mark

    The successful realisation of multilayer graphene-hBN-graphene resonant tunnelling diodes (graphene- RTDs) with negative differential conductance (NDC) and MHz current oscillations offers the exciting possibility of exploiting them as high-frequency oscillators and mixers. In this paper, we examine their potential for generating higher frequencies by simulating the oscillations in the tunnel current and charge that arise when the device is biased in the NDC region and placed in a resonant circuit. Using the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian method, we examine the effect on the device characteristics of the twist angle, θ, between the two graphene electrodes, the hBN barrier thickness and of the carrier density in the graphene electrodes, which can be adjusted by chemical doping or by an applied bias voltage. The simulations accurately reproduce our recently-reported measurements on these RTDs (Fig. 4,). The results of simulations show that frequencies of tens of GHz are achievable by optimising the device parameters. Leverhulme Trust, UK.

  19. Transient high-frequency firing in a coupled-oscillator model of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Alexey S; Kopell, Nancy J; Wilson, Charles J

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain fire spontaneously at rates <10/s and ordinarily will not exceed this range even when driven with somatic current injection. When driven at higher rates, these cells undergo spike failure through depolarization block. During spontaneous bursting of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, bursts related to reward expectation in behaving animals, and bursts generated by dendritic application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agonists, transient firing attains rates well above this range. We suggest a way such high-frequency firing may occur in response to dendritic NMDA receptor activation. We have extended the coupled oscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron, which represents the soma and dendrites as electrically coupled compartments with different natural spiking frequencies, by addition of dendritic AMPA (voltage-independent) or NMDA (voltage-dependent) synaptic conductance. Both soma and dendrites contain a simplified version of the calcium-potassium mechanism known to be the mechanism for slow spontaneous oscillation and background firing in dopaminergic cells. The compartments differ only in diameter, and this difference is responsible for the difference in natural frequencies. We show that because of its voltage dependence, NMDA receptor activation acts to amplify the effect on the soma of the high-frequency oscillation of the dendrites, which is normally too weak to exert a large influence on the overall oscillation frequency of the neuron. During the high-frequency oscillations that result, sodium inactivation in the soma is removed rapidly after each action potential by the hyperpolarizing influence of the dendritic calcium-dependent potassium current, preventing depolarization block of the spike mechanism, and allowing high-frequency spiking.

  20. Cannabinoid Receptors Mediate Methamphetamine Induction of High Frequency Gamma Oscillations in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Joshua T.; Glick, Stanley D.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from amphetamine---induced psychosis display repetitive behaviors, partially alleviated by antipsychotics, which are reminiscent of rodent stereotypies. Due to recent evidence implicating endocannabinoid involvement in brain disorders, including psychosis, we studied the effects of endocannabinoid signaling on neuronal oscillations of rats exhibiting methamphetamine stereotypy. Neuronal network oscillations were recorded with multiple single electrode arrays aimed at the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. During the experiments, animals were dosed intravenously with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (0.3 mg/kg) or vehicle followed by an ascending dose regimen of methamphetamine (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 3 mg/kg; cumulative dosing). The effects of drug administration on stereotypy and local gamma oscillations were evaluated. Methamphetamine treatment significantly increased high frequency gamma oscillations (~ 80 Hz). Entrainment of a subpopulation of nucleus accumbens neurons to high frequency gamma was associated with stereotypy encoding in putative fast-spiking interneurons, but not in putative medium spiny neurons. The observed ability of methamphetamine to induce both stereotypy and high frequency gamma power was potently disrupted following CB1 receptor blockade. The present data suggest that CB1 receptor-dependent mechanisms are recruited by methamphetamine to modify striatal interneuron oscillations that accompany changes in psychomotor state, further supporting the link between endocannabinoids and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:22609048

  1. High frequency oscillations after median nerve stimulations in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Del Piero, Ivana; Martucci, Lucia; Restuccia, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to address somatosensory high frequency oscillations (400-800Hz) in healthy children and adolescents in comparison with healthy adults. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in nineteen resting healthy children/adolescents and in nineteen resting healthy adults with eyes closed. We administered six consecutive stimulation blocks (500 sweeps each). The presynaptic component of high frequency oscillations amplitudes was smaller in healthy children/adolescents than in healthy adults (no difference between groups was found as far as the postsynaptic component was concerned). Healthy children/adolescents had smaller presynaptic component than the postsynaptic one (the postsynaptic component amplitude was 145% of the presynaptic one), while healthy adults showed the opposite (reduction of the postsynaptic component to 80% of the presynaptic one). No habituation phenomena concerning high frequency oscillation amplitudes were registered in neither healthy children/adolescents nor healthy adults. These findings suggest that healthy children/adolescents present with significantly different pattern of somatosensory high frequency oscillations compared with healthy adults' ones. This different pattern is reasonably expression of higher cortical excitability of the developing brain cortex. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Frequency Low Amplitude Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2003-01-01

    The operating temperature of a loop heat pipe (LHP) with a single evaporator is governed by the compensation chamber (CC) temperature, which in turn is a finction of the evaporator power, condenser sink temperature, and ambient temperature. As the operating condition changes, the CC temperature will change during the transient but eventually reach a new steady temperature. Under certain conditions, however, the LHP never really reaches a true steady state, but instead displays an oscillatory behavior. This paper presents a study on the oscillation of the loop operating temperature with amplitudes on the order of one degree Kelvin and frequencies on the order of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -2) Hertz. The source of the high frequency temperature oscillation is the fast movement of the vapor front in the condenser section, which usually occurs when the vapor front is near the condenser inlet or the condenser outlet. At these locations, the vapor front is unable to find a stable position for the given operating conditions, and will move back and forth. The movement of the vapor front causes the movement of the liquid in the condenser and the liquid line, leading to oscillations of the CC and the loop temperatures. Factors that affect the vapor front movement include evaporator power, condenser sink temperature, body forces and whether or the CC temperature is actively controlled. As long as there are no large thermal masses attached to the evaporator, the loop can self adjust rather quickly and the vapor front will move rapidly around the condenser inlet or outlet, leading to high frequency temperature oscillations. The amplitude of temperature oscillation is usually the largest in the liquid line, up to 20 degrees Kelvin in many cases, but diminishes to less than one degree Kelvin in the CC. Furthermore, the high frequency temperature oscillation can occur at any CC temperature when the right combination of the evaporator power and condenser sink temperature prevails.

  3. Novel high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillator based on a transmission line transformer.

    PubMed

    Burdt, R; Curry, R D

    2007-07-01

    Recent analysis and experiments have demonstrated the potential for transmission line transformers to be employed as compact, high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillators with variable rise time, high output impedance, and high operating efficiency. A prototype system was fabricated and tested that generates a damped sinusoidal wave form at a center frequency of 4 MHz into a 200 Omega load, with operating efficiency above 90% and peak power on the order of 10 MW. The initial rise time of the pulse is variable and two experiments were conducted to demonstrate initial rise times of 12 and 3 ns, corresponding to a spectral content from 4-30 and from 4-100 MHz, respectively. A SPICE model has been developed to accurately predict the circuit behavior and scaling laws have been identified to allow for circuit design at higher frequencies and higher peak power. The applications, circuit analysis, test stand, experimental results, circuit modeling, and design of future systems are all discussed.

  4. Large-scale microelectrode recordings of high-frequency gamma oscillations in human cortex during sleep.

    PubMed

    Le Van Quyen, Michel; Staba, Richard; Bragin, Anatol; Dickson, Clayton; Valderrama, Mario; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome

    2010-06-09

    Gamma oscillations (40-120 Hz), usually associated with waking functions, can be recorded in the deepest stages of sleep in animals. The full details of their large-scale coordination across multiple cortical networks are still unknown. Furthermore, it is not known whether oscillations with similar characteristics are also present in the human brain. In this study, we examined the existence of gamma oscillations during polysomnographically defined sleep-wake states using large-scale microelectrode recordings (up to 56 channels), with single-cell and spike-time precision, in epilepsy patients. We report that low (40-80 Hz) and high (80-120 Hz) gamma oscillations recurrently emerged over time windows of several hundreds of milliseconds in all investigated cortical areas during slow-wave sleep. These patterns were correlated with positive peaks of EEG slow oscillations and marked increases in local cellular discharges, suggesting that they were associated with cortical UP states. These gamma oscillations frequently appeared at approximately the same time in many different cortical areas, including homotopic regions, forming large spatial patterns. Coincident firings with millisecond precision were strongly enhanced during gamma oscillations but only between cells within the same cortical area. Furthermore, in a significant number of cases, cortical gamma oscillations tended to occur within 100 ms after hippocampal ripple/sharp wave complexes. These data confirm and extend earlier animal studies reporting that gamma oscillations are transiently expressed during UP states during sleep. We speculate that these high-frequency patterns briefly restore "microwake" activity and are important for consolidation of memory traces acquired during previous awake periods.

  5. Two types of high frequency oscillations in Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, F M; Koukkari, W L

    1987-01-01

    Movements of the first trifoliolated leaf of Glycine max (L.) Merr. plants were monitored continuously for several weeks in a study that included 14 individual plants. Two types of high frequency oscillations that had periods of 1 hr or less were superimposed on the circadian profile of eight of the 14 plants. The first type of leaf movement was found to be an ultradian oscillation having periods that ranged from 45 to 62 min. These oscillations started 2 to 5 hr after the beginning of the 15-hr light span. Analysis by double complex demodulation revealed a progressive period elongation during the light span. The second type of leaf movement had a more complicated pattern with fast and irregular amplitude variations and appeared in the last 5-hr portion of the light span.

  6. Self-stabilization of high-frequency oscillations in semiconductor superlattices by time-delay autosynchronization.

    PubMed

    Schlesner, J; Amann, A; Janson, N B; Just, W; Schöll, E

    2003-12-01

    We present a scheme to stabilize high-frequency domain oscillations in semiconductor superlattices by a time-delayed feedback loop. Applying concepts from chaos control theory we propose to control the spatiotemporal dynamics of fronts of accumulation and depletion layers which are generated at the emitter and may collide and annihilate during their transit, and thereby suppress chaos. The proposed method only requires the feedback of internal global electrical variables, viz., current and voltage, which makes the practical implementation very easy.

  7. Self-stabilization of high-frequency oscillations in semiconductor superlattices by time-delay autosynchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesner, J.; Amann, A.; Janson, N. B.; Just, W.; Schöll, E.

    2003-12-01

    We present a scheme to stabilize high-frequency domain oscillations in semiconductor superlattices by a time-delayed feedback loop. Applying concepts from chaos control theory we propose to control the spatiotemporal dynamics of fronts of accumulation and depletion layers which are generated at the emitter and may collide and annihilate during their transit, and thereby suppress chaos. The proposed method only requires the feedback of internal global electrical variables, viz., current and voltage, which makes the practical implementation very easy.

  8. Radio frequency regenerative oscillations in monolithic high-Q/V heterostructured photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinghui E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Gu, Tingyi E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Zheng, Jiangjun; Wei Wong, Chee; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-02-10

    We report temporal and spectral domain observation of regenerative oscillation in monolithic silicon heterostructured photonic crystals cavities with high quality factor to mode volume ratios (Q/V). The results are interpreted by nonlinear coupled mode theory (CMT) tracking the dynamics of photon, free carrier population, and temperature variations. We experimentally demonstrate effective tuning of the radio frequency tones by laser-cavity detuning and laser power levels, confirmed by the CMT simulations with sensitive input parameters.

  9. High-Frequency Local Oscillator Transmission for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillue, B.

    2005-07-01

    The Atacama large millimeter array (ALMA) is an international radio astronomical facility currently under construction in Chile [Wootten, A. et al., 2005]. Due to the unprecedented combination of high frequency and long baselines, and the requirement that it operate as an interferometer, the array requires Local Oscillators (LO) and LO references with extremely low phase-noise and phase drift. The LO requirements, design implementation, and preliminary results are presented.

  10. ON THE HIGH-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS FROM BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erkut, M. Hakan

    2011-12-10

    We apply the global mode analysis, which has been recently developed for the modeling of kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from neutron stars, to the inner region of an accretion disk around a rotating black hole. Within a pseudo-Newtonian approach that keeps the ratio of the radial epicyclic frequency {kappa} to the orbital frequency {Omega} the same as the corresponding ratio for a Kerr black hole, we determine the innermost disk region where the hydrodynamic modes grow in amplitude. We find that the radiation flux emerging from the inner disk has the highest values within the same region. Using the flux-weighted averages of the frequency bands over this region we identify the growing modes with highest frequency branches {Omega} + {kappa} and {Omega} to be the plausible candidates for the high-frequency QPO pairs observed in black hole systems. The observed frequency ratio around 1.5 can therefore be understood naturally in terms of the global free oscillations in the innermost region of a viscous accretion disk around a black hole without invoking a particular resonance to produce black hole QPOs. Although the frequency ratio ({Omega} + {kappa})/({Omega}) is found to be not sensitive to the black hole's spin which is good for explaining the high-frequency QPOs, it may work as a limited diagnostic of the spin parameter to distinguish black holes with very large spin from the slowly rotating ones. Within our model we estimate the frequency ratio of a high-frequency QPO pair to be greater than 1.5 if the black hole is a slow rotator. For fast rotating black holes, we expect the same ratio to be less than 1.5.

  11. Low Frequency High Amplitude Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rodriquez, Jose; Simpson, Alda D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a theory that explains low frequency, high amplitude temperature oscillations in loop heat pipe (LHP) operation. Oscillations of the CC temperature with amplitudes on the order of tens of degrees Kelvin and periods on the order of hours have been observed in some LHPs during ambient testing. There are presently no satisfactory explanations for such a phenomenon in the literature. It is well-known that the operating temperature of an LHP with a single evaporator is governed by the compensation chamber (CC) temperature, which in turn is a function of the evaporator heat load, sink temperature, and ambient temperature. As the operating condition changes, the CC temperature will change during the transient but eventually reach a new steady temperature. Under certain conditions, however, the LHP never really reaches a true steady state, but instead displays an oscillatory behavior. The proposed new theory describes why low frequency, high amplitude oscillations may occur when the LHP has a low evaporator power, a low heat sink temperature (below ambient temperature), and a large thermal mass attached to the evaporator. When this condition prevails, there are some complex interactions between the CC, condenser, thermal mass and ambient. The temperature oscillation is a result of the large movement of the vapor front inside the condenser, which is caused by a change in the net evaporator power modulated by the large thermal mass through its interaction with the sink and CC. The theory agrees very well with previously published test data. Effects of various parameters on the amplitude and frequency of the temperature oscillation are also discussed.

  12. Quantum oscillations in the high frequency magnetoacoustic response of a quasi-two-dimensional metal.

    PubMed

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A; Gumbs, Godfrey

    2009-10-14

    In this work we present the results of theoretical analysis of magnetic quantum oscillations of the velocity and attenuation of high frequency ultrasound waves traveling in quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) conductors. We chose a geometry where both the wavevector of the longitudinal sound wave and the external magnetic field are directed along the axis of symmetry of the Fermi surface. Assuming a moderately weak Fermi surface corrugation, we showed that the oscillating correction to the sound velocity may include a special term besides an ordinary contribution originating from quantum oscillations of the charge carrier density of states at the Fermi surface. This additional term is generated by a 'phase stability' resonance occurring when the charge carrier velocity in the direction of the wave propagation equals the sound velocity. The two oscillating contributions to the sound velocity are shown to differ in phase and shape, and they may have the same order of magnitude. The appearance of the extra term may bring about significant changes in magnetic quantum oscillations of the velocity of sound in Q2D conductors, especially at low temperatures.

  13. An Investigation of High-frequency Combustion Oscillations in Liquid-propellant Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantler, Raymond L; Tischler, Adelbert O; Massa, Rudolph V

    1953-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high-frequency combustion oscillations (screaming) was conducted with a 100-pound-thrust acid-hydrocarbon rocket engine and a 500-pound-thrust oxygen-fuel rocket engine. The oscillation frequencies could be correlated as a linear function of the parameter C/L, where C is the experimentally measured characteristic velocity and L is the combustion-chamber length. The tendency of the engines to scream increased as chamber length was increased. With engine configurations that normally had a low efficiency, screaming resulted in increased performance; at the same time, a five to tenfold increase in heat-transfer rate occurred. It was possible, however, to achieve good performance without screaming.

  14. Neocortical pathological high-frequency oscillations are associated with frequency-dependent alterations in functional network topology.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M; Anderson, Ryan; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Ochi, Ayako; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Singh-Cadieux, Gabrielle; Donner, Elizabeth; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter; Doesburg, Sam M

    2013-11-01

    Synchronization of neural oscillations is thought to integrate distributed neural populations into functional cell assemblies. Epilepsy is widely regarded as a disorder of neural synchrony. Knowledge is scant, however, regarding whether ictal changes in synchrony involving epileptogenic cortex are expressed similarly across various frequency ranges. Cortical regions involved in epileptic networks also exhibit pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs, >80 Hz), which are increasingly utilized as biomarkers of epileptogenic tissue. It is uncertain how pHFO amplitudes are related to epileptic network connectivity. By calculating phase-locking values among intracranial electrodes implanted in children with intractable epilepsy, we constructed ictal connectivity networks and performed graph theoretical analysis to characterize their network properties at distinct frequency bands. Ictal data from 17 children were analyzed with a hierarchical mixed-effects model adjusting for patient-level covariates. Epileptogenic cortex was defined in two ways: 1) a hypothesis-driven method using the visually defined seizure-onset zone and 2) a data-agnostic method using the high-frequency amplitude of each electrode. Epileptogenic cortex exhibited a logarithmic decrease in interregional functional connectivity at high frequencies (>30 Hz) during seizure initiation and propagation but not at termination. At slower frequencies, conversely, epileptogenic cortex expressed a relative increase in functional connectivity. Our findings suggest that pHFOs reflect epileptogenic network interactions, yielding theoretical support for their utility in the presurgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy. The view that abnormal network synchronization plays a critical role in ictogenesis and seizure dynamics is supported by the observation that functional isolation of epileptogenic cortex at high frequencies is absent at seizure termination.

  15. Brain state-dependent recruitment of high-frequency oscillations in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Ossandon, Tomas; Stockle, Marcelo; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    Ripples are high-frequency bouts of coordinated hippocampal activity believed to be crucial for information transfer and memory formation. We used intracortical macroelectrodes to record neural activity in the human hippocampus of awake subjects undergoing surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy and distinguished two populations of ripple episodes based on their frequency spectrum. The phase-coupling of one population, slow ripples (90-110 Hz), to cortical delta oscillations was differentially modulated by cognitive task; whereas the second population, fast ripples (130-170 Hz), was not seemingly correlated to local neural activity. Furthermore, as cognitive tasks changed, the ongoing coordination of neural activity associated to slow ripples progressively augmented along the parahippocampal axis. Thus, during resting states, slow ripples were coordinated in restricted hippocampal territories; whereas during active states, such as attentionally-demanding tasks, high frequency activity emerged across the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, that was synchronized with slow ripples, consistent with ripples supporting information transfer and coupling anatomically distant regions. Hence, our results provide further evidence of neural diversity in hippocampal high-frequency oscillations and their association to cognitive processing in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High repetition frequency PPMgOLN mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Q.; Yan, X.; Chen, H.; Gong, M.

    2010-09-01

    A mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with the idler wavelengths of 3591 nm, 3384 nm, and 3164 nm at the repetition of 76.8 kHz is reported, and a high repetition frequency acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is used as the pump source. The OPO is designed as an external non-colinear single-resonator optical parametric oscillator. When the power of the pump light is 25.1 W, the idler with the wavelength of 3164 nm and the power of 4.3 W is generated. The corresponding signal light is 1603 nm with the power of 3.1 W. The efficiency from 1064 nm to 3160 nm can reach as high as 17.1%, and the efficiency of the OPO is 29.5%.

  17. Energy Spectra and High Frequency Oscillations in 4U 0614+091

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, E. C.; Kaaret, P.; Chen, K.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 4U 0614+091, combining timing and spectral analysis of RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) observations. The energy spectrum of the source can be described by a power law plus a blackbody component. The blackbody has a variable temperature (kT approximately 0.8 to 1.4 keV) and accounts for 10 to 25% of the total energy flux. The power law flux and photon index also vary (F approximately 0.8 to 1.6 x 10(exp -9) erg/sq cm.s and alpha approximately 2.0 to 2.8 respectively). We find a robust correlation of the frequency of the higher frequency QPO with the flux of the blackbody. The source follows the same relation even in observations separated by several months. The QPO frequency does not have a similarly unique correlation with the total flux or the flux of the power law component. The RMS amplitudes of the higher frequency QPO rise with energy but are consistent with a constant for the lower frequency QPO. These results may be interpreted in terms of a beat frequency model for the production of the high frequency QPOs.

  18. High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Haji, Mohsin; Hou, Lianping; Kelly, Anthony E; Akbar, Jehan; Marsh, John H; Arnold, John M; Ironside, Charles N

    2012-01-30

    Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors' knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

  19. Airway pressure and transpulmonary pressure during high-frequency oscillation for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, William R; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald EG; Talmor, Daniel; Sheel, A William

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oscillation is a novel form of ventilation increasingly being used to treat refractory hypoxic respiratory failure resulting from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although there is no known relationship between airway pressure and transpulmonary pressure during conventional mechanical ventilation, no study has attempted to determine transpulmonary pressure during high-frequency oscillation. BACKGROUND: High-frequency oscillation (HFO) is used for the treatment of refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the mean transpulmonary pressure (PL) cannot be inferred from mean airway pressure (mPaw). METHODS: In seven patients already undergoing HFO for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome, esophageal pressure (Pes) was measured using an esophageal balloon catheter. Pleural pressure (Ppl) and PL were calculated from Pes. MAIN RESULTS: In the seven patients (mean [± SD] age 59±9 years) treated with HFO at 5±1 Hz and amplitude 75±10 cmH2O, the mPaw was 27±6 cmH2O, Ppl was 9±6 cmH2O and PL was 18±11 cmH2O. Successful catheter placement and measurement of Pes occurred in 100% of subjects. There was no correlation between PL and mPaw. The majority of subjects required hemodynamic support during the use of HFO; the frequency and degree of support during the study period was no different than that before the study. CONCLUSION: The present report is the first to describe measuring Pes and calculating Ppl during HFO for acute respiratory distress syndrome. While both current guidelines and recent trials have titrated treatment based on mPaw and oxygenation, there is wide variability in PL during HFO and PL cannot be predicted from mPaw. PMID:24137575

  20. The dark side of high-frequency oscillations in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Le Van Quyen, Michel; Khalilov, Ilgam; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2006-07-01

    Adult brain networks generate a wide range of oscillations. Some of these are behaviourally relevant, whereas others occur during seizures and other pathological conditions. This raises the question of how physiological oscillations differ from pathogenic ones. In this review, this issue is discussed from a developmental standpoint. Indeed, both epileptic and physiological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) appear progressively during maturation, and it is therefore possible to determine how this program corresponds to maturation of the neuronal populations that generate these oscillations. We review here important differences in the development of neuronal populations that might contribute to their different oscillatory properties. In particular, at an early stage, the density of glutamatergic synapses is too low for physiological HFOs but an additional drive can be provided by excitatory GABA, triggering epileptic HFOs and the cascades involved in long-lasting epileptogenic transformations. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com/).

  1. Phase reduction of a limit cycle oscillator perturbed by a strong amplitude-modulated high-frequency force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyragas, Kestutis; Novičenko, Viktor

    2015-07-01

    The phase reduction method for a limit cycle oscillator subjected to a strong amplitude-modulated high-frequency force is developed. An equation for the phase dynamics is derived by introducing a new, effective phase response curve. We show that if the effective phase response curve is everywhere positive (negative), then an entrainment of the oscillator to an envelope frequency is possible only when this frequency is higher (lower) than the natural frequency of the oscillator. Also, by using the Pontryagin maximum principle, we have derived an optimal waveform of the perturbation that ensures an entrainment of the oscillator with minimal power. The theoretical results are demonstrated with the Stuart-Landau oscillator and model neurons.

  2. LDRD final report on Bloch Oscillations in two-dimensional nanostructure arrays for high frequency applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this

  3. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve.

    PubMed

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14,400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.).

  4. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14 400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.)

  5. Automated detection of high-frequency oscillations in electrophysiological signals: Methodological advances.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Miguel; Pyrzowski, Jan; Corlier, Juliana; Valderrama, Mario; Le Van Quyen, Michel

    2017-02-21

    In recent years, new recording technologies have advanced such that oscillations of neuronal networks can be identified from simultaneous, multisite recordings at high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, because of the deluge of multichannel data generated by these experiments, achieving the full potential of parallel neuronal recordings also depends on the development of new mathematical methods capable of extracting meaningful information related to time, frequency and space. In this review, we aim to bridge this gap by focusing on the new analysis tools developed for the automated detection of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, > 40 Hz) in local field potentials. For this, we provide a revision of different aspects associated with physiological and pathological HFOs as well as the several stages involved in their automatic detection including preprocessing, selection, rejection and analysis through time-frequency processes. Beyond basic research, the automatic detection of HFOs would greatly assist diagnosis of epilepsy disorders based on the recognition of these typical pathological patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Also, we emphasize how these HFO detection methods can be applied and the properties that might be inferred from neuronal signals, indicating potential future directions.

  6. Brownian parametric oscillator: analytical results for a high-frequency driving field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouard, S.; Plata, J.

    2001-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of a classical parametric oscillator is studied analytically. For a generic functional form of the parametric driving, a simplified description of the system is obtained by performing a sequence of transformations set up from the deterministic Floquet solutions. In the high-frequency regime, the application of an averaging method leads to the description of the secular dynamics as an effective bidimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The expressions obtained for the probability density and the correlation functions allow us to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the nontrivial dependence of the variances on the driving amplitude.

  7. Effect of air and heliox as carrier gas on CO2 transport in a model of high-frequency oscillation comparing two oscillators.

    PubMed

    Mildner, Reinout J; Frndova, Helena; Cox, Peter N

    2003-06-01

    To study the effect of carrier gas on CO(2) transport during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a closed model. In vitro model study. Respiratory research laboratory affiliated with a tertiary center for pediatric critical care. In vitro, closed-lung model consisting of a glass tube (9.8 x 1000 mm) covered at each end with balloons. Air or heliox (80:20) at constant pressure was oscillated inside the model, comparing the Sensormedics 3100A and Hummingbird BMO-20N oscillators at equal amplitude. Tracer gas (CO(2)) was injected at one end of the model, and CO(2) concentration was measured at the opposite end. Speed of CO(2) transport was expressed as the time for the CO(2) concentration to reach 63% of the final concentration (the time constant). In room air, using the Hummingbird oscillator and increasing frequency stepwise from 5 to 20 Hz, the time constant decreased from 2813 to 457 secs (p =.05). Using the Sensormedics oscillator in room air at increasing frequency from 5 to 15 Hz, the time constant decreased from 1584 to 551 secs (p =.05). In heliox, using the Hummingbird oscillator, the speed of CO(2) transport increased by 85% (p =.029) at 5 Hz and by 28% (p =.05) at 15 Hz. With the Sensormedics oscillator using heliox, the speed of CO(2) transport increased by 16% at 5 Hz (p =.009) and 52% at 15 Hz (p =.008). Proportionally, the increase in CO(2) transport with heliox was greater at 5 Hz for the Hummingbird oscillator and at 15 Hz for the Sensormedics oscillator. In a closed model, we showed that during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in room air, CO(2) transport increases with increasing frequency for both ventilators. Using heliox as carrier gas significantly augmented CO(2) transport, but the increase is frequency and device dependent. The effect of heliox on oscillator performance and the clinical applicability of our findings require further study.

  8. Enhanced frequency agility of high-power relativistic backward wave oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, L.D.; Schamiloglu, E.; Lemke, R.W.; Roitman, A.M.; Korovin, S.D.; Rostov, V.V.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes how finite length effects in high-power backward wave oscillators can be exploited in a controlled manner to achieve enhanced frequency agility. Experiments were performed using a Sinus-6 high-power relativistic repetitively pulsed electron beam accelerator. A uniform slow wave structure was used in these studies and its parameters were fixed. Sections of smooth-walled circular waveguide of varying lengths were inserted both before and after the slow wave structure. Variations in the length of smooth-walled waveguide on the order of a quarter-wavelength of the generated electromagnetic radiation were found to significantly affect both microwave frequency and radiation efficiency in a periodic-like manner. The experimental results were reproduced in TWOQUICK electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. A bandwidth of about 500 MHz centered around 9.5 GHz at hundreds of MW power levels has been achieved with constant beam and slow wave structure parameters.

  9. Highly Stable Wideband Microwave Extraction by Synchronizing Widely Tunable Optoelectronic Oscillator with Optical Frequency Comb

    PubMed Central

    Hou, D.; Xie, X. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wu, J. T.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs), based on mode-locked lasers (MLLs), have attracted considerable attention in many fields over recent years. Among the applications of OFCs, one of the most challenging works is the extraction of a highly stable microwave with low phase noise. Many synchronisation schemes have been exploited to synchronise an electronic oscillator with the pulse train from a MLL, helping to extract an ultra-stable microwave. Here, we demonstrate novel wideband microwave extraction from a stable OFC by synchronising a single widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with an OFC at different harmonic frequencies, using an optical phase detection technique. The tunable range of the proposed microwave extraction extends from 2 GHz to 4 GHz, and in a long-term synchronisation experiment over 12 hours, the proposed synchronisation scheme provided a rms timing drift of 18 fs and frequency instabilities at 1.2 × 10−15/1 s and 2.2 × 10−18/10000 s. PMID:24336459

  10. High-frequency sea level oscillations in the Mediterranean and their connection to synoptic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Lafon, Amaury; Macheboeuf, Loïc; Ivanović, Zvonko

    2015-09-01

    This paper contains a basin-wide assessment of high-frequency sea level oscillations in the Mediterranean Sea for the period from 2010 to 2014. Sea level series with temporal resolutions of 1 min were taken from 29 tide gauges that had been operational for at least 4 years with high-quality time series. The contribution of high-frequency sea level variance (2 min-6 h) to the total and residual sea level variance was estimated to vary between 0.4% and 9.5% and between 0.6% and 12.1%, respectively, but to become dominant at some stations during extreme high-frequency events. A total of 36 high-frequency sea level events were extracted from the series, with some occurring locally in one of the four selected regions of Spain, Sardinia, Sicily and the Greece-Ionian Sea (6 events), some occurring over two or three regions (19 events), and some occurring in all of the selected regions within a period of 1-3 days (11 events). The basin-wide events normally propagate from the western to the eastern parts of the basin, with an average velocity of approximately 30 km/h. Synoptic patterns associated with high-frequency events were analysed, and a high resemblance to patterns associated with meteotsunamis was observed: (i) a cyclone with a centre W-NW from the affected area, (ii) a strong thermal front in the lower troposphere, and (iii) a forefront of an unstable strong mid-tropospheric jet placed over the affected area. The strong coherence between high-frequency sea level events and synoptic patterns introduces the possibility of a timely forecast of these events.

  11. Coherent Phonon Rabi Oscillations with a High-Frequency Carbon Nanotube Phonon Cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Kong, Wei-Cheng; Deng, Guang-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guang-Can; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-02-08

    Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics. The first- and second-order coherent phonon transfers are observed with Rabi frequencies 591 and 125 kHz, respectively. The frequency quality factor product fQm ∼ 2 × 10(12) Hz achieved here is larger than kBTbase/h, which may enable the future realization of Rabi oscillations in the quantum regime.

  12. High-frequency rotary oscillations control of flow around cylinder at Re = 1.4×105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palkin, E.; Hadžiabdić, M.; Hanjalić, K.

    2016-10-01

    We perform a series of URANS simulations of the flow over a rotary oscillating cylinder at Re = 1.4 × 105 to study the possible reduction of the drag and lift forces acting on the body when the rigid wall is rotary oscillating around the axis of symmetry. Two parameters of the external forcing are varied, i.e. the amplitude of rotation and the frequency. We find that the high-frequency and relatively high-amplitude forcing leads to the drag reduction of 78% compared to the non-rotating case. The oscillations (rms) of drag and lift coefficients are also significantly reduced.

  13. Serotonergic hallucinogens differentially modify gamma and high frequency oscillations in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Goda, Sailaja A; Piasecka, Joanna; Olszewski, Maciej; Kasicki, Stefan; Hunt, Mark J

    2013-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a site critical for the actions of many drugs of abuse. Psychoactive compounds, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, modify gamma (40-90) and high frequency oscillations (HFO, 130-180 Hz) in local field potentials (LFPs) recorded in the NAc. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) are serotonergic hallucinogens and activation of 5HT2A receptors likely underlies their hallucinogenic effects. Whether these compounds can also modulate LFP oscillations in the NAc is unclear. This study aims to examine the effect of serotonergic hallucinogens on gamma and HFO recorded in the NAc and to test whether 5HT2A receptors mediate the effects observed. LFPs were recorded from the NAc of freely moving rats. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally. LSD (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and DOI (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) increased the power and reduced the frequency of HFO. In contrast, the hallucinogens produced a robust reduction in the power of low (40-60 Hz), but not high gamma oscillations (70-90 Hz). MDL 11939 (1.0 mg/kg), a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, fully reversed the changes induced by DOI on HFO but only partially for the low gamma band. Equivalent increases in HFO power were observed after TCB-2 (5HT2A receptor agonist, 0.1-1.5 mg/kg), but not CP 809101 (5H2C receptor agonist, 0.1-3 mg/kg). Notably, hallucinogen-induced increases in HFO power were smaller than those produced by ketamine (25 mg/kg). Serotonergic hallucinogen-induced changes in HFO and gamma are mediated, at least in part, by stimulation of 5HT2A receptors. Comparison of the oscillatory changes produced by serotonergic hallucinogens and NMDAR antagonists are also discussed.

  14. High frequency stimulation abolishes thalamic network oscillations: an electrophysiological and computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kendall H.; Hitti, Frederick L.; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Dongchul C.; Roberts, David W.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Leiter, James C.

    2011-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of epilepsy. To investigate the mechanism of action of thalamic DBS, we examined the effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS) on spindle oscillations in thalamic brain slices from ferrets. We recorded intracellular and extracellular electrophysiological activity in the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRt) and in thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, stimulated the slice using a concentric bipolar electrode, and recorded the level of glutamate within the slice. HFS (100 Hz) of TC neurons generated excitatory post-synaptic potentials, increased the number of action potentials in both TC and nRt neurons, reduced the input resistance, increased the extracellular glutamate concentration, and abolished spindle wave oscillations. HFS of the nRt also suppressed spindle oscillations. In both locations, HFS was associated with significant and persistent elevation in extracellular glutamate levels and suppressed spindle oscillations for many seconds after the cessation of stimulation. We simulated HFS within a computational model of the thalamic network, and HFS also disrupted spindle wave activity, but the suppression of spindle activity was short-lived. Simulated HFS disrupted spindle activity for prolonged periods of time only after glutamate release and glutamate-mediated activation of a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) was incorporated into the model. Our results suggest that the mechanism of action of thalamic DBS as used in epilepsy may involve the prolonged release of glutamate, which in turn modulates specific ion channels such as Ih, decreases neuronal input resistance, and abolishes thalamic network oscillatory activity.

  15. High efficiency annular magnetically insulated line oscillator-transit time oscillator with three separate frequencies in three bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Yongpeng; Shao, Hao

    2009-08-01

    To increase the efficiency of the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) and expand its frequency band, a coaxial transit time oscillator (TTO) is introduced to use the load currents of an annular MILO, called the annular MILO-TTO, which comprises an inward-emitting MILO, an outward-emitting MILO, and a coaxial TTO. In simulation, when the input power is 78 GW and the diode voltage is 520 kV, three microwaves with powers of 3.2, 9.6, and 7.0 GW are generated, with a total efficiency of 25.4%, in the inward-emitting MILO, the outward-emitting MILO, and the coaxial TTO, and the frequencies are 1.7, 3.3, and 4.2 GHz, corresponding to L, S, and C bands, respectively.

  16. High-frequency oscillations in human and monkey neocortex during the wake-sleep cycle.

    PubMed

    Le Van Quyen, Michel; Muller, Lyle E; Telenczuk, Bartosz; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G; Dehghani, Nima; Destexhe, Alain

    2016-08-16

    Beta (β)- and gamma (γ)-oscillations are present in different cortical areas and are thought to be inhibition-driven, but it is not known if these properties also apply to γ-oscillations in humans. Here, we analyze such oscillations in high-density microelectrode array recordings in human and monkey during the wake-sleep cycle. In these recordings, units were classified as excitatory and inhibitory cells. We find that γ-oscillations in human and β-oscillations in monkey are characterized by a strong implication of inhibitory neurons, both in terms of their firing rate and their phasic firing with the oscillation cycle. The β- and γ-waves systematically propagate across the array, with similar velocities, during both wake and sleep. However, only in slow-wave sleep (SWS) β- and γ-oscillations are associated with highly coherent and functional interactions across several millimeters of the neocortex. This interaction is specifically pronounced between inhibitory cells. These results suggest that inhibitory cells are dominantly involved in the genesis of β- and γ-oscillations, as well as in the organization of their large-scale coherence in the awake and sleeping brain. The highest oscillation coherence found during SWS suggests that fast oscillations implement a highly coherent reactivation of wake patterns that may support memory consolidation during SWS.

  17. High-frequency oscillations in human and monkey neocortex during the wake–sleep cycle

    PubMed Central

    Le Van Quyen, Michel; Muller, Lyle E.; Telenczuk, Bartosz; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Dehghani, Nima; Destexhe, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Beta (β)- and gamma (γ)-oscillations are present in different cortical areas and are thought to be inhibition-driven, but it is not known if these properties also apply to γ-oscillations in humans. Here, we analyze such oscillations in high-density microelectrode array recordings in human and monkey during the wake–sleep cycle. In these recordings, units were classified as excitatory and inhibitory cells. We find that γ-oscillations in human and β-oscillations in monkey are characterized by a strong implication of inhibitory neurons, both in terms of their firing rate and their phasic firing with the oscillation cycle. The β- and γ-waves systematically propagate across the array, with similar velocities, during both wake and sleep. However, only in slow-wave sleep (SWS) β- and γ-oscillations are associated with highly coherent and functional interactions across several millimeters of the neocortex. This interaction is specifically pronounced between inhibitory cells. These results suggest that inhibitory cells are dominantly involved in the genesis of β- and γ-oscillations, as well as in the organization of their large-scale coherence in the awake and sleeping brain. The highest oscillation coherence found during SWS suggests that fast oscillations implement a highly coherent reactivation of wake patterns that may support memory consolidation during SWS. PMID:27482084

  18. Human intracranial high-frequency activity during memory processing: neural oscillations or stochastic volatility?

    PubMed

    Burke, John F; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Intracranial high-frequency activity (HFA), which refers to fast fluctuations in electrophysiological recordings, increases during memory processing. Two views have emerged to explain this effect: (1) HFA reflects a synchronous signal, related to underlying gamma oscillations, that plays a mechanistic role in human memory and (2) HFA reflects an asynchronous signal that is a non-specific marker of brain activation. We review recent data supporting each of these views and conclude that HFA during memory processing is more consistent with an asynchronous signal. Memory-related HFA is therefore best conceptualized as a biomarker of neural activation that can functionally map memory with high spatial and temporal precision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of intravenous diazepam on high-frequency oscillations in EEGs with CSWS.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Yumiko; Inoue, Takushi; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2013-06-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) associated with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) are speculated to be linked to the disturbance of higher brain function. We intended to investigate the generative mechanisms of HFOs in CSWS by clarifying the effects of intravenous injection (IV) of diazepam (DZP), an agonist for the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor in the GABAergic interneuron system, in patients who had previously been treated with IV DZP. The subjects were three patients with epilepsy with CSWS. For each patient, EEG data before and after IV DZP were separated into consecutive 5-min sections. Time-frequency power spectral analysis was performed on the spikes of each section, and peak-power and frequency of detected high-frequency spectral spots were compared before and after IV DZP. Spectral spots with peak-frequencies at 85.9-121.1Hz in the ripple band were revealed in all three patients. Although the amplitudes of the spikes largely returned to the baseline levels 20-25min after IV DZP, the recovery of the peak-power levels of HFOs lagged behind that of the spike amplitudes, and the power levels of HFOs were lower than the baseline data within 25min after the injection of DZP. No consistent changes were found regarding the spectral frequencies of HFOs. The dissociation of the effect of IV DZP in terms of recovery when comparing spike-amplitudes and the power of HFOs may correspond to an already suggested difference in the pathophysiological mechanisms that generate the spikes and HFOs. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-frequency Oscillations in Small Magnetic Elements Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stangalini, M.; Steiner, O.; Cameron, R. H.; Danilovic, S.

    2017-04-01

    We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca ii H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, though overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450 ± 100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. This value, together with the determined short travel times of the transverse and longitudinal waves provide us with phase speeds of 29 ± 2 km s‑1 and 31 ± 2 km s‑1, respectively. We speculate that these phase speeds may not reflect the true propagation speeds of the waves. Thus, effects such as the refraction of fast longitudinal waves may contribute to an overestimate of the phase speed.

  1. The role of high frequency oscillations in the penetration of plasma clouds across magnetic boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtig, Tomas; Brenning, Nils; Raadu, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments are reported where a collissionfree plasma cloud penetrates a magnetic barrier by self-polarization. Three closely related effects, all fundamental for the penetration mechanism, are studied quantitatively: (1) anomalous fast magnetic field penetration (two orders of magnitude faster than classical) (2) anomalous fast electron transport (three orders of magnitude faster than classical and two orders of magnitude faster than Bohm diffusion), and (3) the ion energy budget as ions enter the potential structure set up by the self-polarized plasma cloud. It is concluded that all three phenomena are closely related and that they are mediated by highly nonlinear oscillations in the lower hybrid range, driven by a strong diamagnetic current loop which is set up in the plasma in the penetration process. The fast magnetic field penetration occurs as a consequence of the anomalous resistivity caused by the wave field and the fast electron transport across magnetic field lines is caused by the correlation between electric field and density oscillations in the wave field. It is also found that ions do not lose energy in proportion to the potential 'hill' they have to climb, rather they are transported against the dc potential structure by the same correlation that is responsible for the electron transport. The results obtained through direct measurements are compared to particle in cell simulations that reproduce most aspects of the high frequency wave field.

  2. Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang; Ni, Xuan; Ditto, William L.; Spano, Mark; Carney, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on–off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis. PMID:28280577

  3. Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Ni, Xuan; Ditto, William L; Spano, Mark; Carney, Paul R; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on-off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.

  4. Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang; Ni, Xuan; Ditto, William L.; Spano, Mark; Carney, Paul R.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on-off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.

  5. High-frequency oscillations mirror disease activity in patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zijlmans, M.; Jacobs, J.; Zelmann, R.; Dubeau, F.; Gotman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be recorded in epileptic patients with clinical intracranial EEG. HFOs have been associated with seizure genesis because they occur in the seizure focus and during seizure onset. HFOs are also found interictally, partly co-occurring with epileptic spikes. We studied how HFOs are influenced by antiepileptic medication and seizure occurrence, to improve understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical meaning of HFOs. Methods Intracerebral depth EEG was partly sampled at 2,000 Hz in 42 patients with intractable focal epilepsy. Patients with five or more usable nights of recording were selected. A sample of slow-wave sleep from each night was analyzed, and HFOs (ripples: 80–250 Hz, fast ripples: 250–500 Hz) and spikes were identified on all artifact-free channels. The HFOs and spikes were compared before and after seizures with stable medication dose and during medication reduction with no intervening seizures. Results Twelve patients with five to eight nights were included. After seizures, there was an increase in spikes, whereas HFO rates remained the same. Medication reduction was followed by an increase in HFO rates and mean duration. Conclusions Contrary to spikes, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) do not increase after seizures, but do so after medication reduction, similarly to seizures. This implies that spikes and HFOs have different pathophysiologic mechanisms and that HFOs are more tightly linked to seizures than spikes. HFOs seem to play an important role in seizure genesis and can be a useful clinical marker for disease activity. PMID:19289737

  6. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  7. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  8. Interplay of Intrinsic and Synaptic Conductances in the Generation of High-Frequency Oscillations in Interneuronal Networks with Irregular Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Fabiano; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Grayden, David B.

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF) or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF) neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i) the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii) the membrane potential distribution, and iii) the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs). For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii)) exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i) and ii), respectively), which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead of

  9. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro; Fukuda, Norio; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  10. Power and coherence of cortical High Frequency Oscillations during wakefulness and sleep.

