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Sample records for high frequency quasi-periodic

  1. ON THE HIGH-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS FROM BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erkut, M. Hakan

    2011-12-10

    We apply the global mode analysis, which has been recently developed for the modeling of kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from neutron stars, to the inner region of an accretion disk around a rotating black hole. Within a pseudo-Newtonian approach that keeps the ratio of the radial epicyclic frequency {kappa} to the orbital frequency {Omega} the same as the corresponding ratio for a Kerr black hole, we determine the innermost disk region where the hydrodynamic modes grow in amplitude. We find that the radiation flux emerging from the inner disk has the highest values within the same region. Using the flux-weighted averages of the frequency bands over this region we identify the growing modes with highest frequency branches {Omega} + {kappa} and {Omega} to be the plausible candidates for the high-frequency QPO pairs observed in black hole systems. The observed frequency ratio around 1.5 can therefore be understood naturally in terms of the global free oscillations in the innermost region of a viscous accretion disk around a black hole without invoking a particular resonance to produce black hole QPOs. Although the frequency ratio ({Omega} + {kappa})/({Omega}) is found to be not sensitive to the black hole's spin which is good for explaining the high-frequency QPOs, it may work as a limited diagnostic of the spin parameter to distinguish black holes with very large spin from the slowly rotating ones. Within our model we estimate the frequency ratio of a high-frequency QPO pair to be greater than 1.5 if the black hole is a slow rotator. For fast rotating black holes, we expect the same ratio to be less than 1.5.

  2. High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, T. M.; Sanna, A.; Méndez, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of a large data base of X-ray observations of 22 galactic black hole transients with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer throughout its operative life for a total exposure time of ˜12 ms. We excluded persistent systems and the peculiar source GRS 1915+105, as well as the most recently discovered sources. The semi-automatic homogeneous analysis was aimed at the detection of high-frequency (100-1000 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO), of which several cases were previously reported in the literature. After taking into account the number of independent trials, we obtained 11 detections from two sources only: XTE J1550-564 and GRO J1655-40. For the former, the detected frequencies are clustered around 180 and 280 Hz, as previously found. For the latter, the previously reported dichotomy 300-450 Hz is found to be less sharp. We discuss our results in comparison with kHz QPO in neutron-star X-ray binaries and the prospects for future timing X-ray missions.

  3. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  4. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  5. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Homan, J.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the high-frequency timing properties of the April-May 2000 outburst of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar XTE J1550-564, measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, The rapid X-ray variability we measure is consistent with the source being in either the "very high" or "intermediate" canonical black hole state. A strong (5-8% RMS) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) is found between 249-278 Hz; this may represent the first recurrence of the same high-frequency QPO in subsequent outbursts of a transient black hole candidate. We also present possible evidence for a lower-frequency QPO at approximately 187 Hz, also reported previously and likely present simultaneously with the higher-frequency QPO. We discuss these findings within the context of the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, and comment on implications for models of QPOs, accretion flows, and black hole spin.

  6. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  7. Twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We

  8. The beat frequency model for QPOs. [Quasi-Periodic-Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) phenomenon has come to pose increasingly complex problems as sources have been discovered; these currently number 12, of which at least seven are X-ray binaries. The beat-frequency model (BFM), originally devised to characterize the first and simplest of the QPOs, GX5-1, is presently discussed with a view to its assumptions and applicability to other QPOs. The most important problem with the BFM is identified as the assumption that the neutron star involved rotates at an angular frequency of the order, in the case of GX5-1, of 10 msec.