    PubMed

    Cavelli, Matías; Rojas-Líbano, Daniel; Schwarzkopf, Natalia; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Gonzalez, Joaquín; Mondino, Alejandra; Santana, Noelia; Benedetto, Luciana; Falconi, Atilio; Torterolo, Pablo

    2017-09-18

    Recently, a novel type of fast cortical oscillatory activity that occurs between 110 and 160 Hz (high-frequency oscillations (HFO)) was described. HFO are modulated by the theta rhythm in hippocampus and neocortex during active wakefulness and REM sleep. Since theta-HFO coupling increases during REM, a role for HFO in memory consolidation has been proposed. However, global properties like the cortex-wide topographic distribution, and the cortico-cortical coherence remain unknown. In the present study, we recorded the electroencephalogram during sleep and wakefulness in the rat, and analyzed the spatial extent of the HFO band power and coherence. We confirmed that the HFO amplitude is phase-locked to theta oscillations and is modified by behavioral states. During active wakefulness, HFO power was relatively higher in the neocortex and olfactory bulb compared to sleep. HFO power decreased during non-REM and had an intermediate level during REM sleep. Furthermore, coherence was larger during active wakefulness than non-REM, while REM showed a complex pattern in which coherence increased only in intra and decrease in inter-hemispheric combination of electrodes. This coherence pattern is different from gamma (30-100 Hz) coherence, which is reduced during REM sleep. The present data show an important HFO cortico-cortical dialogue during active wakefulness even when the level of theta co-modulation is lower than in REM. In contrast, during REM, this dialogue is highly modulated by theta, and restricted to intra-hemispheric medial-posterior cortical regions. Further studies combining behavior, electrophysiology and new analytical tools are needed to plunge deeper into the functional significance of the HFO. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of seizure onset zone and preictal state based on characteristics of high frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Urszula; Bergey, Gregory K; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Jouny, Christophe C

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the relevance of high frequency oscillations (HFO) for biomarkers of epileptogenic tissue and indicators of preictal state before complex partial seizures in humans. We introduce a novel automated HFO detection method based on the amplitude and features of the HFO events. We examined intracranial recordings from 33 patients and compared HFO rates and characteristics between channels within and outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ). We analyzed changes of HFO activity from interictal to preictal and to ictal periods. The average HFO rate is higher for SOZ channels compared to non-SOZ channels during all periods. Amplitudes and durations of HFO are higher for events within the SOZ in all periods compared to non-SOZ events, while their frequency is lower. All analyzed HFO features increase for the ictal period. HFO may occur in all channels but their rate is significantly higher within SOZ and HFO characteristics differ from HFO outside the SOZ, but the effect size of difference is small. The present results show that based on accumulated dataset it is possible to distinguish HFO features different for SOZ and non-SOZ channels, and to show changes in HFO characteristics during the transition from interictal to preictal and to ictal periods. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, T. M.; Sanna, A.; Méndez, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of a large data base of X-ray observations of 22 galactic black hole transients with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer throughout its operative life for a total exposure time of ˜12 ms. We excluded persistent systems and the peculiar source GRS 1915+105, as well as the most recently discovered sources. The semi-automatic homogeneous analysis was aimed at the detection of high-frequency (100-1000 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO), of which several cases were previously reported in the literature. After taking into account the number of independent trials, we obtained 11 detections from two sources only: XTE J1550-564 and GRO J1655-40. For the former, the detected frequencies are clustered around 180 and 280 Hz, as previously found. For the latter, the previously reported dichotomy 300-450 Hz is found to be less sharp. We discuss our results in comparison with kHz QPO in neutron-star X-ray binaries and the prospects for future timing X-ray missions.

  13. Automatic Detection and Classification of High-Frequency Oscillations in Depth-EEG Signals.

    PubMed

    Jrad, Nisrine; Kachenoura, Amar; Merlet, Isabelle; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Nica, Anca; Biraben, Arnaud; Wendling, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    Interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs [30-600 Hz]) have proven to be relevant biomarkers in epilepsy. In this paper, four categories of HFOs are considered: Gamma ([30-80 Hz]), high-gamma ([80-120 Hz]), ripples ([120-250 Hz]), and fast-ripples ([250-600 Hz]). A universal detector of the four types of HFOs is proposed. It has the advantages of 1) classifying HFOs, and thus, being robust to inter and intrasubject variability; 2) rejecting artefacts, thus being specific. Gabor atoms are tuned to cover the physiological bands. Gabor transform is then used to detect HFOs in intracerebral electroencephalography (iEEG) signals recorded in patients candidate to epilepsy surgery. To extract relevant features, energy ratios, along with event duration, are investigated. Discriminant ratios are optimized so as to maximize among the four types of HFOs and artefacts. A multiclass support vector machine (SVM) is used to classify detected events. Pseudoreal signals are simulated to measure the performance of the method when the ground truth is known. Experiments are conducted on simulated and on human iEEG signals. The proposed method shows high performance in terms of sensitivity and false discovery rate. The methods have the advantages of detecting and discriminating all types of HFOs as well as avoiding false detections caused by artefacts. Experimental results show the feasibility of a robust and universal detector.

  14. Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Kiwon; Warwick, Warren J; Lee, Yong W; Lee, Jongwon; Holte, James E

    2005-01-01

    Background High frequency chest compression (HFCC) is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thicker mucus. Our observation of respiratory airflow of a subject during use of HFCC showed the airflow oscillation by HFCC was strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. We used a computational model-based approach to analyse the respiratory airflow during use of HFCC. Methods The computational model, which is based on previous physiological studies and represented by an electrical circuit analogue, was used for simulation of in vivo protocol that shows the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. Besides, airflow was measured during use of HFCC. We compared the simulation results to either the measured data or the previous research, to understand and explain the observations. Results and discussion We could observe two important phenomena during respiration pertaining to the airflow signal oscillation generated by HFCC. The amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals varied depending on spontaneous airflow signals. We used the simulation results to investigate how the nonlinearity of airway resistance, lung capacitance, and inertance of air characterized the respiratory airflow. The simulation results indicated that lung capacitance or the inertance of air is also not a factor in the non-uniformity of HFCC airflow signals. Although not perfect, our circuit analogue model allows us to effectively simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the respiratory system. Conclusion We found that the amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals behave as a function of spontaneous airflow signals. This is due to the nonlinearity of the respiratory system, particularly variations in airway resistance. PMID:15904523

  15. Detection of high-frequency oscillations by hybrid depth electrodes in standard clinical intracranial EEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Kondylis, Efstathios D; Wozny, Thomas A; Lipski, Witold J; Popescu, Alexandra; DeStefino, Vincent J; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Raghu, Vineet K; Bagic, Anto; Richardson, R Mark

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have been proposed as a novel marker for epileptogenic tissue, spurring tremendous research interest into the characterization of these transient events. A wealth of continuously recorded intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) data is currently available from patients undergoing invasive monitoring for the surgical treatment of epilepsy. In contrast to data recorded on research-customized recording systems, data from clinical acquisition systems remain an underutilized resource for HFO detection in most centers. The effective and reliable use of this clinically obtained data would be an important advance in the ongoing study of HFOs and their relationship to ictogenesis. The diagnostic utility of HFOs ultimately will be limited by the ability of clinicians to detect these brief, sporadic, and low amplitude events in an electrically noisy clinical environment. Indeed, one of the most significant factors limiting the use of such clinical recordings for research purposes is their low signal to noise ratio, especially in the higher frequency bands. In order to investigate the presence of HFOs in clinical data, we first obtained continuous intracranial recordings in a typical clinical environment using a commercially available, commonly utilized data acquisition system and "off the shelf" hybrid macro-/micro-depth electrodes. These data were then inspected for the presence of HFOs using semi-automated methods and expert manual review. With targeted removal of noise frequency content, HFOs were detected on both macro- and micro-contacts, and preferentially localized to seizure onset zones. HFOs detected by the offline, semi-automated method were also validated in the clinical viewer, demonstrating that (1) this clinical system allows for the visualization of HFOs and (2) with effective signal processing, clinical recordings can yield valuable information for offline analysis.

  16. Effectiveness of treatment with high-frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Antonello; Cardini, Federica; Landucci, Norma; Lanata, Sergio; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Barlascini, Cornelius

    2013-04-04

    High-frequency airway clearance (HFCWC) assist devices generate either positive or negative trans-respiratory pressure excursions to produce high-frequency, small-volume oscillations in the airways.HFCWC can lead to changes in volume of 15-57 ml and in flow up to 1.6 L/s, which generate minimal coughing to mobilize secretions. The typical treatment lasts 20-30 minutes, and consists of short periods of compression at different frequencies, separated by coughing.The aim of this study was to find the more efficacious treatment in patients with bronchiectasis: traditional techniques of chest physiotherapy (CPT) versus high frequency oscillation of the chest wall in patients with bronchiectasis. 37 patients were enrolled. Seven of them were excluded. Computer randomization divided the patients into three groups: - 10 patients treated with HFCWO by using the Vest® Airway Clearance System; - 10 patients treated with traditional techniques of air way clearance (PEP bottle, PEP mask, ELTGOL, vibratory positive expiratory pressure); - 10 patients received medical therapy only (control group). To be eligible for enrollment, participants had to be between 18 and 85 years old and have a diagnosis of bronchiectasis, confirmed on high resolution computed tomography. lack of informed consent, signs of exacerbation, cystic fibrosis. Before the treatment, each patient had blood tests, sputum volume and cell count, pulmonary function tests and on the quality of life inventories (MMRC, CAT, BCSS). The results were processed through the covariance analysis, performed with the R-Project statistical program. It has been considered a positive result p <005. Both treatments (traditional CPT and HFCWO) showed a significant improvement in some biochemical and functional respiratory tests as well as in the quality of life compared to the control group. The use of HFCWO compared to CPT also produced a significant improvement in blood inflammation parameter C-RP (p ≤0.019), parameters of

  17. Effectiveness of treatment with high-frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-frequency airway clearance (HFCWC) assist devices generate either positive or negative trans-respiratory pressure excursions to produce high-frequency, small-volume oscillations in the airways. HFCWC can lead to changes in volume of 15–57 ml and in flow up to 1.6 L/s, which generate minimal coughing to mobilize secretions. The typical treatment lasts 20–30 minutes, and consists of short periods of compression at different frequencies, separated by coughing. The aim of this study was to find the more efficacious treatment in patients with bronchiectasis: traditional techniques of chest physiotherapy (CPT) versus high frequency oscillation of the chest wall in patients with bronchiectasis. Methods 37 patients were enrolled. Seven of them were excluded. Computer randomization divided the patients into three groups: – 10 patients treated with HFCWO by using the Vest® Airway Clearance System; – 10 patients treated with traditional techniques of air way clearance (PEP bottle, PEP mask, ELTGOL, vibratory positive expiratory pressure); – 10 patients received medical therapy only (control group). To be eligible for enrollment, participants had to be between 18 and 85 years old and have a diagnosis of bronchiectasis, confirmed on high resolution computed tomography. Exclusion criteria: lack of informed consent, signs of exacerbation, cystic fibrosis. Before the treatment, each patient had blood tests, sputum volume and cell count, pulmonary function tests and on the quality of life inventories (MMRC, CAT, BCSS). The results were processed through the covariance analysis, performed with the R-Project statistical program. It has been considered a positive result p <005. Results Both treatments (traditional CPT and HFCWO) showed a significant improvement in some biochemical and functional respiratory tests as well as in the quality of life compared to the control group. The use of HFCWO compared to CPT also produced a significant improvement in blood

  18. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Float-Zones by High-Frequency End-Wall Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A. V.; Grugel, R. N.; Lee, C. P.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were performed on float-zones. Such a float-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate-barium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillation occurred, the bottom end of the rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate fine ripples on the melt surface, driving a streaming flow in the opposite direction to that of the thermocapillary convection. It was observed that by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillarity oscillations can be quenched.

  19. Entorhinal cortex lesions result in adenosine-sensitive high frequency oscillations in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Franco; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Entorhinal cortex (EC) projections to the hippocampus run along the perforant path and activate the hippocampal area CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG), which, in turn, drives CA3. Because cortical trauma damages the source of inputs to the hippocampus, we hypothesize that such an event can be reflected in immediate alterations of the hippocampal oscillatory activity. We here explore whether acute, localized disruption of EC-EC connectivity is involved in the generation or modulation of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the hippocampus. We conducted in vitro electrophysiological recordings in CA3 and DG of combined EC-hippocampal transversal slices prepared from intact brains and from brains with a spatially defined, transversal cut of the EC made in situ, 2h before in vitro recordings commenced. We also determined if pharmacological manipulations of the adenosine system modulated the fast oscillatory activity. EC-hippocampal slices prepared from brains, in which a transversal lesion of the EC was uni- or bilaterally conducted in situ, displayed spontaneous epileptiform events with superimposed ripples (150-250 Hz) and fast ripples (>250 Hz), whereas those obtained from non-lesioned brains did not have spontaneous HFOs. However, in the latter, high frequency stimulation applied to the perforant path produced ripple activity in area CA3. Spontaneous fast ripples were prevented by conducting the slicing procedure and incubating the slices both in a Na(+)-free medium and in a low Ca(++)-high Mg(++) medium for an hour before recording commenced, under normal Na(+) concentration. Activation of A1, but not A2, receptors produced a strong inhibition of the incidence and spectral power of fast ripples but did not change their intrinsic frequency. Our data show that the disruption of EC-to-EC connections can immediately disinhibit hippocampal CA3 area to generate HFOs on top of epileptiform events, probably constituting an irritating focus long before overt epileptic

  20. A Numerical Study on the Characteristics of High-frequency Oscillations in the Eyewall of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Lu, Y.; Li, W.; Wen, Z.; Zhou, M.; Qian, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of high-frequency oscillations in the eyewall of tropical cyclones (TCs) are studied through analysis of numerical model simulations. Results from the power spectrum analysis of the maximum 10-m wind speeds (MWS) show that this oscillation is significant in all of the simulated TCs, with the range of the periods in the South China Sea (SCS) is smaller than the open oceans in the western north Pacific (WNP). Sensitivity experiment shows that smaller terrain effects in the open ocean may enlarge the range of the periods. Sequences of the high-frequency oscillations are figured out by the high resolution simulation of Typhoon Hagupit (200814). In a typical cycle, the drop of density in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is followed by an increase of convergence in PBL, which causes an increase of density, then the weakening of the convergence. The increase in convergence in the PBL causes an increase of updraft, followed by high vertical velocity (w) at high altitudes of 8-10 km, and then an increase of the MWS, and vice versa. The first three modes of the extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis of w within the TC updraft show that the evolution of the eyewall in the high-frequency oscillations is a composite of a process similar to the classical "eyewall replacement cycles", which fluctuate the TC intensity, and a standing wave. The comparison to the vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) and inertial gravity waves (IGWs) shows that they are different from the high-frequency oscillations in details.

  1. Magnetoencephalography Detection of High-Frequency Oscillations in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Leiken, Kimberly; Xiang, Jing; Zhang, Fawen; Shi, Jingping; Tang, Lu; Liu, Hongxing; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence from invasive intracranial recordings suggests that the matured brain generates both physiological and pathological high-frequency signals. The present study was designed to detect high-frequency brain signals in the developing brain using newly developed magnetoencephalography (MEG) methods. Twenty healthy children were studied with a high-sampling rate MEG system. Functional high-frequency brain signals were evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the index fingers. To determine if the high-frequency neuromagnetic signals are true brain responses in high-frequency range, we analyzed the MEG data using the conventional averaging as well as newly developed time-frequency analysis along with beamforming. The data of healthy children showed that very high-frequency brain signals (>1000 Hz) in the somatosensory cortex in the developing brain could be detected and localized using MEG. The amplitude of very high-frequency brain signals was significantly weaker than that of the low-frequency brain signals. Very high-frequency brain signals showed a much earlier latency than those of a low-frequency. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) revealed that a portion of the high-frequency signals was from the somatosensory cortex, another portion of the high-frequency signals was probably from the thalamus. Our results provide evidence that the developing brain generates high-frequency signals that can be detected with the non-invasive technique of MEG. MEG detection of high-frequency brain signals may open a new window for the study of developing brain function. PMID:25566015

  2. High-frequency (80–500 Hz) oscillations and epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Maxime; Bortel, Aleksandra; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs), termed ripples (80–200 Hz) and fast ripples (250–600 Hz), are recorded in the EEG of epileptic patients and in animal epilepsy models; HFOs are thought to reect pathological activity and seizure onset zones. Here, we analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of interictal spikes with and without HFOs in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Depth electrode recordings from dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 region, subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC), were obtained from rats between the 4th and 15th day after a status epilepticus (SE) induced by i.p. injection of pilocarpine. The first seizure occurred 6.1±2.5 days after SE (n=7 rats). Five of 7 animals exhibited interictal spikes that co-occurred with fast ripples accounting for 4.9±4.6% of all analyzed interictal spikes (n=12,886) while all rats showed interictal spikes co-occurring with ripples, accounting for 14.3±3.4% of all events. Increased rates of interictal spikes without HFOs in the EC predicted upcoming seizures on the following day, while rates of interictal spikes with fast ripples in CA3 reflected periods of high seizure occurrence. Finally, interictal spikes co-occurring with ripples did not show any specific relation to seizure occurrence. Our findings identify different temporal and spatial developmental patterns for the rates of interictal spikes with or without HFOs in relation with seizure occurrence. These distinct categories of interictal spikes point at dynamic processes that should bring neuronal networks close to seizure generation. PMID:21238589

  3. Automatic oscillator frequency control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  4. Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Papadelis, Christos; Tamilia, Eleonora; Stufflebeam, Steven; Grant, Patricia E.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Tanaka, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Crucial to the success of epilepsy surgery is the availability of a robust biomarker that identifies the Epileptogenic Zone (EZ). High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) have emerged as potential presurgical biomarkers for the identification of the EZ in addition to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) and ictal activity. Although they are promising to localize the EZ, they are not yet suited for the diagnosis or monitoring of epilepsy in clinical practice. Primary barriers remain: the lack of a formal and global definition for HFOs; the consequent heterogeneity of methodological approaches used for their study; and the practical difficulties to detect and localize them noninvasively from scalp recordings. Here, we present a methodology for the recording, detection, and localization of interictal HFOs from pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. We report representative data of HFOs detected noninvasively from interictal scalp EEG and MEG from two children undergoing surgery. The underlying generators of HFOs were localized by solving the inverse problem and their localization was compared to the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ) as this was defined by the epileptologists. For both patients, Interictal Epileptogenic Discharges (IEDs) and HFOs were localized with source imaging at concordant locations. For one patient, intracranial EEG (iEEG) data were also available. For this patient, we found that the HFOs localization was concordant between noninvasive and invasive methods. The comparison of iEEG with the results from scalp recordings served to validate these findings. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that presents the source localization of scalp HFOs from simultaneous EEG and MEG recordings comparing the results with invasive recordings. These findings suggest that HFOs can be reliably detected and localized noninvasively with scalp EEG and MEG. We conclude that the noninvasive localization of interictal HFOs could significantly improve the

  5. Dynamics of interictal spikes and high-frequency oscillations during epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Pariya; Lévesque, Maxime; Benini, Ruba; Behr, Charles; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is characterized in humans and in animal models by a seizure-free latent phase that follows an initial brain insult; this period is presumably associated to plastic changes in temporal lobe excitability and connectivity. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of interictal spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs; ripples: 80–200 Hz and fast ripples: 250–500 Hz) from 48 h before to 96 h after the first seizure in the rat pilocarpine model of MTLE. Interictal spikes recorded with depth EEG electrodes from the hippocampus CA3 area and entorhinal cortex (EC) were classified as type 1 (characterized by a spike followed by a wave) or type 2 (characterized by a spike with no wave). We found that: (i) there was a switch in the distribution of both types of interictal spikes before and after the occurrence of the first seizure; during the latent phase both types of interictal spikes predominated in the EC whereas during the chronic phase both types of spikes predominated in CA3; (ii) type 2 spike duration decreased in both regions from the latent to the chronic phase; (iii) type 2 spikes associated to fast ripples occurred at higher rates in EC compared to CA3 during the latent phase while they occurred at similar rates in both regions in the chronic phase; and (iv) rates of fast ripples outside of spikes were higher in EC compared to CA3 during the latent phase. Our findings demonstrate that the transition from the latent to the chronic phase is paralleled by dynamic changes in interictal spike and HFO expression in EC and CA3. We propose that these changes may represent biomarkers of epileptogenicity in MTLE. PMID:24686305

  6. CNE article: pain after lung transplant: high-frequency chest wall oscillation vs chest physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esguerra-Gonzalez, Angeli; Ilagan-Honorio, Monina; Fraschilla, Stephanie; Kehoe, Priscilla; Lee, Ai Jin; Marcarian, Taline; Mayol-Ngo, Kristina; Miller, Pamela S; Onga, Jay; Rodman, Betty; Ross, David; Sommer, Susan; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Toyama, Joy; Villamor, Filma; Weigt, S Samuel; Gawlinski, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Background Chest physiotherapy and high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) are routinely used after lung transplant to facilitate removal of secretions. To date, no studies have been done to investigate which therapy is more comfortable and preferred by lung transplant recipients. Patients who have less pain may mobilize secretions, heal, and recover faster. Objectives To compare effects of HFCWO versus chest physiotherapy on pain and preference in lung transplant recipients. Methods In a 2-group experimental, repeated-measures design, 45 lung transplant recipients (27 single lung, 18 bilateral) were randomized to chest physiotherapy (10 AM, 2 PM) followed by HFCWO (6 PM, 10 PM; group 1, n=22) or vice versa (group 2, n=23) on postoperative day 3. A verbal numeric rating scale was used to measure pain before and after treatment. At the end of the treatment sequence, a 4-item patient survey was administered to assess treatment preference, pain, and effectiveness. Data were analyzed with χ(2) and t tests and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results A significant interaction was found between mean difference in pain scores from before to after treatment and treatment method; pain scores decreased more when HFCWO was done at 10 AM and 6 PM (P =.04). Bilateral transplant recipients showed a significant preference for HFCWO over chest physiotherapy (11 [85%] vs 2 [15%], P=.01). However, single lung recipients showed no significant difference in preference between the 2 treatments (11 [42%] vs 14 [54%]). Conclusions HFCWO seems to provide greater decreases in pain scores than does chest physiotherapy. Bilateral lung transplant recipients preferred HFCWO to chest physiotherapy. HFCWO may be an effective, feasible alternative to chest physiotherapy. (American Journal of Critical Care. 2013;22:115-125).

  7. Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Tamilia, Eleonora; Stufflebeam, Steven; Grant, Patricia E; Madsen, Joseph R; Pearl, Phillip L; Tanaka, Naoaki

    2016-12-06

    Crucial to the success of epilepsy surgery is the availability of a robust biomarker that identifies the Epileptogenic Zone (EZ). High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) have emerged as potential presurgical biomarkers for the identification of the EZ in addition to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) and ictal activity. Although they are promising to localize the EZ, they are not yet suited for the diagnosis or monitoring of epilepsy in clinical practice. Primary barriers remain: the lack of a formal and global definition for HFOs; the consequent heterogeneity of methodological approaches used for their study; and the practical difficulties to detect and localize them noninvasively from scalp recordings. Here, we present a methodology for the recording, detection, and localization of interictal HFOs from pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. We report representative data of HFOs detected noninvasively from interictal scalp EEG and MEG from two children undergoing surgery. The underlying generators of HFOs were localized by solving the inverse problem and their localization was compared to the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ) as this was defined by the epileptologists. For both patients, Interictal Epileptogenic Discharges (IEDs) and HFOs were localized with source imaging at concordant locations. For one patient, intracranial EEG (iEEG) data were also available. For this patient, we found that the HFOs localization was concordant between noninvasive and invasive methods. The comparison of iEEG with the results from scalp recordings served to validate these findings. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that presents the source localization of scalp HFOs from simultaneous EEG and MEG recordings comparing the results with invasive recordings. These findings suggest that HFOs can be reliably detected and localized noninvasively with scalp EEG and MEG. We conclude that the noninvasive localization of interictal HFOs could significantly improve the

  8. High-frequency oscillations in epilepsy and surgical outcome. A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Kutil, Raoul; Klaffenböck, Lukas; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Höller, Peter M.; Bathke, Arne C.; Jacobs, Julia; Taylor, Alexandra C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) are estimated as a potential marker for epileptogenicity. Current research strives for valid evidence that these HFOs could aid the delineation of the to-be resected area in patients with refractory epilepsy and improve surgical outcomes. In the present meta-analysis, we evaluated the relation between resection of regions from which HFOs can be detected and outcome after epilepsy surgery. We conducted a systematic review of all studies that related the resection of HFO-generating areas to postsurgical outcome. We related the outcome (seizure freedom) to resection ratio, that is, the ratio between the number of channels on which HFOs were detected and, among these, the number of channels that were inside the resected area. We compared the resection ratio between seizure free and not seizure free patients. In total, 11 studies were included. In 10 studies, ripples (80–200 Hz) were analyzed, and in 7 studies, fast ripples (>200 Hz) were studied. We found comparable differences (dif) and largely overlapping confidence intervals (CI) in resection ratios between outcome groups for ripples (dif = 0.18; CI: 0.10–0.27) and fast ripples (dif = 0.17; CI: 0.01–0.33). Subgroup analysis showed that automated detection (dif = 0.22; CI: 0.03–0.41) was comparable to visual detection (dif = 0.17; CI: 0.08–0.27). Considering frequency of HFOs (dif = 0.24; CI: 0.09–0.38) was related more strongly to outcome than considering each electrode that was showing HFOs (dif = 0.15; CI = 0.03–0.27). The effect sizes found in the meta-analysis are small but significant. Automated detection and application of a detection threshold in order to detect channels with a frequent occurrence of HFOs is important to yield a marker that could be useful in presurgical evaluation. In order to compare studies with different methodological approaches, detailed and standardized reporting is warranted. PMID:26539097

  9. Detection of High-Frequency Oscillations and Damping from Multi-slit Spectroscopic Observations of the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, T.; Singh, J.; Sindhuja, G.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    During the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010, multi-slit spectroscopic observations of the solar corona were performed from Easter Island, Chile. To search for high-frequency waves, observations were taken at a high cadence in the green line at 5303 Å that is due to [Fe xiv] and the red line at 6374 Å that is due to [Fe x]. The data were analyzed to study the periodic variations in intensity, Doppler velocity, and line width using wavelet analysis. The data with high spectral and temporal resolution enabled us to study the rapid dynamical changes within coronal structures. We find that at certain locations, each parameter shows significant oscillation with periods ranging from 6 - 25 s. For the first time, we were able to detect damping of high-frequency oscillations with periods of about 10 s. If the observed damped oscillations are due to magnetohydrodynamic waves, then they can contribute significantly to the heating of the corona. From a statistical study we try to characterize the nature of the observed oscillations while considering the distribution of power in different line parameters.

  10. A PK-PD model of ketamine-induced high-frequency oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Francisco J.; Ching, ShiNung; Hartnack, Katharine; Fath, Amanda B.; Purdon, Patrick L.; Wilson, Matthew A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Ketamine is a widely used drug with clinical and research applications, and also known to be used as a recreational drug. Ketamine produces conspicuous changes in the electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals observed both in humans and rodents. In rodents, the intracranial ECoG displays a high-frequency oscillation (HFO) which power is modulated nonlinearly by ketamine dose. Despite the widespread use of ketamine there is no model description of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics (PK-PDs) of ketamine and the observed HFO power. Approach. In the present study, we developed a PK-PD model based on estimated ketamine concentration, its known pharmacological actions, and observed ECoG effects. The main pharmacological action of ketamine is antagonism of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), which in rodents is accompanied by an HFO observed in the ECoG. At high doses, however, ketamine also acts at non-NMDAR sites, produces loss of consciousness, and the transient disappearance of the HFO. We propose a two-compartment PK model that represents the concentration of ketamine, and a PD model based in opposing effects of the NMDAR and non-NMDAR actions on the HFO power. Main results. We recorded ECoG from the cortex of rats after two doses of ketamine, and extracted the HFO power from the ECoG spectrograms. We fit the PK-PD model to the time course of the HFO power, and showed that the model reproduces the dose-dependent profile of the HFO power. The model provides good fits even in the presence of high variability in HFO power across animals. As expected, the model does not provide good fits to the HFO power after dosing the pure NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Significance. Our study provides a simple model to relate the observed electrophysiological effects of ketamine to its actions at the molecular level at different concentrations. This will improve the study of ketamine and rodent models of schizophrenia to better understand the wide and divergent

  11. A PK-PD model of ketamine-induced high-frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Flores, Francisco J; Ching, ShiNung; Hartnack, Katharine; Fath, Amanda B; Purdon, Patrick L; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-10-01

    Ketamine is a widely used drug with clinical and research applications, and also known to be used as a recreational drug. Ketamine produces conspicuous changes in the electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals observed both in humans and rodents. In rodents, the intracranial ECoG displays a high-frequency oscillation (HFO) which power is modulated nonlinearly by ketamine dose. Despite the widespread use of ketamine there is no model description of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics (PK-PDs) of ketamine and the observed HFO power. In the present study, we developed a PK-PD model based on estimated ketamine concentration, its known pharmacological actions, and observed ECoG effects. The main pharmacological action of ketamine is antagonism of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), which in rodents is accompanied by an HFO observed in the ECoG. At high doses, however, ketamine also acts at non-NMDAR sites, produces loss of consciousness, and the transient disappearance of the HFO. We propose a two-compartment PK model that represents the concentration of ketamine, and a PD model based in opposing effects of the NMDAR and non-NMDAR actions on the HFO power. We recorded ECoG from the cortex of rats after two doses of ketamine, and extracted the HFO power from the ECoG spectrograms. We fit the PK-PD model to the time course of the HFO power, and showed that the model reproduces the dose-dependent profile of the HFO power. The model provides good fits even in the presence of high variability in HFO power across animals. As expected, the model does not provide good fits to the HFO power after dosing the pure NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Our study provides a simple model to relate the observed electrophysiological effects of ketamine to its actions at the molecular level at different concentrations. This will improve the study of ketamine and rodent models of schizophrenia to better understand the wide and divergent range of effects that ketamine has.

  12. Micromagnetic model analysis of integrated single-pole-type head with tilted spin-torque oscillator for high-frequency microwave-assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Takuto; Kanai, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kazuetsu; Greaves, Simon; Muraoka, Hiroaki

    2015-05-07

    The spin-torque oscillator (STO) is the most important component in microwave-assisted magnetic recording. Some requirements for the STO are: large amplitude and stable oscillation, small injected current, and oscillation at a frequency that excites resonance in a recording medium. It is also necessary for the STO oscillation to closely follow the head coil current. In this paper, STOs were integrated into write heads and micromagnetic analyses carried out to obtain a write head structure with stable STO oscillation that could follow a high-frequency head coil current.

  13. High-frequency oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat and its modulation by the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Knoche, A; Yokoyama, H; Ponomarenko, A; Frisch, C; Huston, J; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    The histaminergic neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus modulate whole brain activity in a manner dependent on behavioral state. We have investigated their influence on high-frequency oscillation (200-Hz ripples) in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving rats. The occurrence of these ripples, assumed to be involved in memory trace formation, was markedly enhanced after injection of the H1-antagonists pyrilamine and ketotifen in a lateral ventricle, indicating a tonic activity of the histaminergic system. The H2- and H3-antagonists cimetidine and thioperamide were ineffective. We suggest a mediation of these effects through blocking the known histaminergic excitation of septal neurons. Histamine administered by the intracerebroventricular route had an inhibitory action on ripples. H1-receptor activation, which has been shown to inhibit learning and memory, thus shifts hippocampal activity away from high-frequency oscillation toward theta activity.

  14. Dual-frequency oscillations induced by bromide ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hexing; Huang, Xiaojun

    1996-06-01

    The experimental behavior of the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ)-type reaction with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as organic substrate has been investigated. It was found that the system displays two types of temporal oscillations depending on the initial concentration of bromide. When [Br -] is very high, damped high-frequency oscillations appear. When [Br -] is very low, low-frequency oscillations of the normal type are obtained. At moderate concentrations of bromide, both high-frequency and low-frequency oscillations can be monitored with a bromide ion selective electrode. The mechanism of the dual-frequency oscillation is discussed.

  15. Subthalamic beta oscillations are attenuated after withdrawal of chronic high frequency neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Trager, Megan H; Koop, Mandy Miller; Velisar, Anca; Blumenfeld, Zack; Nikolau, Judy Syrkin; Quinn, Emma J; Martin, Talora; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potential (LFP) recordings demonstrate beta (13-30Hz) band oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) defined as elevations of spectral power. The amount of attenuation of beta band power on therapeutic levels of high frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and/or dopaminergic medication has been correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity from the therapy, which has led to the suggestion that elevated beta band power is a marker of PD motor disability. A fundamental question has not been answered: whether there is a prolonged attenuation of beta band power after withdrawal of chronic HF DBS and whether this is related to a lack of progression or even improvement in the underlying motor disability. Until now, in human PD subjects, STN LFP recordings were only attainable in the peri-operative period and after short periods of stimulation. For the first time, using an investigational, implanted sensing neurostimulator (Activa® PC+S, Medtronic, Inc.), STN LFPs and motor disability were recorded/assessed after withdrawal of chronic (6 and 12month) HF DBS in freely moving PD subjects. Beta band power was similar within 14s and 60min after stimulation was withdrawn, suggesting that "off therapy" experiments can be conducted almost immediately after stimulation is turned off. After withdrawal of 6 and 12months of STN DBS, beta band power was significantly lower (P<0.05 at 6 and 12months) and off therapy UPDRS scores were better (P<0.05 at 12months) compared to before DBS was started. The attenuation in beta band power was correlated with improvement in motor disability scores (P<0.05). These findings were supported by evidence of a gradual increase in beta band power in two unstimulated STNs after 24months and could not be explained by changes in lead impedance. This suggests that chronic HF DBS exerts long-term plasticity in the sensorimotor network, which may contribute to a lack of progression in

  16. Frequency retrace of quartz oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, F.; Yannoni, N. F.

    Frequency retrace measurements are reported on oven controlled quartz oscillators utilizing AT and SC cut plated and BVA resonators. Prior to full aging, the retrace error is added to the aging effect. With well-aged resonators, after one or several on-off cycles, the frequency settles at a new level characteristic for intermittent operation. Severe frequency shifts have sometimes been found after the first restart following prolonged continuous operation. SC cut resonators appear to show distinctly smaller retrace errors than AT cut.

  17. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  18. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  19. Aberrant high frequency oscillations recorded in the rat nucleus accumbens in the methylazoxymethanol acetate neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goda, Sailaja A; Olszewski, Maciej; Piasecka, Joanna; Rejniak, Karolina; Whittington, Miles A; Kasicki, Stefan; Hunt, Mark J

    2015-08-03

    Altered activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a core feature of schizophrenia and animal models of the disease. Abnormal high frequency oscillations (HFO) in the rat NAc have been associated with pharmacological models of schizophrenia, in particular the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction model. Here, we tested the hypothesis that abnormal HFO are also associated with a neurodevelopmental rat model. Using prenatal administration of the mitotoxin methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) we obtained the offspring MAM rats. Adult MAM and Sham rats were implanted with electrodes, for local field potential recordings, in the NAc. Spontaneous HFO (spHFO) in MAM rats were characterized by increased power and frequency relative to Sham rats. MK801 dose-dependently increased the power of HFO in both groups. However, the dose-dependent increase in HFO frequency found in Sham rats was occluded in MAM rats. The antipsychotic compound, clozapine reduced the frequency of HFO which was similar in both MAM and Sham rats. Further, HFO were modulated in a similar manner by delta oscillations in both MAM and Sham rats. Together these findings suggest that increased HFO frequency represents an important feature in certain animal models of schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis that altered functioning of the NAc is a core feature in animal models of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SPH simulation of turbulent flow past a high-frequency in-line oscillating cylinder near free-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow past a circular cylinder with in-line oscillation close to a free-surface. The sub-particle scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations together with the continuity equation. The accuracy of numerical code has been verified using two cases consisting of an oscillating cylinder placed in the stationary fluid, and flow over a fixed cylinder close to a free-surface. Simulations are conducted for the Froude number of 0.3, the Reynolds numbers of 40 and 80, various gap ratios for fully-submerged and half-submerge cylinders. The dimensionless frequency and amplitude of oscillating have been chosen as 0.5, 0.8 and 10, 15, respectively. The selection of such a high oscillating frequency causes the flow regime to become turbulent. It is seen that the gap ratio defined as the ratio of cylinder distance from free-surface and its diameter, strongly affects the flow pattern and the magnitude of the drag and lift coefficients. The jet-like flow (the region above the cylinder and beneath the free-surface) creation is discussed in detail and showed that the strength of this jet-like flow is weakened when the gap ratio shrinks. It is seen that by decreasing the gap ratio, the lift and drag coefficients increase and decrease, respectively. It is found that the Reynolds number has an inverse effect on the drag and lift coefficients. Also, it is concluded that by increasing the amplitude of oscillation the drag coefficient increases.

  1. A high-field magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using an oven-controlled crystal oscillator as the local oscillator of its radio frequency transceiver.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Tang, Xin; Tang, Weinan; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2014-09-01

    A home-made high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrometer with multiple receiving channels is described. The radio frequency (RF) transceiver of the spectrometer consists of digital intermediate frequency (IF) circuits and corresponding mixing circuits. A direct digital synthesis device is employed to generate the IF pulse; the IF signal from a down-conversion circuit is sampled and followed by digital quadrature detection. Both the IF generation and the IF sampling use a 50 MHz clock. An oven-controlled crystal oscillator, which has outstanding spectral purity and a compact circuit, is used as the local oscillator of the RF transceiver. A digital signal processor works as the pulse programmer of the spectrometer, as a result, 32 control lines can be generated simultaneously while an event is triggered. Field programmable gate array devices are utilized as the auxiliary controllers of the IF generation, IF receiving, and gradient control. High performance, including 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, 1 MHz receiving bandwidth, and 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, is achieved. High-quality images on a 1.5 T MRI system using the spectrometer are obtained.

  2. A tunable dual frequency dye laser - dual frequency oscillator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abury, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The pulsed dye laser offers a tunable oscillator, followed by three amplifiers. It is pumped by a dual frequency Nd:YAG laser. Tuning and spectral width are controlled by a holographic network connected to a high power telescope. The modified two wavelength dye laser allows for absorption lidar techniques for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Line switching is achieved by electrooptical commutation. A feasibility experiment was performed with the original oscillator. A model was then built, and tested with different dyes. After a few modifications were made to improve the conversion efficiency, this oscillator was inserted in the laser to check whether the amplifier stages were correctly adjusted.

  3. High-power linearly-polarized single-frequency thulium-doped fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Pearson, L; Kim, J W; Zhang, Z; Ibsen, M; Sahu, J K; Clarkson, W A

    2010-01-18

    We report a high power narrow-linewidth source at approximately 2 microm based on a Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback master-oscillator and three Tm fiber amplifier stages. The master-oscillator and first two amplifier stages were in-band pumped by Er,Yb fiber lasers operating at 1565 nm, and the final stage amplifier was cladding-pumped at 795 nm by two spatially-combined diode-stacks. The MOPA yielded 100 W of single frequency output at 1943 nm with a beam propagation factor (M(2)) of 1.25 and with a polarization extinction ratio of >94%. The output power was limited by thermally-induced damage in the final amplifier stage. The prospects for further power scaling are considered.

  4. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more detoscillations in both the persistent emission and in the X-ray bursts.

  5. High-Frequency Oscillations Recorded on the Scalp of Patients With Epilepsy Using Tripolar Concentric Ring Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Gaitanis, John N.; Blum, Andrew S.; Fisher, Robert S.; Medvedev, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most prevalent neurological disorder (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\(\\sim 1\\) \\end{document}% prevalence) affecting \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\(\\sim 67\\) \\end{document} million people worldwide with up to 75% from developing countries. The conventional electroencephalogram is plagued with artifacts from movements, muscles, and other sources. Tripolar concentric ring electrodes automatically attenuate muscle artifacts and provide improved signal quality. We performed basic experiments in healthy humans to show that tripolar concentric ring electrodes can indeed record the physiological alpha waves while eyes are closed. We then conducted concurrent recordings with conventional disc electrodes and tripolar concentric ring electrodes from patients with epilepsy. We found that we could detect high frequency oscillations, a marker for early seizure development and epileptogenic zone, on the scalp surface that appeared to become more narrow-band just prior to seizures. High frequency oscillations preceding seizures were present in an average of 35.5% of tripolar concentric ring electrode data channels for all the patients with epilepsy whose seizures were recorded and absent in the corresponding conventional disc electrode data. An average of 78.2% of channels that contained high frequency oscillations were within the seizure onset or irritative zones determined independently by three epileptologists based on conventional disc electrode data and videos. PMID:27170874

  6. Instantaneous responses to high-frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with acute pneumonic respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ming-Lung; Chou, Yi-Ling; Lee, Chai-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Endotracheal intubation and prolonged immobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation may reduce expectoration function. High-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may ameliorate airway secretion movement; however, the instantaneous changes in patients’ cardiopulmonary responses are unknown. Moreover, HFCWO may influence ventilator settings by the vigorous oscillation. The aim of this study was to investigate these issues. Methods: Seventy-three patients (52 men) aged 71.5 ± 13.4 years who were intubated with mechanical ventilation for pneumonic respiratory failure were recruited and randomly classified into 2 groups (HFCWO group, n = 36; and control group who received conventional chest physical therapy (CCPT, n = 37). HFCWO was applied with a fixed protocol, whereas CCPT was conducted using standard protocols. Both groups received sputum suction after the procedure. Changes in ventilator settings and the subjects’ responses were measured at preset intervals and compared within groups and between groups. Results: Oscillation did not affect the ventilator settings (all P > 0.05). The mean airway pressure, breathing frequency, and rapid shallow breathing index increased, and the tidal volume and SpO2 decreased (all P < 0.05). After sputum suction, the peak airway pressure (Ppeak) and minute ventilation decreased (all P < 0.05). The HFCWO group had a lower tidal volume and SpO2 at the end of oscillation, and lower Ppeak and tidal volume after sputum suction than the CCPT group. Conclusions: HFCWO affects breathing pattern and SpO2 but not ventilator settings, whereas CCPT maintains a steadier condition. After sputum suction, HFCWO slightly improved Ppeak compared to CCPT, suggesting that the study extends the indications of HFCWO for these patients in intensive care unit. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02758106, retrospectively registered.) PMID:28248854

  7. High-frequency oscillation combined with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist reduces lung injury.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Wilhelm, Jochen; Küstermann, Julian; Fink, Ludger; Siebenlist, Gregor; Siebenliest, Gregor; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Foerster, Carola Y; Kranke, Peter; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    In order to optimize the lung-protective potential of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), it is currently recommended to maximize oscillatory frequencies. However, very high frequencies may lead to insufficient CO(2) elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) allows near total CO(2) removal, thereby allowing for maximization of the lung-protective potential of HFOV. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HFOV and av-ECLA on lung inflammation and function compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, the authors randomly assigned 16 female pigs to conventional lung-protective ventilation and HFOV/ECLA. Both strategies were combined with an "open-lung" approach. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were measured at intervals during the 24-hour study period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage and lung inflammation. The authors found that the combination of HFOV and av-ECLA (1) allows significant reductions in mean and peak airway pressures; and (2) reduces histological signs of lung inflammation in the basal regions of the lung. HFOV/av-ECLA reduces histological signs of lung inflammation compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation strategies. Thus, combination of HFOV and av-ECLA might be a further lung-protective tool if conventional ventilation strategies are failing.

  8. Network Mechanisms Generating Abnormal and Normal Hippocampal High-Frequency Oscillations: A Computational Analysis1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gliske, Stephen; Catoni, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are an intriguing potential biomarker for epilepsy, typically categorized according to peak frequency as either ripples (100–250 Hz) or fast ripples (>250 Hz). In the hippocampus, fast ripples were originally thought to be more specific to epileptic tissue, but it is still very difficult to distinguish which HFOs are caused by normal versus pathological brain activity. In this study, we use a computational model of hippocampus to investigate possible network mechanisms underpinning normal ripples, pathological ripples, and fast ripples. Our results unify several prior findings regarding HFO mechanisms, and also make several new predictions regarding abnormal HFOs. We show that HFOs are generic, emergent phenomena whose characteristics reflect a wide range of connectivity and network input. Although produced by different mechanisms, both normal and abnormal HFOs generate similar ripple frequencies, underscoring that peak frequency is unable to distinguish the two. Abnormal ripples are generic phenomena that arise when input to pyramidal cells overcomes network inhibition, resulting in high-frequency, uncoordinated firing. In addition, fast ripples transiently and sporadically arise from the precise conditions that produce abnormal ripples. Lastly, we show that such abnormal conditions do not require any specific network structure to produce coherent HFOs, as even completely asynchronous activity is capable of producing abnormal ripples and fast ripples in this manner. These results provide a generic, network-based explanation for the link between pathological ripples and fast ripples, and a unifying description for the entire spectrum from normal ripples to pathological fast ripples. PMID:26146658

  9. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Homan, J.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the high-frequency timing properties of the April-May 2000 outburst of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar XTE J1550-564, measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, The rapid X-ray variability we measure is consistent with the source being in either the "very high" or "intermediate" canonical black hole state. A strong (5-8% RMS) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) is found between 249-278 Hz; this may represent the first recurrence of the same high-frequency QPO in subsequent outbursts of a transient black hole candidate. We also present possible evidence for a lower-frequency QPO at approximately 187 Hz, also reported previously and likely present simultaneously with the higher-frequency QPO. We discuss these findings within the context of the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, and comment on implications for models of QPOs, accretion flows, and black hole spin.

  10. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; p<0.001). Maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; p<0.001) and SHAM-RMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021) groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s(-1)) achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001) in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading-induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  11. Large eddy simulation of high frequency oscillating flow in an asymmetric branching airway model.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Martin A; Cater, John E

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of artificial ventilation schemes is necessary when respiration fails. One approach involves the application of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) to the respiratory system. Oscillatory airflow in the upper bronchial tree can be characterized by Reynolds numbers as high as 10(4), hence, the flow presents turbulent features. In this study, transitional and turbulent flow within an asymmetric bifurcating model of the upper airway during HFOV are studied using large eddy simulation (LES) methods. The flow, characterized by a peak Reynolds number of 8132, is analysed using a validated LES model of a three-dimensional branching geometry. The pressures, velocities, and vorticity within the flow are presented and compared with prior models for branching flow systems. The results demonstrate how pendelluft occurs at asymmetric branches within the respiratory system. These results may be useful in optimising treatments using HFOV methods.

  12. Improvement of Laminar Lifted Flame Stability Excited by High-Frequency Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Mitsutomo; Hashimoto, Kota; Oso, Hiroki; Masuya, Goro

    A high-frequency (20kHz) standing wave was applied to the unburned mixture upstream of a methane-air lifted jet flame using a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) to improve stability. The flow field near the flame was visualized using acetone planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The standing wave decreased the lifted flame height and increased the blow-off limit. The upstream flow field of the center jet then bent. This phenomenon appeared when there was a density difference between the center jet and the surrounding secondary flow. When the density of the center jet was less than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure anti-node side. Conversely, when the density of the center jet was greater than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure node side. This redirection tended to stabilize the laminar lifted flame.

  13. Investigation of high frequency oscillations in the OV102 elevon actuation subsystems using continuous system modeling program simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. W., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Two theories emerged as the cause of undesired oscillations at frequencies between 40 and 60 Hz in the Orbiter Vehicle inboard and outboard elevon actuation subsystems during hardware testing. Both the "hardover feedback" and "deadspace" theories were examined using continuous system modeling program simulation. Results did not support the "hardover feedback" theory but showed that deadspace in the torque feedback spring connections to the servospools must be considered to be a possible cause of the oscillations. Further investigation is recommended.

  14. Effects of short term high frequency negative pressure ventilation on gas exchange using the Hayek oscillator in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hardinge, F. M.; Davies, R. J.; Stradling, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The Hayek oscillator is a negative pressure cuirass that can operate at a range of frequencies to provide ventilation, and is a technique which could potentially be used on a general ward. This study examined the effect of different frequencies and different ranges of inspiratory and expiratory pressures on gas exchange, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in normal subjects. METHODS--Eight normal subjects received five minute periods of ventilation using the Hayek oscillator at five different frequencies, and a combination of two spans of inspiratory and expiratory pressures and two mean chamber pressures. A "sham" or control period was also performed at each frequency. Measurements were made of changes in gas exchange, spontaneous respiratory rate, and blood pressure before and after ventilation. RESULTS--There was significant intersubject variation in all results, independent of their height and weight. "Sham" settings acted as true controls in terms of gas exchange, but produced a fall in respiratory rate at 30 oscillations/min. The lower oscillatory frequencies of 30 and 60 oscillations/min produced the greatest increase in oxygenation, decrease in end tidal carbon dioxide pressure, and decrease in spontaneous respiratory rate. These effects were most significant at higher spans of pressure and were different from "sham" settings. No adverse effects were observed on blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS--The Hayek oscillator can provide assisted ventilation for short periods in normal conscious subjects with no adverse side effects on blood pressure. Maximal changes in gas exchange and a significant reduction in the spontaneous respiratory rate are seen when a combination of lower frequencies (30 and 60 oscillations/min) and higher spans of pressure are used. PMID:7886648

  15. Stability analysis of a thin liquid film on an axially oscillating cylindrical surface in the high-frequency limit.

    PubMed

    Duruk, Selin; Oron, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We consider an axisymmetric liquid film on a horizontal cylindrical surface subjected to axial harmonic oscillation in the high-frequency limit. We derive and analyze the nonlinear evolution equation describing the nonlinear dynamics of this physical system in terms of the averaged film thickness. The method used for the derivation of the evolution equation is based on long-wave theory and the separation of the relevant fields into fast and slow components. We carry out the linear stability analysis for a film of a constant thickness which shows that axial forcing of the cylinder may result in either stabilization or destabilization of the axisymmetric flow with respect to the unforced one, depending on the choice of the parameter set. The analysis is extended to the weakly nonlinear stage and it reveals that the system bifurcates subcritically from the equilibrium.

  16. Cortical somatosensory evoked high-frequency (600Hz) oscillations predict absence of severe hypoxic encephalopathy after resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Endisch, Christian; Waterstraat, Gunnar; Storm, Christian; Ploner, Christoph J; Curio, Gabriel; Leithner, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Following cardiac arrest (CA), hypoxic encephalopathy (HE) frequently occurs and hence reliable neuroprognostication is crucial to decide on the extent of intensive care. Several investigations predict severe HE leading to persistent unresponsive wakefulness or death, with high specificity. Only few studies attempted to predict absence of severe HE. Cortical somatosensory evoked high-frequency (600Hz) oscillation (HFO) bursts indicate the presence of highly synchronized spiking activity in the primary somatosensory cortex. Since global neuronal damage characterizes severe HE preserved cortical HFOs may early exclude severe HE. We determined amplitudes of early and late HFO bursts in 302 comatose CA patients after median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SSEPs) and clinical outcome upon intensive care unit discharge using the cerebral performance category (CPC) scale. We detected significant early HFO bursts in 146 patients and late HFO bursts in 95 patients. Only one of 27 unresponsive wakefulness patients had a late HFO burst amplitude above 70nV and all seventeen patients who died despite higher amplitudes died from non-neurological causes. High-frequency SSEP components can reliably be studied in comatose CA patients using standard equipment. Late HFO burst amplitudes above 70nV largely exclude severe HE incompatible with regaining consciousness. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Axonal and synaptic failure suppress the transfer of firing rate oscillations, synchrony and information during high frequency deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Zimnik, Andrew; Zheng, Fang; Turner, Robert S; Alzheimer, Christian; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan E

    2014-02-01

    High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease, but its effects on neural activity in basal ganglia circuits are not fully understood. DBS increases the excitation of STN efferents yet decouples STN spiking patterns from the spiking patterns of STN synaptic targets. We propose that this apparent paradox is resolved by recent studies showing an increased rate of axonal and synaptic failures in STN projections during DBS. To investigate this hypothesis, we combine in vitro and in vivo recordings to derive a computational model of axonal and synaptic failure during DBS. Our model shows that these failures induce a short term depression that suppresses the synaptic transfer of firing rate oscillations, synchrony and rate-coded information from STN to its synaptic targets. In particular, our computational model reproduces the widely reported suppression of parkinsonian β oscillations and synchrony during DBS. Our results support the idea that short term depression is a therapeutic mechanism of STN DBS that works as a functional lesion by decoupling the somatic spiking patterns of STN neurons from spiking activity in basal ganglia output nuclei.

  18. The effects of cromolyn sodium in dogs undergoing high-frequency oscillation superimposed on conventional mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Matsunobe, S; Nemoto, T; Shimizu, Y; Hitomi, S

    1992-09-01

    The effects on gas exchange of superimposition of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) (40 Hz) on conventional mechanical ventilation were investigated in mongrel dogs with eucapnic gas exchange on conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). The dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated with CMV until stable. Oscillation was then superimposed for 15 min, followed by CMV alone for a further 30 min. During HFO superimposed on CMV (CMV-HFO), the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased from 43.6 +/- 1.2 mm Hg to 47.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.02), whereas the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) did not change at all. The change was inhibited completely by administration of intravenous cromolyn sodium (CS) (6 mg/kg/min). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) did not change during the experiment. These results demonstrate that CMV-HFO appears to cause CO2 accumulation and eliminates the impaired O2 transfer, and that these effects are inhibited completely by CS administration.

  19. High-Frequency X-Ray Oscillations and X-Ray Spectral Evolution in Galactic Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Morgan, E. H.; Muno, M.

    2002-12-01

    There are now 5 Galactic black hole candidates that have exhibited quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in X-rays in the range of 67 to 300 Hz. The rms amplitudes are near 1 % of the average flux, and in two cases there are significant changes in the QPO frequency. The short timescales and origin in X-rays suggest that these QPOs signify inner accretion disk oscillations rooted in General Relativity, but the particular mechanism is uncertain. For two of these cases, GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105, we trace the conditions under which these QPOs appear in terms of the division of luminosity between the X-ray components due to the accretion disk and the hard X-ray power law. In this context, the fast QPOs are most likely to occur when there is high luminosity in both the disk and the X-ray power-law component. On the other hand, the QPOs are not seen when the X-ray spectrum resembles either a pure disk or a dominant power-law component associated with a radio jet. The results imply a closer kinship for these QPOs than might be concluded from considerations of the gross shape of the X-ray spectrum.

  20. Comparison of high-frequency chest wall oscillation and oscillating positive expiratory pressure in the home management of cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oermann, C M; Sockrider, M M; Giles, D; Sontag, M K; Accurso, F J; Castile, R G

    2001-11-01

    Enhanced airway clearance is thought to result in better-maintained pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Postural drainage, percussion, and vibration (PDPV) have been the primary airway clearance technique (ACT) employed in CF for over 40 years. Two new airway clearance modalities are high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) and oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP). This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of these techniques during home use, assess patient satisfaction with them as compared to PDPV, and assess the feasibility of performing a definitive comparative trial. The prospective, randomized, multicenter crossover trial was conducted at three urban academic CF Care Centers. Twenty-nine CF patients, 9-39 years of age, participated. Subjects performed 4 weeks each of HFCWO and OPEP following 2-week lead-in/washout periods. Spirometry, lung volumes, National Institutes of Health and Petty Scores, and a satisfaction survey were performed at baseline and after each treatment period. An ACT preference survey was completed at the conclusion of the study. Twenty-four subjects completed both therapies. There were no statistically significant differences between therapies for spirometry, lung volumes, or clinical scores. No significant safety issues arose during the study period. Compliance between therapies was similar. Significant differences among therapies existed in patient satisfaction. Given a choice of therapy, 50% of subjects chose HFCWO, 37% OPEP, and 13% PDPV. This study suggests that HFCWO and OPEP are safe and as effective as patients' routine therapies when used for airway clearance in a home setting. Patient satisfaction and preference differ among ACTs and should be considered when prescribing home therapy. A definitive, multi-center, comparative study evaluating long-term efficacy of these techniques is feasible.

  1. Graphene mechanical oscillators with tunable frequency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyao; Lee, Sunwoo; Deshpande, Vikram V; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lekas, Michael; Shepard, Kenneth; Hone, James

    2013-12-01

    Oscillators, which produce continuous periodic signals from direct current power, are central to modern communications systems, with versatile applications including timing references and frequency modulators. However, conventional oscillators typically consist of macroscopic mechanical resonators such as quartz crystals, which require excessive off-chip space. Here, we report oscillators built on micrometre-size, atomically thin graphene nanomechanical resonators, whose frequencies can be electrostatically tuned by as much as 14%. Self-sustaining mechanical motion is generated and transduced at room temperature in these oscillators using simple electrical circuitry. The prototype graphene voltage-controlled oscillators exhibit frequency stability and a modulation bandwidth sufficient for the modulation of radiofrequency carrier signals. As a demonstration, we use a graphene oscillator as the active element for frequency-modulated signal generation and achieve efficient audio signal transmission.

  2. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Dario; Zanette, Damián H.; López, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical oscillators are present in almost every electronic device. They mainly consist of a resonating element providing an oscillating output with a specific frequency. Their ability to maintain a determined frequency in a specified period of time is the most important parameter limiting their implementation. Historically, quartz crystals have almost exclusively been used as the resonating element, but micromechanical resonators are increasingly being considered to replace them. These resonators are easier to miniaturize and allow for monolithic integration with electronics. However, as their dimensions shrink to the microscale, most mechanical resonators exhibit nonlinearities that considerably degrade the frequency stability of the oscillator. Here we demonstrate that, by coupling two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance, it is possible to stabilize the oscillation frequency of nonlinear self-sustaining micromechanical resonators. Our findings provide a new strategy for engineering low-frequency noise oscillators capitalizing on the intrinsic nonlinear phenomena of micromechanical resonators.

  3. Low-frequency Intensity Variation of the South Asian High and its relationship to Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wei; Ren, Xuejuan

    2016-04-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) is an important member among the Asian summer monsoon circulations in the upper troposphere located over the Tibean Plateau and its surrounding areas during boreal summer. This research attempts to study the characteristics and mechanisms of low-frequency oscillation of SAH, using daily ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and NECP/NCAR OLR data. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF)analysis is performed on 200hPa geopotential height low-frequency anomalies over the 20°-35°N, 35°-110°E for June, July and August from 1979 to 2013. The first EOF mode shows a monopole pattern capturing the strengthening or weakening of the SAH's body. The power spectrum analysis of the corresponding principal component (PC1) time series shows that the first mode has a period about 10-30 days. Positive anomalies appear in the 200hPa geopotential height and negative anomalies appear in their north side when SAH is in positive low-frequency phase. A band with negative outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies presents from the Arabian Sea, north of Indian Peninsula to Southeast China and Japan Island. Correspondingly, positive anomalous rainfall are contiguous in the north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau, Southeast China and Japan Island. The lead-lag regression analysis demonstrates that from day -12 to day 0, negative OLR anomalies band move northward and northwest from the equatorial Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengals, the South China sea and Western North Pacific to the Arabian Sea, north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau, Southeast China and Japan Island. Corresponding to OLR anomalies, positive rainfall anomalies band have the similar evolution. The spatial pattern of anomalies in integrated apparent heat source and integrated apparent moisture sink resemble that of rainfall and OLR, which correspond more anomalous condensation heat release. The lead-lag regression analysis also shows that the OLR band moving northward

  4. The measurement of frequency and frequency stability of precision oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The specification and performance of precision oscillators is discussed as a very important topic to the owners and users of these oscillators. This paper presents at the tutorial level some convenient methods of measuring the frequencies of precision oscillators -- giving advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Further it is shown that by processing the data from the frequency measurements in certain ways, one may be able to state more general characteristics of the oscillators being measured. The goal in this regard is to allow the comparisons of different manufacturers' specifications and more importantly to help assess whether these oscillators will meet the standard of performance the user may have in a particular application.

  5. Spike timing of lacunosom-moleculare targeting interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells during high-frequency network oscillations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Spampanato, Jay; Mody, Istvan

    2007-07-01

    Network activity in the 200- to 600-Hz range termed high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) has been detected in epileptic tissue from both humans and rodents and may underlie the mechanism of epileptogenesis in experimental rodent models. Slower network oscillations including theta and gamma oscillations as well as ripples are generated by the complex spike timing and interactions between interneurons and pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. We determined the activity of CA3 pyramidal cells, stratum oriens lacunosum-moleculare (O-LM) and s. radiatum lacunosum-moleculare (R-LM) interneurons during HFO in the in vitro low-Mg(2+) model of epileptiform activity in GIN mice. In these animals, interneurons can be identified prior to cell-attached recordings by the expression of green-fluorescent protein (GFP). Simultaneous local field potential recordings from s. pyramidale and on-cell recordings of individual interneurons and principal cells revealed three primary firing behaviors of the active cells: 36% of O-LM interneurons and 60% of pyramidal cells fired action potentials at high frequencies during the HFO. R-LM interneurons were biphasic in that they fired at high frequency at the beginning of the HFO but stopped firing before its end. When considering only the highest frequency component of the oscillations most pyramidal cells fired on the rising phase of the oscillation. These data provide evidence for functional distinction during HFOs within otherwise homogeneous groups of O-LM interneurons and pyramidal cells.

  6. Cardiac vagal outflow after aerobic training by analysis of high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of aerobic training on the dynamics between the R-R interval length and the high-frequency (HF) oscillation of the R-R interval. Seventeen healthy males (26+/-2 years) participated in an 8-week aerobic training intervention. The mean HF spectral power (0.15-0.4 Hz) of the R-R interval and the mean R-R interval length were analyzed from 24-h recordings. HF power was also analyzed in 5-min sequences and plotted as a function of the corresponding mean R-R interval length. The relationship between the R-R interval length and the HF power was analyzed by a quadratic regression model. The relationship was defined as saturated if the distinct deflection point of the model occurred before the maximum R-R interval. Otherwise, the relationship was defined as linear. Additionally, the mean HF power was calculated from the linear portion of the R-R interval versus the HF power regression curve (HF index). Before the training intervention, seven subjects had a saturated HF power. After the intervention, five new cases of saturated HF power were observed. The mean HF power of the 24-h recording did not change in the group with a saturated HF power before training (7.4+/-0.8 vs. 7.6+/-0.8 ms(2)), but the HF index increased (6.7+/-0.7 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ms(2), P<0.05). We conclude that enhanced vagal activity due to aerobic training increases the prevalence of the saturation of the HF oscillation of the R-R interval variability in healthy subjects. HF power calculated from unsaturated area detects more accurately subtle changes in the vagally mediated beat-to-beat variability of the R-R interval after aerobic training than the mean 24-h HF power.

  7. Topographic movie of intracranial ictal high-frequency oscillations with seizure semiology: epileptic network in Jacksonian seizures.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Chan, Derrick W; Go, Cristina Y; Ochi, Ayako; Elliott, Irene M; Donner, Elizabeth J; Weiss, Shelly K; Snead, O Carter; Rutka, James T; Drake, James M; Otsubo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a technique to produce images of dynamic changes in ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) >40 Hz recorded on subdural electroencephalography (EEG) that are time-locked to the ictal EEG and ictal semiology video. We applied this technique to Jacksonian seizures to demonstrate ictal HFO propagation along the homunculus in the primary sensory-motor cortex to visualize the underlying epileptic network. We analyzed intracranial ictal EEGs from two patients with intractable Jacksonian seizures who underwent epilepsy surgery. We calculated the degrees of increase in amplitude within 40-80, 80-200, and 200-300 Hz frequency bands compared to the interictal period and converted them into topographic movies projected onto the brain surface picture. We combined these data with the ictal EEGs and video of the patient demonstrating ictal semiology. The ictal HFOs began in the sensory cortex and appeared concomitantly with the sensory aura. They then propagated to the motor cortex at the same time that focal motor symptoms evolved. As the seizure progressed, the ictal HFOs spread or reverberated in the rolandic region. However, even when the seizure became secondarily generalized, the ictal HFOs were confined to the rolandic region. In both cases, there was increased amplitude of higher frequency bands during seizure initiation compared to seizure progression. This combined movie showed the ictal HFO propagation corresponding to the ictal semiology in Jacksonian seizures and revealed the epileptic network involved in seizure initiation and progression. This method may advance understanding of neural network activities relating to clinical seizure generation and propagation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Oscillation frequencies of solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Kidman, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Two solar models have been constructed, one with no diffusion of the atomic nuclei, and another including diffusive element separation. The opacity at the bottom of the convection zone was increased 15--20 percent (within its theoretical uncertainty) to obtain a few microhertz agreement with observed p-mode frequencies. Original helium mass fractions were 0.291 and 0.289 for the no-diffusion and diffusion models, respectively. The diffusion model evolved to a surface Y = 0.256 at the solar age, and the original Z value of 0.0200 decreased to 0.0179. Agreement of l = 0 and 2 p-mode frequency separations with those observed is good. The g-mode nonadiabatic solutions do not have equal period spacing until high radial order. The lowest order modes are more visible if they all have the same kinetic energy. High central temperatures, produce over 9 SNUs from the B and 1.5 SNUs from the Be reactions. Models with iron condensed-out below the convection zone, and with WIMPs cooling the central regions to reduce the SNUs, agree less well with p-mode frequency separations. 53 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Predicting the onset of high-frequency self-excited oscillations in a channel with an elastic wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Thomas; Whittaker, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Flow-induced oscillations of fluid-conveying elastic-walled channels arise in many industrial and biological systems including the oscillation of the vocal cords during phonation. We derive a system of equations that describes the wall displacement in response to the steady and oscillatory components of the fluid pressure derived by Whittaker et al. (2010). We show that the steady pressure component results in a base state deformation assumed to be small in magnitude relative to the length of the channel. The oscillation frequency of the elastic wall is determined by an eigenvalue problem paramterised by the shape of the base state deformation, the strength of axial tension relative to azimuthal bending, F , and the size of non-linear stretching effects from the wall's initial deformation, K . We determine the slow growth or decay of the normal modes in each by considering the energy budget of the system. The amplitude of the oscillations grow or decay exponentially with a growth rate Λ, which may be expressed in terms of a critical Reynolds number Rec . We use numerical simulations to identify three distinct regions in parameter regimes space and determine the stability of oscillations in each.

  10. Disentangling High Frequency Climate Oscillations In A Volcanic Setting Laguna Lejia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, S. H.; Ukstins Peate, I.; Giralt, S.; Peate, D. W.; van Alderwerelt, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the tropics response to periods of rapid climate change such as CAPE I and the Younger Dryas is limited. Laguna Lejia (23°30'0" S 67°42'0" E ~4,300m asl), Chile is a small alkaline paleolake located in the central Altiplano. The volcanoes Lascar, Chiliques, Aguas Calientes and Acamarachi surround it. 1-3 mm laminations in calcareous clay sediments deposited on the southern terrace of Lejia record high-resolution chemical variability in the lake. Preliminary U-Th ages range from 19,567 +739/- 734 yr to 4208 +431/-429 yr, indicating that the Lejia terrace deposits span both CAPE I and the Younger Dryas, periods of rapid global climate change. Changes in the major and trace element composition, δ18O and δ13 C isotopic ratios, and the amount of Li, Mg, Ca, and Sr that can be readily leached from high magnesium smectite clays provide a direct proxy for hydrologic fluctuations. A climate signal can be detected through reoccurring trends in the chemical variability of these sediments; however, the detection of this signal is complicated by interaction with surrounding volcanic edifices. Statistical methods such as PCA analyses using R have been implemented to separate groupings of volcanic controlled elemental fluctuations (Fe, Zr, Nd, Ti, and Al) from ones under the influence of climate. Spectral analyses have been applied to high-resolution major element data collected on Lejia's paleoshores tufa deposits. Data was collected on Ca, Mg and As at .5 um intervals using a Jeol JXA- 8230 Electron Microprobe at the University of Iowa, Earth and Environmental Sciences. These analyses provided statistical evidence for cyclisity at intervals of 5-15 um and 75-150 um in the banding of the tufas. While previous literature attributes the larger bands to annual chemical cycles the origin of the smaller bands is currently under investigation.

  11. High Power and Frequency-Agile Optical Parametric Oscillators for Airborne DIAL Measurements of CH4 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Shuman, T.; Chuang, T.; Hair, J. W.; Refaat, T. F.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Notari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) has the second largest radiative forcing of the long-lived greenhouse gasses (GHG) after carbon dioxide. However, methane's much shorter atmospheric lifetime and much stronger warming potential make its radiative forcing equivalent to that for CO2 over a 20-year time horizon which makes CH4 a particularly attractive target for mitigation strategies. Similar to CH4, water vapor (H2O) is the most dominant of the short-lived GHG in the atmosphere and plays a key role in many atmospheric processes. Atmospheric H2O concentrations span over four orders of magnitude from the planetary boundary layer where high impact weather initiates to lower levels in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) where water vapor has significant and long term impacts on the Earth's radiation budget. NASA Langley has fostered the technology development with Fibertek, Inc. to develop frequency agile and high power (> 3 W) pulsed lasers using similar architectures in the 1645 nm and 935 nm spectral bands for DIAL measurements of CH4 and H2O, respectively. Both systems utilize high power 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency Nd:YAG lasers to generate high power laser emission at the desired wavelength via optical parametric oscillators (OPO). The CH4 OPO, currently in its final build stage in a SBIR Phase II program has demonstrated >2 W average power with injection seeding from a distributed feedback (DFB) laser during risk reduction experiments. The H2O OPO has demonstrated high power operation (>2 W) during the SBIR Phase I program while being injection seeded with a DFB laser, and is currently funded via an SBIR Phase II to build a robust system for future integration into an airborne water vapor DIAL system capable of profiling from the boundary layer up to the UTLS. Both systems have demonstrated operation with active OPO wavelength control to allow for optimization of the DIAL measurements for operation at different altitudes and geographic regions. An

  12. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Sodium Nitrate Floating Half-Zones by High-frequency End-wall Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A.; Grugel, R. N.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were carried out in sodium nitrate floating half-zones. Such a half-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. Thermocapillary convection occurs in the melt because of the temperature gradient at the free surface of the melt. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillations occurred, the bottom end of the crystal rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate a streaming flow in a direction opposite to that of the thermocapillary convection. It is observed that, by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow, the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillary oscillations can be quenched.

  13. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Sodium Nitrate Floating Half-Zones by High-frequency End-wall Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A.; Grugel, R. N.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were carried out in sodium nitrate floating half-zones. Such a half-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. Thermocapillary convection occurs in the melt because of the temperature gradient at the free surface of the melt. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillations occurred, the bottom end of the crystal rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate a streaming flow in a direction opposite to that of the thermocapillary convection. It is observed that, by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow, the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillary oscillations can be quenched.

  14. Resting-state BOLD oscillation frequency predicts vigilance task performance at both normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaopeng; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Shuqin; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Zou, Qihong; Liu, Yijun; Sun, Gang; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-06-09

    Hyperthermia may impair vigilance functions and lead to slower reaction times (RTs) in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and possibly disturbing cerebral hemodynamic rhythms. To test these hypotheses, we acquired the resting-state BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) data, as well as PVTRTs from 15 participants in two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C). We adopted a data-driven method, frequency component analysis, to quantify the mean frequency of the BOLD series of each voxel. Across-subject correlation analysis was employed to detect the brain areas whose BOLD oscillation frequency was correlated with the RTs. Significant changes of BOLD frequency and CBF within these areas were compared between hyperthermia and normothermia conditions. Spatial correlations between BOLD frequency and CBF were calculated within different brain areas for each subject under both thermal conditions. Results showed that, under both thermal conditions, the RTs correlated with the BOLD frequency positively in the default mode network (DMN) and negatively in the sensorimotor network (SMN). The increase of BOLD frequency in the thalamus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the increase of RTs in hyperthermia compared with normothermia. Hyperthermia decreased BOLD frequency and CBF in the SMN, while it increased CBF in the thalamus and posterior cingulate. In both thermal conditions, the spatial distribution of CBF negatively correlated with the spatial distribution of BOLD oscillation frequency in most cortical areas, especially in cingulate cortices, precuneus, and primary visual cortex. These results suggest that hyperthermia might deteriorate task performance by interfering with the resting-state CBF, and with BOLD rhythms. The overlapping of the thermoregulatory and vigilance functions in the SMN and DMN might underlie the neural mechanisms of the cognitive-behavioral impairments induced by hyperthermia.

  15. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  16. Stabilizing Microwave Frequency of a Photonic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong

    2006-01-01

    A scheme for stabilizing the frequency of a microwave signal is proposed that exploits the operational characteristics of a coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) and related optoelectronic equipment. An essential element in the scheme is a fiber mode-locked laser (MLL), the optical frequency of which is locked to an atomic transition. In this scheme, the optical frequency stability of the mode-locked laser is transferred to that of the microwave in the same device. Relative to prior schemes for using wideband optical frequency comb to stabilize microwave signals, this scheme is simpler and lends itself more readily to implementation in relatively compact, rugged equipment. The anticipated development of small, low-power, lightweight, highly stable microwave oscillators based on this scheme would afford great benefits in communication, navigation, metrology, and fundamental sciences. COEOs of various designs, at various stages of development, in some cases called by different names, have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. A COEO is an optoelectronic apparatus that generates both short (picosecond) optical pulses and a steady microwave signal having an ultrahigh degree of spectral purity. The term "coupled optoelectronic" in the full name of such an apparatus signifies that its optical and electronic oscillations are coupled to each other in a single device. The present frequency-stabilization scheme is best described indirectly by describing the laboratory apparatus used to demonstrate it. The apparatus (see figure) includes a COEO that generates a comb-like optical spectrum, the various frequency components of which interfere, producing short optical pulses. This spectrum is centered at a nominal wavelength of 1,560 nm. The spectrum separation of this comb is about 10 GHz, as determined primarily by the length of an optical loop and the bandpass filter in the microwave feedback loop. The optical loop serves as microwave resonator

  17. Two Seizure-Onset Types Reveal Specific Patterns of High-Frequency Oscillations in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Maxime; Salami, Pariya; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations(HFOs; 80–500 Hz ) are thought to mirror the pathophysiological changes occurring in epileptic brains. However, the distribution of HFOs during seizures remains undefined. Here, we recorded from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex, and dentate gyrus to quantify the occurrence of ripples (80–200 Hz) and fast ripples (250–500 Hz) during low-voltage fast-onset (LVF) and hypersynchronous-onset (HYP) seizures in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We discovered in LVF seizures that (1) progression from preictal to ictal activity was characterized in seizure-onset zones by an increase of ripple rates that were higher when compared with fast ripple rates and (2) ripple rates during the ictal period were higher compared with fast ripple rates in seizure-onset zones and later in regions of secondary spread. In contrast, we found in HYP seizures that (1) fast ripple rates increased during the preictal period and were higher compared with ripple rates in both seizure-onset zones and in regions of secondary spread and (2) they were still higher compared with ripple rates in both seizure-onset zones and regions of secondary spread during the ictal period. Our findings demonstrate that ripples and fast ripples show distinct time- and region-specific patterns during LVF and HYP seizures, thus suggesting that they play specific roles in ictogenesis. PMID:22993442

  18. Effect of high-frequency chest wall oscillation versus chest physiotherapy on lung function after lung transplant.

    PubMed

    Esguerra-Gonzales, Angeli; Ilagan-Honorio, Monina; Kehoe, Priscilla; Fraschilla, Stephanie; Lee, Ai Jin; Madsen, Ashley; Marcarian, Taline; Mayol-Ngo, Kristina; Miller, Pamela S; Onga, Jay; Rodman, Betty; Ross, David; Shameem, Zeba; Nandy, Karabi; Toyama, Joy; Sommer, Susan; Tamonang, Cheryl; Villamor, Filma; Weigt, S Samuel; Gawlinski, Anna

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of chest physiotherapy (CPT) and high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) on lung function in lung transplant recipients. Chest physiotherapy and HFCWO are routinely used after lung transplant to attenuate dyspnea, increase expiratory flow, and improve secretion clearance. In a two-group experimental, crossover design with repeated-measures, 45 lung transplant recipients (27 single, 18 bilateral; 64% male; mean age, 57 years) were randomized to receive CPT at 10:00 AM and 2:00 PM followed by HFCWO at 6:00 PM and 10:00 PM (n=22) or vice versa (n=23) on postoperative day 3. Dyspnea (modified Borg score), Spo2/FiO2, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, t tests, and linear mixed effects models. There was no statistically significant treatment effect for dyspnea or PEF in patients who received HFCWO versus CPT. However, there was a significant treatment effect on the Spo2/FiO2 ratio (p<0.0001). Preliminary results suggest that lung function (measured by Spo2/FiO2) improves with HFWCO after lung transplantation. Although dyspnea and PEF did not differ significantly between treatment types, HFCWO may be an effective, feasible alternative to CPT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential effects of NMDA antagonists on high frequency and gamma EEG oscillations in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K G; Cotel, M C; McCarthy, A P; Edgar, D M; Tricklebank, M; O'Neill, M J; Jones, M W; Wafford, K A

    2012-03-01

    Neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural abnormalities following timed prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment in rats model changes observed in schizophrenia. In particular, MAM treatment on gestational day 17 (E17) preferentially disrupts limbic-cortical circuits, and is a promising animal model of schizophrenia. The hypersensitivity of this model to the NMDA receptor antagonist-induced hyperactivity has been proposed to mimic the increase in sensitivity observed in schizophrenia patients following PCP and Ketamine administration. However, how this increase in sensitivity in both patients and animals translates to differences in EEG oscillatory activity is unknown. In this study we have shown that MAM-E17 treated animals have an increased response to the hyperlocomotor and wake promoting effects of Ketamine, PCP, and MK801 but not to the competitive antagonist SDZ 220,581. These behavioural changes were accompanied by altered EEG responses to the NMDAR antagonists, most evident in the gamma and high frequency (HFO) ranges; altered sensitivity of these neuronal network oscillations in MAM-exposed rats is regionally selective, and reflects altered interneuronal function in this neurodevelopmental model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of high-frequency oscillation on blood flow to an atelectatic lung in closed-chest dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, S M; Strawn, W B; Levitzky, M G

    1984-05-01

    Seven dogs with electromagnetic flow probes implanted on their main (QT) and left (QL) pulmonary arteries, had catheters placed in their left atria and pulmonary artery, and were ventilated via Carlen's double-lumen endotracheal tubes. The effect of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow away from unilaterally atelectatic lungs was determined. During bilateral ventilation with 100% O2, using either a Harvard respirator (PPV) or an Emerson airway vibrator (HFO), the fraction of cardiac output perfusing the left lung (QL/QT) was 0.45 +/- .01 and 0.43 +/- .01, respectively, whereas PaO2 was 465 +/- 40 and 334 +/- 34 torr, respectively. With left lung atelectasis during right lung ventilation with PPV at 10 to 15 cycle/min, QL/QT fell to 0.37 +/- .01 and PaO2 was 56 +/- 5 torr. During HFO at 100 cycle/min, QL/QT fell to 0.32 +/- .02 whereas PaO2 rose to 102 +/- 23 torr. Mean transpulmonary pressure was 10.0 +/- 1.5 torr with PPV and 7.3 +/- 1.2 torr during HFO; intrapleural pressures were -3.2 +/- 1.6 and -5.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, respectively. Thus, the diversion of blood away from unilaterally atelectatic lungs was better maintained during HFO.

  1. Intraoperative subdural low-noise EEG recording of the high frequency oscillation in the somatosensory evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Tommaso; Schönenberger, Claudio; Curio, Gabriel; Serra, Carlo; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Sarnthein, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    The detectability of high frequency oscillations (HFO, >200Hz) in the intraoperative ECoG is restricted by their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using the somatosensory evoked HFO, we quantify how HFO detectability can benefit from a custom-made low-noise amplifier (LNA). In 9 patients undergoing tumor surgery in the central region, subdural strip electrodes were placed for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. We recorded the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) simultaneously by custom-made LNA and by a commercial device (CD). We varied the stimulation rate between 1.3 and 12.7Hz to tune the SNR of the N20 component and the evoked HFO and quantified HFO detectability at the single trial level. In three patients we compared Propofol® and Sevoflurane® anesthesia. In the average, amplitude decreased in both in N20 and evoked HFO amplitude with increasing stimulation rate (p<0.05). We detected a higher percentage of single trial evoked HFO with the LNA (p<0.001) for recordings with low impedance (<5kΩ). Average amplitudes were indistinguishable between anesthesia compounds. Low-noise amplification improves the detection of the evoked HFO in recordings with subdural electrodes with low impedance. Low-noise EEG might critically improve the detectability of interictal spontaneous HFO in subdural and possibly in scalp recordings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction with slow waves during sleep improves discrimination of physiologic and pathologic high-frequency oscillations (80-500 Hz).

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Frauscher, Birgit; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2016-06-01

    To characterize the interaction between physiologic and pathologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and slow waves during sleep, and to evaluate the practical significance of these interactions by automatically classifying channels as recording from normal or epileptic brain regions. We automatically detected HFOs in intracerebral electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 45 patients. We characterized the interaction between the HFOs and the amplitude and phase of automatically detected slow waves during sleep. We computed features associated with HFOs, and compared classic features such as rate, amplitude, duration, and frequency to novel features related to the interaction between HFOs and slow waves. To quantify the practical significance of the difference in these features we classified the channels as recording from normal/epileptic regions using logistic regression. We assessed the results in different brain regions to study differences in the HFO characteristics at the lobar level. We found a clear difference in the coupling between the phase of slow waves during sleep and the occurrence of HFOs. In channels recording physiologic activity, the HFOs tend to occur after the peak of the deactivated state of the slow wave, and in channels with epileptic activity, the HFOs occur more often before this peak. This holds for HFOs in the ripple (80-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) bands, and different regions of the brain. When using this interaction to automatically classify channels as recording from normal/epileptic brain regions, the performance is better than when using other HFO characteristics. We confirmed differences in the HFO characteristics in mesiotemporal structures and in the occipital lobe. We found the association between slow waves and HFOs to be different in normal and epileptic brain regions, emphasizing their different origin. This is also of practical significance, since it improves the separation between channels recording from normal

  3. High frequency chest wall oscillation for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amit K; Diette, Gregory B; Hatipoğlu, Umur; Bilderback, Andrew; Ridge, Alana; Harris, Vanessa Walker; Dalapathi, Vijay; Badlani, Sameer; Lewis, Stephanie; Charbeneau, Jeff T; Naureckas, Edward T; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2011-09-10

    High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is used for airway mucus clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of HFCWO early in the treatment of adults hospitalized for acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized, multi-center, double-masked phase II clinical trial of active or sham treatment initiated within 24 hours of hospital admission for acute asthma or COPD at four academic medical centers. Patients received active or sham treatment for 15 minutes three times a day for four treatments. Medical management was standardized across groups. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to therapy after four treatments (minutes used/60 minutes prescribed) and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included change in Borg dyspnea score (≥ 1 unit indicates a clinically significant change), spontaneously expectorated sputum volume, and forced expired volume in 1 second. Fifty-two participants were randomized to active (n = 25) or sham (n = 27) treatment. Patient adherence was similarly high in both groups (91% vs. 93%; p = 0.70). Patient satisfaction was also similarly high in both groups. After four treatments, a higher proportion of patients in the active treatment group had a clinically significant improvement in dyspnea (70.8% vs. 42.3%, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. HFCWO is well tolerated in adults hospitalized for acute asthma or COPD and significantly improves dyspnea. The high levels of patient satisfaction in both treatment groups justify the need for sham controls when evaluating the use of HFCWO on patient-reported outcomes. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the role of HFCWO in improving in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00181285.

  4. The Effects of Oscillator Stability on High-frequency GPS Phase Measurements:A Comparison of the First Atmospheric Sounding Data from GRACE with SAC-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, T.; Ao, C.; Hajj, G.; Iijima, B.

    2003-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric occultation data from identical instruments on CHAMP and SAC-C has been ongoing for nearly 2 full years. Atmospheric occultation data from both instruments show significant high-frequency phase signatures that do not cancel with the traditional single-difference technique. These signatures are due to a flaw in the design of the simple crystal-oscillator reference built in to the occultation instrument. Whether these phase errors cause significant upper-atmospheric measuring errors is unclear. The launch of the twin GRACE spacecraft in 2002 placed in orbit a nearly identical occultation instrument as SAC-C/CHAMP with the augmentation of an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) as the frequency reference. The relative merits of this higher-performance oscillator towards GPS occultation measurements will be presented along with comparisons of the GRACE occultation data with that of SAC-C.

  5. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-15

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10{sup −9} at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10{sup −11} τ{sup −1/2} up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  6. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2-4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be -23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is -105 dB rad2/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -150 dB rad2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10-9 at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10-11 τ-1/2 up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  7. Hemodynamic responses can modulate the brain oscillations in low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Yi-Feng; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have showed that the steady-state responses were able to be used as an effective index for modulating the neural oscillations in the high frequency ranges (> 1 Hz). However, the neural oscillations in low frequency ranges (<1 Hz) remain unknown. In this study, a series of fNIRS experimental tests were conducted to validate if the low frequency bands (0.1 Hz - 0.8 Hz) steady-state hemoglobin responses (SSHbRs) could be evoked and modulate the neural oscillation during a serial reaction time (SRT) task.

  8. Frequency stabilization by synchronization of Duffing oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanette, Damián H.

    2016-07-01

    We present analytical and numerical results on the joint dynamics of two coupled Duffing oscillators with nonlinearity of opposite signs (hardening and softening). In particular, we focus on the existence and stability of synchronized oscillations where the frequency is independent of the amplitude. In this regime, the amplitude-frequency interdependence (a-f effect) —a noxious consequence of nonlinearity, which jeopardizes the use of micromechanical oscillators in the design of time-keeping devices— is suppressed. By means of a multiple time scale formulation, we find approximate conditions under which frequency stabilization is achieved, characterize the stability of the resulting oscillations, and compare with numerical solutions to the equations of motion.

  9. Intracranial EEG seizure onset-patterns correlate with high-frequency oscillations in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, Francois; Gotman, Jean

    2016-11-01

    High-frequency oscillations (80-500Hz; HFOs) have been shown to be a specific biomarker of the seizure-onset zone. The relationship of HFOs with seizures having different intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) morphological onsets, however, has shown significant relationships in experimental animals but has not been studied in humans. We investigated how interictal and ictal HFOs relate to different seizure-onset morphological patterns. We analyzed the most representative seizure type of 37 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent iEEG for diagnostic evaluation. According to the morphology, 211 seizure-onset zone channels were classified in six patterns (low-voltage fast activity; sharp activity at ≤13Hz; low-frequency high-amplitude periodic spikes; burst of high-amplitude polyspikes; spike-and-wave activity; and delta brush). Interictal and ictal HFOs were compared between the six seizure-onset patterns. Interictal ripple and fast ripple rates differed significantly across seizure-onset patterns (p<0.001). Significant differences were also found for ictal HFOs density across the different seizure-onset patterns (p<0.001). Sharp activity at ≤13Hz was associated with the lowest interictal HFO rate suggesting either that the mechanism that generates this type of EEG morphology do not generate HFOs or possibly that this pattern is more likely to be generated in a region of seizure spread. Regarding the difference in HFO density between pre-ictal baseline and seizure-onset section across the six patterns, burst of high-amplitude polyspikes and delta brushes had the highest densities of both ripples and fast ripples (p<0.001). We demonstrated that distinct seizure-onset patterns correlate specific interictal and ictal HFO profiles confirming that seizures with different morphological patterns likely have different mechanisms of generation. This study emphazises that, in clinical practice, seizure-onset patterns should be distinguished and

  10. High-power mid-infrared frequency comb from a continuous-wave-pumped bulk optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Ulvila, Ville; Phillips, C R; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku

    2014-05-05

    We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a mid-infrared optical frequency comb (OFC) experimentally by using a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The comb is generated without any active modulation. It is based on cascading quadratic nonlinearities that arise from intra-cavity phase mismatched second harmonic generation of the signal wave that resonates in the OPO. The generated OFC is transferred from the signal wavelength (near-infrared) to the idler wavelength (mid-infrared) by intracavity difference frequency generation between the OPO pump wave and the signal comb. We have produced a mid-infrared frequency comb which is tunable from 3.0 to 3.4 µm with an average output power of up to 3.1 W.

  11. Interictal high-frequency oscillations generated by seizure onset and eloquent areas may be differentially coupled with different slow waves.