  9. Frequency variations of quasi-periodic ELF-VLF emissions: A possible new ground-based diagnostic of the outer high-latitude magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, J.; Engebretson, M.; Arnoldy, R.; Inan, U.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic pulsations and quasi-periodic (QP) amplitude modulations of ELF-VLF waves at Pc 3-4 frequencies (15-50 mHz) are commonly observed simultaneously in cusp-latitude data. The naturally occurring ELF-VLF emissions are believed to be modulated within the magnetosphere by the compressional component of geomagnetic pulsations formed external to the magnetosphere. The authors have examined data from South Pole Station (L {approximately} 14) to determine the occurrence and characteristics of QP emissions. On the basis of 14 months of data during 1987 and 1988 they found that QP emissions typically appeared in both the 0.5-1 kHz and 1-2 kHz receiver channels at South Pole Station and ocassionally in the 2-4 kHz channel. The QP emission frequency appeared to depend on solar wind parameters and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction, and the months near fall equinox in both 1987 and 1988 showed a significant increase in the percentage of QP emissions only in the lowest-frequency channel. The authors present a model consistent with these variations in which high-latitude (nonequatorial) magnetic field minima near the magnetopause play a major role, because the field magnitude governs both the frequency of ELF-VLF emissions and the whistler mode propagation cutoffs. Because the field in these regions will be strongly influenced by solar wind and IMF parameters, variations in the frequency of such emissions may be useful in providing ground-based diagnostics of the outer high-latitude magnetosphere. 32 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Low Frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the High-eccentric LMXB Cir X-1: Extending the WK Correlation for Z Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Qingcui; Belloni, T. M.; Chen, Li; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-06-01

    Using archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we studied the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 and examined their contribution to frequency-frequency correlations for Z sources. We also studied the orbital phase effects on the LFQPO properties and found them to be phase independent. Comparing LFQPO frequencies in different classes of LMXBs, we found that systems that show both Z and atoll states form a common track with atoll/BH sources in the so-called WK correlation, while persistent Z systems are offset by a factor of about two. We found that neither source luminosity nor mass accretion rate is related to the shift of persistent Z systems. We discuss the possibility of a misidentification of fundamental frequency for horizontal branch oscillations from persistent Z systems and interpreted the oscillations in terms of models based on relativistic precession.

  11. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  12. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSIENT QUASI-PERIODIC RADIO EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Ramesh, R.

    2013-09-20

    We report low-frequency observations of quasi-periodic, circularly polarized, harmonic type III radio bursts whose associated sunspot active regions were located close to the solar limb. The measured periodicity of the bursts at 80 MHz was ≈5.2 s, and their average degree of circular polarization (dcp) was ≈0.12. We calculated the associated magnetic field B (1) using the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic type III emission, and (2) from the observed quasi-periodicity of the bursts. Both the methods result in B ≈ 4.2 G at the location of the 80 MHz plasma level (radial distance r ≈ 1.3 R{sub ☉}) in the active region corona.

  13. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian Li, Yong

    2015-05-15

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation u{sub tt} + u{sub xxxx} + mu + u{sup 3} = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form. .

  14. Quasi-periodic frequency fluctuations observed during coronal radio sounding experiments 1991-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anatoli; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, Lev; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, Igor; Bird, Michael; Paetzold, Martin

    Recent coronal radio sounding experiments with the ESA spacecraft Mars Express (MEX), Venus Express (VEX) and Rosetta (ROS) have provided a large volume of observational data supporting the presence of a quasi-periodic component (QPC) in frequency fluctuation spectra during solar conjunction. Further evidence for the QPC, first seen in data from the MEX conjunction in 2004, was found later in data from the MEX conjunctions in 2006 and 2008/09, as well as the VEX and ROS conjunctions in 2006. The QPC is detected with an occurrence frequency ≈ 18% (83.3 hours of the total 462.7 hours of data). In some cases the temporal spectra reveal two lines: the main QPC and its second harmonic. The average frequency of the spectral density maximum is νmax ≈ 5.5 mHz (corresponding QPC fluctuation period ≈ 3 min) at solar offset distances R < 8 Rs. The QPC spectral density maximum Gmax reaches an average factor of 2.88 above the background level G0 . The bandwidth of the spectral line ∆ν ≈ νmax . At larger solar distances (R > 8 Rs) the fluctuation frequency of the mean spectral density maximum is νmax ≈ 4.3 mHz (period ≈ 4 min). Both the fractional spectral line bandwidth ∆ν/νmax and the excess of spectral density Gmax above background are nearly unchanged from their values nearer the Sun. A reanalysis of earlier coronal sounding data obtained with the Ulysses (1991, 1995) and Galileo (1996/97) spacecraft has verified the existence of the QPC. Typical fluctuation periods lie between 4 and 5 min, but the QPC occurrence rate (12%) is smaller than that observed for MEX-VEX-ROS. This may be associated with the lower received signal level of Ulysses and Galileo compared to the ESA spacecraft. The Ulysses coronal sounding experiments in 1995 provided an interesting possibility to observe the QPC at high solar latitudes. Preliminary results show that the QPC frequency can reach νmax = 6-7 mHz at heliolatitudes 60° -80° .