    PubMed

    Nonoda, Yutaka; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Ojeda, Alejandro; Makeig, Scott; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be spontaneously generated by seizure-onset and functionally-important areas. We determined if consideration of the spectral frequency bands of coupled slow-waves could distinguish between epileptogenic and physiological HFOs. We studied a consecutive series of 13 children with focal epilepsy who underwent extraoperative electrocorticography. We measured the occurrence rate of HFOs during slow-wave sleep at each electrode site. We subsequently determined the performance of HFO rate for localization of seizure-onset sites and undesirable detection of nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites defined by neurostimulation. We likewise determined the predictive performance of modulation index: MI(XHz)&(YHz), reflecting the strength of coupling between amplitude of HFOsXHz and phase of slow-waveYHz. The predictive accuracy was quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) on receiver-operating characteristics analysis. Increase in HFO rate localized seizure-onset sites (AUC⩾0.72; p<0.001), but also undesirably detected nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩾0.58; p<0.001). Increase in MI(HFOs)&(3-4Hz) also detected both seizure-onset (AUC⩾0.74; p<0.001) and nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩾0.59; p<0.001). Increase in subtraction-MIHFOs [defined as subtraction of MI(HFOs)&(0.5-1Hz) from MI(HFOs)&(3-4Hz)] localized seizure-onset sites (AUC⩾0.71; p<0.001), but rather avoided detection of nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩽0.42; p<0.001). Our data suggest that epileptogenic HFOs may be coupled with slow-wave3-4Hz more preferentially than slow-wave0.5-1Hz, whereas physiologic HFOs with slow-wave0.5-1Hz more preferentially than slow-wave3-4Hz during slow-wave sleep. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to determine if consideration of the spectral frequency bands of slow-waves coupled with HFOs can positively contribute to presurgical evaluation of patients with focal epilepsy. Copyright

  12. A clinical pilot study: high frequency chest wall oscillation airway clearance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Kathleen Marya; Walsh, Susan; Simmons, Zachary; Vender, Robert L

    2006-06-01

    Respiratory complications are common in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with respiratory failure representing the most common cause of death. Ineffective airway clearance resultant from deficient cough frequently contributes to these abnormalities. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) administered through the Vest Airway Clearance System when added to standard care in preventing pulmonary complications and prolonging the time to death in patients with ALS. This is a single center study performed at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center (HMC). Nine patients with a diagnosis of ALS and concurrently receiving non-invasive ventilatory support with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) were recruited from the outpatient clinic at HMC. Four patients were randomized to receive standard care and five patients to receive standard care plus the addition of HFCWO administered twice-daily for 15 min duration. Longitudinal assessments of oxyhemoglobin saturation, forced vital capacity (FVC), and adverse events were obtained until time of death. Pulmonary complications of atelectasis, pneumonia, hospitalization for a respiratory-related abnormality, and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation were monitored throughout the study duration. No differences were observed between treatment groups in relation to the rate of decline in FVC. The addition of HFCWO airway clearance failed to improve time to death compared to standard treatment alone (340 days +/- 247 vs. 470 days +/- 241; p = 0.26). The random allocation of HFCWO airway clearance to patients with ALS concomitantly receiving BiPAP failed to attain any significant clinical benefits in relation to either loss of lung function or mortality. This study does not exclude the potential benefit of HFCWO in select patients with ALS who have coexistent pulmonary diseases, pre-existent mucus-related pulmonary complications, or less severe levels of

  13. RIPPLELAB: A Comprehensive Application for the Detection, Analysis and Classification of High Frequency Oscillations in Electroencephalographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Rojas, Catalina; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Valderrama, Mario

    2016-01-01

    High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) in the brain have been associated with different physiological and pathological processes. In epilepsy, HFOs might reflect a mechanism of epileptic phenomena, serving as a biomarker of epileptogenesis and epileptogenicity. Despite the valuable information provided by HFOs, their correct identification is a challenging task. A comprehensive application, RIPPLELAB, was developed to facilitate the analysis of HFOs. RIPPLELAB provides a wide range of tools for HFOs manual and automatic detection and visual validation; all of them are accessible from an intuitive graphical user interface. Four methods for automated detection—as well as several options for visualization and validation of detected events—were implemented and integrated in the application. Analysis of multiple files and channels is possible, and new options can be added by users. All features and capabilities implemented in RIPPLELAB for automatic detection were tested through the analysis of simulated signals and intracranial EEG recordings from epileptic patients (n = 16; 3,471 analyzed hours). Visual validation was also tested, and detected events were classified into different categories. Unlike other available software packages for EEG analysis, RIPPLELAB uniquely provides the appropriate graphical and algorithmic environment for HFOs detection (visual and automatic) and validation, in such a way that the power of elaborated detection methods are available to a wide range of users (experts and non-experts) through the use of this application. We believe that this open-source tool will facilitate and promote the collaboration between clinical and research centers working on the HFOs field. The tool is available under public license and is accessible through a dedicated web site. PMID:27341033

  14. A comparison between automated detection methods of high-frequency oscillations (80–500 Hz) during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Pariya; Lévesque, Maxime; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, ripples: 80–200 Hz, fast ripples: 250–500 Hz) recorded from the epileptic brain are thought to reflect abnormal network-driven activity. They are also better markers of seizure onset zones compared to interictal spikes. There is thus an increasing number of studies analysing HFOs in vitro, in vivo and in the EEG of human patients with refractory epilepsy. However, most of these studies have focused on HFOs during interictal events or at seizure onset, and few have analysed HFOs during seizures. In this study, we are comparing three different automated methods of HFO detection to two methods of visual analysis, during the pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal periods on multiple channels using the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The first method (method 1) detected HFOs using the average of the normalised period, the second (method 2) detected HFOs using the average of the normalised period in 1 s windows and the third (method 3) detected HFOs using the average of a reference period before seizure onset. Overall, methods 2 and 3 showed higher sensitivity compared to method 1. When dividing the analysed traces in pre-, ictal and post-ictal periods, method 3 showed the highest sensitivity during the ictal period compared to method 1, while method 2 was not significantly different from method 1. These findings suggest that method 3 could be used for automated and reliable detection of HFOs on large data sets containing multiple channels during the ictal period. PMID:22983173

  15. Evolution of temporal and spectral dynamics of pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs) during epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan T.; Barth, Albert M.; Ormiston, Laurel D.; Mody, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) pathological high frequency oscillations (pHFOs, 200–600 Hz) are present in the hippocampus, especially the dentate gyrus (DG). The pHFOs emerge during a latent period prior to the onset of spontaneous generalized seizures. We used a unilateral suprahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) mouse model of TLE to characterize the properties of hippocampal pHFOs during epileptogenesis. Methods In awake head-fixed mice, 4–14 days after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE), we recorded local field potentials (LFP) with 64-channel silicon probes spanning from CA1 alveus to the DG hilus, or with glass pipettes in the DC mode in the CA1 str radiatum. Results The pHFOs, are observed simultaneously in the CA1 and the DG, or in the DG alone, as early as 4 days post-SE. The pHFOs ride on top of DC deflections, occur during motionless periods, persist through the onset of TLE, and are generated in bursts. Burst parameters remain remarkably constant during epileptogenesis, with a random number of pHFOs generated per burst. In contrast, pHFO duration and spectral dynamics evolve from short events at 4 days post-SE to prolonged discharges with complex spectral characteristics by 14 days post-SE. Simultaneous dural EEG recordings were exceedingly unreliable for detecting hippocampal pHFOs, hence such recordings may deceptively indicate a “silent” period even when massive hippocampal activity is present. Significance Our results demonstrate that hippocampal pHFOs exhibit a dynamic evolution during the epileptogenic period following SE, consistent with their role in transitioning to the chronic stage of TLE. PMID:26514993

  16. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, Stephan P.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy.

  17. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, S.P.

    1998-11-24

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy. 14 figs.

  18. Initial high-degree p-mode frequency splittings from the 1988 Mt. Wilson 60-foot Tower Solar Oscillation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    1988-01-01

    The initial frequency splitting results of solar p-mode oscillations obtained from the 1988 helioseismology program at the Mt. Wilson Observatory are presented. The frequency splittings correspond to the rotational splittings of sectoral harmonics which range in degree between 10 and 598. They were obtained from a cross-correlation analysis of the prograde and retrograde portions of a two-dimensional (t - v) power spectrum. This power spectrum was computed from an eight-hour sequence of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained on July 2, 1988, at the 60-foot tower telescope with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. These frequency splittings have an inherently larger scatter than did the splittings obtained from earlier 16-day power spectra. These splittings are consistent with an internal solar rotational velocity which is independent of radius along the equatorial plane. The normalized frequency splittings averaged 449 + or - 3 nHz, a value which is very close to the observed equatorial rotation rate of the photospheric gas of 451.7 nHz.

  19. Initial high-degree p-mode frequency splittings from the 1988 Mt. Wilson 60-foot Tower Solar Oscillation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    1988-01-01

    The initial frequency splitting results of solar p-mode oscillations obtained from the 1988 helioseismology program at the Mt. Wilson Observatory are presented. The frequency splittings correspond to the rotational splittings of sectoral harmonics which range in degree between 10 and 598. They were obtained from a cross-correlation analysis of the prograde and retrograde portions of a two-dimensional (t - v) power spectrum. This power spectrum was computed from an eight-hour sequence of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained on July 2, 1988, at the 60-foot tower telescope with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. These frequency splittings have an inherently larger scatter than did the splittings obtained from earlier 16-day power spectra. These splittings are consistent with an internal solar rotational velocity which is independent of radius along the equatorial plane. The normalized frequency splittings averaged 449 + or - 3 nHz, a value which is very close to the observed equatorial rotation rate of the photospheric gas of 451.7 nHz.

  20. High-frequency oscillations, extent of surgical resection, and surgical outcome in drug-resistant focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Haegelen, Claire; Perucca, Piero; Châtillon, Claude-Edouard; Andrade-Valença, Luciana; Zelmann, Rina; Jacobs, Julia; Collins, D. Louis; Dubeau, François; Olivier, André; Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose Removal of areas generating high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) recorded from the intracerebral electroencephalography (iEEG) of patients with medically intractable epilepsy has been found to be correlated with improved surgical outcome. However, whether differences exist according to the type of epilepsy is largely unknown. We performed a comparative assessment of the impact of removing HFO-generating tissue on surgical outcome between temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). We also assessed the relationship between the extent of surgical resection and surgical outcome. Methods We studied 30 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, 21 with TLE and 9 with ETLE. Two thirds of the patients were included in a previous report and for these, clinical and imaging data were updated and follow-up was extended. All patients underwent iEEG investigations (500 Hz high-pass filter and 2,000 Hz sampling rate), surgical resection, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). HFOs (ripples, 80–250 Hz; fast ripples, >250 Hz) were identified visually on a 5–10 min interictal iEEG sample. HFO rates inside versus outside the seizure-onset zone (SOZ), in resected versus nonresected tissue, and their association with surgical outcome (ILAE classification) were assessed in the entire cohort, and in the TLE and ETLE subgroups. We also tested the correlation of resected brain hippocampal and amygdala volumes (as measured on postoperative MRIs) with surgical outcome. Key Findings HFO rates were significantly higher inside the SOZ than outside in the entire cohort and TLE subgroup, but not in the ETLE subgroup. In all groups, HFO rates did not differ significantly between resected and nonresected tissue. Surgical outcome was better when higher HFO rates were included in the surgical resection in the entire cohort and TLE subgroup, but not in the ETLE subgroup. Resected brain hippocampal and amygdala volumes were not correlated with

  1. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  2. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R.; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L.; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  3. Lacosamide modulates interictal spiking and high-frequency oscillations in a model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Charles; Lévesque, Maxime; Ragsdale, David; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nearly one third of patients presenting with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent lesion-related epileptic disorder in adulthood, do not respond to currently available antiepileptic medications. Thus, there is a need to identify and characterize new antiepileptic drugs. In this study, we used the pilocarpine model of MTLE to establish the effects of a third generation drug, lacosamide (LCM), on seizures, interictal spikes and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, ripples: 80–200 Hz, fast ripples: 250–500 Hz). Methods Sprague–Dawley rats (250–300 g) were injected with pilocarpine to induce a status epilepticus (SE) that was pharmacologically terminated after 1 h. Eight pilocarpine-treated rats were then injected with LCM (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 4 h after SE and daily for 14 days. Eight pilocarpine-treated rats were used as controls and treated with saline. Three days after SE, all rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes in the hippocampal CA3 region, entorhinal cortex (EC), dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum and EEG-video monitored from day 4 to day 14 after SE. Results LCM-treated animals showed lower rates of seizures (0.21 (±0.11) seizures/day) than controls (2.6 (±0.57), p < 0.05), and a longer latent period (LCM: 11 (±1) days, controls: 6.25 (±1), p < 0.05). Rates of interictal spikes in LCM-treated rats were significantly lower than in controls in CA3 and subiculum (p < 0.05). Rates of ripples and fast ripples associated with interictal spikes in CA3 and subiculum as well as rates of fast ripples occurring outside of interictal spikes in CA3 were also significantly lower in LCM-treated animals. In controls, interictal spikes and associated HFOs correlated to seizure clustering, while this was not the case for isolated HFOs. Significance Our findings show that early treatment with LCM has powerful anti-ictogenic properties in the pilocarpine model of MTLE. These effects are accompanied by decreased rates of interictal spikes

  4. Afferent inputs to cortical fast-spiking interneurons organize pyramidal cell network oscillations at high-gamma frequencies (60–200 Hz)

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Nathan E.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.

    2014-01-01

    High-gamma activity, ranging in frequency between ∼60 Hz and 200 Hz, has been observed in local field potential, electrocorticography, EEG and magnetoencephalography signals during cortical activation, in a variety of functional brain systems. The origin of these signals is yet unknown. Using computational modeling, we show that a cortical network model receiving thalamic input generates high-gamma responses comparable to those observed in local field potential recorded in monkey somatosensory cortex during vibrotactile stimulation. These high-gamma oscillations appear to be mediated mostly by an excited population of inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons firing at high-gamma frequencies and pacing excitatory regular-spiking pyramidal cells, which fire at lower rates but in phase with the population rhythm. The physiological correlates of high-gamma activity, in this model of local cortical circuits, appear to be similar to those proposed for hippocampal ripples generated by subsets of interneurons that regulate the discharge of principal cells. PMID:25210164

  5. AlGaN/GaN-HEMTs with a breakdown voltage higher than 100 V and maximum oscillation frequency f{sub max} as high as 100 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Mokerov, V. G. Kuznetsov, A. L.; Fedorov, Yu. V.; Bugaev, A. S.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Enyushkina, E. N.; Gnatyuk, D. L.; Zuev, A. V.; Galiev, R. R.; Ovcharenko, E. N.; Sveshnikov, Yu. N.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2009-04-15

    The N-Al{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}N/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) with different gate lengths L{sub g} (ranging from 170 nm to 0.5 {mu}m) and gate widths W{sub s} (ranging from 100 to 1200 {mu}m) have been studied. The S parameters have been measured; these parameters have been used to determine the current-gain cutoff frequency f{sub t}, the maximum oscillation frequency f{sub max}, and the power gain MSG/MAG and Mason's coefficients were investigated in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 67 GHz in relation to the gate length and gate width. It was found that the frequencies f{sub t} and f{sub max} attain their maximum values of f{sub t} = 48 GHz and f{sub max} = 100 GHz at L{sub g} = 170 nm and W{sub g} = 100 {mu}m. The optimum values of W{sub g} and output power P out of the basic transistors have been determined for different frequencies of operation. It has also been demonstrated that the 170 nm Al{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}N/GaN HEMT technology provides both good frequency characteristics and high breakdown voltages and is very promising for high-frequency applications (up to 40 GHz)

  6. Precise Frequency Measurements Using a Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Yeh, N.-C.; Jiang, W.; Anderson, V. L.; Asplund, N.

    1999-01-01

    Many physics experiments call on improved resolution to better define the experimental results, thus improving tests of theories. Modern microwave technology combined with high-Q resonators can achieve frequency readout and control with resolutions up to a part in 10(exp 18). When the physical quantity in question in the experiment can be converted to a frequency or a change in frequency, a high-stability microwave oscillator can be applied to obtain state-of-the-art precision. In this work we describe the overall physical concepts and the required experimental procedures for optimizing a high-resolution frequency measurement system that employs a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity and a low-noise frequency synthesizer. The basic approach is to resolve the resonant frequencies of a high-Q (Q > 10(exp 10)) cavity to extremely high precision (one part in 10(exp 17)- 10(exp 18)). Techniques for locking the synthesizer frequency to a resonant frequency of the superconducting cavity to form an ultra-stable oscillator are described. We have recently set up an ultra-high-vacuum high-temperature annealing system to process superconducting niobium cavities, and have been able to consistently achieve Q > 10(exp 9). We have integrated high-Q superconducting cavities with a low-noise microwave synthesizer in a phase-locked-loop to verify the frequency stability of the system. Effects that disturb the cavity resonant frequency (such as the temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations) and methods to mitigate those effects are also considered. Applicability of these techniques to experiments will be discussed, and our latest experimental progress in achieving high-resolution frequency measurements using the superconducting-cavity-stabilized-oscillator will be presented.

  7. Direct limits on the oscillation frequency.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-07-14

    We report results of a study of the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency using a large sample of B(s)(0) semileptonic decays corresponding to approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002-2006. The amplitude method gives a lower limit on the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency at 14.8 ps(-1) at the 95% C.L. At delta m(s) = 19 ps(-1), the amplitude deviates from the hypothesis A= 0(1) by 2.5 (1.6) standard deviations, corresponding to a two-sided C.L. of 1% (10%). A likelihood scan over the oscillation frequency, delta m(s), gives a most probable value of 19 ps(-1) and a range of 17 < delta m(s) < 21 ps(-1)at the 90% C.L., assuming Gaussian uncertainties. This is the first direct two-sided bound measured by a single experiment. If delta m(s) lies above 22 ps(-1), then the probability that it would produce a likelihood minimum similar to the one observed in the interval 16-22 ps(-1) is (5.0 +/- 0.3)%.

  8. The effects of high-frequency oscillations in hippocampal electrical activities on the classification of epileptiform events using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Alan W. L.; Jahromi, Shokrollah S.; Khosravani, Houman; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2006-03-01

    The existence of hippocampal high-frequency electrical activities (greater than 100 Hz) during the progression of seizure episodes in both human and animal experimental models of epilepsy has been well documented (Bragin A, Engel J, Wilson C L, Fried I and Buzsáki G 1999 Hippocampus 9 137-42 Khosravani H, Pinnegar C R, Mitchell J R, Bardakjian B L, Federico P and Carlen P L 2005 Epilepsia 46 1-10). However, this information has not been studied between successive seizure episodes or utilized in the application of seizure classification. In this study, we examine the dynamical changes of an in vitro low Mg2+ rat hippocampal slice model of epilepsy at different frequency bands using wavelet transforms and artificial neural networks. By dividing the time-frequency spectrum of each seizure-like event (SLE) into frequency bins, we can analyze their burst-to-burst variations within individual SLEs as well as between successive SLE episodes. Wavelet energy and wavelet entropy are estimated for intracellular and extracellular electrical recordings using sufficiently high sampling rates (10 kHz). We demonstrate that the activities of high-frequency oscillations in the 100-400 Hz range increase as the slice approaches SLE onsets and in later episodes of SLEs. Utilizing the time-dependent relationship between different frequency bands, we can achieve frequency-dependent state classification. We demonstrate that activities in the frequency range 100-400 Hz are critical for the accurate classification of the different states of electrographic seizure-like episodes (containing interictal, preictal and ictal states) in brain slices undergoing recurrent spontaneous SLEs. While preictal activities can be classified with an average accuracy of 77.4 ± 6.7% utilizing the frequency spectrum in the range 0-400 Hz, we can also achieve a similar level of accuracy by using a nonlinear relationship between 100-400 Hz and <4 Hz frequency bands only.

  9. Abnormalities of neuronal oscillations and temporal integration to low- and high-frequency auditory stimulation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jordan P; Gilmore, Casey S; Picchetti, Natalie A M; Sponheim, Scott R; Clementz, Brett A

    2011-05-15

    Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography studies indicate among schizophrenia patients (SZ) abnormal, often reduced, entrained steady-state (aSSR) and transient (N100/M100) neural responses to auditory stimuli. We complement this literature by focusing analyses on auditory cortices, assessing a wide range of stimulation frequencies with long driving periods and evaluating relationships between aSSR and M100 reductions in SZ. Seventeen SZ and 17 healthy subjects (H) participated. Stimuli were 1500 msec binaural broadband noise sequences modulated at 5, 20, 40, 80, or 160 Hz. Magnetoencephalography data were collected and co-registered with structural magnetic resonance images. The aSSRs and M100s projected into brain space were analyzed as a function of hemisphere, stimulus density, and time. For aSSR, SZ displayed weaker entrainment bilaterally at low (5-Hz) and high (80-Hz) modulation frequencies. To 40-Hz stimuli, SZ showed weaker entrainment only in right auditory cortex. For M100, while responses for H increased linearly with stimulus density, this effect was weaker or absent in SZ. A principal components analysis of SZ deficits identified low (5-Hz entrainment and M100) and high (40- to 80-Hz entrainment) frequency components. Discriminant analysis indicated that the low-frequency component uniquely differentiated SZ from H. The high-frequency component correlated with negative symptoms among SZ. The SZ auditory cortices were unable to 1) generate healthy levels of theta and high gamma band (80-Hz) entrainment (aSSR), and 2) augment transient responses (M100s) to rapidly presented auditory information (an index of temporal integration). Only the latter was most apparent in left hemisphere and may reflect a prominent neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term variability in QT interval and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on high-frequency autonomic oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Champeroux, P; Thireau, J; Judé, S; Laigot-Barbé, C; Maurin, A; Sola, M L; Fowler, J S L; Richard, S; Le Guennec, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The present study was undertaken to investigate an effect of dofetilide, a potent arrhythmic blocker of the voltage-gated K+ channel, hERG, on cardiac autonomic control. Combined with effects on ardiomyocytes, these properties could influence its arrhythmic potency. Experimental Approach The short-term variability of beat-to-beat QT interval (STVQT), induced by dofetilide is a strong surrogate of Torsades de pointes liability. Involvement of autonomic modulation in STVQT was investigated in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs by power spectral analysis under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Key Results Increase in STVQT induced by dofetilide in monkeys and dogs was closely associated with an enhancement of endogenous heart rate and QT interval high-frequency (HF) oscillations. These effects were fully suppressed under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Ventricular arrhythmias, including Torsades de pointes in monkeys, were prevented in both species when HF oscillations were suppressed by autonomic blockade. Similar enhancements of heart rate HF oscillations were found in dogs with other hERG blockers described as causing Torsades de pointes in humans. Conclusions and Implications These results demonstrate for the first time that beat-to-beat ventricular repolarization variability and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on endogenous HF autonomic oscillations in heart rate. When combined with evidence of hERG-blocking properties, enhancement of endogenous HF oscillations in heart rate could constitute an earlier and more sensitive biomarker than STVQT for Torsades de pointes liability, applicable to preclinical regulatory studies conducted in healthy animals. PMID:25625756

  11. Low Frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the High-eccentric LMXB Cir X-1: Extending the WK Correlation for Z Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Qingcui; Belloni, T. M.; Chen, Li; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-06-01

    Using archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we studied the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 and examined their contribution to frequency-frequency correlations for Z sources. We also studied the orbital phase effects on the LFQPO properties and found them to be phase independent. Comparing LFQPO frequencies in different classes of LMXBs, we found that systems that show both Z and atoll states form a common track with atoll/BH sources in the so-called WK correlation, while persistent Z systems are offset by a factor of about two. We found that neither source luminosity nor mass accretion rate is related to the shift of persistent Z systems. We discuss the possibility of a misidentification of fundamental frequency for horizontal branch oscillations from persistent Z systems and interpreted the oscillations in terms of models based on relativistic precession.

  12. High-efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2005-02-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803{approx}nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency {lambda} = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  13. High efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2005-03-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803~nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency λ = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  14. Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-07-05

    The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Detection With Rhessi of High Frequency X-ray Oscillations in the Tail of the 2004 Hyperflare From SGR 1806-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Anna L.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of high frequency oscillations in giant flares from SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 may be the first direct detection of vibrations in a neutron star crust. If this interpretation is correct it offers a novel means of testing the neutron star equation of state, crustal breaking strain, and magnetic field configuration. Using timing data from RHESSI, we have confirmed the detection of a 92.5 Hz Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) in the tail of the SGR 1806-20 giant flare. We also find another, stronger, QPO at higher energies, at 626.5 Hz. Both QPOs are visible only at particular (but different) rotational phases, implying an association with a specific area of the neutron star surface or magnetosphere. At lower frequencies we confirm the detection of an 18 Hz QPO, at the same rotational phase as the 92.5 Hz QPO, and report the additional presence of a broad 26 Hz QPO. We are however unable to make a robust confirmation of the presence of a 30 Hz QPO, despite higher count rates. We discuss our results in the light of neutron star vibration models.

  16. Entrained neural oscillations in multiple frequency bands comodulate behavior

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Molly J.; Herrmann, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Our sensory environment is teeming with complex rhythmic structure, to which neural oscillations can become synchronized. Neural synchronization to environmental rhythms (entrainment) is hypothesized to shape human perception, as rhythmic structure acts to temporally organize cortical excitability. In the current human electroencephalography study, we investigated how behavior is influenced by neural oscillatory dynamics when the rhythmic fluctuations in the sensory environment take on a naturalistic degree of complexity. Listeners detected near-threshold gaps in auditory stimuli that were simultaneously modulated in frequency (frequency modulation, 3.1 Hz) and amplitude (amplitude modulation, 5.075 Hz); modulation rates and types were chosen to mimic the complex rhythmic structure of natural speech. Neural oscillations were entrained by both the frequency modulation and amplitude modulation in the stimulation. Critically, listeners’ target-detection accuracy depended on the specific phase–phase relationship between entrained neural oscillations in both the 3.1-Hz and 5.075-Hz frequency bands, with the best performance occurring when the respective troughs in both neural oscillations coincided. Neural-phase effects were specific to the frequency bands entrained by the rhythmic stimulation. Moreover, the degree of behavioral comodulation by neural phase in both frequency bands exceeded the degree of behavioral modulation by either frequency band alone. Our results elucidate how fluctuating excitability, within and across multiple entrained frequency bands, shapes the effective neural processing of environmental stimuli. More generally, the frequency-specific nature of behavioral comodulation effects suggests that environmental rhythms act to reduce the complexity of high-dimensional neural states. PMID:25267634

  17. Entrained neural oscillations in multiple frequency bands comodulate behavior.

    PubMed

    Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-10-14

    Our sensory environment is teeming with complex rhythmic structure, to which neural oscillations can become synchronized. Neural synchronization to environmental rhythms (entrainment) is hypothesized to shape human perception, as rhythmic structure acts to temporally organize cortical excitability. In the current human electroencephalography study, we investigated how behavior is influenced by neural oscillatory dynamics when the rhythmic fluctuations in the sensory environment take on a naturalistic degree of complexity. Listeners detected near-threshold gaps in auditory stimuli that were simultaneously modulated in frequency (frequency modulation, 3.1 Hz) and amplitude (amplitude modulation, 5.075 Hz); modulation rates and types were chosen to mimic the complex rhythmic structure of natural speech. Neural oscillations were entrained by both the frequency modulation and amplitude modulation in the stimulation. Critically, listeners' target-detection accuracy depended on the specific phase-phase relationship between entrained neural oscillations in both the 3.1-Hz and 5.075-Hz frequency bands, with the best performance occurring when the respective troughs in both neural oscillations coincided. Neural-phase effects were specific to the frequency bands entrained by the rhythmic stimulation. Moreover, the degree of behavioral comodulation by neural phase in both frequency bands exceeded the degree of behavioral modulation by either frequency band alone. Our results elucidate how fluctuating excitability, within and across multiple entrained frequency bands, shapes the effective neural processing of environmental stimuli. More generally, the frequency-specific nature of behavioral comodulation effects suggests that environmental rhythms act to reduce the complexity of high-dimensional neural states.

  18. High-frequency oscillations as a consequence of neglected serial damping in Hill-type muscle models.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Wank, Veit

    2007-07-01

    High-frequency vibrations e.g., induced by legs impacting with the ground during terrestrial locomotion can provoke damage within tendons even leading to ruptures. So far, macroscopic Hill-type muscle models do not account for the observed high-frequency damping at low-amplitudes. Therefore, former studies proposed that protective damping might be explained by modelling the contractile machinery of the muscles in more detail, i.e., taking the microscopic processes of the actin-myosin coupling into account. In contrast, this study formulates an alternative hypothesis: low but significant damping of the passive material in series to the contractile machinery--e.g., tendons, aponeuroses, titin--may well suffice to damp these hazardous vibrations. Thereto, we measured the contraction dynamics of a piglet muscle-tendon complex (MTC) in three contraction modes at varying loads and muscle-tendon lengths. We simulated all three respective load situations on a computer: a Hill-type muscle model including a contractile element (CE) and each an elastic element in parallel (PEE) and in series (SEE) to the CE pulled on a loading mass. By comparing the model to the measured output of the MTC, we extracted a consistent set of muscle parameters. We varied the model by introducing either linear damping in parallel or in series to the CE leading to accordant re-formulations of the contraction dynamics of the CE. The comparison of the three cases (no additional damping, parallel damping, serial damping) revealed that serial damping at a physiological magnitude suffices to explain damping of high-frequency vibrations of low amplitudes. The simulation demonstrates that any undamped serial structure within the MTC enforces SEE-load eigenoscillations. Consequently, damping must be spread all over the MTC, i.e., rather has to be de-localised than localised within just the active muscle material. Additionally, due to suppressed eigenoscillations Hill-type muscle models taking into account

  19. Sustaining GHz oscillation of carbon nanotube based oscillators via a MHz frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Zhe Liu, Jefferson

    2016-05-01

    There have been intensive studies to investigate the properties of gigahertz nano-oscillators based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Many of these studies, however, revealed that the unique telescopic translational oscillations in such devices would damp quickly due to various energy dissipation mechanisms. This challenge remains the primary obstacle against its practical applications. Herein, we propose a design concept in which a GHz oscillation could be re-excited by a MHz mechanical motion. This design involves a triple-walled CNT, in which sliding of the longer inner tube at a MHz frequency can re-excite and sustain a GHz oscillation of the shorter middle tube. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations prove this design concept at ˜10 nm scale. A mathematical model is developed to explore the feasibility at a larger size scale. As an example, in an oscillatory system with the CNT’s length above 100 nm, the high oscillatory frequency range of 1.8-3.3 GHz could be excited by moving the inner tube at a much lower frequency of 53.4 MHz. This design concept together with the mechanical model could energize the development of GHz nano-oscillators in miniaturized electro-mechanical devices.

  20. Atomically referenced 1-GHz optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Richard A; Balskus, Karolis; Zhang, Zhaowei; Reid, Derryck T

    2015-06-15

    The visible to mid-infrared coverage of femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency combs makes them attractive resources for high-resolution spectroscopy and astrophotonic spectrograph calibration. Such applications require absolute traceability and wide comb-tooth spacing, attributes which until now have remained unavailable from any single OPO frequency comb. Here, we report a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire pumped OPO comb whose repetition and offset frequencies are referenced to Rb-stabilised microwave and laser oscillators respectively. This technique simultaneously achieves fully stabilized combs from both the Ti:sapphire laser and the OPO with sub-MHz comb-tooth linewidths, multi-hour locking stability and without the need for super-continuum generation.

  1. High-power, single-frequency, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator employing a variable reflectivity volume Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Peter; Thilmann, Nicky; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    A continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) with an optimum extraction efficiency, that can be adjusted independent of the pump power, is demonstrated. The scheme employs a variable-reflectivity volume Bragg grating (VBG) as the output coupler of a ring cavity, omitting any additional intra-cavity elements. In this configuration, we obtained a 75%-efficient SRO with a combined signal (19 W @ 1.55 µm) and idler (11 W @ 3.4 µm) output power of 30 W.

  2. A synthetic low-frequency mammalian oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, Marcel; Dénervaud, Nicolas; Greber, David; Stelling, Joerg; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks have long been known to be essential for the maintenance of physiological and behavioral processes in a variety of organisms ranging from plants to humans. Dysfunctions that subvert gene expression of oscillatory circadian-clock components may result in severe pathologies, including tumors and metabolic disorders. While the underlying molecular mechanisms and dynamics of complex gene behavior are not fully understood, synthetic approaches have provided substantial insight into the operation of complex control circuits, including that of oscillatory networks. Using iterative cycles of mathematical model-guided design and experimental analyses, we have developed a novel low-frequency mammalian oscillator. It incorporates intronically encoded siRNA-based silencing of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator to enable the autonomous and robust expression of a fluorescent transgene with periods of 26 h, a circadian clock-like oscillatory behavior. Using fluorescence-based time-lapse microscopy of engineered CHO-K1 cells, we profiled expression dynamics of a destabilized yellow fluorescent protein variant in single cells and real time. The novel oscillator design may enable further insights into the system dynamics of natural periodic processes as well as into siRNA-mediated transcription silencing. It may foster advances in design, analysis and application of complex synthetic systems in future gene therapy initiatives. PMID:20197318

  3. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golykh, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  4. Expired tidal volumes measured by hot-wire anemometer during high-frequency oscillation in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Zimová-Herknerová, Magdalena; Plavka, Richard

    2006-05-01

    We sought to determine the normocapnic values of expiratory tidal volume measured by hot-wire anemometer, and to evaluate how often expiratory tidal volume exceeds estimated anatomical dead space during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in preterm infants. We also sought to determine the relationship between expiratory tidal volume and other respiratory parameters. The neonatal respiration monitor SLE 2100 VPM, a hot-wire anemometer, was used to measure expired tidal volume (V(T,E)) in patients ventilated by the Sensormedics 3,100A during routine clinical use of HFOV. Two hundred and fourteen simultaneous measurements of PaCO(2), V(T,E), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), continuous distending pressure (CDP), frequency, and amplitude were obtained from 28 patients. The median birth weight was 852 g (range, 435-3,450 g), and median gestational age was 27.2 weeks (range, 23.3-41.0 weeks). One hundred and eighteen (55%) normocapnic measurements, 42 (20%) hypocapnic measurements, and 54 (25%) hypercapnic measurements were recorded in which the median V(T,E) was 1.67 ml/kg (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-1.79), 1.94 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.74-2.14), and 1.54 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.42-1.66), respectively. The measured V(T,E) exceeded 2.0 ml/kg in 30 instances of normocapnic V(T,E) (14%) and 54 of all V(T,E) (25%), and 3 ml/kg only in 7 (3%) and 11 (5%) instances of normocapnic and all V(T,E). There was a significant difference in median normocapnic V(T,E) obtained when FiO(2) was between 0.21-0.35, compared to values obtained when FiO(2) was 0.36-1.0 (1.61 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.52-1.70) vs. 2.06 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.93-2.19), P < 0.002). The calculated values of PaCO(2) between 35-47, using the calculated regression equation for prediction of PaCO(2) (mmHg), correctly predicted normocapnic values in 60% of measurements. Values >47 should predict hypercapnia in 81% of cases. In conclusion, expired tidal volume measurement by heated double-wire anemometer sensor is feasible

  5. Mismatch negativity and low frequency oscillations in schizophrenia families.

    PubMed

    Hong, L Elliot; Moran, Lauren V; Du, Xiaoming; O'Donnell, Patricio; Summerfelt, Ann

    2012-10-01

    Theta-alpha range oscillations have been associated with MMN in healthy controls. Our previous studies showed that theta-alpha activities are highly heritable in schizophrenia patients' families. We aimed to test the hypothesis that theta-alpha activities may contribute to MMN in schizophrenia patients and their family members. We compared MMN and single trial oscillations during MMN in 95 patients, 75 first-degree relatives, 87 controls, and 34 community subjects with schizophrenia spectrum personality (SSP) traits. We found that (1) MMN was reduced in patients (p<0.001) and SSP subjects (p=0.047) but not in relatives (p=0.42); (2) there were augmented 1-20 Hz oscillations in patients (p=0.02 to <0.001) during standard and deviant stimuli; (3) theta-alpha (5-12 Hz) oscillations had the strongest correlation to MMN in controls and relatives (ΔR(2)=21.4-23.9%, all p<0.001), while delta (<5 Hz) showed the strongest correlation to MMN in schizophrenia and SSP trait subjects; and, (4) MMN (h(2)=0.56, p=0.002) and theta-alpha (h(2)=0.55, p=0.004) were heritable traits. Low frequency oscillations have a robust relationship with MMN and the relationship appears altered by schizophrenia; and schizophrenia patients showed augmented low frequency activities during the MMN paradigm. The results encourage investigation of low frequency oscillations to elucidate the neurophysiological pathology underlying MMN abnormalities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of the periodogram in the analysis of high frequency basal blood sugar oscillations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Brodan, V; Hájek, M

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four triplicate samples of the morning blood sugar of 17 fasting healthy women were taken from the cubital vein with a cannula at 15-sec intervals. The mean value was 4.44+/-0.69 mmol/l and the mean variation range 22.4+/-9.2%. Variability within the sets of three samples was 1.7+/-0.9%. In 23.5% of the cases, statistically significant periodicities (p less than 0.05) were detected by computing the periodogram. In 29.4%, several periodic components (2--4) were detected simultaneously. After deducting harmonic components, the residual scatter fell by an average 43.9%. In four cases the drop was significant in the F test at 1% and in one case at 5% level. The periodic components of the observed oscillations could be due to oscillation in feedback control circuits and the main role in the random component was evidently played by inadequate glucose blending in the circulation.

  7. Electrical synchronization of spin-torque oscillators driven by self-emitted high frequency current (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunegi, Sumito; Lebrun, Romain; Grimaldi, Eva; Jenkins, Alex S.; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Bortolotti, Paolo; Grollier, Julie; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Cros, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    The rich physics of spin transfer nano-oscillators (STNO) has provoked a huge interest to create a new generation of multi-functional microwave spintronic devices [1]. It has been often emphasized that their nonlinear behavior gives a unique opportunity to tune their radiofrequency (rf) properties but at the cost of large phase noise, not compatible with practical applications. To tackle this issue as well as to open the opportunities to new developments for non-boolean computations [1], one strategy is to use electrical synchronization of STOs through the rf current. Thereby, it is crucial to understand how the synchronization forces transmitted through the electric current. In this talk, we will first present the results of an experimental study showing the self-synchronization of STNO by re-injecting its rf current after a certain delay time [2]. In the second part, we demonstrate that the synchronization of two vortex-STNOs connected in parallel can be tuned either by an artificial delay or by the spin transfer torques [3]. The synchronization of spin-torque oscillators, combined with the drastic improvement of the rf-features (linewidth decreases by a factor of 2 and power increases by a factor of 4) in the synchronized state, marks an important milestone towards a new generation of rf-devices based on STNO. The authors acknowledge the financial support from ANR agency (SPINNOVA: ANR-11-NANO-0016) and EU grant (MOSAIC: ICT-FP7-317950). [1] N. Locatelli, V. Cros, and J. Grollier, Nat Mater 13, 11 (2014). [2] S. Tsunegi et al., arXiv:1509.05583 (2015) [3] R. Lebrun et al., arXiv:1601.01247 (2016)

  8. Frequency stability improvement for piezoresistive micromechanical oscillators via synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Dong; Huan, Ronghua; Wei, Xueyong

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization phenomenon first discovered in Huygens' clock shows that the rhythms of oscillating objects can be adjusted via an interaction. Here we show that the frequency stability of a piezoresistive micromechanical oscillator can be enhanced via synchronization. The micromechanical clamped-clamped beam oscillator is built up using the electrostatic driving and piezoresistive sensing technique and the synchronization phenomenon is observed after coupling it to an external oscillator. An enhancement of frequency stability is obtained in the synchronization state. The influences of the synchronizing perturbation intensity and frequency detuning applied on the oscillator are studied experimentally. A theoretical analysis of phase noise leads to an analytical formula for predicting Allan deviation of the frequency output of the piezoresistive oscillator, which successfully explains the experimental observations and the mechanism of frequency stability enhancement via synchronization.

  9. Low-Frequency Oscillations and Control of the Motor Output

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2017-01-01

    A less precise force output impairs our ability to perform movements, learn new motor tasks, and use tools. Here we show that low-frequency oscillations in force are detrimental to force precision. We summarize the recent evidence that low-frequency oscillations in force output represent oscillations of the spinal motor neuron pool from the voluntary drive, and can be modulated by shifting power to higher frequencies. Further, force oscillations below 0.5 Hz impair force precision with increased voluntary drive, aging, and neurological disease. We argue that the low-frequency oscillations are (1) embedded in the descending drive as shown by the activation of multiple spinal motor neurons, (2) are altered with force intensity and brain pathology, and (3) can be modulated by visual feedback and motor training to enhance force precision. Thus, low-frequency oscillations in force provide insight into how the human brain regulates force precision. PMID:28261107

  10. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  11. Frequency anomaly in the Rashba-effect induced magnetization oscillations of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, B.; Heedt, S.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schäpers, Th.; Heyn, Ch.; Wilde, M. A.; Grundler, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the direct measurement of the quantum oscillatory magnetization M of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in an InGaAs/InP asymmetric quantum well we discover a frequency anomaly of the de Haas-van Alphen effect which is not consistent with existing theories on spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Strikingly, the oscillatory magnetoresistance of the same heterostructure, that is, the Shubnikov-de Haas effect conventionally used to explore SOI, does not show the frequency anomaly. This explains why our finding has not been reported for almost three decades. The understanding of the ground state energy of a 2DES is evidenced to be incomplete when SOI is present.

  12. Primary somatosensory contextual modulation is encoded by oscillation frequency change.

    PubMed

    Götz, T; Milde, T; Curio, G; Debener, S; Lehmann, T; Leistritz, L; Witte, O W; Witte, H; Haueisen, J

    2015-09-01

    This study characterized thalamo-cortical communication by assessing the effect of context-dependent modulation on the very early somatosensory evoked high-frequency oscillations (HF oscillations). We applied electrical stimuli to the median nerve together with an auditory oddball paradigm, presenting standard and deviant target tones representing differential cognitive contexts to the constantly repeated electrical stimulation. Median nerve stimulation without auditory stimulation served as unimodal control. A model consisting of one subcortical (near thalamus) and two cortical (Brodmann areas 1 and 3b) dipolar sources explained the measured HF oscillations. Both at subcortical and the cortical levels HF oscillations were significantly smaller during bimodal (somatosensory plus auditory) than unimodal (somatosensory only) stimulation. A delay differential equation model was developed to investigate interactions within the 3-node thalamo-cortical network. Importantly, a significant change in the eigenfrequency of Brodmann area 3b was related to the context-dependent modulation, while there was no change in the network coupling. This model strongly suggests cortico-thalamic feedback from both cortical Brodmann areas 1 and 3b to the thalamus. With the 3-node network model, thalamo-cortical feedback could be described. Frequency encoding plays an important role in contextual modulation in the somatosensory thalamo-cortical network. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel model of interaction between high frequency electromagnetic non-ionizing fields and microtubules viewed as coupled two-degrees of freedom harmonic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Luigi Maxmilian

    2015-01-01

    The question regarding the potential biological and adverse health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on living organisms is of primary importance in biophysics and medicine. Despite the several experimental evidences showing such occurrence in a wide frequency range from extremely low frequency to microwaves, a definitive theoretical model able to explain a possible mechanism of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter, especially in the case of weak and very weak intensities, is still missing. In this paper it has been suggested a possible mechanism of interaction involving the resonant absorption of electromagnetic radiation by microtubules. To this aim these have been modeled as non-dissipative forced harmonic oscillators characterized by two coupled "macroscopic" degrees of freedom, respectively describing longitudinal and transversal vibrations induced by the electromagnetic field. We have shown that the proposed model, although at a preliminary stage, is able to explain the ability of even weak electromagnetic radiating electromagnetic fields to transfer high quantities of energy to living systems by means of a resonant mechanism, so capable to easily damage microtubules structure.

  14. Resection of ictal high frequency oscillations is associated with favorable surgical outcome in pediatric drug resistant epilepsy secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Leach, James L; Greiner, Hansel M; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D; Rose, Douglas F; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-10-01

    Resective epilepsy surgery can improve seizures when the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is limited to a well-defined region. High frequency oscillations (HFO) have been recognized as having a high association with the seizure onset zone. Therefore, we retrospectively identified ictal HFOs and determined their relationship to specific intracranial features of cortical tubers in children with TSC who underwent resective surgery. We identified 14 patients with drug resistant epilepsy secondary to TSC who underwent subdural grid and strip implantation for presurgical evaluation and subsequent resection with adequate post-surgical follow-up. We aimed to determine the relationship between ictal HFOs, post-resection outcome and neuroimaging features in this population. The largest tuber was identified in all 14 patients (100%). Four patients (29%) had unusual tubers. HFOs were observed at ictal onset in all 14 patients. Seven of 10 patients with complete resection of HFOs were seizure free. The better seizure outcome (ILAE=1-3) was achieved with complete HFO resection regardless of the unique TSC structural features (p=0.0140). Our study demonstrates the presence of ripple and fast ripple range HFOs at ictal onset in children with TSC. Our study showed that complete HFO resection led to the better surgical outcome, independent of MR imaging findings.

  15. Spectral analysis of oscillation instabilities in frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippincott, S.

    1970-01-01

    Phase and frequency fluctuations, inherent in oscillators used as frequency standards, are measured over spectral frequency range of 1 Hz to 5 kHz. Basic measurement system consists of electromechanical phase-locked loop that extracts phase and frequency fluctuations and error multiplier that extends threshold sensitivity.

  16. Frequency jumps in single chip microwave LC oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Gualco, Gabriele; Grisi, Marco; Boero, Giovanni

    2014-12-15

    We report on the experimental observation of oscillation frequency jumps in microwave LC oscillators fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technologies. The LC oscillators, operating at a frequency of about 20 GHz, consist of a single turn planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two cross-coupled metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. At 300 K as well as at 77 K, the oscillation frequency is a continuous function of the oscillator bias voltage. At 4 K, frequency jumps as large as 30 MHz are experimentally observed. This behavior is tentatively attributed to the emission and capture of single electrons from defects and dopant atoms.

  17. Origin of Noise in AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures in the Range of 1Hz-100 MHz and its Up-Conversion in High-Frequency Noise of Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitusevich, S. A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of our recently obtained results on investigation of noise properties in undoped AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for the development of low-noise oscillators. The features observed in the carrier transport and noise spectra in two-dimensional AlGaN/GaN conducting channels grown on sapphire substrate are explained on the basis of a model taking into account the overheating effect and dynamic redistribution of potential. The low-frequency noise investigation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on SiC substrate showed that passivation significantly decreased the level of channel noise, but the noise coming from contact regions was found to be dominant in passivated devices. For the frequency range of 10-100 MHz in the structures, the fluctuations of electron concentration on the first quantum level of the quantum well and the scattering of the electrons in the barrier have been established. The measured phase noise of the oscillator shows that the low-frequency noise of the microwave active device is up-converted into phase fluctuations of the high-frequency carrier. The up-conversion factor of the oscillator for an offset frequency of 100 kHz is only about 15 kHz/V, which results in very low oscillator phase noise of - 105 dBc/Hz.

  18. Gap Junctions as Common Cause of High-Frequency Oscillations and Epileptic Seizures in a Computational Cascade of Neuronal Mass and Compartmental Modeling.

    PubMed

    Helling, Robert M; Koppert, Marc M J; Visser, Gerhard H; Kalitzin, Stiliyan N

    2015-09-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFO) appear to be a promising marker for delineating the seizure onset zone (SOZ) in patients with localization related epilepsy. It remains, however, a purely observational phenomenon and no common mechanism has been proposed to relate HFOs and seizure generation. In this work we show that a cascade of two computational models, one on detailed compartmental scale and a second one on neural mass scale can explain both the autonomous generation of HFOs and the presence of epileptic seizures as emergent properties. To this end we introduce axonal-axonal gap junctions on a microscopic level and explore their impact on the higher level neural mass model (NMM). We show that the addition of gap junctions can generate HFOs and simultaneously shift the operational point of the NMM from a steady state network into bistable behavior that can autonomously generate epileptic seizures. The epileptic properties of the system, or the probability to generate epileptic type of activity, increases gradually with the increase of the density of axonal-axonal gap junctions. We further demonstrate that ad hoc HFO detectors used in previous studies are applicable to our simulated data.

  19. Relationship between high-frequency sediment-level oscillations in the swash zone and inner surf zone wave characteristics under calm wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Swash zone topography rapidly responds to the surf zone waves. Understanding how sandy beaches respond to wave action is critical for beach erosion research, and plays a critical role in the design and maintenance of shore protection structures. The main objectives of this study were to detect the relationship between high-frequency beachface oscillations and surf zone wave characteristics under plunging breakers by using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The study site is located in Houjiangwan Bay, eastern Guangdong. Topography data were sampled at 6 min intervals. The wave characteristic parameters were calculated by spectrum method. During the field work, the beach showed a reflective state and plunging breakers controlled the surf zone. The beach cusp topography was destructed gradually. The analysis provides 4 canonical correlation processes between the beachface variations and surf zone waves, which explained 95.28% of the overall variation in the data. The result shows wave steepness, the irregularity factor and spectral broadness factor had strong impacts on the topography. The wave steepness was the most important factor for beach profile variations. The results of the present study indicate that data-driven statistical analysis, such as CCA, is useful for analyzing profile response to waves if there is strong correlation between the two variables (beach profiles and wave).

  20. Long-term multicentre randomised controlled study of high frequency chest wall oscillation versus positive expiratory pressure mask in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McIlwaine, Maggie Patricia; Alarie, Nancy; Davidson, George F; Lands, Larry C; Ratjen, Felix; Milner, Ruth; Owen, Blythe; Agnew, Jennifer L

    2013-08-01

    Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is the most commonly used method of airway clearance (AC) in Canada for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) whereas, in some countries, high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is the preferred form of AC. There have been no long-term studies comparing the efficacy of HFCWO and PEP in the CF population. To determine the long-term efficacy of HFCWO compared with PEP mask therapy in the treatment of CF as measured by the number of pulmonary exacerbations (PEs). A randomised controlled study was performed in 12 CF centres in Canada. After a 2-month washout period, subjects were randomised to perform either HFCWO or PEP mask therapy for 1 year. 107 subjects were enrolled in the study; 51 were randomised to PEP and 56 to HFCWO. There were 19 dropouts within the study period, of which 16 occurred prior to or at the time of randomisation. There were significant differences between the groups in the mean number of PEs (1.14 for PEP vs 2.0 for HFCWO) and time to first PE (220 days for PEP vs 115 days for HFCWO, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in lung function, health-related quality of life scores or patient satisfaction scores between the two groups. PEP mask therapy required a shorter treatment time. The results of this study favour PEP and do not support the use of HFCWO as the primary form of AC in patients with CF. NCT00817180.

  1. A pilot study of the impact of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with mucus hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Indranil; Chahal, Kamaljit; Austin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mucus hypersecretion tend to demonstrate increased frequency of infective exacerbations and a steeper slope of decline in lung function. Enhanced mucociliary clearance with high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) devices previously used in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis patients may offer the opportunity for community-based, self-managed therapy to improve quality of life and lung function. A randomized controlled crossover pilot study of HFCWO compared with conventional treatment was conducted in 22 patients with moderate to severe COPD and mucus hypersecretion. Patients spent 4 weeks using an HFCWO (SmartVest(®)) device and 4 weeks in a conventional phase with a 2-week washout. Eleven patients started with HFCWO and changed to conventional treatment, whereas the other eleven patients started conventional treatment and crossed over to HFCWO. The patients were elderly with a mean age of 71 (standard deviation [SD] 10) years and were at the upper end of the normal range of body mass index (25 [SD 4.2] kg/m(2)). The majority of patients had moderate to severe COPD with a mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 41 (SD 15.6) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity of 73 (SD 17.7). Baseline sputum production was negatively correlated to lung function and positively to St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Symptom scores and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire symptom dimension improved significantly (-8, P < 0.05). Sputum production showed a declining trend in the HFCWO phase, although not reaching statistical significance. The HFCWO device was well tolerated with good reported compliance. This pilot study demonstrated that patients with advanced COPD and mucus hypersecretion at increased risk of declining lung function tolerated the HFCWO treatment well, leading to improvement in quality of life and reduced symptoms.

  2. Ketamine Dysregulates the Amplitude and Connectivity of High-Frequency Oscillations in Cortical–Subcortical Networks in Humans: Evidence From Resting-State Magnetoencephalography-Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Rivolta, Davide; Heidegger, Tonio; Scheller, Bertram; Sauer, Andreas; Schaum, Michael; Birkner, Katharina; Singer, Wolf; Wibral, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypofunctioning of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) has been prominently implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (ScZ). The current study tested the effects of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic and NMDA-R antagonist, on resting-state activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy volunteers. In a single-blind cross-over design, each participant (n = 12) received, on 2 different sessions, a subanesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006mg/Kg) and saline injection. MEG-data were analyzed at sensor- and source-level in the beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequency ranges. In addition, connectivity analysis at source-level was performed using transfer entropy (TE). Ketamine increased gamma-power while beta-band activity was decreased. Specifically, elevated 30–90 Hz activity was pronounced in subcortical (thalamus and hippocampus) and cortical (frontal and temporal cortex) regions, whilst reductions in beta-band power were localized to the precuneus, cerebellum, anterior cingulate, temporal and visual cortex. TE analysis demonstrated increased information transfer in a thalamo-cortical network after ketamine administration. The findings are consistent with the pronounced dysregulation of high-frequency oscillations following the inhibition of NMDA-R in animal models of ScZ as well as with evidence from electroencephalogram-data in ScZ-patients and increased functional connectivity during early illness stages. Moreover, our data highlight the potential contribution of thalamo-cortical connectivity patterns towards ketamine-induced neuronal dysregulation, which may be relevant for the understanding of ScZ as a disorder of disinhibition of neural circuits. PMID:25987642

  3. Ketamine Dysregulates the Amplitude and Connectivity of High-Frequency Oscillations in Cortical-Subcortical Networks in Humans: Evidence From Resting-State Magnetoencephalography-Recordings.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, Davide; Heidegger, Tonio; Scheller, Bertram; Sauer, Andreas; Schaum, Michael; Birkner, Katharina; Singer, Wolf; Wibral, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Hypofunctioning of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) has been prominently implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (ScZ). The current study tested the effects of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic and NMDA-R antagonist, on resting-state activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy volunteers. In a single-blind cross-over design, each participant (n = 12) received, on 2 different sessions, a subanesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006 mg/Kg) and saline injection. MEG-data were analyzed at sensor- and source-level in the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-90 Hz) frequency ranges. In addition, connectivity analysis at source-level was performed using transfer entropy (TE). Ketamine increased gamma-power while beta-band activity was decreased. Specifically, elevated 30-90 Hz activity was pronounced in subcortical (thalamus and hippocampus) and cortical (frontal and temporal cortex) regions, whilst reductions in beta-band power were localized to the precuneus, cerebellum, anterior cingulate, temporal and visual cortex. TE analysis demonstrated increased information transfer in a thalamo-cortical network after ketamine administration. The findings are consistent with the pronounced dysregulation of high-frequency oscillations following the inhibition of NMDA-R in animal models of ScZ as well as with evidence from electroencephalogram-data in ScZ-patients and increased functional connectivity during early illness stages. Moreover, our data highlight the potential contribution of thalamo-cortical connectivity patterns towards ketamine-induced neuronal dysregulation, which may be relevant for the understanding of ScZ as a disorder of disinhibition of neural circuits.

  4. 200 GHz Maximum Oscillation Frequency in CVD Graphene Radio Frequency Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Xuming; Sun, Menglong; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Xinran; Huo, Shuai; Zhou, Jianjun; Yang, Yang; Yu, Xinxin; Kong, Yuechan; Yu, Guanghui; Liao, Lei; Chen, Tangsheng

    2016-10-05

    Graphene is a promising candidate in analog electronics with projected operation frequency well into the terahertz range. In contrast to the intrinsic cutoff frequency (fT) of 427 GHz, the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of graphene device still remains at low level, which severely limits its application in radio frequency amplifiers. Here, we develop a novel transfer method for chemical vapor deposition graphene, which can prevent graphene from organic contamination during the fabrication process of the devices. Using a self-aligned gate deposition process, the graphene transistor with 60 nm gate length exhibits a record high fmax of 106 and 200 GHz before and after de-embedding, respectively. This work defines a unique pathway to large-scale fabrication of high-performance graphene transistors, and holds significant potential for future application of graphene-based devices in ultra high frequency circuits.

  5. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-03-30

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  6. Self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Zhongle; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-11-16

    An ultraflat self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating the optoelectronic oscillation loop with cascaded modulators into the optical frequency comb generator, 11 ultraflat comb lines would be generated, and the frequency spacing is equal to the oscillation frequency of the OEO. 10 and 12GHz optical frequency combs are demonstrated with the spectral power variation below 0.82dB and 0.93dB respectively. The corresponding spectral pure microwave source are also generated and evaluated. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise are as low as -122dBc/Hz and -115 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency.

  7. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Effect of oscillation frequency on wind turbine airfoil dynamic stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Li, C.; Nie, J. B.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    At the same oscillation amplitude, Reynolds Number, mean angle of attack, the dynamic stall characteristics of the NREL S809 airfoil undergoing sinusoidal pitch oscillations of different oscillation frequencies were investigated with modified k-ω SST turbulence model of CFD solution for two-dimensional numerical simulation. The predicted lift, drag coefficients and moment coefficients were compared with the Ohio State University wind tunnel test results, which showed a good agreement. The birth, development and breaking off of eddies were analyzed through streamline distribution around airfoil and the influence of oscillation frequencies on dynamic stall characteristics was also described and analyzed in detail, which enrich the database of dynamic stall characteristics needed by the quantization of oscillation frequencies on dynamic characteristics and prove that sliding mesh method is reliable when dealing with dynamic stall problems.

  9. Role of low- and high-frequency oscillations in the human hippocampus for encoding environmental novelty during a spatial navigation task.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hojong; Kim, Taekyung; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Eun Mi; Baek, Seunghee; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kang, Joong Koo

    2014-11-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the encoding and retrieval of information related to novel environments during spatial navigation. However, the neural basis for these processes in the human hippocampus remains unknown because it is difficult to directly measure neural signals in the human hippocampus. This study investigated hippocampal neural oscillations involved in encoding novel environments during spatial navigation in a virtual environment. Seven epileptic patients with implanted intracranial hippocampal depth electrodes performed three sessions of virtual environment navigation. Each session consisted of a navigation task and a location-recall task. The navigation task consisted of eight blocks, and in each block, the participant navigated to the location of four different objects and was instructed to remember the location of the objects. After the eight blocks were completed, a location-recall task was performed for each of the four objects. Intracranial electroencephalography data were monitored during the navigation tasks. Theta (5-8 Hz) and delta (1-4 Hz) oscillations were lower in the first block (novel environment) than in the eighth block (familiar environment) of the navigation task, and significantly increased from block one to block eight. By contrast, low-gamma (31-50 Hz) oscillations were higher in the first block than in the eighth block of the navigation task, and significantly decreased from block one to block eight. Comparison of sessions with high recall performance (low error between identified and actual object location) and low recall performance revealed that high-gamma (51-100 Hz) oscillations significantly decreased from block one to block eight only in sessions with high recall performance. These findings suggest that delta, theta, and low-gamma oscillations were associated with encoding of environmental novelty and high-gamma oscillations were important for the successful encoding of environmental novelty.

  10. Frequency Stability of 1X10(sup -13) in a Compensated Sapphire Oscillator Operating Above 77 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, D. G.; Dick, G. J.; Wang, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a frequency-stable temperature compensated sapphire oscillator (CSO) at temperatures above 77 K. Previously, high stability in sapphire oscillators had only been obtained with liquid helium cooling.

  11. Stochastic regimes in very-low-frequency fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper discusses interesting unexpected stochastic regimes discovered in a fluidic oscillator designed for operation at very low oscillation frequencies - without the inconvenience of the long feedback loops needed in standard low-frequency oscillator designs. The new oscillator contains a pair of bistable turn-down active valves operating in anti-parallel — essentially analogous to Abraham & Bloch electric "multibrateur" invented in 1919. Three different self-excited oscillation regimes were found. In the order of increasing supplied flow rate, these regimes are characterised by: (A) generation of stochastic-duration multi-pulse packs, (B) generation of individual pulses with a degree of periodicity, and (C) regime with randomly appearing flow pulses separated by intervals of the order of seconds.

  12. Global analysis of frequency modulation experiments in a vortex oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. Y.; Thirion, C.; Hoarau, C.; Baraduc, C.; Diény, B.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency modulation is performed on a vortex oscillator at various modulation frequencies and powers. A global analysis of the whole set of data is proposed, so that all experimental curves are described with the same four parameters. Three of these parameters describe the dependence of the instantaneous frequency with modulating current. This dependence appears significantly different from the frequency-current dependence observed in a quasi-static experiment. The discrepancy is ascribed to the different time scales involved, compared to the relaxation time of the vortex oscillator.

  13. The anti-ictogenic effects of levetiracetam are mirrored by interictal spiking and high-frequency oscillation changes in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Maxime; Behr, Charles; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most prevalent type of partial epileptic disorders. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of levetiracetam (LEV) in the pilocarpine model of MTLE. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 19) were injected with pilocarpine (380 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce a status epilepticus. Twelve animals were used as controls and seven were treated with LEV. They were implanted with bipolar electrodes in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex (EC), dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum and EEG-video monitored continuously from day 4 to day 14 after SE. Results Only 29% of LEV-treated animals had seizures compared to all controls following a latent period that was similar in duration. Seizure rates were lower in LEV-treated animals. In LEV-treated animals without seizures, lower interictal spike rates were found in all regions compared to controls. Analysis of interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) revealed that LEV-treated animals without seizures had lower rates of interictal spikes with ripples (80–200 Hz) in CA3, EC and subiculum (p < 0.01), whereas rates of interictal spikes with fast ripples (250–500 Hz) were significantly lower in CA3 and subiculum, compared to controls. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the anti-ictogenic properties of LEV are mirrored by decreases of interictal spike rate in temporal lobe regions, and are accompanied by subregion-specific decreases of HFO occurrence in CA3 and subiculum. Overall, this evidence suggest that LEV may inhibit neural network activity in regions that are known to play important roles in MTLE. PMID:25645630

  14. Loss of the Kv1.1 potassium channel promotes pathologic sharp waves and high frequency oscillations in in vitro hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Timothy A.; Simeone, Kristina A.; Samson, Kaeli K.; Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M.

    2013-01-01

    In human disease, channelopathies involving functional reduction of the delayed rectifier potassium channel α-subunit Kv1.1 – either by mutation or autoimmune inhibition – result in temporal lobe epilepsy. Kv1.1 is prominently expressed in the axons of the hippocampal tri-synaptic pathway, suggesting its absence will result in widespread effects on normal network oscillatory activity. Here, we performed in vitro extracellular recordings using a multielectrode array to determine the effects of loss of Kv1.1 on spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). We found that Kcna1-null hippocampi generate SPWs and ripples (80–200 Hz bandwidth) with a 50% increased rate of incidence and 50% longer duration, and that epilepsy-associated pathologic HFOs in the fast ripple bandwidth (200–600 Hz) are also present. Furthermore, Kcna1-null CA3 has enhanced coupling of excitatory inputs and population spike generation and CA3 principal cells have reduced spike timing reliability. Removing the influence of mossy fiber and perforant path inputs by microdissecting the Kcna1-null CA3 region mostly rescued the oscillatory behavior and improved spike timing. We found that Kcna1-null mossy fibers and medial perforant path axons are hyperexcitable and produce greater pre- and post-synaptic responses with reduced paired-pulse ratios suggesting increased neurotransmitter release at these terminals. These findings were recapitulated in wild-type slices exposed to the Kv1.1 inhibitor dendrotoxin-κ. Collectively, these data indicate that loss of Kv1.1 enhances synaptic release in the CA3 region, which reduces spike timing precision of individual neurons leading to disorganization of network oscillatory activity and promotes the emergence of fast ripples. PMID:23466697

  15. Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and European airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Leyla P; Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret E; Pryor, Jennifer A

    2010-03-01

    High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is standard treatment for airway clearance in the USA and has recently been introduced in the UK and Europe. There is little published research comparing HFCWO with airway clearance techniques (ACTs) frequently used in the UK and Europe. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of HFCWO with usual ACTs in patients with cystic fibrosis hospitalised with an infective pulmonary exacerbation. A 4-day randomised crossover design was used. Patients received either HFCWO on days 1 and 3 and usual ACTs on days 2 and 4 or vice versa. Wet weight of sputum, spirometry and oxygen saturation were measured. Perceived efficacy, comfort, incidence of urinary leakage and preference were assessed. Data were analysed by mixed model analysis. 29 patients (72% male) of mean (SD) age 29.4 (8.4) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) percentage predicted (FEV(1)%) 38 (16.7) completed the study. Significantly more sputum was expectorated during a single treatment session and over a 24 h period (mean difference 4.4 g and 6.9 g, respectively) with usual ACTs than with HFCWO (p<0.001). No statistically significant change in FEV(1)% or oxygen saturation was observed after either HFCWO or usual ACTs compared with baseline. 17 patients (55%) expressed a preference for their usual ACT. During both a finite treatment period and over 24 h, less sputum was cleared using HFCWO than usual ACT. HFCWO does not appear to cause any adverse physiological effects and may influence adherence.

  16. Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and European airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret E; Pryor, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is standard treatment for airway clearance in the USA and has recently been introduced in the UK and Europe. There is little published research comparing HFCWO with airway clearance techniques (ACTs) frequently used in the UK and Europe. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of HFCWO with usual ACTs in patients with cystic fibrosis hospitalised with an infective pulmonary exacerbation. Methods A 4-day randomised crossover design was used. Patients received either HFCWO on days 1 and 3 and usual ACTs on days 2 and 4 or vice versa. Wet weight of sputum, spirometry and oxygen saturation were measured. Perceived efficacy, comfort, incidence of urinary leakage and preference were assessed. Data were analysed by mixed model analysis. Results 29 patients (72% male) of mean (SD) age 29.4 (8.4) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) percentage predicted (FEV1%) 38 (16.7) completed the study. Significantly more sputum was expectorated during a single treatment session and over a 24 h period (mean difference 4.4 g and 6.9 g, respectively) with usual ACTs than with HFCWO (p<0.001). No statistically significant change in FEV1% or oxygen saturation was observed after either HFCWO or usual ACTs compared with baseline. 17 patients (55%) expressed a preference for their usual ACT. Conclusions During both a finite treatment period and over 24 h, less sputum was cleared using HFCWO than usual ACT. HFCWO does not appear to cause any adverse physiological effects and may influence adherence. PMID:19703826

  17. Yb-fiber laser pumped high-power, broadly tunable, single-frequency red source based on a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Maji, Partha Sona; Das, Ritwick

    2016-07-01

    We present an efficient and tunable source generating multi-watt single-frequency red radiation by intra-cavity frequency doubling of the signal in a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN)-based singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO). By optimally designing the SRO cavity in a six-mirror configuration, we generate ≈276  nm tunable idler radiation in mid-infrared with a maximum power of Pi=2.05  W at a pump power of Pp=14.0  W. The resonant signal is frequency doubled using a 10 mm-long BiB3O6 (BiBO) crystal which resulted in tunability of a red beam from ≈753 to 780 nm band with maximum power Pr≈4.0  W recorded at λr≈756  nm. The deployment of a six-mirror SRO ensures single-frequency generation of red across the entire tuning range by inducing additional losses to Raman modes of LiNbO3 and, thus, inhibiting their oscillation. Using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), nominal linewidth of the red beam is measured to ≈3  MHz which changes marginally over the entire tuning range. Long-term (over 1 h) peak-to-peak frequency fluctuation of the generated red beam is estimated to be about 3.3 GHz under free-running conditions at Pp=14.0  W. The generated red beam is delivered in a TEM00 mode profile with M2≤1.32 at maximum power in a red beam.

  18. El Niño−Southern Oscillation frequency cascade

    PubMed Central

    Stuecker, Malte F.; Jin, Fei-Fei; Timmermann, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The El Niño−Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, the most pronounced feature of internally generated climate variability, occurs on interannual timescales and impacts the global climate system through an interaction with the annual cycle. The tight coupling between ENSO and the annual cycle is particularly pronounced over the tropical Western Pacific. Here we show that this nonlinear interaction results in a frequency cascade in the atmospheric circulation, which is characterized by deterministic high-frequency variability on near-annual and subannual timescales. Through climate model experiments and observational analysis, it is documented that a substantial fraction of the anomalous Northwest Pacific anticyclone variability, which is the main atmospheric link between ENSO and the East Asian Monsoon system, can be explained by these interactions and is thus deterministic and potentially predictable. PMID:26483455

  19. El Niño$-$Southern Oscillation frequency cascade

    DOE PAGES

    Stuecker, Malte F.; Jin, Fei -Fei; Timmermann, Axel

    2015-10-19

    The El Niño$-$Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, the most pronounced feature of internally generated climate variability, occurs on interannual timescales and impacts the global climate system through an interaction with the annual cycle. The tight coupling between ENSO and the annual cycle is particularly pronounced over the tropical Western Pacific. In this paper, we show that this nonlinear interaction results in a frequency cascade in the atmospheric circulation, which is characterized by deterministic high-frequency variability on near-annual and subannual timescales. Finally, through climate model experiments and observational analysis, it is documented that a substantial fraction of the anomalous Northwest Pacific anticyclonemore » variability, which is the main atmospheric link between ENSO and the East Asian Monsoon system, can be explained by these interactions and is thus deterministic and potentially predictable.« less

  20. Detectability of the somatosensory evoked high frequency oscillation (HFO) co-recorded by scalp EEG and ECoG under propofol

    PubMed Central

    Burnos, Sergey; Fedele, Tommaso; Schmid, Olivier; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Sarnthein, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Objective The somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) elicited by median nerve stimulation consists of the N20 peak together with the concurrent high frequency oscillation (HFO, > 500 Hz). We describe the conditions for HFO detection in ECoG and scalp EEG in intraoperative recordings. Methods During neurosurgical interventions in six patients under propofol anesthesia, the SEP was recorded from subdural electrode strips (15 recordings) and from scalp electrodes (10/15 recordings). We quantified the spatial attenuation of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of N20 and HFO along the contacts of the electrode strip. We then compared the SNR of ECoG and simultaneous scalp EEG in a biophysical framework. Results HFO detection under propofol anesthesia was demonstrated. Visual inspection of strip cortical recordings revealed phase reversal for N20 in 14/15 recordings and for HFO in 10/15 recordings. N20 had higher maximal SNR (median 33.5 dB) than HFO (median 23 dB). The SNR of N20 attenuated with a larger spatial extent (median 7.2 dB/cm) than the SNR of HFO (median 12.3 dB/cm). We found significant correlations between the maximum SNR (rho = 0.58, p = 0.025) and the spatial attenuation (rho = 0.86, p < 0.001) of N20 and HFO. In 3/10 recordings we found HFO in scalp EEG. Based on the spatial attenuation and SNR in the ECoG, we estimated the scalp EEG amplitude ratio N20/HFO and found significant correlation with recorded values (rho = 0.65, p = 0.049). Conclusions We proved possible the intraoperative SEP HFO detection under propofol anesthesia. The spatial attenuation along ECoG contacts represents a good estimator of the area contributing to scalp EEG. The SNR and the spatial attenuation in ECoG recordings provide further insights for the prediction of HFO detectability in scalp EEG. The results obtained in this context may not be limited to SEP HFO, but could be generalized to biological signatures lying in the same SNR and frequency range. PMID:26900572

  1. Application of modern time series analysis to high stability oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, B. F.; Mattison, W. M.; Vessot, R. F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of modern time series analysis useful for investigating the characteristics of high-stability oscillators and identifying systematic perturbations are discussed with reference to an experiment in which the frequencies of superconducting cavity-stabilized oscillators and hydrogen masers were compared. The techniques examined include transformation to stationarity, autocorrelation and cross-correlation, superresolution, and transfer function determination.

  2. Illusory Jitter Perceived at the Frequency of Alpha Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Minami, Sorato; Amano, Kaoru

    2017-08-07

    Neural oscillations, such as alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-100 Hz), are widespread across cortical areas, and their possible functional roles include feature binding [1], neuronal communication [2, 3], and memory [1, 4]. The most prominent signal among these neural oscillations is the alpha oscillation. Although accumulating evidence suggests that alpha oscillations correlate with various aspects of visual processing [5-18], the number of studies proving their causal contribution in visual perception is limited [11, 16-18]. Here we report that illusory visual vibrations are consciously experienced at the frequency of intrinsic alpha oscillations. We employed an illusory jitter perception termed the motion-induced spatial conflict [19] that originates from the cyclic interaction between motion and shape processing. Comparison between the perceived frequency of illusory jitter and the peak alpha frequency (PAF) measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed that the inter- and intra-participant variations of the PAF are mirrored by an illusory jitter perception. More crucially, psychophysical and MEG measurements during amplitude-modulated current stimulation [20] showed that the PAF can be artificially manipulated, which results in a corresponding change in the perceived jitter frequency. These results suggest the causal contribution of neural oscillations at the alpha frequency in creating temporal characteristics of visual perception. Our results suggest that cortical areas, dorsal and ventral visual areas in this case, are interacting at the frequency of alpha oscillations [2, 3, 21-27]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals are used to map brain functional connectivity with functional MRI, but their source is not well understood. Here we used optical imaging to assess whether LFOs from vascular signals covary with oscillatory intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) and with local field potentials in the rat’s somatosensory cortex. We observed that the frequency of Ca2+i oscillations in tissue (∼0.07 Hz) was similar to the LFOs of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) in both large blood vessels and capillaries. The HbR and HbO2 fluctuations within tissue correlated with Ca2+i oscillations with a lag time of ∼5–6 s. The Ca2+i and hemoglobin oscillations were insensitive to hypercapnia. In contrast, cerebral-blood-flow velocity (CBFv) in arteries and veins fluctuated at a higher frequency (∼0.12 Hz) and was sensitive to hypercapnia. However, in parenchymal tissue, CBFv oscillated with peaks at both ∼0.06 Hz and ∼0.12 Hz. Although the higher-frequency CBFv oscillation (∼0.12 Hz) was decreased by hypercapnia, its lower-frequency component (∼0.06 Hz) was not. The sensitivity of the higher CBFV oscillations to hypercapnia, which triggers blood vessel vasodilation, suggests its dependence on vascular effects that are distinct from the LFOs detected in HbR, HbO2, Ca2+i, and the lower-frequency tissue CBFv, which were insensitive to hypercapnia. Hemodynamic LFOs correlated both with Ca2+i and neuronal firing (local field potentials), indicating that they directly reflect neuronal activity (perhaps also glial). These findings show that HbR fluctuations (basis of BOLD oscillations) are linked to oscillatory cellular activity and detectable throughout the vascular tree (arteries, capillaries, and veins). PMID:25313035

  4. Convergence of oscillator spectral estimators for counted-frequency measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A common intermediary connecting frequency-noise calibration or testing of an oscillator to useful applications is the spectral density of the frequency-deviating process. In attempting to turn test data into predicts of performance characteristics, one is naturally led to estimation of statistical values by sample-mean and sample-variance techniques. However, sample means and sample variances themselves are statistical quantities that do not necessarily converge (in the mean-square sense) to actual ensemble-average means and variances, except perhaps for excessively large sample sizes. This is especially true for the flicker noise component of oscillators. This article shows, for the various types of noises found in oscillators, how sample averages converge (or do not converge) to their statistical counterparts. The convergence rate is shown to be the same for all oscillators of a given spectral type.

  5. Oscillator frequency stability improvement by means of negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Abbé, Philippe; Komine, Vadim

    2011-11-01

    A novel, simple method is proposed to increase the frequency stability of an oscillator. An additional negative feedback is used in combination with the positive loop of the harmonic oscillator to decrease the phase sensitivity to fluctuations of parameters other than the resonator. The main advantage of the proposed correction approach is that it does not require expensive external elements such as mixers or resonators. The validity of the method is theoretically demonstrated on a Colpitts oscillator using the control system theory approach and numerical simulations, and is experimentally verified with phase noise measurements of an actual oscillator-mockup. It is shown that the medium-term frequency stability can be easily improved by a factor of ten.

  6. Fluidic Oscillator Having Decoupled Frequency and Amplitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator having independent frequency and amplitude control includes a fluidic-oscillator main flow channel having a main flow inlet, a main flow outlet, and first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. A fluidic-oscillator controller has an inlet and outlet. A volume defined by the main flow channel is greater than the volume defined by the controller. A flow diverter coupled to the outlet of the controller defines a first fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the first control port and defines a second fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the second control port.

  7. Preictal surrender of post-spike slow waves to spike-related high-frequency oscillations (80-200 Hz) is associated with seizure initiation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yosuke; Doesburg, Sam M; Wong, Simeon M; Boelman, Cyrus; Ochi, Ayako; Otsubo, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Spike and slow waves consist of a "spike" including high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), which are linked to epileptogenicity and a "post-spike slow wave (PSS)" related to inhibitory activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the spatiotemporal relationship between spike-related HFOs and PSS in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. We studied 10 pediatric patients with FCD type II, who underwent extraoperative video-electroencephalography (EEG). We selected spike and slow waves, which included HFOs (80-200 Hz), and performed spike peak-locked averaging 10 times during both 30 s interictal (>1 h apart from seizures) and 30 s preictal periods. We calculated the power of spike-related HFOs and PSS during both periods for the following three areas: (1) inside the seizure-onset zone (SOZ), (2) inside the resection area (RA) but outside SOZ (RA-SOZ), and (3) outside the RA. Between the interictal and preictal periods we performed correlation (Spearman's coefficient) and simple linear regression analyses comparing HFO and PSS power within each area. A total of 1,614 averaged spike and slow waves were analyzed during both periods. During the interictal periods, there were significant positive correlations between HFO and PSS power in all areas (inside SOZ, r = 0.568; RA-SOZ, r = 0.700; outside RA, r = 0.320). During the preictal periods, the correlation became weaker inside SOZ (r = 0.149) and remained unchanged both inside the RA-SOZ (r = 0.704) and outside RA (r = 0.346). From the interictal to preictal period, the slope (ΔPSS power/ΔHFO power) of the simple regression line decreased inside SOZ (0.349 to 0.051) but increased in RA-SOZ (0.534 to 0.734) and outside RA (0.267 to 0.435). Relative power reduction of PSS to spike-related HFOs in SOZ is relevant for seizure initiation. Our analysis will contribute to future studies of seizure prediction and distinction between pathologic and physiologic HFOs. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is

  8. Changing and predicting the frequency of double wall carbon nanotubes oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xing; Xiao, Shao-Rong; Liu, Hong-De; Wang, Tong; Yue, Ju-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Double wall carbon nanotubes have been considered as potential candidate for ultra-high frequency oscillator. However, the exact frequency change versus the nanotubes' shape has not been detailed discussed. In this article, a series of double wall carbon nanotubes oscillators are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. We find that, by changing the tube length and radius, the oscillation frequency can be easily modified. To better understand the simulation result above, a theoretical model with maximum main force approximation is introduced. Then the tendency for the frequency change can be well interpreted. Moreover, we find the effective force increases linearly with the tube radius. After a careful derivation, a universal formula is given, which can predict the oscillation period with a good accuracy.

  9. Low-frequency, broadband vibration energy harvester using coupled oscillators and frequency up-conversion by mechanical stoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, Eduard; Fedulov, Feodor; Chashin, Dmitrii V.; Fetisov, Leonid Y.; Fetisov, Yuri K.; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    The frequencies of ambient vibrations are often low (below 30 Hz). A broadband (3 dB bandwidth is larger than 10 Hz at an acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2) vibration based energy harvester is proposed for transducing mechanical energy at such low frequencies into electrical energy. The mechanical setup converts low frequency mechanical vibrations into high frequency resonance oscillations of the transducer. This conversion is done by mechanical impacts on two mechanical stoppers. The originality of the presented design is that both low-frequency and high-frequency oscillators are permanently mechanically coupled. In the equivalent mechanical circuit, this coupling is achieved by connecting the ends of the stiff spring to both seismic masses, whereas one seismic mass (collison member) is also attached to the soft spring used as the constitutive element of a low-frequency oscillator. Further, both mechanical oscillators are not realized as conventional cantilever beams. In particular, the high frequency oscillator with the natural frequency of 340 Hz is a disc-shaped diaphragm with attached piezoelectric elements and a seismic mass. It is shown that it is possible to convert mechanical vibrations with acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2 in the region between approximately 7 and 25 Hz into electrical power larger than 0.1 mW with the maximum value of 0.8 mW. A simplified mathematical model based on piecewise linear coupled oscillators shows good agreement with experimental results. The ways to enhance the performance of the harvester and improve agreement with experiments are discussed.

  10. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  11. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  12. Frequency, phase, and amplitude changes of the hydrogen maser oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, Claude; Diener, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The frequency, the phase, and the amplitude changes of the hydrogen maser oscillation, which are induced by the modulation of the cavity resonant frequency, are considered. The results obtained apply specifically to one of the H-maser cavity autotuning methods which is actually implemented, namely the cavity frequency-switching method. The frequency, the phase, and the amplitude changes are analyzed theoretically. The phase and the amplitude variations are measured experimentally. It is shown, in particular, that the phase of oscillation is subjected to abrupt jumps at the times of the cavity frequency switching, whose magnitude is specified. The results given can be used for the design of a phase-locked loop (PLL) aimed at minimizing the transfer of the phase modulation to the slaved VCXO.

  13. Frequency, phase, and amplitude changes of the hydrogen maser oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, Claude; Diener, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The frequency, the phase, and the amplitude changes of the hydrogen maser oscillation, which are induced by the modulation of the cavity resonant frequency, are considered. The results obtained apply specifically to one of the H-maser cavity autotuning methods which is actually implemented, namely the cavity frequency-switching method. The frequency, the phase, and the amplitude changes are analyzed theoretically. The phase and the amplitude variations are measured experimentally. It is shown, in particular, that the phase of oscillation is subjected to abrupt jumps at the times of the cavity frequency switching, whose magnitude is specified. The results given can be used for the design of a phase-locked loop (PLL) aimed at minimizing the transfer of the phase modulation to the slaved VCXO.

  14. Frequency and amplitude stabilization in MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Changyao; Lopez, Omar Daniel; Czaplewski, David A.

    2017-06-14

    This invention comprises a nonlinear micro- and nano-mechanical resonator that can maintain frequency of operation and amplitude of operation for a period of time after all external power has been removed from the device. Utilizing specific nonlinear dynamics of the micromechanical resonator, mechanical energy at low frequencies can be input and stored in higher frequencies modes, thus using the multiple degrees of freedom of the resonator to extend its energy storage capacity. Furthermore, the energy stored in multiple vibrational modes can be used to maintain the resonator oscillating for a fixed period of time, even without an external power supply. This is the first demonstration of an "autonomous" frequency source that can maintain a constant frequency and vibrating amplitude when no external power is provided, making it ideal for applications requiring an oscillator in low power, or limited and intermittent power supplies.

  15. Weak low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations in water.

    PubMed

    Liboff, A R; Poggi, Claudio; Pratesi, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations of low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations in water suggest an inductive structural component. Accordingly, we assume a helical basis enabling us to model water as an LC tuned oscillator. A proposed tetrahedral structure consisting of three water molecules and one hydronium ion is incorporated into the Boerdijk-Coxeter tetrahelix to form long water chains that are shown to have resonance frequencies consistent with observation. This model also serves to explain separately reported claims of ion cyclotron resonance of hydronium ions, in that the tetrahelix provides a built-in path for helical proton-hopping.

  16. Improvement of the low frequency oscillation model for Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunsheng Wang, Huashan

    2016-08-15

    The low frequency oscillation of the discharge current in Hall thrusters is a major aspect of these devices that requires further study. While the existing model captures the ionization mechanism of the low frequency oscillation, it unfortunately fails to express the dynamic characteristics of the ion acceleration. The analysis in this paper shows this is because of the simplification of the electron equation, which affects both the electric field distribution and the ion acceleration process. Additionally, the electron density equation is revised and a new model that is based on the physical properties of ion movement is proposed.

  17. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  18. Effect of master oscillator stability over pulse repetition frequency on hybrid semiconductor mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor mode-locked lasers are a very attractive laser pulse source for high accuracy length metrology. However, for some applications, this kind of device does not have the required frequency stability. Operating the laser in hybrid mode will increase the laser pulse repetition frequency (PRF) stability. In this study it is showed that the laser PRF is not only locked to the master oscillator but also maintains the same level of stability of the master oscillator. The device used in this work is a 10 mm long mode-locked asymmetrical cladding single section InAs/InP quantum dash diode laser emitting at 1580 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of ≈4.37 GHz. The laser nominal stability in passive mode (no external oscillator) shows direct dependence with the gain current and the stability range goes from 10-4 to 10-7. Several oscillators with different stabilities were used for the hybrid-mode operation (with external oscillator) and the resulting mode-locked laser stability compared. For low cost oscillators with low stability, the laser PRF stability achieves a value of 10-7 and for higher stable oscillation source (such as oven controlled quartz oscillators (OXCO)) the stability can reach values up to 10-12 (τ =1 s).

  19. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-10-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  20. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-01-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  1. Seismology and geodesy of the sun: Low-frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Dicke, R H

    1981-04-01

    The hourly averages of the solar ellipticity measured from June 13 to Sept. 17, 1966, are analyzed for indications of solar oscillations with periods in excess of 2 hr nu < 0.5 hr(-1). Nothing significant is found for frequencies nu > 0.1 hr(-1) but for lower frequencies the power spectrum shows a very complex structure containing about 20 strong narrow peaks. The complexity is illusionary. The signal apparently consists of only two frequencies. The complexity is due to aliasing by the window function with its basic 24-hr period, with many observational days missing, and with different numbers of hourly averages for the various observational days. Both signal frequencies are apparently due to odd-degree spherical harmonic oscillations of the sun.

  2. Seismology and geodesy of the sun: low-frequency oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Dicke, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The hourly averages of the solar ellipticity measured from June 13 to September 17, 1966, are analyzed for indications of solar oscillations with periods in excess of 2 h ..nu.. < 0.5 h/sup -1/. Nothing significant is found for frequencies ..nu.. > 0.1 hr/sup -1/ but for lower frequencies the power spectrum shows a very complex structure containing about 20 strong narrow peaks. The complexity is illusionary. The signal apparently consists of only two frequencies. The complexity is due to aliasing by the window function with its basic 24-h period, with many observational days missing, and with different numbers of hourly averages for the various observational days. Both signal frequencies are apparently due to odd-degree spherical harmonic oscillations of the sun.

  3. Rapidly and continuously frequency-scanning opto-electronic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qizhuang; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Yu, Lan; Xu, Kun

    2017-01-23

    An opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) scheme which operates at "chirp oscillation" mode and generates low-phase-noise, frequency-swept microwave is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This frequency-swept OEO is achieved by embedding a rapidly frequency-scanning microwave filter in an opto-electronic cavity. The filter has fixed passband while its center frequency scans rapidly and periodically at cavity round-trip time, covering a large frequency range (~GHz). Experimentally, the generated frequency-swept microwave is linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) which centers at 7 GHz with 1-GHz bandwidth. Its instantaneous frequency varies linearly from 6.5 GHz to 7.5 GHz, back and forth, in a period of 12.8 μs, resulting in a frequency scanning rate of ~156 MHz/μs. The single-side-band (SSB) noise of the generated FMCW is -104 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency, which is much lower than that from a commercial electronic arbitrary waveform generator (E-AWG). Improvement as large as 23 dB is experimentally reported.

  4. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  5. Simulation of stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin torque oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Houbing; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao

    2017-03-01

    We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4-7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress.

  6. Low-frequency oscillations of vortices in rotating He II

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1983-01-20

    The low-frequency branch of the spectrum of oscillations of a stack of disks in rotating He II with large angular velocities corresponds to excitation of an inertial wave, a well known phenomenon in hydrodynamics of rotating classical fluids, in the volume between the disks. This agrees with the results of experiments by Andereck, Chalupa, and Glaberson.

  7. High Reynolds number oscillating contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziyuan; Schultz, William W.; Perlin, Marc

    1999-11-01

    Stainless steel, instead of Ting and Perlin's (1995) glass, is used in vertically oscillating plate experiments for a large range of Reynolds numbers. We used the non-wetting stainless steel to minimize the static meniscus that we ignore in our analysis. Except for the different static contact angle serving as an initial condition, the dynamic features in both cases are similar. In low Reynolds number oscillation, a pinned-edge condition can appropriately describe the contact line motion. In high Reynolds number oscillation, contact-line behavior becomes nonlinear and very complicated. The periodic, non-sinusoidal motion exhibits three types of motion: stick (associated with contact angle hysteresis), partial stick, and total slip. Increasing the Reynolds number, reduces the hysteresis phenomenon that still cannot be ignored. An edge condition allowing both the static range and dynamic interface behavior uses a slip coefficient mode that varies with time, stroke amplitude and frequency by introducing additional harmonic modes. Using this edge condition, we calculate the dynamic contact angle and the contact-line position for both stick and slip motion and compare them to our experimental data. Results show that the inviscid, linearized boundary-value problem combined with our slip coefficient model provides an improved prediction of the contact-line behavior.

  8. Maximum frequency of oscillation of 1.3 THz obtained by using an extended drain-side recess structure in 75-nm-gate InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Yoichi; Makiyama, Kozo; Shiba, Shoichi; Sato, Masaru; Nakasha, Yasuhiro; Hara, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    A maximum frequency of oscillation (f max) of 1.3 THz was achieved using an extended drain-side recess structure of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), although the gate length was relatively long at 75 nm. The high f max was improved by reducing the drain output conductance (g d). The use of an asymmetric gate recess structure and double-side doping above and below a channel region were effective in reducing g d. Further improvements in transconductance (g m) and g d were achieved by reducing the distance between the source and gate electrodes.

  9. InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs with f T = 300 GHz and high maximum oscillation frequencies: the effect of scaling on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. G.; Disanto, D. W.; Watkins, S. P.; Bolognesi, C. R.

    2006-03-01

    The overall microwave performance of heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs) depends on transistor feature sizes, and in particular on the collector to emitter area ratio. Whereas several properties associated with the InP/GaAsSb material system would suggest that NpN InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs should scale very well, initial results in aggressively scaled devices defined by electron beam lithography led to depressed maximum oscillation frequencies such that f MAX f T. In the present work we report the first results achieved at SFU for devices patterned by electron beam lithography: our DHBTs are based on standard uniform layers (i.e. structures do not incorporate any performance-enhancing schemes such as compositional or impurity gradients) so as to establish performance benchmarks in the development of a new generation of epitaxial layers for aggressively scaled InP/GaAsSb DHBTs. We show that attractive performance levels are attainable in well-scaled devices based on nonetheless simple epitaxial structures.

  10. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    Variations of Earth rotation on sub-daily to secular timescales are caused by mass redistributions in the Earth system as a consequence of geophysical processes and gravitational influences. Forced oscillations of polar motion are superposed by free oscillations of the Earth, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the free core nutation. In order to study the interactions between externally induced polar motion and the Earth's free oscillations, a non-linear gyroscopic model has been developed. In most of the former investigations on polar motion, the Chandler wobble is introduced as a damped oscillation with predetermined frequency and amplitude. However, as the effect of rotational deformation is a backcoupling mechanism of polar motion on the Earth's rotational dynamics, both period and amplitude of the Chandler wobble are time-dependent when regarding additional excitations from, e.g., atmospheric or oceanic mass redistributions. The gyroscopic model is free of any explicit information concerning amplitude, phase, and period of free oscillations. The characteristics of the Earth's free oscillation is reproduced by the model from rheological and geometrical parameters and rotational deformation is taken into account. This enables to study the time variable Chandler oscillation when the gyro is forced with atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum from the global atmospheric ECHAM3-T21 general circulation model together with the ocean model for circulation and tides OMCT driven by ECHAM including surface pressure. Besides, mass redistributions in the Earth's body due to gravitational and loading deformations are regarded and external torques exerted by Moon and Sun are considered. The numerical results of the gyro are significantly related with the geodetically observed time series of polar motion published by the IERS. It is shown that the consistent excitation is capable to counteract the damping and thus to maintain the Chandler amplitude. Spectral analyses of the ECHAM

  11. Frequency analysis of nonlinear oscillations via the global error minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalami Yazdi, M.; Hosseini Tehrani, P.

    2016-06-01

    The capacity and effectiveness of a modified variational approach, namely global error minimization (GEM) is illustrated in this study. For this purpose, the free oscillations of a rod rocking on a cylindrical surface and the Duffing-harmonic oscillator are treated. In order to validate and exhibit the merit of the method, the obtained result is compared with both of the exact frequency and the outcome of other well-known analytical methods. The corollary reveals that the first order approximation leads to an acceptable relative error, specially for large initial conditions. The procedure can be promisingly exerted to the conservative nonlinear problems.

  12. Low-cost precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability based on GNSS carrier observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Yanhong; Jiao, Yue; Xu, Dongyang; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ya; Li, Xiaohui

    2013-03-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers can be used in time and frequency metrology by exploiting stable GNSS time scales. This paper proposes a low-cost method for precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability using a single-frequency software GNSS receiver. The only required hardware is a common radio frequency (RF) data collection device driven by the oscillator under test (OUT). The receiver solves the oscillator frequency error in high time resolution using the carrier Doppler observation and the broadcast ephemeris from one of the available satellites employing the onboard reference atomic frequency standard that is more stable than the OUT. Considering the non-stable and non-Gaussian properties of the frequency error measurement, an unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is employed to obtain robust estimation and filter out measurement noise. The effects of different filter orders and convolution lengths are further discussed. The frequency error of an oven controlled oscillator (OCXO) is measured using live Beidou-2/Compass signals. The results are compared with the synchronous measurement using a specialized phase comparator with the standard coordinated universal time (UTC) signal from the master clock H226 in the national time service center (NTSC) of China as its reference. The Allan deviation (ADEV) estimates using the two methods have a 99.9% correlation coefficient and a 0.6% mean relative difference over 1-1000 s intervals. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness and high precision of the software receiver method.

  13. H-Channels Affect Frequency, Power and Amplitude Fluctuations of Neuronal Network Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Avella Gonzalez, Oscar J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; van Pelt, Jaap; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations in network activity are ubiquitous in the brain and are involved in diverse cognitive functions. Oscillation characteristics, such as power, frequency, and temporal structure, depend on both network connectivity and intrinsic cellular properties, such as ion channel composition. An important class of channels, with key roles in regulating cell excitability, are h-channels. The h-current (Ih) is a slow, hyperpolarization-activated, depolarizing current that contributes to neuronal resonance and membrane potential. The impact of Ih on network oscillations, however, remains poorly understood. To elucidate the network effects of Ih, we used a computational model of a generic oscillatory neuronal network consisting of inhibitory and excitatory cells that were externally driven by excitatory action potentials and sustained depolarizing currents. We found that Ih increased the oscillation frequency and, in combination with external action potentials, representing input from areas outside the network, strongly decreased the synchrony of firing. As a consequence, the oscillation power and the duration of episodes during which the network exhibited high-amplitude oscillations were greatly reduced in the presence of Ih. Our results suggest that modulation of Ih or impaired expression of h-channels, as observed in epilepsy, could, by affecting oscillation dynamics, markedly alter network-level activity and potentially influence oscillation-dependent cognitive processes such as learning, memory and attention. PMID:26635594

  14. Identifying robust and sensitive frequency bands for interrogating neural oscillations.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Alexander J; McMenamin, Brenton W; Maxwell, Jeffrey S; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

    2010-07-15

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using neural oscillations to characterize the mechanisms supporting cognition and emotion. Oftentimes, oscillatory activity is indexed by mean power density in predefined frequency bands. Some investigators use broad bands originally defined by prominent surface features of the spectrum. Others rely on narrower bands originally defined by spectral factor analysis (SFA). Presently, the robustness and sensitivity of these competing band definitions remains unclear. Here, a Monte Carlo-based SFA strategy was used to decompose the tonic ("resting" or "spontaneous") electroencephalogram (EEG) into five bands: delta (1-5Hz), alpha-low (6-9Hz), alpha-high (10-11Hz), beta (12-19Hz), and gamma (>21Hz). This pattern was consistent across SFA methods, artifact correction/rejection procedures, scalp regions, and samples. Subsequent analyses revealed that SFA failed to deliver enhanced sensitivity; narrow alpha sub-bands proved no more sensitive than the classical broadband to individual differences in temperament or mean differences in task-induced activation. Other analyses suggested that residual ocular and muscular artifact was the dominant source of activity during quiescence in the delta and gamma bands. This was observed following threshold-based artifact rejection or independent component analysis (ICA)-based artifact correction, indicating that such procedures do not necessarily confer adequate protection. Collectively, these findings highlight the limitations of several commonly used EEG procedures and underscore the necessity of routinely performing exploratory data analyses, particularly data visualization, prior to hypothesis testing. They also suggest the potential benefits of using techniques other than SFA for interrogating high-dimensional EEG datasets in the frequency or time-frequency (event-related spectral perturbation, event-related synchronization/desynchronization) domains.

  15. Identifying Robust and Sensitive Frequency Bands for Interrogating Neural Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; McMenamin, Brenton W.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using neural oscillations to characterize the mechanisms supporting cognition and emotion. Oftentimes, oscillatory activity is indexed by mean power density in predefined frequency bands. Some investigators use broad bands originally defined by prominent surface features of the spectrum. Others rely on narrower bands originally defined by spectral factor analysis (SFA). Presently, the robustness and sensitivity of these competing band definitions remains unclear. Here, a Monte Carlo-based SFA strategy was used to decompose the tonic (“resting” or “spontaneous”) electroencephalogram (EEG) into five bands: delta (1–5Hz), alpha-low (6–9Hz), alpha-high (10–11Hz), beta (12–19Hz), and gamma (>21Hz). This pattern was consistent across SFA methods, artifact correction/rejection procedures, scalp regions, and samples. Subsequent analyses revealed that SFA failed to deliver enhanced sensitivity; narrow alpha sub-bands proved no more sensitive than the classical broadband to individual differences in temperament or mean differences in task-induced activation. Other analyses suggested that residual ocular and muscular artifact was the dominant source of activity during quiescence in the delta and gamma bands. This was observed following threshold-based artifact rejection or independent component analysis (ICA)-based artifact correction, indicating that such procedures do not necessarily confer adequate protection. Collectively, these findings highlight the limitations of several commonly used EEG procedures and underscore the necessity of routinely performing exploratory data analyses, particularly data visualization, prior to hypothesis testing. They also suggest the potential benefits of using techniques other than SFA for interrogating high-dimensional EEG datasets in the frequency or time-frequency (event-related spectral perturbation, event-related synchronization / desynchronization) domains. PMID

  16. On the surface physics affecting solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdek, G.; Trampedach, R.; Aarslev, M. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    Adiabatic oscillation frequencies of stellar models, computed with the standard mixing-length formulation for convection, increasingly deviate with radial order from observations in solar-like stars. Standard solar models overestimate adiabatic frequencies by as much as ˜ 20 μHz. In this Letter, we address the physical processes of turbulent convection that are predominantly responsible for the frequency differences between standard models and observations, also called `surface effects'. We compare measured solar frequencies from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft with frequency calculations that include 3D hydrodynamical simulation results in the equilibrium model, non-adiabatic effects, and a consistent treatment of the turbulent pressure in both the equilibrium and stability computations. With the consistent inclusion of the above physics in our model computation, we are able to reproduce the observed solar frequencies to ≲3 μHz without the need of any additional ad hoc functional corrections.

  17. High power phase locked laser oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C. L.; Telk, C. L.; Soohoo, J.; Davis, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of mechanizing an adaptive array of independent laser oscillators for generation of a high power coherent output was experimentally investigated. Tests were structured to evaluate component/system requirements for delivery of energy to a low-earth orbit satellite. Initial experiments addressed the control issues of phase locking unstable resonators at low power levels. A successful phase lock demonstration formed the basis for the design and fabrication of the high power, water-cooled, control mirror subsequently installed in the NASA LeRC high power laser. Tests were performed to characterize the operational limits of the laser system and included quantitative assessment of the frequency stability, noise sources, and optical properties of the beam.

  18. Interaction between respiratory and RR interval oscillations at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A; Wodicka, G R; Maayan, C; Shannon, D C

    1990-03-01

    Oscillations in RR interval between 0.02 and 1.00 cycles per second (Hz) have been related to the action of the autonomic nervous system. Respiration has been shown to influence RR interval at normal breathing frequencies between approximately 0.16 and 0.5 Hz in children and adults--a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the effect of respiration on RR interval in a lower frequency range between 0.02 and 0.12 Hz. Low frequency oscillations in respiration were induced in healthy sleeping adult subjects via the administration of a bolus of CO2 during inhalation. Power spectra of RR interval and respiration were obtained before and after the CO2 pulse, and the frequency content in the low frequency range was quantitatively compared. An increase in the spectral energy in both respiration and RR interval was observed for the group. However, this increase was accounted for by six of 29 epochs. We conclude that respiration (tidal volume) can influence RR interval at frequencies below those usually associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This influence may be mediated through a sympathetic reflex. This result is applicable to the measurement and interpretation of heart rate variability and to autonomic influences of low frequency fluctuations in RR interval.

  19. Gamma Oscillations and Their Cross-frequency Coupling in the Primate Hippocampus during Sleep.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Saori; Mima, Tatsuya; Murai, Rie; Shimazu, Hideki; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Tsujimoto, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism by which sleep consolidates memory is unclear. Based on the two-stage model of memory consolidation, different functions for slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been proposed; thus, state-dependent changes of neural oscillations in the hippocampus might clarify this fundamental question. We recorded hippocampal local field potentials from freely behaving monkeys via telemetry and analyzed their nonstationary oscillations using Hilbert-Huang transform. By applying a recently developed empirical mode decomposition analysis, we found strong cross-frequency coupling between high-frequency and slow wave oscillations during SWS and a prominent increase of gamma band activity in short bursts during REM sleep in unanesthetized primates' hippocampus. Spatiotemporal integration through coupled oscillations during slow wave sleep might be a physiological basis of system consolidation, whereas gamma bursts during rapid eye movement sleep might be related to synaptic consolidation in the local hippocampal neural circuit. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Multichannel Ka-Band Microwave Oscillator Based on Frequency-Shifted Relativistic Backward-Wave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalandin, M. I.; Sharypov, K. A.; Pedos, M. S.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.; Rukin, S. N.; Ul'maskulov, M. R.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments on summation of linearly polarized Gaussian wave beams in free space from two and four synchronous nanosecond Ka-band relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs), each having an output power of about 200 MW with controllably shifted oscillator frequencies have been carried out. An about 0.5% frequency shift in one of the channels was equivalent to a one-period phase delay of the carrier frequency. In a two-channel version of the device, a full beat cycle was obtained for a pulse with quadratic (with respect to the number of sources) enhancement of the power flux density at the interference maximum of the integral directional pattern (DP). In the case of a four-channel device, a diagonal displacement of the DP lobes has been demonstrated.

  1. Hydrodynamic Force on a Cylinder Oscillating at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Yao, Minwu; Panzarella, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic force on a cylinder oscillating transversely to its axis is a nonlinear function of the displacement amplitude x0. We report measurements and numerical calculations of the force at frequencies low enough that delta > R, where delta is the viscous penetration length and R is the cylinder radius. For small amplitudes, the numerically calculated Fourier transform of the force per unit length, F(sub small), agrees with Stokes' analytical calculation. For larger amplitudes, the force per unit length found by both calculation and measurement is F = F(sub small)C (x(sub 0)/delta,R/delta). The complex function C depends only weakly on R/delta, indicating that x0/delta is more appropriate as a scaling variable than the Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = pi*x(sub 0)/R. The measurements used a torsion oscillator driven at frequencies from 1 to 12 Hz while immersed in dense xenon. The oscillator comprised cylinders with an effective radius of R = 13.4 micron and oscillation amplitudes as large as x(sub 0)/delta = 4 (corresponding to KC as large as 71). The calculations used similar conditions except that the amplitudes were as large as x0/delta = 28.

  2. Characterizing Random Telegraph Frequency Noise in a Micromechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fengpei; Zou, Jie; Maizelis, Zakhar; Chan, Ho Bun

    2014-03-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the effect of random telegraph frequency noise(RTFN) on a micromechanical torsional oscillator. A sinusoidal driving voltage is applied to one electrode of the oscillator to excite its torsional vibration. Telegraph noise is applied to the other electrode so that the eigenfrequency of the oscillator randomly jumps back and forth between two states. This arrangement resembles a mechanical oscillator dispersively coupled to a classical or quantum two-level system. As the jumping rate of the eigenfrequency is increased, the two peaks in the spectrum of the time-averaged vibration amplitude merge into a single peak, displaying spectral broadening followed by motional narrowing. Furthermore, we analyze the ratios of the moments of the complex vibration amplitude to the powers of the averaged complex amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. If RTFN is absent, the ratios are equal to one; otherwise they deviate from one near resonance and approach to one far off resonance. The shape of the spectra depends strongly on the characteristics of RTFN and this dependence remains valid even in the presence of strong thermal or detector noise. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  3. Frequency-shift vibro-acoustic modulation driven by low-frequency broadband excitations in a bistable cantilever oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Xu, Yanyan; Lu, Siliang; Shao, Yong

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a frequency-shift vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) effect in a bistable microcracked cantilever oscillator. Low-frequency broadband excitations induced a VAM effect with a shifted modulation frequency through involving a microcracked metal beam in a bistable oscillator model. We used nonlinear dynamics equations and principles to describe the mechanism of a bistable oscillator whose natural frequency varied as the oscillation amplitude increased. We demonstrated this frequency-shift VAM effect using a prototype bistable oscillator model designed to efficiently detect microcracks in solid materials via the VAM effect using ambient vibration excitations.

  4. Resonant behavior of a fractional oscillator with fluctuating frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soika, Erkki; Mankin, Romi; Ainsaar, Ain

    2010-01-01

    The long-time behavior of the first moment for the output signal of a fractional oscillator with fluctuating frequency subjected to an external periodic force is considered. Colored fluctuations of the oscillator eigenfrequency are modeled as a dichotomous noise. The viscoelastic type friction kernel with memory is assumed as a power-law function of time. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the response to an external periodic field and for the complex susceptibility are presented. On the basis of the exact formulas it is demonstrated that interplay of colored noise and memory can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as multiresonances versus the driving frequency and the friction coefficient as well as stochastic resonance versus noise parameters. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the cooperation effects are also discussed. Particularly, two different critical memory exponents have been found, which mark dynamical transitions in the behavior of the system.

  5. Oscillator circuit for use with high loss quartz resonator sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Otto

    1995-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications, especially for use with quartz resonator sensors. The oscillator is designed to operate over a wide dynamic range of resonator resistance due to damping of the resonator in mediums such as liquids. An oscillator design is presented that allows both frequency and loss (R.sub.m) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  6. Frequency-stabilization of mode-locked laser-based photonic microwave oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Salik, Ertan; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe our recent phase-noise measurements of photonic microwave oscillators. We will aslo discuss our investigation of the frequency stability link between the optical and microwave frequencies in the coupled oscillator.

  7. The beat frequency model for QPOs. [Quasi-Periodic-Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) phenomenon has come to pose increasingly complex problems as sources have been discovered; these currently number 12, of which at least seven are X-ray binaries. The beat-frequency model (BFM), originally devised to characterize the first and simplest of the QPOs, GX5-1, is presently discussed with a view to its assumptions and applicability to other QPOs. The most important problem with the BFM is identified as the assumption that the neutron star involved rotates at an angular frequency of the order, in the case of GX5-1, of 10 msec.

  8. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, Anders Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan

    2014-03-03

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films.

  9. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Fluid-Surface Oscillation Frequencies in a Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapuzzano, Matthew; Pierre, Kiesha; Tufekcioglu, Emre; Guldiken, Rasim; Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Crane, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    Many important processes from agriculture to manufacturing depend on the wetting of fluids on rough or textured surfaces. This has traditionally been studied from a macro-perspective. The effects of these surface features can be dramatically altered by vibrations that overcome energy barriers to contact line motion caused by surface roughness. In order to study these effects in confined geometries and at different length scales, a validated model is required. This presentation will compare the measured and simulated frequencies of capillary vibrations in a cylindrical glass tube. Fluid surface vibrations are excited externally through deformation of the interface. The resulting surface oscillations are observed with a high speed video camera and the dominant oscillation frequencies are calculated. The measured oscillation frequencies are compared to predictions from transient CFD simulations across a range of interface diameters from 400 um to 1.5 mm. These results may be used to inform studies of wetting under vibration. NSF CMMI-1361919.

  10. Synchronization of low-frequency oscillations in the cardiovascular system: Application to medical diagnostics and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, V. I.; Prokhorov, M. D.; Karavaev, A. S.; Kiselev, A. R.; Gridnev, V. I.; Bezruchko, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz. A quantitative estimation of this synchronization based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations is proposed. We show that assessment of synchronization between the considered oscillations can be useful for selecting an optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in patients after acute myocardial infarction. It is found out that low value of synchronization between the low-frequency rhythms in heart rate and blood pressure at the first week after acute myocardial infarction is a sensitive marker of high risk of mortality during the subsequent 5 years.

  11. Frequency Measurement System of Optical Clocks Without a Flywheel Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Miho; Ido, Tetsuya; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Kenji; Yonegaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Utako; Urabe, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock. The measurement was as quick as a conventional method that employs a local microwave reference. We confirmed the system uncertainty and instability to be at the low 10(-15) level using an Sr lattice clock.

  12. Surface acoustic wave opto-mechanical oscillator and frequency comb generator.

    PubMed

    Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2011-09-01

    We report on realization of an efficient triply resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyperparametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb by observing the modulation of the light escaping the resonator.

  13. Synthesis of Optical Frequencies and Ultrastable Femtosecond Pulse Trains from an Optical Reference Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, A.; Ramond, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Hollberg, L.

    Recently, atomic clocks based on optical frequency standards have been demonstrated [1,2]. A key element in these clocks is a femtosecond laser that downconverts the petahertz oscillation rate into countable ticks at 1 GHz. When compared to current microwave standards, these new optical clocks are expected to yield an improvement in stability and accuracy by roughly a factor of 1000. Furthermore, it is possible that the lowest noise microwave sources will soon be based on atomically-stabilized optical oscillators that have their frequency converted to the microwave domain via a femtosecond laser. Here, we present tests of the ability of femtosecond lasers to transfer stability from an optical oscillator to their repetition rates as well as to the associated broadband frequency comb. In a first experiment, we phase-lock two lasers to a stabilized laser diode and find that the relative timing jitter in their pulse trains can be on the order of 1 femtosecond in a 100 kHz bandwidth. It is important to distinguish this technique from previous work where a femtosecond laser has been stabilized to a microwave standard [3,4] or another femtosecond laser [5]. Furthermore, we extract highly stable microwave signals with a fractional frequency instability of 2×10-14 in 1 s by photodetection of the laser pulse trains. In a second experiment, we similarly phase-lock the femtosecond laser to an optical oscillator with linewidth less than 1 Hz [6]. The precision with which we can make the femtosecond frequency comb track this reference oscillator is then tested by a heterodyne measurement between a second stable optical oscillator and a mode of the frequency comb that is displaced 76 THz from the 1 Hz-wide reference. From this heterodyne signal we place an upper limit of 150 Hz on the linewidth of the elements of the frequency comb, limited by the noise in the measurement itself.

  14. Hemodynamic low-frequency oscillation reflects resting-state neuronal activity in rodent brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Peng; Li, James; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Brain functional connectivity is mapped using spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in blood-oxygen-leveldependent (BOLD) signals using fMRI. However, the origin of spontaneous BOLD oscillations remains elusive. Specifically, the coupling of regional hemodynamic LFOs to neuronal activity in a resting brain is rarely examined directly. Here we present a method based on instantaneous-frequency (IF) analysis to detect regional LFOs of cerebral blood flow (CBF) along with local-field potential (LFP) changes of neurons in resting state to study neurovascular coupling. CBF and LFP were simultaneously acquired using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and electroencephalography in the rat's somatosensory cortex with high temporal resolution (i.e., 20Hz for CBF and 2kHz for LDF, respectively). Instead of fast Fourier transform analysis, a peak-detection algorithm was used to define the LFP activities and CBF spontaneous oscillations in the time domain and the time lapses were used to calculate the IFs of hemodynamic (i.e., CBF) oscillations and neuronal (i.e., LFP) activities. Our results showed that the CBF mostly oscillated at ~0.1Hz with a full-half-bandwidth of [0.08Hz, 0.15Hz]. In addition, the maximal frequency of LFP firings was also approximately at 0.1Hz, which collaborated with to the frequency of CBF oscillations. Interestingly, CBF increased linearly with the LFP activity up to 0.15Hz (r=0.93), and both signals then decreased rapidly as a function of activity frequency. This indicates the spontaneous hemodynamic LFOs were associated with neuronal activities, thus confirming the neuronal origin of the hemodynamic oscillations.

  15. The effect of near-surface convection on oscillation frequencies of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modelled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term”. The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modelling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelength (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3-D flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt-Väisäla frequency and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified wave equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of three dimensional flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from three dimensional numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies, and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.

  16. Torsional oscillations of neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequencies of magnetic oscillations in neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields, we derive the perturbation equations. We assume that the field strength of the global magnetic structure is so small that such fields are negligible compared with tangled fields, which may still be far from a realistic configuration. Then, we systematically examine the spectra of the magnetic oscillations, as varying the magnetic field strength and stellar mass. The frequencies without crust elasticity are completely proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, whose proportionality constant depends strongly on the stellar mass. On the other hand, the oscillation spectra with crust elasticity become more complicated, where the frequencies even for weak magnetic fields are different from the crustal torsional oscillations without magnetic fields. For discussing spectra, the critical field strength can play an important role, and it is determined in such a way that the shear velocity is equivalent to the Alfvén velocity at the crust basis. Additionally, we find that the effect of the crust elasticity can be seen strongly in the fundamental oscillations with a lower harmonic index, ℓ. Unlike the stellar models with a pure dipole magnetic field, we also find that the spectra with highly tangled magnetic fields become discrete, where one can expect many of the eigenfrequencies. Maybe these frequencies could be detected after the violent phenomena breaking the global magnetic field structure.

  17. Experimental Hingeless Rotor Characteristics at Full Scale First Flap Mode Frequencies (including Rotor Frequency Response to Shaft Oscillations), Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczynski, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The completion of the High Advance Ratio Research Program is reported. The primary objectives of the program were to experimentally determine the rotor frequency response to shaft pitching and rolling oscillations and to acquire steady response and frequency response data at high advance ratios for hingeless rotors with typical, full-scale, first flap mode natural frequencies. Secondary objectives of the program included the further evaluation of both the hub moment feedback control system and the simplified rigid blade flapping theory with respect to shaft oscillations. The bulk of the text is devoted to the presentation and examination of representative experimental results. All the analyzed test data are documented in tabular and/or graphical formats.

  18. Low-frequency oscillation in a narrow vibrated granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarte Gálvez, Loreto; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2015-11-01

    The analogy of the behaviour of granular materials with that of fluids has motivated much appealing research. An important example is a vertically shaken granular bed which exhibits fluid-like behavior, such as the Leidenfrost effect where a dense layer of grains floats on top of a gaseous layer, just like when a liquid droplet floats on its own vapour above a hot plate. When the shaking energy is increased the granular bed transits from the Leidenfrost to the convection state, for which a precursor is expected in the form of an oscillation of the bed as a whole. This precursor was observed numerically like an oscillation in the motion of the dense part, where the frequency of this oscillation is much lower than the frequency of the injected energy, and appears more relevant when the system is getting closer to the convective state. We built a setup that permits the observation of the granular Leidenfrost effect for a wide range of driving parameters. More specifically, a monodisperse granular material is contained in a transparent box and vertically shaken, and a fast camera is used to study its dynamics. The presence of a LFO is directly measured by images analysis and shows a good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental works.

  19. Detecting the harmonics of oscillations with time-variable frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, L. W.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-01-01

    A method is introduced for the spectral analysis of complex noisy signals containing several frequency components. It enables components that are independent to be distinguished from the harmonics of nonsinusoidal oscillatory processes of lower frequency. The method is based on mutual information and surrogate testing combined with the wavelet transform, and it is applicable to relatively short time series containing frequencies that are time variable. Where the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a process can be identified, the characteristic shape of the corresponding oscillation can be determined, enabling adaptive filtering to remove other components and nonoscillatory noise from the signal. Thus the total bandwidth of the signal can be correctly partitioned and the power associated with each component then can be quantified more accurately. The method is first demonstrated on numerical examples. It is then used to identify the higher harmonics of oscillations in human skin blood flow, both spontaneous and associated with periodic iontophoresis of a vasodilatory agent. The method should be equally relevant to all situations where signals of comparable complexity are encountered, including applications in astrophysics, engineering, and electrical circuits, as well as in other areas of physiology and biology.

  20. Dynamics of phase oscillators with generalized frequency-weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Gao, Jian; Xiang, Hairong; Jia, Wenjing; Guan, Shuguang; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous coupling patterns among interacting elements are ubiquitous in real systems ranging from physics, chemistry to biology communities, which have attracted much attention during recent years. In this paper, we extend the Kuramoto model by considering a particular heterogeneous coupling scheme in an ensemble of phase oscillators, where each oscillator pair interacts with different coupling strength that is weighted by a general function of the natural frequency. The Kuramoto theory for the transition to synchronization can be explicitly generalized, such as the expression for the critical coupling strength. Also, a self-consistency approach is developed to predict the stationary states in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, Landau damping effects are further revealed by means of linear stability analysis and resonance poles theory below the critical threshold, which turns to be far more generic. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings.

  1. Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John; Jamieson, Graham; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Meditation proficiency is related to trait-like (learned) effects on brain function, developed over time. Previous studies show increases in EEG power in lower frequency bands (theta, alpha) in experienced meditators in both meditation states and baseline conditions. Higher gamma band power has been found in advanced Buddhist meditators, yet it is not known if this occurs in Yoga meditation practices. This study used eLORETA to compare differences in cortical source activity underlying scalp EEG from intermediate (mean experience 4 years) and advanced (mean experience 30 years) Australian meditators from the Satyananda Yoga tradition during a body-steadiness meditation, mantra meditation, and non-meditation mental calculation condition. Intermediate Yoga meditators showed greater source activity in low frequencies (particularly theta and alpha1) during mental calculation, body-steadiness and mantra meditation. A similar spatial pattern of significant differences was found in all conditions but the number of significant voxels was double during body-steadiness and mantra meditation than in the non-meditation (calculation) condition. These differences were greatest in right (R) superior frontal and R precentral gyri and extended back to include the R parietal and occipital lobes. Advanced Yoga meditators showed greater activity in high frequencies (beta and especially gamma) in all conditions but greatly expanded during meditation practice. Across all conditions (meditation and non-meditation) differences were greatest in the same regions: R insula, R inferior frontal gyrus and R anterior temporal lobe. Distinct R core networks were identified in alpha1 (8–10 Hz) and gamma (25–42 Hz) bands, respectively. The voxels recruited to these networks greatly expanded during meditation practice to include homologous regions of the left hemisphere. Functional interpretation parallels traditionally described stages of development in Yoga proficiency. PMID:24959124

  2. A fast continuation scheme for accurate tracing of nonlinear oscillator frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Dunne, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A new algorithm is proposed to combine the split-frequency harmonic balance method (SF-HBM) with arc-length continuation (ALC) for accurate tracing of the frequency response of oscillators with non-expansible nonlinearities. ALC is incorporated into the SF-HBM in a two-stage procedure: Stage I involves finding a reasonably accurate response frequency and solution using a relatively large number of low-frequency harmonics. This step is achieved using the SF-HBM in conjunction with ALC. Stage II uses the SF-HBM to obtain a very accurate solution at the frequency obtained in Stage I. To guarantee rapid path tracing, the frequency axis is appropriately subdivided. This gives high chance of success in finding a globally optimum set of harmonic coefficients. When approaching a turning point however, arc-lengths are adaptively reduced to obtain a very accurate solution. The combined procedure is tested on three hardening stiffness examples: a Duffing model; an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and single harmonic forcing; and an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and multiple-harmonic forcing. The results show that for non-expansible nonlinearities and multiple-harmonic forcing, the proposed algorithm is capable of tracing-out frequency response functions with high accuracy and efficiency.

  3. A microwave exciter for Cs frequency standards based on a sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; McNeilage, C; Searls, J H; Ohshima, S

    2001-01-01

    A low noise and highly stable microwave exciter system has been built for Cs atomic frequency standards using a tunable sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO), which works at room temperature. This paper discusses the successful implementation of a control system for locking the SLCO to a long-term reference signal and reports an upper limit of the achieved frequency tracking error 6 x 10(-15) at tau = 1 s.

  4. Parametric frequency transformation in a superconducting waveguide line with an integrated Josephson oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, M. V.; Munyaev, V. O.; Satanin, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    The parametric frequency division in a coplanar waveguide line with an integrated single-contact rf SQUID (Josephson oscillator) is discussed. It is assumed that the oscillator is excited by pump pulses whose carrier frequency can be a multiple of the plasma frequency of the oscillator. It is shown that the Josephson oscillator excited at the pump frequency can induce frequency division by emitting subharmonics that are multiples of the fundamental frequency (fractional resonances). Parameters for which parametric frequency transformation occurs are determined. The possible generalization of this effect to the quantum case in which correlated microwave photons (entangled photon states) can be generated is discussed.

  5. High Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatteschi, D.

    EPR has traditionally been used in order to obtain structural information on transition metal compounds, with exciting frequencies in the range 9-35 GHz.The recent availability of high magnetic field has prompted the use of higher frequencies. In this contribution the advantages of using High-Field-High-Frequency EPR (HF EPR) experiments are reviewed. After a brief introduction aiming to recall the fundamentals of EPR spectroscopy, a short description of the experimental apparatus needed to perform HF EPR measurements is provided. The remaining sections report selected examples showing how much information can be obtained by HF EPR spectra. They range from individual ions with integer spin to molecular clusters. Particular attention is devoted to the so called Single Molecule Magnets, SMM, i.e. to molecular clusters which show slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature. This effect is due to Ising type magnetic anisotropy which has been efficiently monitored through HF EPR s pectroscopy.

  6. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  7. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1994-07-01

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of {approximately}0.1 M{circle_dot}, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M{circle_dot} is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M{circle_dot} and exponentially-decreasing mass loss irate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  8. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, J. A.; Cox, A. N.

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of approximately 0.1 M(circle dot), nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M(circle dot) is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M(circle dot) and exponentially-decreasing mass loss rate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: (1) the early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and (2) the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  9. Time-frequency analysis using damped-oscillator pseudo-wavelets: application to electrophysiological recordings

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, David; Hsu, Murielle; Grabenstatter, Heidi L.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Sutula, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The damped-oscillator pseudo-wavelet is presented as a method of time-frequency analysis along with a new spectral density measure, the data power. An instantaneous phase can be defined for this pseudo-wavelet, and it is easily inverted. The data power measure is tested on both computer generated data and in vivo intrahippocampal electrophysiological recordings from a rat. The data power spectral density is found to give better time and frequency resolution than the more conventional total energy measure, and additionally shows intricate time-frequency structure in the rat that is altered in association with the emergence of epilepsy. With epileptogenesis, the baseline theta oscillation is severely degraded and is absorbed into a broader gamma band. There are also broad 600 Hz and 2000 Hz bands which localize to hippocampal layers that are distinct from those of the theta and gamma bands. The 600 Hz band decreases in prominence with epileptogenesis while the 2000 Hz band increases in prominence. The origins of these high frequency bands await further study. In general, we find that the damped-oscillator pseudo-wavelet is easy to use and is particularly suitable for problems where a wide range of oscillator frequencies is expected. PMID:20933002

  10. On the Origin of Low Frequency Oscillations in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Barral, S.; Ahedo, E.

    2008-03-19

    The breathing mode is a low frequency, longitudinal bulk instability observed in a majority of Hall thrusters. Its occurrence is accompanied by wide, regular discharge current oscillations in the 10-30 kHz range. A concise outline of the prevailing interpretations of this mode is provided, followed by an overview of a recently proposed theory. It is eventually shown that this ionization instability is not related to the motion of the ionization front but to an ionization predator-prey cycle, the former phenomenon being rather a consequence of the latter.

  11. Simple Formula Relating Frequencies of Twin-peak Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torok, Gabriel

    2017-08-01

    Twin-peak quasiperiodic oscillations are observed in several low-mass X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars. Timing analysis of X-ray fluxes of more than dozen of such systems reveals remarkable correlations between frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the power density spectra. Several attempts to model these correlations with simple geodesic orbital models or phenomenological relations have failed in the past. We find and explore a surprisingly simple analytic formula that well reproduces individual correlations for a large group of sources. We also discuss possible theoretical interpretation of this formula.

  12. Possible feedback path for low-frequency atmospheric oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, X. H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Four years of satellite-derived microwave radiance data have been analyzed, providing evidence for the possiblity of a feedback route in the Southern Hemisphere. The present propagation path extends from the central equatorial Pacific across lower South America, heads equatorward after passing south of Africa, and finally reenters the equatorial Indian Ocean with correct phase to enhance the primary equatorial dipole structure. The Southern Hemisphere propagation path migrates northward in April-September and southward in October-March, and it may constitute a feedback mechanism which could stabilize the low frequency oscillations.

  13. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.

  14. High-Q GaN nanowire resonators and oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, S. M.; Gray, J. M.; Rogers, C. T.; Bertness, K. A.; Sanford, N. A.

    2007-11-12

    We report high mechanical quality factors Q for GaN nanowire cantilevers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Nanowires with 30-500 nm diameters and 5-20 {mu}m lengths having resonance frequencies from 400 kHz to 2.8 MHz were measured. Q near room temperature and 10{sup -4} Pa ranged from 2700 to above 60 000 with most above 10 000. Positive feedback to a piezoelectric stack caused spontaneous nanowire oscillations with Q exceeding 10{sup 6}. Spontaneous oscillations also occurred with direct e-beam excitation of unintentionally doped nanowires. Doped nanowires showed no oscillations, consistent with oscillation arising via direct actuation of piezoelectric GaN.

  15. The frequency of neutral meson and neutrino oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, B.

    1997-03-01

    Interference between the different mass eigenstate components of a neutral K meson causes its decay probability to oscillate with time. Related oscillations occur in the decay chain {phi} {yields} KK {yields} f{sub 1}f{sub 2} (where f{sub 1,2} are decay channels), in neutral B decay, in the chain {Upsilon}(4s) {yields} BB {yields} f{sub 1}F{sub 2}, and in massive neutrino propagation. Since the mass eigenstates comprising a neutral K, a neutral B, or a neutrino have different masses, they have different speeds at any given momentum. Thus, classically, they become separated in space and time. This circumstance can tempt one to evaluate their contributions to the K or B decay, or to the neutrino interaction with a detector, at different spacetime points. However, these quantum-mechanically interfering contributions must always be evaluated at precisely the same point. Evaluating them at different points can lead to predicted oscillation frequencies double their true values.

  16. Measurement of the Bs0-Bs0 oscillation frequency.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H J; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-08-11

    We present the first precise measurement of the Bs0-Bs0 oscillation frequency Deltams. We use 1 fb-1 of data from pp collisions at sqrts=1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The sample contains signals of 3600 fully reconstructed hadronic Bs decays and 37,000 partially reconstructed semileptonic Bs decays. We measure the probability as a function of proper decay time that the Bs decays with the same, or opposite, flavor as the flavor at production, and we find a signal consistent with Bs0-Bs0 oscillations. The probability that random fluctuations could produce a comparable signal is 0.2%. Under the hypothesis that the signal is due to Bs0-Bs0 oscillations, we measure Deltams=17.31(-0.18)+0.33(stat)+/-0.07(syst) ps-1 and determine |Vtd/Vts|=0.208(-0.002)+0.001(expt)-0.006(+0.008)(theor).

  17. Oscillation Frequency and Pattern Wavelength in Shaken Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sarah; Skrzypek, Barbara; Stuck, Justin; Bougie, Jon

    2016-11-01

    When a layer of grains atop a plate is vertically oscillated at amplitudes greater than that of gravity, the layer of the material leaves the plate at some point in the cycle. Shocks form in the layer upon its return collision with the plate. Standing wave patterns also form at various amplitudes exceeding a critical value for the system. Previous research has examined the relationship between the shock strength and driving frequency at a fixed layer depth and accelerational amplitude. For a given layer depth, a decrease in frequency corresponds to a stronger shock and greater pattern wavelength. We characterize the base state of the system by investigating the shocks just prior to pattern formation in the media, using numerical simulations of continuum equations to Navier-Stokes order. We use this characterization to study the relationship between shock instability and the patterns formed in these layers. This research is supported by the Loyola Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.

  18. 1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Leitch, S M; Zhang, Z; McCracken, R A; Reid, D T

    2015-01-26

    We present the first example of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb harmonically-pumped by a 333-MHz Ti:sapphire laser to achieve a stabilized signal comb at 1-GHz mode spacing in the 1.1-1.6-µm wavelength band. Simultaneous locking of the comb carrier-envelope-offset and repetition frequencies is achieved with uncertainties over 1 s of 0.27 Hz and 5 mHz respectively, which are comparable with those of 0.27 Hz and 1.5 mHz achieved for 333-MHz fundamental pumping. The phase-noise power-spectral density of the CEO frequency integrated from 1 Hz-64 kHz was 2.8 rad for the harmonic comb, 1.0 rad greater than for fundamental pumping. The results show that harmonic operation does not substantially compromise the frequency-stability of the comb, which is shown to be limited only by the Rb atomic frequency reference used.

  19. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings. PMID:26903110

  20. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings.

  1. Parametric Oscillation, Frequency Mixing, and Injection Locking of Strongly Coupled Nanomechanical Resonator Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitner, Maximilian J.; Abdi, Mehdi; Ridolfo, Alessandro; Hartmann, Michael J.; Weig, Eva M.

    2017-06-01

    We study locking phenomena of two strongly coupled, high quality factor nanomechanical resonator modes to a common parametric drive at a single drive frequency in different parametric driving regimes. By controlled dielectric gradient forces we tune the resonance frequencies of the flexural in-plane and out-of-plane oscillation of the high stress silicon nitride string through their mutual avoided crossing. For the case of the strong common parametric drive signal-idler generation via nondegenerate parametric two-mode oscillation is observed. Broadband frequency tuning of the very narrow linewidth signal and idler resonances is demonstrated. When the resonance frequencies of the signal and idler get closer to each other, partial injection locking, injection pulling, and complete injection locking to half of the drive frequency occurs depending on the pump strength. Furthermore, satellite resonances, symmetrically offset from the signal and idler by their beat note, are observed, which can be attributed to degenerate four-wave mixing in the highly nonlinear mechanical oscillations.

  2. Avalanche-diode oscillator circuit with tuning at multiple frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D.; Ablow, C. M.; Lee, R. E.; Karp, A.; Chambers, D. R.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis of three different modes or types of high efficiency oscillation in a PIN diode are presented. For the TRAPATT mode in a PIN diode, it is shown that a traveling avalanche zone is not necessary to generate a dense trapped plasma. An economical computer program for TRAPATT oscillations in a PIN diode is described. Typical results of diode power, dc-to-RF conversion efficiency, and required circuit impedances are presented for several different current waveforms. A semianalytical solution for a second type of high efficiency mode in a PIN diode is derived assuming a rectangular current waveform. A quasi-static approximation is employed to derive a semianalytical solution for the voltage across a PIN diode in a third mode, where avalanching occurs during a major portion of a half cycle. Calculations for this mode indicate that the power increases proportionally to the magnitude of the drive current with a small decrease in efficiency relative to the ordinary TRAPATT mode. An analytical solution is also given for a PIN diode, where it is assumed that the ionization coefficient is a step function. It is shown that the step-ionization approximation permits one to draw possible patterns of avalanche region in the depletion layer as a function of time. A rule governing admissible patterns is derived and an example solution given for one admissible pattern. Preliminary experimental results on the high-efficiency oscillations are presented and discussed. Two different experimental circuits, which used channel-dropping filters to provide independent harmonic tuning, are described. Simpler circuits used to produce high-efficiency oscillations are discussed. Results of experiments using inexpensive Fairchild FD300 diodes are given.

  3. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  4. High average power difference-frequency generation of picosecond mid-IR pulses at 80MHz using an Yb-fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Julia; Beutler, Marcus; Rimke, Ingo; Büttner, Edlef; Farinello, Paolo; Agnesi, Antonio; Petrov, Valentin P.

    2015-02-01

    We present an efficient coherent source widely tunable in the mid-infrared spectral range consisting of a commercial picosecond Yb-fiber laser operating at 80 MHz repetition rate, a synchronously-pumped OPO (SPOPO) and differencefrequency generation (DFG) in AgGaSe2. With an average input pump power of 7.8 W at 1032 nm and at 80 MHz, the SPOPO outputs are tunable from 1380 to 1980 nm (Signal) and from 2.1 to ~4 μm (Idler) with pulse durations between 2.1 and 2.6 ps over the entire tuning range. After temporally overlapping Signal and Idler through a delay line, the two beams are spatially recombined with a dichroic mirror (reflecting for the Signal in s-polarization and transmitting for the Idler in p-polarization), and focused by a 150 mm CaF2 lens to a common focus. For DFG we employ an AR-coated 10- mm thick AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystal cut for type-I interaction at θ =52°. The generated mid-infrared picosecond pulses are continuously tunable between 5 and 18 μm with average power up to 130 mW at 6 μm and more than 1 mW at 18 μm. Their spectra and autocorrelation traces are measured up to 15 μm and 11 μm, respectively, and indicate that the input spectral bandwidth and pulse duration are maintained to a great extent in the nonlinear frequency conversion processes. The pulse duration slightly decreases from 2.1 to 1.9 ps at 6.7 μm while the spectral bandwidth supports ~1.5 ps (~10 cm-1)durations across the entire mid-infrared tuning range. For the first time narrow-band mid-infrared pulses with energy exceeding 1 nJ are generated at such high repetition rates.

  5. Frequency locking near the gluing bifurcation: Spin-torque oscillator under periodic modulation of current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaks, Michael A.; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2016-11-01

    We consider entrainment by periodic force of limit cycles which are close to the homoclinic bifurcation. Taking as a physical example the nanoscale spin-torque oscillator in the LC circuit, we develop the general description of the situation in which the frequency of the stable periodic orbit in the autonomous system is highly sensitive to minor variations of the parameter, and derive explicit expressions for the strongly deformed borders of the resonance regions (Arnold tongues) in the parameter space of the problem. It turns out that proximity to homoclinic bifurcations hinders synchronization of spin-torque oscillators.

  6. Early Solar Mass Loss, Element Diffusion, and Solar Oscillation Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Cox, Arthur N.

    1995-08-01

    Swenson & Faulkner and Boothroyd, Sackmann, & Fowler investigated the possibility that early mainsequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depletion. This depletion requires a total mass loss of ˜0.1 Msun, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We calculate the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including diffusion of helium and other elements, with such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 Msun is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 Msun, and exponentially decreasing mass-loss rate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass-loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion-produced composition gradient just below the convection zone. These changes in the solar composition result in a marked deterioration in the agreement with observed frequencies for the intermediate degree modes. Mass loss on a timescale substantially longer than 0.2 Gyr appears to be incompatible with observed solar oscillation frequencies. It is significant that this discrimination between models with and without mass loss is possible only when element diffusion is incorporated in the modeling.

  7. Frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a directly modulated DFB semiconductor laser under optical injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Xiong, Jintian; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Dalei; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhang, Yunshan; Li, Ruoming; Huang, Long; Pu, Tao; Chen, Xiangfei

    2015-08-10

    A frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a directly modulated distributed-feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser under optical injection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Through optical injection, the relaxation oscillation frequency of the DFB laser is enhanced and its high modulation efficiency can enable the loop oscillation with a RF threshold gain of less than 20 dB. The DFB laser is a commercial semiconductor laser with a package of 10 GHz, and its packaging limitation can be overcome by optical injection. In our scheme, neither a high-speed external modulator nor an electrical bandpass filter is required, making the system simple and low-cost. Microwave signals with a frequency tuning range from 5.98 to 15.22 GHz are generated by adjusting the injection ratio and frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. The phase noise of the generated 9.75 GHz microwave signal is measured to be -104.8 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz frequency offset.

  8. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  9. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  10. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  11. Single-frequency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator source for coherent laser radar.

    PubMed

    Hanson, F; Poirier, P; Arbore, M A

    2001-11-15

    We report on the design and characterization of a highly coherent mid-IR source at 3.57mum based on a single-frequency optical parametric oscillator. Detailed frequency and amplitude noise spectra have been measured. The rms intensity noise from 1.2 to 1000 Hz was 0.03%, and a rms frequency drift of 8 kHz in 1 ms was observed. We have also demonstrated the utility of this source for coherent laser radar applications by measuring micro-Doppler spectra from vibrating targets.

  12. Information coding with frequency of oscillations in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Gorecka, J N; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Information processing with an excitable chemical medium, like the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, is typically based on information coding in the presence or absence of excitation pulses. Here we present a new concept of Boolean coding that can be applied to an oscillatory medium. A medium represents the logical TRUE state if a selected region oscillates with a high frequency. If the frequency fails below a specified value, it represents the logical FALSE state. We consider a medium composed of disks encapsulating an oscillatory mixture of reagents, as related to our recent experiments with lipid-coated BZ droplets. We demonstrate that by using specific geometrical arrangements of disks containing the oscillatory medium one can perform logical operations on variables coded in oscillation frequency. Realizations of a chemical signal diode and of a single-bit memory with oscillatory disks are also discussed.

  13. Information coding with frequency of oscillations in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorecki, J.; Gorecka, J. N.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Information processing with an excitable chemical medium, like the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, is typically based on information coding in the presence or absence of excitation pulses. Here we present a new concept of Boolean coding that can be applied to an oscillatory medium. A medium represents the logical TRUE state if a selected region oscillates with a high frequency. If the frequency fails below a specified value, it represents the logical FALSE state. We consider a medium composed of disks encapsulating an oscillatory mixture of reagents, as related to our recent experiments with lipid-coated BZ droplets. We demonstrate that by using specific geometrical arrangements of disks containing the oscillatory medium one can perform logical operations on variables coded in oscillation frequency. Realizations of a chemical signal diode and of a single-bit memory with oscillatory disks are also discussed.

  14. Time-frequency spectral analysis of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations by means of Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Pigorini, Andrea; Casali, Adenauer G; Casarotto, Silvia; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Mariotti, Maurizio; Massimini, Marcello; Rosanova, Mario

    2011-06-15

    A single pulse of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) generates electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations that are thought to reflect intrinsic properties of the stimulated cortical area and its fast interactions with other cortical areas. Thus, a tool to decompose TMS-evoked oscillations in the time-frequency domain on a millisecond timescale and on a broadband frequency range may help to understand information transfer across cortical oscillators. Some recent studies have employed algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform (WT) to study TMS-evoked EEG oscillations in healthy and pathological conditions. However, these methods do not allow to describe TMS-evoked EEG oscillations with high resolution in time and frequency domains simultaneously. Here, we first develop an algorithm based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to compute statistically significant time-frequency spectra of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations on a single trial basis. Then, we compared the performances of the HHT-based algorithm with the WT-based one by applying both of them to a set of simulated signals. Finally, we applied both algorithms to real TMS-evoked potentials recorded in healthy or schizophrenic subjects. We found that the HHT-based algorithm outperforms the WT-based one in detecting the time onset of TMS-evoked oscillations in the classical EEG bands. These results suggest that the HHT-based algorithm may be used to study the communication between different cortical oscillators on a fine time scale.

  15. A precise measurement of the B^0 meson oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; C. Forshaw, D.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; K. Kuonen, A.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; W. Ronayne, J.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The oscillation frequency, Δ m_d, of B^0 mesons is measured using semileptonic decays with a D^- or D^{*-} meson in the final state. The data sample corresponds to 3.0fb^{-1} of pp collisions, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV. A combination of the two decay modes gives Δ m_d = (505.0 ± 2.1 ± 1.0) ns^{-1}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the most precise single measurement of this parameter. It is consistent with the current world average and has similar precision.

  16. Floquet topological system based on frequency-modulated classical coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Grazia; Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically propose how to observe topological effects in a generic classical system of coupled harmonic oscillators, such as classical pendula or lumped-element electric circuits, whose oscillation frequency is modulated fast in time. Making use of Floquet theory in the high-frequency limit, we identify a regime in which the system is accurately described by a Harper-Hofstadter model where the synthetic magnetic field can be externally tuned via the phase of the frequency modulation of the different oscillators. We illustrate how the topologically protected chiral edge states, as well as the Hofstadter butterfly of bulk bands, can be observed in the driven-dissipative steady state under a monochromatic drive. In analogy with the integer quantum Hall effect, we show how the topological Chern numbers of the bands can be extracted from the mean transverse shift of the steady-state oscillation amplitude distribution. Finally, we discuss the regime where the analogy with the Harper-Hofstadter model breaks down.

  17. Steady flows in an oscillating deformable container: Effect of the dimensionless frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. G.; Kozlov, N. V.; Schipitsyn, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    This research involves an experimental study of steady streaming of a fluid excited in an oscillating cylindrical container with an elastically deformable boundary. The influence of the vibration parameters and fluid properties on the structure and intensity of flows in the container is studied. The dependence of the structure and intensity of the flows on the governing parameters, the Froude number, and the dimensionless frequency, which determines the ratio between the cavity size and the Stokes boundary layer, is investigated. It is shown that steady streaming is generated within a region of high dimensionless frequencies, which does not depend on frequency and is fully determined by the dimensionless amplitude. It is discovered that steady flows change qualitatively in a region of intermediate and low frequencies where the thickness of the dynamic boundary layers is comparable to the cavity size. In a region of low frequencies, the direction of steady flow is opposite to that in a region of high frequencies and the flow intensity decreases with frequency. The discovered dependencies have a similar nature and shed light on flows in oscillating containers, including droplets with a saturated interface.

  18. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  19. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  20. On the Question of the Existence of High-Frequency Oscillations in the Power Supply Circuits of a Copper Vapor Laser and Their Influence on the Lasing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhan, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    The statement of the problem and conclusions in the publication by N. A. Yudin, M. R. Tret'yakova, and N. N. Yudin "Influence of electrophysical processes in the discharge circuit on the energy characteristics of a copper vapor laser" (Russ. Phys. J., 55, No. 9, 1080 - 1090 (2013)) is considered. It is shown that the main positions of the publication touching on relaxation of the populations of metastable states in the afterglow and their influence on the frequency-energy characteristics of lasers are mistaken.

  1. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  2. Effect of frequency, magnitude and direction of translational and rotational oscillation on the postural stability of standing people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    the floor during translational and rotational excitation show the significance of low-frequency translational oscillation and high-frequency rotational motion, and show that it is necessary to know whether the measured acceleration is caused by translation or rotation through gravity.

  3. Effects of nicotine stimulation on spikes, theta frequency oscillations, and spike-theta oscillation relationship in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca slices

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dong; Peng, Ce; Ou-yang, Gao-xiang; Henderson, Zainab; Li, Xiao-li; Lu, Cheng-biao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Spiking activities and neuronal network oscillations in the theta frequency range have been found in many cortical areas during information processing. The aim of this study is to determine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate neuronal network activity in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca (MSDB) slices. Methods: Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the slices using an Axoprobe 1A amplifier. Data analysis was performed off-line. Spike sorting and local field potential (LFP) analyses were performed using Spike2 software. The role of spiking activity in the generation of LFP oscillations in the slices was determined by analyzing the phase-time relationship between the spikes and LFP oscillations. Circular statistic analysis based on the Rayleigh test was used to determine the significance of phase relationships between the spikes and LFP oscillations. The timing relationship was examined by quantifying the spike-field coherence (SFC). Results: Application of nicotine (250 nmol/L) induced prominent LFP oscillations in the theta frequency band and both small- and large-amplitude population spiking activity in the slices. These spikes were phase-locked to theta oscillations at specific phases. The Rayleigh test showed a statistically significant relationship in phase-locking between the spikes and theta oscillations. Larger changes in the SFC were observed for large-amplitude spikes, indicating an accurate timing relationship between this type of spike and LFP oscillations. The nicotine-induced spiking activity (large-amplitude population spikes) was suppressed by the nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.3 μmol/L). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that large-amplitude spikes are phase-locked to theta oscillations and have a high spike-timing accuracy, which are likely a main contributor to the theta oscillations generated in MSDB during nicotine receptor activation. PMID:23474704

  4. Low Frequency Plasma Oscillations in a 6-kW Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The oscillations from 0-100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded thruster are experimen- tally characterized. Changes in plasma parameters that result from the magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters have the potential to significantly alter thruster transients. A detailed investigation of the resulting oscillations is necessary both for the purpose of determin- ing the underlying physical processes governing time-dependent behavior in magnetically shielded thrusters as well as for improving thruster models. In this investigation, a high speed camera and a translating ion saturation probe are employed to examine the spatial extent and nature of oscillations from 0-100 kHz in the H6MS thruster. Two modes are identified at 8 kHz and 75-90 kHz. The low frequency mode is azimuthally uniform across the thruster face while the high frequency oscillation is concentrated close to the thruster centerline with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. These experimental results are discussed in the context of wave theory as well as published observations from an unshielded variant of the H6MS thruster.

  5. The Influence of Low-frequency Oscillation Propagation of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex on Rainstorm Downstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Tiangui; Wang, Chao; La, Jia; Du, Jun; Zhang, Kairong

    2017-04-01

    Based on Tibetan Plateau vortex data, ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the characteristics of Tibetan Plateau vortex and the relationship with Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO) from 2003 to 2012 were investigated. The heavy rainstorm occurred in Sichuan from June 29th to July 2nd in 2013, caused by the LFO, was studied. Besides, the signal of LFO, energy transmission and those influence to rainstorm were also investigate. The main conclusions are as follows: (1)Most of Tibetan Plateau vortex generate in eastern plateau, located at Tanggula Mountains, Zaduo, Dege, Qumalai and Qaidam. The moving-out Tibetan Plateau vortex mainly generate in Qumalai and most vortex occurrences during April to September. There are three directions of moving-out vortex paths: northeast, southeast and east. The areas which plateau vortex moving into are mainly distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Ningxia. (2)The zonal wind at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 10-30d oscillation, with the secondly significant oscillation in 30-50d and the third in 70-90d. The relative vorticity at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 30-50d oscillations, with the secondly significant oscillation in 10-30d. The 30-50d oscillation phase zone with weak westerly oscillation zone of 500hPa, and the 10-30d oscillation positive phase zone with weak oscillation zone of 500hPa are benefit to vortex generation. The 30-50d oscillation of zonal wind at 500hPa provides necessary circulation background for generation of plateau vortex, and positive phase region of 10-30d oscillation of relative vorticity at 500hPa provide necessary dynamic background conditions for it. (3) Comparing with the high frequency oscillation vortex, 10-25d low-frequency vortex is not significant at 500hPa before merging into the basin vortex. However, after merging into the basin vortex, there is a significant relationship between low-frequency vortex and the process of development, weakening and

  6. Modulation linearization of a frequency-modulated voltage controlled oscillator, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honnell, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the voltage versus frequency characteristics of a varactor modulated VHF voltage controlled oscillator in which the frequency deviation is linearized by using the nonlinear characteristics of a field effect transistor as a signal amplifier. The equations developed are used to calculate the oscillator output frequency in terms of pertinent circuit parameters. It is shown that the nonlinearity exponent of the FET has a pronounced influence on frequency deviation linearity, whereas the junction exponent of the varactor controls total frequency deviation for a given input signal. A design example for a 250 MHz frequency modulated oscillator is presented.

  7. High-frequency magnetic oscillations of the organic metal θ-(ET)4ZnBr4(C6H4Cl2) in pulsed magnetic field of up to 81 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béard, J.; Billette, J.; Suleiman, M.; Frings, P.; Knafo, W.; Scheerer, G. W.; Duc, F.; Vignolles, D.; Nardone, M.; Zitouni, A.; Delescluse, P.; Lagarrigue, J.-M.; Giquel, F.; Griffe, B.; Bruyant, N.; Nicolin, J.-P.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.; Lyubovskii, R. B.; Shilov, G. V.; Zhilyaeva, E. I.; Lyubovskaya, R. N.; Audouard, A.

    2012-09-01

    De Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the organic metal θ-(ET)4ZnBr4(C6H4Cl2) are studied in pulsed magnetic fields up to 81 T. The long decay time of the pulse allows determining reliable field-dependent amplitudes of Fourier components with frequencies up to several kiloteslas. The Fourier spectrum is in agreement with the model of a linear chain of coupled orbits. In this model, all the observed frequencies are linear combinations of the frequency linked to the basic orbit α and to the magnetic-breakdown orbit β.

  8. Spurious Oscillations in High Power Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok

    2003-06-11

    Spurious oscillations in high power klystrons are found to occur in the gun region, in the cavities in the main body of the tube, or in the drift tunnel. The criteria that determine whether a mode will oscillate is that its beam loading be negative, and that the power it extracts from the beam exceeds its losses to external loading and wall dissipation. Using the electromagnetic and particle-in-cell modules of MAFIA, we have devised numerical techniques with which the quality factors Q{sub b} Q{sub c} and Q{sub o} can be evaluated and compared. Simulations involving a gun oscillation observed in the SLAC/DESY S-Band klystron will be reported.

  9. Parametric Oscillations in High Power Microwave Amplifiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    report. I j I 1 1) G. Dohler, Parametric Oscillations in High Power Microwave Amplifiers, L Contract No. F49620-77-C-O0 (1979). 2) O. Doehler B. Dohler...IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ED 26(10),[ 1602 (19795. 3) 0. Doehler , G. Dohler, International Electron Devices Meeting, I Washington, D.C

  10. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  11. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  12. Hippocampal strata theta oscillations change their frequency and coupling during spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2016-11-19

    The theta rhythm is necessary for hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. It has been proposed that each hippocampal stratum can generate a current theta dipole. Therefore, considering that each hippocampal circuit (CA1, CA3, and Dentate Gyrus (DG)) contributes differently to distinct aspects of a spatial memory, the theta oscillations on each stratum and their couplings may exhibit oscillatory dynamics associated with different stages of learning. To test this hypothesis, the theta oscillations from five hippocampal strata were recorded in the rat during different stages of learning in a Morris maze. The peak power, the relative power (RP) and the coherence between hippocampal strata were analyzed. The early acquisition stage of the Morris task was characterized by the predominance of slow frequency theta activity and high coupling between specific hippocampal strata at slow frequencies. However, on the last training day, the theta oscillations were faster in all hippocampal strata, with tighter coupling at fast frequencies between the CA3 pyramidal stratum and other strata. Our results suggest that modifications to the theta frequency and its coupling can be a means by which the hippocampus differentially operates during acquisition and retrieval states.

  13. Longitudinal ELF to LF electromagnetic oscillations and waves generated in the ionosphere under the influence of strong high-frequency electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Y.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of detailed numerical calculations of some parametric decay effects, arising in a magnetoplasma under the influence of a HF, sufficiently strong electric field {rvec E} = {rvec E}{sub p} {center_dot} cos{omega}{sub E}t, are given in this paper. The resonance branches and the VLF parametric resonances are calculated in the ionosphere at altitudes Z = 200, 300, and 400 km. Calculations in the resonance regions {omega}{sub E} = s{omega}{sub o} ({omega}{sub o} is the electron Langmuir frequency, s=1,2...) were done in the cold palsma and also in the kinetic approximations. It is shown that the angle dependence {omega}{sub 1}({Theta}, E{sub p}=0) of the ELF (0 < w {le} {Omega}{sub B}) resonance branch is close to the cosine law. This is in contrast with the earlier published results and with the angle dependence {omega}{sub 1}({Theta}, E=0). This important effect and the other dependencies given in the paper may be used for the search of the parametric instabilities and of the electric field in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, especially by experiments in situ on satellites. 9 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  15. Reentrant behavior of the breathing-mode-oscillation frequency in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, A. Iu.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.

    2015-08-01

    Exciting temporal oscillations of the density distribution is a high-precision method for probing ultracold trapped atomic gases. Interaction effects in their many-body dynamics are particularly puzzling and counter-intuitive in one spatial dimension (1D) due to enhanced quantum correlations. We consider 1D quantum Bose gas in a parabolic trap at zero temperature and explain, analytically and numerically, how oscillation frequency depends on the number of particles, their repulsion, and the trap strength. We identify the frequency with the energy difference between the ground state and a particular excited state. This way we avoided resolving the dynamical evolution of the system, simplifying the problem immensely. We find an excellent quantitative agreement of our results with the data from the Innsbruck experiment [Science 325, 1224 (2009), 10.1126/science.1175850].

  16. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: effect of seat cushion.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation has been investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz when sitting on a rigid seat and when sitting on a compliant cushion, both without a backrest. Judgements of vibration discomfort and the transmission of lateral and roll oscillation through the seat cushion were obtained with 20 subjects. Relative to the rigid seat, the cushion increased lateral acceleration and roll oscillation at the lower frequencies and also increased discomfort during lateral oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz), roll oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz), and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation (at frequencies between 0.315 and 0.5 Hz). The root-sums-of-squares of the frequency-weighted lateral and roll acceleration at the seat surface predicted the greater vibration discomfort when sitting on the cushion. The frequency-dependence of the predicted discomfort may be improved by adjusting the frequency weighting for roll acceleration at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical theory of low-frequency space charge oscillations in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Ran; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2008-10-15

    Low-frequency oscillations attributed to reflected electrons bouncing adiabatically between the electron gun and the interaction space have been observed in many gyrotrons. An analytical model is considered which allows one to apply space-charge wave theory to the analysis of these oscillations. In the framework of the small-signal theory, the regions of low-frequency oscillations, the oscillation frequency and the temporal and spatial growth rates of low-frequency oscillations are determined in the relevant parameter space. The mode frequency is determined not only by the particle travel time, but by the travel time of charge waves on the reflected electron beam. This explains the existence of modes with noncommensurate frequencies.

  18. Generation of a frequency comb of squeezing in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A. E.; Huntington, E. H.; Harb, C. C.; Ralph, T. C.

    2006-01-15

    The multimode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating below threshold is calculated. We predict that squeezing can be generated in a comb that is limited only by the phase matching bandwidth of the OPO. Effects of technical noise on the squeezing spectrum are investigated. It is shown that maximal squeezing can be obtained at high frequency even in the presence of seed laser noise and cavity length fluctuations. Furthermore the spectrum obtained by detuning the laser frequency off OPO cavity resonance is calculated.

  19. Surface-effect corrections for oscillation frequencies of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. H.; Gizon, L.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Accurate modelling of solar-like oscillators requires that modelled mode frequencies are corrected for the systematic shift caused by improper modelling of the near-surface layers, known as the surface effect. Several parametrizations of the surface effect are now available but they have not yet been systematically compared with observations of stars showing modes with mixed g- and p-mode character. Aims: We investigate how much additional uncertainty is introduced to stellar model parameters by our uncertainty about the functional form of the surface effect. At the same time, we test whether any of the parametrizations is significantly better or worse at modelling observed subgiants and low-luminosity red giants. Methods: We model six stars observed by Kepler that show clear mixed modes. We fix the input physics of the stellar models and vary the choice of surface correction between five parametrizations. Results: Models using a solar-calibrated power law correction consistently fit the observations more poorly than the other four corrections. Models with the remaining four corrections generally fit the observations about equally well, with the combined surface correction by Ball & Gizon perhaps being marginally superior. The fits broadly agree on the model parameters within about the 2σ uncertainties, with discrepancies between the modified Lorentzian and free power law corrections occasionally exceeding the 3σ level. Relative to the best-fitting values, the total uncertainties on the masses, radii and ages of the stars are all less than 2, 1 and 6 per cent, respectively. Conclusions: A solar-calibrated power law, as formulated by Kjeldsen et al., appears unsuitable for use with more evolved solar-like oscillators. Among the remaining surface corrections, the uncertainty in the model parameters introduced by the surface effects is about twice as large as the uncertainty in the individual fits for these six stars. Though the fits are thus somewhat less

  20. Trains of electrical stimulation of the trapezius muscles redistribute the frequencies of body oscillations during stance.

    PubMed

    Nhouvannasak, V; Clément, S; Manto, M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the postural effects of trains of electrical stimulation (TES) applied unilaterally or bilaterally on the trapezius muscle in 20 healthy subjects (mean age: 23.1 ± 1.33 years; F/M: 8/12). The anterior-posterior (AP) displacements (AP axis), medio-lateral displacements (ML axis) and total travelled distances (TTW) of the centre of pressure (COP) remained unchanged with TES. However, detailed spectral analysis of COP oscillations revealed a marked decrease of the magnitudes of peak power spectral density (peak PSD) following application of TES. Peak PSD was highly correlated with the intensity of stimulation (P < 0.001 both the AP and ML axes). For the AP axis, the integrals of the sub-bands 0-0.4, 0.4-1.5, 1.5-3 Hz were significantly decreased (P < 0.001), the integrals of the sub-bands 3-5 and 5-8 Hz were not significantly affected (P>0.30) and the integrals of the sub-band 8-10 Hz were significantly increased (P < 0.001). The ratios of the integrals of sub-bands 8-10 Hz/0-3 Hz were markedly enhanced with bilateral TES (P < 0.001). For the ML axis, the effects were striking (P < 0.001) for the sub-bands 0-0.4, 0.4-1.5 and 8-10 Hz. For both the AP and ML axes, a significant inverse linear relationship was found between the intensity of TES and the average speed of COP. We show that TES applied over the trapezius muscles exerts significant and so far unrecognised effects upon oscillations of the COP, decreasing low-frequency oscillations and enhancing high-frequency oscillations. Our data unravel a novel property of the trapezius muscles upon postural control. We suggest that this muscle plays a role of a distributor of low-frequency versus high-frequency sub-bands of frequency during stance. Previous studies have shown that patients with supra-tentorial stroke show an increased peak PSD in low frequencies of body oscillations. Therefore, our findings provide a rationale to assess neurostimulation of the

  1. Synchronization of low-frequency oscillations in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaev, A. S.; Prokhorov, M. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Kiselev, A. R.; Gridnev, V. I.; Ruban, E. I.; Bezruchko, B. P.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz. A method is proposed for quantitative estimation of synchronization between these oscillating processes based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations. It is shown that healthy subjects exhibit on average substantially longer epochs of internal synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure than patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Midinfrared frequency comb from self-stable degenerate GaAs optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin F; Mohr, C; Jiang, J; Schunemann, Peter G; Vodopyanov, K L; Fermann, M E

    2015-10-05

    We pump a degenerate frequency-divide-by-two optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned GaAs with a stable Tm frequency comb at 2 micrometer wavelength and measure the OPO comb offset frequency and linewidth. We show frequency division by two with sub-Hz relative linewidth of the comb teeth. The OPO thermally self-stabilizes and oscillates for nearly an hour without any active control.

  3. Temporal changes in the frequencies of the solar p-mode oscillations during solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Reiter, J.; Schou, J.; Larson, T.; Scherrer, P.; Brooks, J.; McFaddin, P.; Miller, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Yoo, J.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the temporal changes in the sensitivities of the frequencies of the solar p-mode oscillations to corresponding changes in the levels of solar activity during Solar Cycle 23. From MDI and GONG++ full-disk Dopplergram three-day time series obtained between 1996 and 2008 we have computed a total of 221 sets of m-averaged power spectra for spherical harmonic degrees ranging up to 1000. We have then fit these 284 sets of m-averaged power spectra using our WMLTP fitting code and both symmetric Lorentzian profiles for the peaks as well as the asymmetric profile of Nigam and Kosovichev to obtain 568 tables of p-mode parameters. We then inter-compared these 568 tables, and we performed linear regression analyses of the differences in p-mode frequencies, widths, amplitudes, and asymmetries as functions of the differences in as many as ten different solar activity indices. From the linear regression analyses that we performed on the frequency difference data sets, we have discovered a new signature of the frequency shifts of the p-modes. Specifically, we have discovered that the temporal shifts of the solar oscillation frequencies are positively correlated with the changes in solar activity below a limiting frequency. They then become anti-correlated with the changes in activity for a range of frequencies before once again becoming positively-correlated with the activity changes at very high frequencies. We have also discovered that the two frequencies where the sensitivities of the temporal frequency shifts change sign also change in phase with the average level of solar activity.

  4. Comparing performance of three oscillating positive expiratory pressure devices at similar amplitude and frequencies of oscillations on displacement of mucus inside trachea during cough.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Anpalaki J

    2012-03-13

    generate high amplitude oscillations at moderate frequencies, increasing frontal depths of mucus facing airflow and slightly increasing resistance to airflow in airways in COPD patients.

  5. Clustering of cochlear oscillations in frequency plateaus as a tool to investigate SOAE generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Bastian; Wit, Hero; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-12-01

    Spontonaeous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE) reflect the net effect of self-sustained activity in the cochlea, but do not directly provide information about the underlying mechanism and place of origin within the cochlea. The present study investigates if frequency plateaus as found in a linear array of coupled oscillators (OAM) [7] are also found in a transmission line model (TLM) which is able to generate realistic SOAEs [2] and if these frequency plateaus can be used to explain the formation of SOAEs. The simulations showed a clustering of oscillators along the simulated basilar membrane Both, the OAM and the TLM show traveling-wave like behavior along the oscillators coupled into one frequency plateau. While in the TLM roughness is required in order to produce SOAEs, no roughness is required to trigger frequency plateaus in the linear array of oscillators. The formation of frequency plateaus as a consequence of coupling between neighbored active oscillators might be the mechanism underlying SOAEs.

  6. The Phosphorylation State of the Drosophila TRP Channel Modulates the Frequency Response to Oscillating Light In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Voolstra, Olaf; Rhodes-Mordov, Elisheva; Katz, Ben; Bartels, Jonas-Peter; Oberegelsbacher, Claudia; Schotthöfer, Susanne Katharina; Yasin, Bushra; Tzadok, Hanan; Huber, Armin; Minke, Baruch

    2017-04-12

    Drosophila photoreceptors respond to oscillating light of high frequency (∼100 Hz), while the detected maximal frequency is modulated by the light rearing conditions, thus enabling high sensitivity to light and high temporal resolution. However, the molecular basis for this adaptive process is unclear. Here, we report that dephosphorylation of the light-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel at S936 is a fast, graded, light-dependent, and Ca(2+)-dependent process that is partially modulated by the rhodopsin phosphatase retinal degeneration C (RDGC). Electroretinogram measurements of the frequency response to oscillating lights in vivo revealed that dark-reared flies expressing wild-type TRP exhibited a detection limit of oscillating light at relatively low frequencies, which was shifted to higher frequencies upon light adaptation. Strikingly, preventing phosphorylation of the S936-TRP site by alanine substitution in transgenic Drosophila (trp(S936A) ) abolished the difference in frequency response between dark-adapted and light-adapted flies, resulting in high-frequency response also in dark-adapted flies. In contrast, inserting a phosphomimetic mutation by substituting the S936-TRP site to aspartic acid (trp(S936D) ) set the frequency response of light-adapted flies to low frequencies typical of dark-adapted flies. Light-adapted rdgC mutant flies showed relatively high S936-TRP phosphorylation levels and light-dark phosphorylation dynamics. These findings suggest that RDGC is one but not the only phosphatase involved in pS936-TRP dephosphorylation. Together, this study indicates that TRP channel dephosphorylation is a regulatory process that affects the detection limit of oscillating light according to the light rearing condition, thus adjusting dynamic processing of visual information under varying light conditions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDrosophila photoreceptors exhibit high temporal resolution as manifested in frequency response to

  7. Cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations in studying motivation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that brain functions are realized by simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. In addition to examining oscillations in pre-specified bands, interactions and relations between the different frequency bandwidths is another important aspect that needs to be considered in unraveling the workings of the human brain and its functions. In this review we provide evidence that studying interdependencies between brain oscillations may be a valuable approach to study the electrophysiological processes associated with motivation and emotional states. Studies will be presented showing that amplitude-amplitude coupling between delta-alpha and delta-beta oscillations varies as a function of state anxiety and approach-avoidance-related motivation, and that changes in the association between delta-beta oscillations can be observed following successful psychotherapy. Together these studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations may contribute to expanding our understanding of the neural processes underlying motivation and emotion.

  8. Switchable Multi-Frequency MMIC Oscillator for the 60 GHz Millimeter Wave Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefer, Eddy; Kitazawa, Shoichi; Ueba, Masazumi

    We propose a proof-of-concept of a switchable multi-frequency MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) oscillator device, operating in the 60GHz millimeter wave band, which is implemented in GaAs p-HEMT transistor technology. Oscillators that can switch between two frequencies have been designed, fabricated and evaluated. The oscillator uses a cross-coupled FET topology, combined with a bent asymmetric coplanar stripline for the resonator, and a switched-capacitor for the frequency switching components. The oscillator generates two oscillations at ƒ/2 and ƒ where ƒ is the target frequency of around 60GHz. The switchable oscillator has been demonstrated for the range of frequency from 44GHz to 68.9GHz. Moreover, the designed oscillator exhibits a wide-band negative resistance property that allows fabricating switchable oscillators covering the 50 to 75GHz V-band. An evaluated switchable oscillator delivers -17.09dBm and -13.72dBm output power at 62.45GHz and 64.78GHz, for a supplied power of 40.6mW and 39.1mW, respectively.

  9. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillators and frequency combs for molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vainio, M; Halonen, L

    2016-02-14

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion is one of the most versatile methods to generate wavelength-tunable laser light in the mid-infrared region. This spectral region is particularly important for trace gas detection and other applications of molecular spectroscopy, because it accommodates the fundamental vibrational bands of several interesting molecules. In this article, we review the progress of the most significant nonlinear optics instruments for widely tunable, high-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy: continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators and difference frequency generators. We extend our discussion to mid-infrared optical frequency combs, which are becoming increasingly important spectroscopic tools, owing to their capability of highly sensitive and selective parallel detection of several molecular species. To illustrate the potential and limitations of mid-infrared sources based on nonlinear optics, we also review typical uses of these instruments in both applied and fundamental spectroscopy.

  10. Shaping of a system's frequency response using an array of subordinate oscillators.

    PubMed

    Vignola, Joseph F; Judge, John A; Kurdila, Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    The frequency response of an oscillating structure can be tailored by attaching one or more subordinate oscillators. This paper shows how the magnitude and phase of the frequency response can be deliberately shaped by prescribing the distributions of the dynamic properties in an array of such subordinate oscillators. Exact analytic governing equations of motion are derived for the coupled system composed of the primary system and the subordinate array. For a relatively small number (<100) of attached oscillators whose total mass is small (<1%) relative to the primary structure, it is possible to engineer frequency-response functions of the primary oscillator to have, for example, nearly linear phase or constant amplitude over a frequency band of interest. The frequency range over which response shaping is achieved is determined by the band of the attached oscillators. It is shown that the common analytic methodology for designing a dynamic vibration absorber represents the limiting case of a single oscillator in the subordinate set. Moreover, increasing the number of subordinate oscillators (without increasing the total added mass) offers a number of advantages in reshaping the dominant system's frequency response.

  11. Self-modulation of low-frequency oscillations in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honzawa, Tadao

    1990-04-01

    Experimental results are reported on the self-modulation of low-frequency oscillations in a plasma. The phenomenon is observed to occur at large amplitudes above a threshold. This is clearly shown by violent changes in the envelope form of externally modulated oscillations. Resultant spiky forms of the oscillation envelopes are observed to change strongly depending on parameters such as the rf frequency, the rf amplitude, and so on. Furthermore, spectral observations give additional information on the properties of the spiky oscillations. Finally, the observed phenomenon is qualitatively interpreted using a theory on the parametric process.

  12. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-14

    image resolution comparable to an ordinary photographic camera. In addition to inconvenient size, the cost of filling such a large aperture with... cost of implementing a LFTDR. Because of the large difference between the high frequency imaging frequencies and the low frequency reference frequency... cost . In addition since the measured reference phase must be multiplied by a factor a equal to the ratio of the imaging to the reference frequency

  13. High-frequency broadband transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, S. E.; Tomashevich, S. V.

    1981-05-01

    A systematic review of the theory and design principles of high-frequency broadband transformers is presented. It is shown that the transformers of highest performance are those whose coils consist of strips of double-wire and multiwire transmission lines. Such devices are characterized by a wide operating frequency range, and make possible operation at microwave frequencies at high levels of transmitted power.

  14. Parametric excitation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves by the lower-frequency dipole pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Gamayunov, K.V. ); Khazanov, G.V. ); Krivorutsky, E.N.; Veryaev, A.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of parametric excitation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves by lower-frequency dipole pumping is studied. It is shown that the obtained general dispersive equation may be reduced to the Mathieu equation, provided the case of the flux instability is neglected. In the framework of the developed approach, the excitation of magnetohydrodynamic waves and whistler oscillations is examined.

  15. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-06-09

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  16. Low frequency oscillations in semi-insulating GaAs: a nonlinear analysis.

    PubMed

    Rubinger, R M; da Silva, R L; de Oliveira, A G; Ribeiro, G M; Albuquerque, H A; Rodrigues, W N; Moreira, M V B

    2003-06-01

    We have observed low frequency current oscillations in a semi-insulating GaAs sample grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy. For this, an experimental setup proper to measure high impedance samples with small external noise was developed. Spontaneous oscillations in the current were observed for some bias conditions. Although measurements were carried out from room temperature down to liquid helium, the dynamical analysis was carried out around 200 K where the signal to noise ratio was fairly favorable. To increase the data quality we have also used a noise reduction algorithm suitably developed for nonlinear systems. We observed attractors having low embedding dimension, limit cycle bifurcations, and chaotic behavior characteristic of nonlinear dynamical processes in route to chaos. Attractor reconstruction, Poincare sections, Lyapunov exponents, and correlation dimension were also analyzed.

  17. ["Spontaneous" oscillations of the cell surface in the frequency interval of 0.2-30 Hz].

    PubMed

    Krol', A Iu; Grinfel'dt, M G; Levin, S V

    1989-05-01

    The local transverse displacements of the cell surface within the frequency range of 0.2-30 Hz occur on animal cells attached to cover glass: fibroblasts 3T6, primary culture of rat cardiomyocytes, mouse lymphocytes, human macrophages and erythrocytes, frog erythrocytes. The area of the cell rim, moving transversely, is no more than 0.5 X 0.5 microns. The maximum amplitude of the local transverse surface displacement is different in various cell types, being maximum (350-400 nm) in human erythrocytes and minimum in fibroblasts 3T6, mouse lymphocytes and human macrophages (20-30 nm). High-amplitude oscillations of human erythrocytes and low-amplitude oscillations of frog erythrocytes correlate with differences in the size of elastic shear modulus.

  18. A review of precision oscillators. [for frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellwig, H.

    1974-01-01

    Precision oscillators used in PTTI applications include quartz crystal, rubidium gas cell, cesium beam, and hydrogen maser oscillators. A general characterization and comparison of these devices is given including accuracy, stability, environmental sensitivity, size, weight, power consumption, availability and cost. Areas of special concern in practical applications are identified and a projection of future performance specifications is given. An attempt is made to predict physical and performance characteristics of new designs potentially available in the near future.

  19. Broadband electromagnetic power harvester from vibrations via frequency conversion by impact oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuksek, N. S.; Almasri, M.; Feng, Z. C.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we propose an electromagnetic power harvester that uses a transformative multi-impact approach to achieve a wide bandwidth response from low frequency vibration sources through frequency-up conversion. The device consists of a pick-up coil, fixed at the free edge of a cantilever beam with high resonant frequency, and two cantilever beams with low excitation frequencies, each with an impact mass attached at its free edge. One of the two cantilevers is designed to resonate at 25 Hz, while the other resonates at 50 Hz within the range of ambient vibration frequency. When the device is subjected to a low frequency vibration, the two low-frequency cantilevers responded by vibrating at low frequencies, and thus their thick metallic masses made impacts with the high resonance frequency cantilever repeatedly at two locations. This has caused it along with the pick-up coil to oscillate, relative to the permanent magnet, with decaying amplitude at its resonance frequency, and results in a wide bandwidth response from 10 to 63 Hz at 2 g. A wide bandwidth response between 10–51 Hz and 10–58 Hz at acceleration values of 0.5 g and 2 g, respectively, were achieved by adjusting the impact cantilever frequencies closer to each other (25 Hz and 45 Hz). A maximum output power of 85 μW was achieved at 5 g at 30 Hz across a load resistor, 2.68 Ω.

  20. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  1. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  2. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Eric S.; Campbell, David V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  3. Measuring Instantaneous Frequency of Local Field Potential Oscillations using the Kalman Smoother

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, David P.; Wilson, Matthew A.; Brown, Emery N.; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic local field potentials (LFP) arise from coordinated neural activity. Inference of neural function based on the properties of brain rhythms remains a challenging data analysis problem. Algorithms that characterize non-stationary rhythms with high temporal and spectral resolution may be useful for interpreting LFP activity on the timescales in which they are generated. We propose a Kalman smoother based dynamic autoregressive model for tracking the instantaneous frequency (iFreq) and frequency modulation (FM) of noisy and non-stationary sinusoids such as those found in LFP data. We verify the performance of our algorithm using simulated data with broad spectral content, and demonstrate its application using real data recorded from behavioral learning experiments. In analyses of ripple oscillations (100-250 Hz) recorded from the rodent hippocampus, our algorithm identified novel repetitive, short timescale frequency dynamics. Our results suggest that iFreq and FM may be useful measures for the quantification of small timescale LFP dynamics. PMID:19699763

  4. Resonant oscillation modes of sympathetically cooled ions in a radio-frequency trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Taro; Shimizu, Tadao

    2002-12-01

    Sympathetic cooling of Ca{sup +}, Zn{sup +}, Sr{sup +}, Ba{sup +}, and Yb{sup +} as guest ions with laser-cooled {sup 24}Mg{sup +} as host ions in a rf ion trap is carried out, and resonant frequencies of their motion in the trap potential are measured. Various oscillation modes of the sympathetically cooled ions are observed. The resonant frequency of the oscillation mode is different from the frequency of either the collective oscillation frequency of the trapped ions or the oscillation frequency of each ion without host ions. This difference is well explained by a theoretical model in which coupled equations of motion of the host ion cloud with a single guest ion are considered.

  5. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  6. Combination and simultaneous resonances of gas bubbles oscillating in liquids under dual-frequency acoustic excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Yuning; Li, Shengcai

    2017-03-01

    The multi-frequency acoustic excitation has been employed to enhance the effects of oscillating bubbles in sonochemistry for many years. In the present paper, nonlinear dynamic oscillations of bubble under dual-frequency acoustic excitation are numerically investigated within a broad range of parameters. By investigating the power spectra and the response curves of oscillating bubbles, two unique features of bubble oscillations under dual-frequency excitation (termed as "combination resonance" and "simultaneous resonance") are revealed and discussed. Specifically, the amplitudes of the combination resonances are quantitatively compared with those of other traditional resonances (e.g. main resonances, harmonics). The influences of several paramount parameters (e.g., the bubble radius, the acoustic pressure amplitude, the energy allocation between two component waves) on nonlinear bubble oscillations are demonstrated.

  7. Regulation of NF-κB Oscillation by Nuclear Transport: Mechanisms Determining the Persistency and Frequency of Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The activated transcription factor NF-κB shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus resulting in the oscillation of nuclear NF-κB (NF-κBn). The oscillation pattern of NF-κBn is implicated in the regulation of gene expression profiles. Using computational models, we previously reported that spatial parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient, nuclear to cytoplasmic volume ratio, transport through the nuclear envelope, and the loci of translation of IκB protein, modified the oscillation pattern of NF-κBn. In a subsequent report, we elucidated the importance of the "reset" of NF-κBn (returning of NF-κB to the original level) and of a "reservoir" of IκB in the cytoplasm. When the diffusion coefficient of IκB was large, IκB stored at a distant location from the nucleus diffused back to the nucleus and "reset" NF-κBn. Herein, we report mechanisms that regulate the persistency and frequency of NF-κBn oscillation by nuclear transport. Among the four parameters of nuclear transport tested in our spatio-temporal computational model, the export of IκB mRNA from the nucleus regulated the persistency of oscillation. The import of IκB to the nucleus regulated the frequency of oscillation. The remaining two parameters, import and export of NF-κB to and from the nucleus, had virtually no effect on the persistency or frequency. Our analyses revealed that lesser export of IκB mRNA allowed NF-κBn to transcript greater amounts of IκB mRNA, which was retained in the nucleus, and was subsequently exported to the cytoplasm, where large amounts of IκB were synthesized to "reset" NF-κBn and drove the persistent oscillation. On the other hand, import of greater amounts of IκB led to an increase in the influx and the efflux of NF-κB to and from the nucleus, resulting in an increase in the oscillation frequency. Our study revealed the importance of nuclear transport in regulating the oscillation pattern of NF-κBn.

  8. Morse oscillator propagator in the high temperature limit I: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2017-02-01

    In an earlier work of the author the time evolution of Morse oscillator was studied analytically and exactly at low temperatures whereupon optical correlation functions were calculated using Morse oscillator coherent states were employed. Morse oscillator propagator in the high temperature limit is derived and a closed form of its corresponding canonical partition function is obtained. Both diagonal and off-diagonal forms of Morse oscillator propagator are derived in the high temperature limit. Partition functions of diatomic molecules are calculated.

  9. Numerical investigations of single bubble oscillations generated by a dual frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédra, Matthieu; Inserra, Claude; Gilles, Bruno; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The oscillations of a single bubble excited with a dual frequency acoustic field are numerically investigated. Computations are made for an air bubble in water exposed to an acoustic field with a linearly varying amplitude. The bubble response to an excitation containing two frequencies f1 = 500kHz and f2 = 400kHz at the same amplitude is compared to the monofrequency case where only f1 is present. Time-frequency representations show a sharp transition in the bifrequency case, for which the low frequency component f2 becomes resonant while the high frequency component f1 is strongly attenuated. The temporal evolution of the power spectra reveals that the resonance of the low frequency component is correlated with the time varying mean radius of the bubble. It is also observed that the total power of the bubble response in the bifrequency case can reach almost twice the power obtained in the monofrequency case, which indicates a strong enhancement of the cavitating behavior of the bubble for this specific frequency combination.

  10. High frequency pulsed electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, David Wayne

    Electromigration life tests were performed on copper-alloyed aluminum test structures that were representative of modern CMOS metallization schemes, complete with Ti/TiN cladding layers and a tungsten-plug contact at the cathode. A total of 18 electrical stress treatments were applied. One was a DC current of 15 mA. The other 17 were pulsed currents, varied according to duty cycle and frequency. The pulse amplitude was 15 mA (˜2.7 × 10sp6 A/cmsp2) for all treatments. Duty cycles ranged from 33.3% to 80%, and frequencies fell into three rough ranges-100 KHz, 1 MHz, and 100 MHz. The ambient test temperature was 200sp°C in all experiments. Six to 9 samples were subjected to each treatment. Experimental data were gathered in the form of test stripe resistance versus time, R(t). For purposes of lifetime analysis, "failure" was defined by the criterion R(t)/R(0) = 1.10, and the median time to failure, tsb{50}, was used as the primary basis of comparison between test groups. It was found that the dependence of tsb{50} on pulse duty cycle conformed rather well to the so-called "average current density model" for duty cycles of 50% and higher. Lifetimes were less enhanced for a duty cycle of 33.3%, but they were still considerably longer than an "on-time" model would predict. No specific dependence of tsb{50} on pulse frequency was revealed by the data, that is, reasonably good predictions of tsb{50} could be made by recognizing the dominant influence of duty cycle. These findings confirm that IC miniaturization can be more aggressively pursued than an on-time prediction would allow. It is significant that this was found to be true for frequencies on the order of 100 MHz, where many present day digital applications operate. Post-test optical micrographs were obtained for each test subject in order to determine the location of electromigration damage. The pulse duty cycle was found to influence the location. Most damage occurred at the cathode contact, regardless of

  11. Parametric frequency mixing in a magnetoelastically driven linear ferromagnetic-resonance oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Lomonosov, A. M.; Janusonis, J.; Vlasov, V. S.; Temnov, V. V.; Tobey, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the linear frequency conversion of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency by optically excited elastic waves in a thin metallic film on dielectric substrates. Time-resolved probing of the magnetization directly witnesses magnetoelastically driven parametric second-harmonic generation, sum- and difference-frequency mixing from two distinct frequencies, as well as excitation of parametric resonances. Starting from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, we derive an analytical equation of an elastically driven (nonlinear) parametric oscillator and show that frequency mixing is dominated by the parametric modulation of the linear FMR oscillator.

  12. Steady flows in rotating spherical cavity excited by multi-frequency oscillations of free inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Victor G.; Kozlov, Nikolai V.; Subbotin, Stanislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid motion in a rotating spherical cavity in the conditions of resonant oscillations of free inner core is experimentally investigated. The centrifugal force retains a solid core with density less than the fluid density near the center of the cavity. In the absence of external force field the system "solid core - liquid" performs solid body rotation. The oscillations of the core are excited by an external oscillating force field and this results in differential rotation of the core with respect to the cavity. The direction of rotation is determined by the ratio of the oscillation frequency to the cavity angular velocity. The core oscillations with the radian frequency, which exceeds the cavity angular velocity, are investigated. It is found that a steady flow in the form of a system of nested fluid columns of circular cross section, which rotate at different angular velocities, is generated in the cavity as a result of oscillations of the core and the fluid. It is shown that at simultaneous influence of several oscillating fields the resulting steady flow is determined by a linear superposition of the flows, which are excited by the oscillations of the inner core with different frequencies. At a certain ratio of the vibration frequency to the rotation one the transformation of the circular shape of the column into the elliptical one is observed.

  13. High-Frequency Mechanostimulation of Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Suana, K Grace; Holz, Michelle; Wang, Wei; Westerhaus, Hannes; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2017-01-02

    Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating. We here use these oscillations to address single adhesion receptors. The effect of molecular oscillatory forces on cell adhesion has been analyzed using single-cell force spectroscopy and gene expression studies. Our experiments demonstrate a reinforcement of cell adhesion as well as upregulated expression levels of adhesion-associated genes as a result of the nanoscale "tickling" of integrins. This novel type of mechanical stimulus provides a previously unprecedented molecular control of cellular mechanosensing.

  14. The Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1993-07-01

    The Lever oscillator has been specifically designed for use with quartz resonator sensors. The use of quartz resonators as sensors is of particular interest and depending on the sensing environment, e.g., liquid, the oscillator design is both critical and difficult due to the wide dynamic range of resonator resistance possible due to damping of the resonator. Standard oscillator designs do not work well as sensor oscillators. An oscillator design will be presented that allows both frequency and loss (R{sub m}) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  15. On the self-excitation mechanisms of plasma series resonance oscillations in single- and multi-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Schüngel, Edmund; Brandt, Steven; Schulze, Julian; Korolov, Ihor; Derzsi, Aranka; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-04-15

    The self-excitation of plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations is a prominent feature in the current of low pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges. This resonance leads to high frequency oscillations of the charge in the sheaths and enhances electron heating. Up to now, the phenomenon has only been observed in asymmetric discharges. There, the nonlinearity in the voltage balance, which is necessary for the self-excitation of resonance oscillations with frequencies above the applied frequencies, is caused predominantly by the quadratic contribution to the charge-voltage relation of the plasma sheaths. Using Particle In Cell/Monte Carlo collision simulations of single- and multi-frequency capacitive discharges and an equivalent circuit model, we demonstrate that other mechanisms, such as a cubic contribution to the charge-voltage relation of the plasma sheaths and the time dependent bulk electron plasma frequency, can cause the self-excitation of PSR oscillations, as well. These mechanisms have been neglected in previous models, but are important for the theoretical description of the current in symmetric or weakly asymmetric discharges.

  16. Changes in Frequency of Spontaneous Oscillations in Procerebrum Correlate to Behavioural Choice in Terrestrial Snails

    PubMed Central

    Samarova, Elena; Balaban, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to understand functional significance of spontaneous oscillations of local field potential in the olfactory brain lobe of terrestrial snail, the procerebrum (PC). We compared changes in frequency of oscillations in semi-intact preparations from snails trained to percept the same conditioned odor as positive (associated with food reinforcement) or negative (associated with noxious reinforcement). In vivo recordings in freely behaving naïve snails showed a significant decrease of spontaneous PC oscillations frequency during a stage of tentacle withdrawal to odor presentation. In in vitro preparations from naïve snails, a similar decrease in frequency of the PC oscillations to odor presentation was observed. Changes in frequency of the oscillations to cineole presentations in the “aversive” group of snails (demonstrating withdrawal) were much more pronounced than in naïve snails. No significant difference in responses to 5% and 20% cineole was noted. Changes in the spontaneous oscillations frequency in the snails trained to respond with positive reaction (approach) to cineole depended on the concentration of the applied odor, and these responses were qualitatively similar to responses of other groups during the first 10 s of responses to odor, but significantly different (increase in PC oscillations frequency) from the responses of the aversively trained and naïve snails in the interval 11–30 s, which corresponds to the end of the tentacle withdrawal and timing of decision making (approach or escape) in the free behaving snails. Obtained results suggest that frequency of the PC lobe spontaneous oscillations correlate to the choice of behavior in snails: withdrawal (decrease in frequency) or approach (increase in frequency) to the source of odor. PMID:19753329

  17. Calculation of coupled secular oscillation frequencies and axial secular frequency in a nonlinear ion trap by a homotopy method.

    PubMed

    Doroudi, Alireza

    2009-11-01

    In this paper the homotopy perturbation method is used for calculation of the frequencies of the coupled secular oscillations and axial secular frequencies of a nonlinear ion trap. The motion of the ion in a rapidly oscillating field is transformed to the motion in an effective potential. The equations of ion motion in the effective potential are in the form of a Duffing-like equation. The homotopy perturbation method is used for solving the resulted system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and the resulted axial equation for obtaining the expressions for ion secular frequencies as a function of nonlinear field parameters and amplitudes of oscillations. The calculated axial secular frequencies are compared with the results of Lindstedt-Poincare method and the exact results.

  18. Locking of self-oscillation frequency by pump modulation in an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.

    2005-10-01

    Frequency locking of self-oscillations in a diode-pumped erbium-doped fiber laser by external modulation of the diode current is studied experimentally. The coexistence of locking and unlocking regimes is detected. The condition for onset of the bistability and dependences of the frequency detuning on the modulation frequency and amplitude are established. Transitions to torus-chaos are also demonstrated.

  19. Coherent states and uncertainty relations for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Um, Chung-In; George, Thomas F.; Pandey, Lakshmi N.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with evaluations of propagator and wave function for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency, exact coherent states are constructed. These coherent states satisfy the properties which coherent states should generally have.

  20. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-15

    Optical parametric amplification and oscillation provide powerful tools for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency down-conversion process and, thus, it cannot be realized for signal waves at a frequency ω3 higher than the frequency of the pump wave ω1. In this Letter, we suggest a route toward the realization of upconversion optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e., amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of upconversion optical parametric oscillation at λ3=465 nm are given for a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd(3+) ions.

  1. α-Adrenergic effects on low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure and R-R intervals during sympathetic activation.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Frances, Maria F; Tiinanen, Suvi; Craen, Rosemary; Rachinsky, Maxim; Petrella, Robert J; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to address the contribution of α-adrenergic modulation to the genesis of low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) oscillations in R-R interval (RRi), blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during different sympathetic stimuli. Blood pressure and RRi were measured continuously in 12 healthy subjects during 5 min periods each of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -40 mmHg), static handgrip exercise (HG; 20% of maximal force) and postexercise forearm circulatory occlusion (PECO) with and without α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded in five subjects during LBNP and in six subjects during HG and PECO. Low-frequency powers and median frequencies of BP, RRi and MSNA were calculated from power spectra. Low-frequency power during LBNP was lower with phentolamine versus without for both BP and RRi oscillations (1.6 ± 0.6 versus 1.2 ± 0.7 ln mmHg(2), P = 0.049; and 6.9 ± 0.8 versus 5.4 ± 0.9 ln ms(2), P = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, the LBNP with phentolamine increased the power of high-frequency oscillations (0.15-0.4 Hz) in BP and MSNA (P < 0.01 for both), which was not observed during saline infusion. Phentolamine also blunted the increases in the LBNP-induced increase in frequency of LF oscillations in BP and RRi. Phentolamine decreased the LF power of RRi during HG (P = 0.015) but induced no other changes in LF powers or frequencies during HG. Phentolamine resulted in decreased frequency of LF oscillations in RRi (P = 0.004) during PECO, and a similar tendency was observed in BP and MSNA. The power of LF oscillation in MSNA did not change during any intervention. We conclude that α-adrenergic modulation contributes to LF oscillations in BP and RRi during baroreceptor unloading (LBNP) but not during static exercise. Also, α-adrenergic modulation partly explains the shift to a higher frequency of LF oscillations during baroreceptor unloading and muscle

  2. High Power Local Oscillator Sources for 1-2 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Thomas, Bertrand; Lin, Robert; Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John; Schlecht, Erich; Gill, John; Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Maiwald, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Recent results from the Heterodyne Instrument for Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Telescope have confirmed the usefulness of high resolution spectroscopic data for a better understanding of our Universe. This paper will explore the current status of tunable local oscillator sources beyond HIFI and provide demonstration of how power combining of GaAs Schottky diodes can be used to increase both power and upper operating frequency for heterodyne receivers. Availability of power levels greater than 1 watt in the W-band now makes it possible to design a 1900 GHz source with more than 100 microwatts of expected output power.

  3. ON THE RELATIVISTIC PRECESSION AND OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES OF TEST PARTICLES AROUND RAPIDLY ROTATING COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Pachon, Leonardo A.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  4. Multiple quantum oscillation frequencies in YBa2Cu3O6+δ and bilayer splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Aldea, David; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2010-10-01

    Experiments have revealed multiple quantum oscillation frequencies in underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ, corresponding to approximately 10% doping, which contains CuO bilayers in the unit cell. These unit cells are further coupled along the c-axis by a tunneling matrix element. A model of the energy dispersion that has its roots in the previously determined electronic structure, combined with twofold commensurate density waves, reveals multiple electron and hole pockets. To the extent that quasiparticles of the reconstructed Fermi surface have finite residues, however small, the formation of Landau levels is the cause of these oscillations, and the bilayer splitting and warping of the electronic dispersion along the direction perpendicular to the CuO-planes are firm consequences. The goal here is to explore this possibility from various directions and provide a better understanding of the rapidly developing experimental situation involving multiple frequencies. An important conclusion is that bilayer splitting is considerably renormalized from the value obtained from band structure calculations. It would be extremely interesting to perform these experiments for higher values of doping. We roughly expect the splitting of the frequencies to increase with doping, but the full picture may be more complex because the density wave order parameter is also expected to decrease with doping, vanishing around the middle of the superconducting dome.

  5. Frequency-tunable resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators applied to absorbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Seiichirou; Mizuno, Maya; Saito, Shingo; Ogino, Kota; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    We show that frequency-tunable terahertz oscillators with resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) can be applied to absorbance measurement, using allopurinol as a specimen, which has a characteristic absorption spectra at around 700 GHz. The RTD oscillators used in this experiment are seven elements covering from 420 to 970 GHz. The result was in good agreement with that of time-domain spectroscopy usually used in the terahertz frequency region.

  6. Real Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie (Inventor); Oliver, Brett D. (Inventor); Brickner, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for clock monitoring in a network is provided. The method comprises receiving a first network clock signal at a network device and comparing the first network clock signal to a local clock signal from a primary oscillator coupled to the network device.

  7. Oscillation frequencies for 35 Kepler solar-type planet-hosting stars using Bayesian techniques and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; White, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Hekker, S.; Basu, S.; Campante, T. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Stello, D.

    2016-02-01

    Kepler has revolutionized our understanding of both exoplanets and their host stars. Asteroseismology is a valuable tool in the characterization of stars and Kepler is an excellent observing facility to perform asteroseismology. Here we select a sample of 35 Kepler solar-type stars which host transiting exoplanets (or planet candidates) with detected solar-like oscillations. Using available Kepler short cadence data up to Quarter 16 we create power spectra optimized for asteroseismology of solar-type stars. We identify modes of oscillation and estimate mode frequencies by `peak bagging' using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework. In addition, we expand the methodology of quality assurance using a Bayesian unsupervised machine learning approach. We report the measured frequencies of the modes of oscillation for all 35 stars and frequency ratios commonly used in detailed asteroseismic modelling. Due to the high correlations associated with frequency ratios we report the covariance matrix of all frequencies measured and frequency ratios calculated. These frequencies, frequency ratios, and covariance matrices can be used to obtain tight constraint on the fundamental parameters of these planet-hosting stars.

  8. Comparison between simultaneous GOLF and MDI observations in search of low frequency solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, Carl John

    One of the mission objectives of both the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is the detection of new low frequency globally coherent solar oscillation modes. After more than two years of nearly continuous observing by both instruments, the clear detection of modes below 1200 μHz has still proven to be elusive. The search for new modes is aided here by combining the high duty cycle of GOLF with the spatial resolution and various data products of MDI. By combining the two data sets, a signal enhancement is anticipated since both instruments provide a low noise data stream and their sources of solar and instrumental noise are expected to be different from each other. Presented here is a comparison between the observed GOLF signal and a selection of spatially masked MDI full-disk signals for a 759 day period from May 25, 1996 through June 22, 1998. The signal-to-background ratio is compared between the various signals for low degree (l <= 3) and low frequency (<2000 μHz) p-modes. It was found that signals from both MDI and GOLF are beneficial for detecting these p-modes. Cross-analysis between GOLF and MDI signals is done to enhance the ability to detect low frequency solar oscillations. Using cross-amplitude and averaged power spectra, an unique list of low degree modes is presented here, along with three new low frequency acoustic mode candidates. Finally, the effects of early main sequence cometary mass accretion with heavy-element diffusion on the solar interior are investigated. For solar models with element diffusion, the addition of mass accretion with a rate suggested by observations of other stars has a negligible effect on the predicted p-mode frequencies for the cases investigated here. The predicted g-mode frequencies exhibit a slight shift of approximately 0.1 μHz with the addition of mass accretion. Compared to previous work, the squared

  9. An L-band transit-time oscillator with mechanical frequency tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lili; He, Juntao; Ling, Junpu; Cao, Yibing

    2017-02-01

    An L-band coaxial Transit-time Oscillator (TTO) with mechanical frequency tunability is introduced in this paper. Particle-in-cell simulations have been done. The output power efficiency has been improved at least 20% under a 10.2 GW input power and with a tunable range from 1.57 GHz to 1.90 GHz by modulating the outer conductor. It is worth to note that the efficiency can reach as high as 41% at 1.75 GHz. The mechanical engineering method is also detailed in this work. The frequency tuning range of the coaxial TTO is 22.6% of the central frequency. On the other hand, the frequency can be tuned from 1.6 GHz to 1.85 GHz by modulating the inner conductor. The author highlights a hollow structure of the L-band coaxial TTO which can work from 1.03 GHz to 1.31 GHz via modulating the outer conductor in the rest of the article. The frequency tuning range of the hollow TTO is 21.4% of the central frequency. More importantly, the hollow TTO can be easily achieved after the inner conductor is removed from the coaxial TTO. The electric field distributions of the coaxial and hollow TTOs are analyzed, resulting in that the longitudinal and transverse working modes are TM01 and π mode, respectively. The same working mode from these two structures implies the stability of the TTOs mentioned above.

  10. Phase-locking and critical phenomena in lattices of coupled nonlinear oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Mirollo, Renato E.

    1988-06-01

    We study phase-locking in a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators with local interactions and random intrinsic frequencies. The oscillators are located at the vertices of a graph and interact along the edges. They are coupled by sinusoidal functions of the phase differences across the edges, and their intrinsic frequencies are independent and identically distributed with finite mean and variance. We derive an exact expression for the probability of phase-locking in a linear chain of such oscillators and prove that this probability tends to zero as the number of oscillators grows without bound. However, if the coupling strength increases as the square root of the number of oscillators, the probability of phase-locking tends to a limiting distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution. This latter result is obtained by showing that the phase-locking problem is equivalent to a discretization of pinned Brownian motion. The results on chains of oscillators are extended to more general graphs. In particular, for a hypercubic lattice of any dimension, the probability of phase-locking tends to zero exponentially fast as the number of oscillators grows without bound. We also consider a less stringent type of synchronization, characterized by large clusters of oscillators mutually entrained at the same average frequency. It is shown that if such clusters exist, they necessarily have a sponge-like geometry.

  11. Downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in transonic diffuser flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows has been conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. It was found that the unsteady diffuser flowfields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity and shock. Computational results suggest that the mechanism causing the self-excited oscillation changes from viscous convective wave dominated oscillations to inviscid acoustic wave dominated oscillations when the location of downstream boundary varies from 8.66 to 134.7 throat height. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setup obscures the physical downstream boundary and, therefore, presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.

  12. Frequency control of a spin-torque oscillator using magnetostrictive anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Min Gyu Albert; Lee, Seok-Hee E-mail: shlee@kaist.edu; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Park, Byong-Guk E-mail: shlee@kaist.edu

    2016-01-11

    We report the working principle of a spin-torque oscillator, of which the frequency is efficiently controlled by manipulating the magnetostrictive anisotropy. To justify the scheme, we simulate a conventional magnetic-tunnel junction-based oscillator which is fabricated on a piezoelectric material. By applying mechanical stress to a free layer using a piezoelectric material, the oscillation frequency can be controlled to ensure a broad tuning range without a significant reduction of the dynamic resistance variation. Such controllability, which appears in the absence of an external magnetic field, will not only enable the integration of spin-torque oscillators and conventional complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor technology but will also broaden the applicability of spin-torque oscillators.

  13. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  14. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butler, James L; Mendonça, Philipe R F; Robinson, Hugh P C; Paulsen, Ole

    2016-04-13

    Gamma oscillations (30-120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channel rhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65-75 Hz at 32 °C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal-interneuron circuit mechanism. This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. Copyright © 2016 Butler et al.

  15. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James L.; Mendonça, Philipe R. F.; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma oscillations (30–120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo. The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65–75 Hz at 32°C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal–interneuron circuit mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. PMID:27076416

  16. High-frequency generation in two coupled semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Satpal; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.; Balanov, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically show that two semiconductor superlattices arranged on the same substrate and coupled with the same resistive load can be used for a generation of high-frequency periodic and quasiperiodic signals. Each superlattice involved is capable to generate current oscillations associated with drift of domains of high charge concentration. However, the coupling with the common load can eventually lead to synchronization of the current oscillations in the interacting superlattices. We reveal how synchronization depends on detuning between devices and the resistance of the common load, and discuss the effects of coupling and detuning on the high-frequency power output from the system.

  17. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Velsko, S.P.

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 {mu}m in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400thinspcm{sup {minus}1} with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24thinspthinspmrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-{mu}m laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  18. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Velsko, S P

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 mum in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400 cm(-1) with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24 mrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-mum laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source.

  19. Analysis and modeling of time-variant amplitude-frequency couplings of and between oscillations of EEG bursts.

    PubMed

    Witte, Herbert; Putsche, Peter; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Schelenz, Christoph; Leistritz, Lutz

    2008-08-01

    Low-frequency (0.5-2.5 Hz) and individually defined high-frequency (7-11 or 8-12 Hz; 11-15 or 14-18 Hz) oscillatory components of the electroencephalogram (EEG) burst activity derived from thiopental-induced burst-suppression patterns (BSP) were investigated in seven sedated patients (17-26 years old) with severe head injury. The predominant high-frequency burst oscillations (>7 Hz) were detected for each patient by means of time-variant amplitude spectrum analysis. Thereafter, the instantaneous envelope (IE) and the instantaneous frequency (IF) were computed for these low- and high-frequency bands to quantify amplitude-frequency dependencies (envelope-envelope, envelope-frequency, and frequency-frequency correlations). Time-variant phase-locking, phase synchronization, and quadratic phase couplings are associated with the observed amplitude-frequency characteristics. Additionally, these time-variant analyses were carried out for modeled burst patterns. Coupled Duffing oscillators were adapted to each EEG burst and by means of these models data-based burst simulations were generated. Results are: (1) strong envelope-envelope correlations (IE courses) can be demonstrated; (2) it can be shown that a rise of the IE is associated with an increase of the IF (only for the frequency bands 0.5-2.5 and 7-11 or 8-12 Hz); (3) the rise characteristics of all individually averaged envelope-frequency courses (IE-IF) are strongly correlated; (4) for the 7-11 or 8-12 Hz oscillation these associations are weaker and the variation between the time courses of the patients is higher; (5) for both frequency ranges a quantitative amplitude-frequency dependency can be shown because higher IE peak maxima are accompanied by stronger IF changes; (6) the time range of significant phase-locking within the 7-11 or 8-12 Hz frequency bands and of the strongest quadratic phase couplings (between 0.5-2.5 and 7-11 or 8-12 Hz) is between 0 and 1,000 ms; (7) all phase coupling characteristics of the

  20. Synaptic Plasticity Controls Sensory Responses through Frequency-Dependent Gamma Oscillation Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Se-Bum; Glaser, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Synchronized gamma frequency oscillations in neural networks are thought to be important to sensory information processing, and their effects have been intensively studied. Here we describe a mechanism by which the nervous system can readily control gamma oscillation effects, depending selectively on visual stimuli. Using a model neural network simulation, we found that sensory response in the primary visual cortex is significantly modulated by the resonance between “spontaneous” and “stimulus-driven” oscillations. This gamma resonance can be precisely controlled by the synaptic plasticity of thalamocortical connections, and cortical response is regulated differentially according to the resonance condition. The mechanism produces a selective synchronization between the afferent and downstream neural population. Our simulation results explain experimental observations such as stimulus-dependent synchronization between the thalamus and the cortex at different oscillation frequencies. The model generally shows how sensory information can be selectively routed depending on its frequency components. PMID:20838581

  1. Dual-frequency oscillations induced by acidity in Belousov-Zhabotinskii reactions with aldosugars as substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hexing; Jin, Ronghua; Dai, Weilin; Deng, Jingfa

    1997-08-01

    Depending on the initial concentration of H 2SO 4, two types of dual-frequency oscillations have been observed in Belousov-Zhabotinskii type reactions catalyzed by Mn 2+ with acetone and aldosugars (arabinose, glucose, galactose, lactose or maltose) as coupled substrates in a batch reactor. No such dual-frequency oscillations have been found when a ketosugar like fructose was used instead of an aldosugar as the substrate; or acetone was replaced by N 2 flow. No oscillations were observed when Ce 3+ was used instead of Mn 2+. The reaction products of aldosugars in different oscillating regimes have been analyzed. The dual-frequency oscillatory patterns have been discussed according to the roles of the substrates and their derivatives formed at different acidity.

  2. A novel analytical approximation technique for highly nonlinear oscillators based on the energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, Md. Alal; Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Ismail, Ahmad Faris

    In the present paper, a novel analytical approximation technique has been proposed based on the energy balance method (EBM) to obtain approximate periodic solutions for the focus generalized highly nonlinear oscillators. The expressions of the natural frequency-amplitude relationship are obtained using a novel analytical way. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated on three benchmark oscillatory problems, namely, the simple relativistic oscillator, the stretched elastic wire oscillator (with a mass attached to its midpoint) and the Duffing-relativistic oscillator. For an initial oscillation amplitude A0 = 100, the maximal relative errors of natural frequency found in three oscillators are 2.1637%, 0.0001% and 1.201%, respectively, which are much lower than the errors found using the existing methods. It is highly remarkable that an excellent accuracy of the approximate natural frequency has been found which is valid for the whole range of large values of oscillation amplitude as compared with the exact ones. Very simple solution procedure and high accuracy that is found in three benchmark problems reveal the novelty, reliability and wider applicability of the proposed analytical approximation technique.

  3. Bimodal Oscillation Frequencies of Blood Flow in the Inflammatory Colon Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Akira; Turhan, Aslihan; Konerding, Moritz; Ravnic, Dino; Hanidziar, Dusan; Lin, Miao; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Rhythmic changes in blood flow direction have been described in the mucosal plexus of mice with acute colitis. In this report, we studied mice with acute colitis induced by either dextran sodium sulphate or trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Both forms of colitis were asscociated with blood flow oscillations as documented by fluorescence intravital videomicroscopy. The complex oscillation patterns suggested more than one mechanism for these changes in blood flow. By tracking fluorescent nanoparticles in the inflamed mucosal plexus, we identified two forms of blood flow oscillations within the inflammatory mouse colon. Stable oscillations were associated with a base frequency of approximately 2 cycles/sec. Velocity measurements in the upstream and downstream vessel segments indicated that stable oscillations were the result of regional flow occlusion within the mucosal plexus. In contrast, metastable oscillations demonstrated a lower frequency (0.2 to 0.4 cycles/sec) and appeared to be the result of flow dynamics in vessels linked by the bridging mucosal vessels. These blood flow oscillations were not directly associated with cardiopulmonary movement. We conclude that both the stable and metasable oscillating patterns reflect flow adaptations to inflammatory changes in the mucosal plexus. PMID:18951508

  4. The Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Oscillation of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound Contrast Agent (UCAs) are under intensive investigation for their applications in physiological and molecular imaging and drug delivery. Prediction of the natural frequency of the oscillation of UCAs in microvessels has drawn increasing attention. To our knowledge, the existing models to predict the natural frequency of oscillation of UCAs in microvessels all apply the linear approximation and treat the blood vessel wall as a rigid boundary. In the potential applications of ultrasound imaging drug and gene delivery, the compliance of small vessels may play an important role in the bubble’s oscillation. The goal of this work is to provide a lumped-parameter model to study the natural frequency of nonlinear oscillation of UCAs in microvessels. Three types of the blood vessel conditions have been considered. i.e. rigid vessels, normal compliable vessels and vessels with increasing stiffness that could correspond to tumor vasculature. The corresponding bubble oscillation frequencies in the vessels with radius less than 100 μm are examined in detail. When a bubble with a radius of 4 μm is confined in a compliable vessel (inner radius 5 μm and length 100μm), the natural frequency of bubble oscillation increases by a factor of 1.7 as compared with a bubble in an unbounded field. The natural frequency of oscillation of a bubble in a compliable vessel increases with decreasing vessel size while decreasing with increasing values of vessel rigidity. This model suggests that contrast agent size, blood vessel size distribution and the type of vasculature should be comprehensively considered for choosing the transmitted frequency in ultrasound contrast imaging and drug delivery. PMID:17478030

  5. Metabolic pathways reconstruction by frequency and amplitude response to forced glycolytic oscillations in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, William B

    2005-10-05

    The hypothesis that frequency and amplitude response can be used in a complicated metabolic pathway kinetics model for optimal parameter estimation, as speculated by its successful prior usage for a mechanical oscillator and a heterogeneous chemical system, is tested here. Given the complexity of the glycolysis model of yeast chosen, this question is limited to three kinetics parameters of the 87 in the in vitro model developed in the literature. The direct application of the approach, used with the uninformed selection of operating conditions for the oscillation of external glucose concentration, led to miring the data assimilation process in local minima. Application of linear systems theory, however, identified two natural resonant frequencies that, when excited by external forced oscillations of the same frequency, result in the expression of many harmonics in the Fourier spectra, that is, information-rich experiments. A single such information-rich experiment at one of the resonant frequencies was sufficient to break away from the local minima to find the optimum kinetics parameter estimates. The resonant frequencies themselves represent oscillation modes in glycolysis akin to those previously observed. Furthermore, operation of the bioreactor with large amplitude oscillations of glucose feed (25%) leads to enhanced ethanol average yield by 1.6% at the resonant frequency.

  6. Pressure oscillation induced by composite fluid flow - Physical picture generating low frequency earthquake -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, S.; Kurita, K.

    2006-12-01

    variation of the pressure as a function of time, the oscillation peak becomes evident with the time scale of 1000 seconds. This means the flow system evolves from initial homogeneous flow to an oscillation state. This oscillation has characteristic frequency of about 0.1 to 0.01 Hz and it depends on the fluid pressure and viscosity. When the viscosity decreases and the pressure increases, the frequency increases. As a physical model of the pressure oscillation, two basic models can be considered. One is caused by spontaneous formation of variation in volume fraction of particles. Similar phenomena are realized as an intermittent flow behavior in air and particle flow through long tube (Bertho et al., Physics of Fluids 2003). Intermittent formation of high voidage fraction causes the oscillation of pressure. Second model is associated with stick &slip flow behavior of the Bingham fluid. Fluid and particle mixture is characterized by existence of the yield strength, which causes intermittent slip (above the yield stress) and stick (below the yield stress) with hysteresis. In the presentation we summarize characteristics of both models and possible link to the physical model of the LF earthquakes.

  7. 3D CFDTD PIC Simulation Study on Low-Frequency Oscillations in a Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. C.; Smithe, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) have been observed in a high average power gyrotron and the trapped electron population contributing to the oscillation has been measured. As high average power gyrotrons are the most promising millimeter wave source for thermonuclear fusion research, it is important to get a better understanding of this parasitic phenomenon to avoid any deterioration of the electron beam quality thus reducing the gyrotron efficiency. However, understanding of the LFOs remains incomplete and a full picture of this parasitic phenomenon has not been seen yet. In this work, we use a 3D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method to accurately and efficiently study the LFOs in a magnetron injection gun (MIG) of a high average power gyrotron. Employing a highly parallelized computation, the model can be simulated in time domain more realistically. LFOs have been obtained in a 3D time domain simulation for the first time. From our preliminary simulation studies, it is found that not only magnetic compression profile but initial velocity or velocity ratio play an important role in the operation of a MIG electron gun. In addition, the secondary emission effects on the LFOs are also studied. Detailed results will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0004436.

  8. Effect of noise correlation on noise-induced oscillation frequency in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Simakov, David S A; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2013-12-27

    We report on the experimental study of noise-induced oscillations in the photosensitive Ru(bpy)3(2+)-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). In the absence of deterministic oscillations and any external periodic forcing, oscillations appear when the system is perturbed by stochastic fluctuations in light irradiation with sufficiently high amplitude in the vicinity of the bifurcation point. The frequency distribution of the noise-induced oscillations is strongly affected by noise correlation. There is a shift of the noise-induced oscillation frequency toward higher frequencies for an intermediate range of the noise correlation exponent, indicating the occurrence of coherence resonance. Our findings indicate that, in principle, noise correlation can be used to direct chemical reactions toward certain behavior.

  9. Searching for narrow-band oscillations in solar flares in the presence of frequency-dependent noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Andrew; Ireland, Jack

    2014-06-01

    A common feature of solar flare emission is the appearance of short timescale fluctuations, often interpreted in terms of oscillatory signatures, and often referred to as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) or quasi-periodic oscilations (QPOs). These fluctuations are an important diagnostic of solar plasma, as they are linked to the flare reconnection and particle acceleration sites. However, it has recently become clear that solar flare time series, like many astrophysical objects, are often dominated by frequency-dependent 'red' noise, rather than white noise. This frequency-dependent red-noise is commonly not taken into account when analyzing flare time-series for narrow-band oscillations. We demonstrate the application of a Bayesian method of searching for narrow-band oscillations in flares (based on Vaughan 2010) that fully accounts for frequency-dependent noise. We apply this method to the recent flares of 2011 February 15 and 2011 June 7, utilizing high-cadence EUV and X-ray data from the Proba-2/LYRA and Fermi/GBM instruments. While emphasizing that the observed fluctuations are a very real effect, we show that the emission from the selected events can be well described by a frequency-dependent noise model, without the need to invoke an explicit oscillatory mechanism. This presents a challenge to our current understanding of flare fluctuations, and suggests that narrow-band oscillations in flare emission may be much less prevalent than previously believed.

  10. The high-overtone p-mode spectrum of the rapidly oscillating Ap star HR 1217 (HD 24712) - Results of a frequency analysis of 324 hr of multi-site photometric observations obtained during a 46-d time-span in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Martinez, P.; Seeman, J.; Matthews, J. M.; Cropper, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The present high-speed photometry for the rapidly oscillating Ap star HR 1217 indicates that the 6-min light variations are amplitude-modulated, in phase with the magnetic variations. Amplitude and magnetic maxima coincide, while the mean light minimum occurs at a perhaps significantly different time. It is established that HR 1217 is an oblique rotator with a centered dipole magnetic field, as well as an oblique pulsator whose pulsation and magnetic axes are aligned. There are six principal frequencies of pulsation; the secondary frequencies indicate that the principal ones are amplitude-modulated on a time-scale of months.

  11. Resonance frequencies of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillations.

    PubMed

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Haac, Jillian F; Dayton, Paul A

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of resonant frequencies of contrast microbubbles is important for the optimization of ultrasound contrast imaging and therapeutic techniques. To date, however, there are estimates of resonance frequencies of contrast microbubbles only for the regime of linear oscillation. The present paper proposes an approach for evaluating resonance frequencies of contrast agent microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillation. The approach is based on the calculation of the time-averaged oscillation power of the radial bubble oscillation. The proposed procedure was verified for free bubbles in the frequency range 1-4 MHz and then applied to lipid-shelled microbubbles insonified with a single 20-cycle acoustic pulse at two values of the acoustic pressure amplitude, 100 kPa and 200 kPa, and at four frequencies: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MHz. It is shown that, as the acoustic pressure amplitude is increased, the resonance frequency of a lipid-shelled microbubble tends to decrease in comparison with its linear resonance frequency. Analysis of existing shell models reveals that models that treat the lipid shell as a linear viscoelastic solid appear may be challenged to provide the observed tendency in the behavior of the resonance frequency at increasing acoustic pressure. The conclusion is drawn that the further development of shell models could be improved by the consideration of nonlinear rheological laws.

  12. Resonance frequencies of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Haac, Jillian F.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of resonant frequencies of contrast microbubbles is important for the optimization of ultrasound contrast imaging and therapeutic techniques. To date, however, there are estimates of resonance frequencies of contrast microbubbles only for the regime of linear oscillation. The present paper proposes an approach for evaluating resonance frequencies of contrast agent microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillation. The approach is based on the calculation of the time-averaged oscillation power of the radial bubble oscillation. The proposed procedure was verified for free bubbles in the frequency range 1–4 MHz and then applied to lipid-shelled microbubbles insonified with a single 20-cycle acoustic pulse at two values of the acoustic pressure amplitude, 100 kPa and 200 kPa, and at four frequencies: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MHz. It is shown that, as the acoustic pressure amplitude is increased, the resonance frequency of a lipid-shelled microbubble tends to decrease in comparison with its linear resonance frequency. Analysis of existing shell models reveals that models that treat the lipid shell as a linear viscoelastic solid appear may be challenged to provide the observed tendency in the behavior of the resonance frequency at increasing acoustic pressure. The conclusion is drawn that the further development of shell models could be improved by the consideration of nonlinear rheological laws. PMID:18977009

  13. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  14. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  15. Describing oscillations of high energy neutrinos in matter precisely.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, E K H; Maltoni, M; Smirnov, A Y U

    2005-11-18

    We present a formalism for precise description of oscillation phenomena in matter at high energies or high densities, V > Delta m(2)/2E, where V is the matter-induced potential of neutrinos. The accuracy of the approximation is determined by the quantity, where is the mixing angle in matter and is a typical change of the potential over the oscillation length (). We derive simple and physically transparent formulas for the oscillation probabilities, which are valid for arbitrary matter density profiles. They can be applied to oscillations of high-energy accelerator, atmospheric, and cosmic neutrinos in the matter of the Earth, substantially simplifying numerical calculations and providing an insight into the physics of neutrino oscillations in matter. The effect of parametric enhancement of the oscillations of high-energy neutrinos is considered.

  16. Fast, precise, and widely tunable frequency control of an optical parametric oscillator referenced to a frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prehn, Alexander; Glöckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide a convenient reference for the frequency stabilization of continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate a frequency control method relying on tracking over a wide range and stabilizing the beat note between the laser and the OFC. The approach combines fast frequency ramps on a millisecond timescale in the entire mode-hop free tuning range of the laser and precise stabilization to single frequencies. We apply it to a commercially available optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and demonstrate tuning over more than 60 GHz with a ramping speed up to 3 GHz/ms. Frequency ramps spanning 15 GHz are performed in less than 10 ms, with the OPO instantly relocked to the OFC after the ramp at any desired frequency. The developed control hardware and software are able to stabilize the OPO to sub-MHz precision and to perform sequences of fast frequency ramps automatically.

  17. High-power Čerenkov microwave oscillators utilizing High-Current nanosecond Electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, S. D.; Polevin, S. D.; Rostov, V. V.

    1996-12-01

    A short review is given of results obtained at the Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences on generating high-power microwave radiation. Most of the research was devoted to a study of stimulated Čerenkov radiation from relativistic electron beams. It is shown that the efficiency of a relativistic 3-cm backward wave tube with a nonuniform coupling resistance can reach 35%. High-frequency radiation was discovered in the emission spectrum of the Čerenkov oscillators and it was shown that the nature of the radiation was associated with the stimulated scattering of low-frequency radiation by the relativistic electrons. Radiation with a power of 500 MW was obtained in the 8-mm wavelength range using a two-beam Čerenkov oscillator. High-current pulse-periodic nanosecond accelerators with a charging device utilizing a Tesla transformer were used in the experiments. The possibility was demonstrated of generating high-power microwave radiation with a pulse-repetition frequency of up to 100 Hz. An average power of ˜500 W was achieved from the relativistic oscillators. A relativistic backward wave tube with a high-current electron beam was used to make a prototype nanosecond radar device. Some of the results presented were obtained jointly with the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Applied Physics. Questions concerning multiwave Čerenkov interaction are not considered in this paper.

  18. High power, high frequency component test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Krawczonek, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has available a high frequency, high power laboratory facility for testing various components of aerospace and/or terrestrial power systems. This facility is described here. All of its capabilities and potential applications are detailed.

  19. Dynamical regimes of two frequency different chemical oscillators coupled via pulse inhibitory coupling with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurkin, I. S.; Vanag, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    Resonance regimes of two frequency different chemical oscillators coupled via pulsed inhibitory coupling with time delay τ have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is used as a chemical oscillator. Regions of the 1: 1, 2: 3, 1: 2, 2: 5, and 1: 3 resonances, as well as complex oscillations and a regime in which one oscillator is suppressed have been found in the parameter plane "the ratio between the T 2/ T 1-τ." For the 1: 2 resonance, a sharp transition from one synchronized regime (called "0/0.5") to the other one (called "0.2/0.7") has been found. This transition (reminiscent to the transition between in-phase and anti-phase oscillations in case of the 1: 1 resonance) is controlled by time delay τ and the coupling strength.

  20. System for adjusting frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bartholomew, David B.

    2006-11-14

    A system for setting and adjusting a frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator in a network is disclosed. The system comprises an accumulator module configured to receive pulses from an oscillator and to output an accumulated value. An adjustor module is configured to store an adjustor value used to correct local oscillator drift. A digital adder adds values from the accumulator module to values stored in the adjustor module and outputs their sums to the accumulator module, where they are stored. The digital adder also outputs an electrical pulse to a logic module. The logic module is in electrical communication with the adjustor module and the network. The logic module may change the value stored in the adjustor module to compensate for local oscillator drift or change the frequency of output pulses. The logic module may also keep time and calculate drift.

  1. Why high-frequency pulse tubes can be tipped

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Gregory W092710; Backhaus, Scott N

    2010-01-01

    The typical low-frequency pulse-tube refrigerator loses significant cooling power when it is tipped with the pulse tube's cold end above its hot end, because natural convection in the pulse tube loads the cold heat exchanger. Yet most high-frequency pulse-tube refrigerators work well in any orientation with respect to gravity. In such a refrigerator, natural convection is suppressed by sufficiently fast velocity oscil1ations, via a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect that tends to align the density gradients in the pulse tube parallel to the oscillation direction. Since gravity's tendency to cause convection is only linear in the pulse tube's end-to-end temperature difference while the oscillation's tendency to align density gradients with oscillating velocity is nonlinear, it is easiest to suppress convection when the end-to-end temperature difference is largest. Simple experiments demonstrate this temperature dependence, the strong dependence on the oscillating velocity, and little dependence on the magnitude or phase of the oscillating pressure. In some circumstances in this apparatus, the suppression of convection is a hysteretic function of oscillating velocity. In some other circumstances, a time-dependent convective state seems more difficult to suppress.

  2. An experimental investigation of low-frequency noise in 8-mm-band Gunn-diode oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, I. A.; Malyshev, V. M.; Meshcheriakov, A. V.

    1989-07-01

    The noise characteristics of Ka-band Gunn oscillators are studied. The dependences of the frequency fluctuations on the SWR and load phases are analyzed. A comparison of the noise characteristics of Ka- and X-band Gunn oscillators shows that their fluctuation levels are about the same if they are calculated at the same oscillation frequency. The amplitude fluctuation is 10 dB lower in Ka-band oscillators.

  3. Protection circuitry for high frequency ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaggares, N. Chris; Tang, Raymond K.; Sinclair, A. N., Prof.; Foster, F. S., Prof.; Haraierciwz, Kasia; Starkoski, Brian

    2000-05-01

    Most commercial ultrasonic NDE equipment employs a voltage spike to stimulate a piezoelectric transducer. To protect the signal processing unit from damage from this spike, a voltage limiter or "diode clamp" is included in the pulser-receiver, and limits the voltage reaching the amplifier or oscilloscope. In this project, the deleterious effects of such limiters on the ultrasonic echo in the high frequency (50-100 MHz range) have been quantified: these effects include significant distortion in the frequency content, and oscillations causing a drop in timing resolution by over a factor of 2. To address these problems, a high-voltage high-frequency switch has been designed to replace the voltage limiter; the switch directs the high-voltage spike away from the signal processing/display unit, towards an impedance-matched termination. A prototype circuit has been built, based on two high-voltage MOSFET's acting as a switch for the bi-polar stimulation pulse. The reduction in echo distortion and improvement in time resolution have been successfully modeled with the CAD tool HSPICE, although parasitic capacitance in the current generation of commercial MOSFET's is a continuing concern.

  4. Stable and tunable single frequency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo

    2016-10-01

    We have demonstrated a single frequency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a