  15. Radiation characteristics of quasi-periodic radio bursts in the Jovian high-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Misawa, Hiroaki; Morioka, Akira; Nozawa, Hiromasa

    2008-12-01

    Ulysses had a "distant encounter" with Jupiter in February 2004. The spacecraft passed from north to south, and it observed Jovian radio waves from high to low latitudes (from +80° to +10°) for few months during its encounter. In this study, we present a statistical investigation of the occurrence characteristics of Jovian quasi-periodic bursts, using spectral data from the unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) onboard Ulysses. The latitudinal distribution of quasi-periodic bursts is derived for the first time. The analysis suggested that the bursts can be roughly categorized into two types: one having periods shorter than 30 min and one with periods longer than 30 min, which is consistent with the results of the previous analysis of data from Ulysses' first Jovian flyby [MacDowall, R.J., Kaiser, M.L., Desch, M.D., Farrell, W.M., Hess, R.A., Stone, R.G., 1993. Quasi-periodic Jovian radio bursts: observations from the Ulysses radio and plasma wave. Experiment. Planet. Space Sci. 41, 1059-1072]. It is also suggested that the groups of quasi-periodic bursts showed a dependence on the Jovian longitude of the sub-solar point, which means that these burst groups are triggered during a particular rotational phase of the planet. Maps of the occurrence probability of these quasi-periodic bursts also showed a unique CML/MLAT dependence. We performed a 3D ray tracing analysis of the quasi-periodic burst emission to learn more about the source distribution. The results suggest that the longitudinal distribution of the occurrence probability depends on the rotational phase. The source region of quasi-periodic bursts seems to be located at an altitude between 0.4 and 1.4 Rj above the polar cap region ( L>30).

  16. Continuation of quasi-periodic solutions with two-frequency Harmonic Balance Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Louis; Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Cochelin, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The continuation of quasi-periodic solutions for autonomous or forced nonlinear systems is presented in this paper. The association of the Asymptotic Numerical Method, a robust continuation method, and a two-frequency Harmonic Balance Method, is performed thanks to a quadratic formalism. There is no need for a priori knowledge of the solution: the two pulsations can be unknown and can vary along the solution branch, and the double Fourier series are computed without needing a harmonic selection. A norm criterion on Fourier coefficients can confirm a posteriori the accuracy of the solution branch. On a forced system, frequency-locking regions are approximated, without blocking the continuation process. The continuation of these periodic solutions can be done independently. On an autonomous system an example of solution is shown where the number of Fourier coefficients is increased to improve the accuracy of the solution.

  17. Quasi-periodic dynamics of a high angle of attack aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohith, G.; Sinha, Nandan K.

    2017-01-01

    High angle of attack maneuvers closer to stall is a commonly accessed flight regime especially in case of fighter aircrafts. Stall and post-stall dynamics are dominated by nonlinearities which make the analysis difficult. Presence of external factors such as wind makes the system even more complex. Rich nonlinearities point to the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions. Past studies in this area confirm the development of such solutions. These studies are mainly concentrated on very high angle of attack regimes, which may not be practically easily accessible. This paper examines the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions in the lower, more accessible areas in the post stall domain. The analysis is composed of the study of effect of external wind as an agent to drive the system towards the possibility of a chaotic solution. Investigations reveal presence of quasi-periodic solutions, which are characterized by two incommensurate frequencies. This solution appears in the time simulation by varying the control parameter viz., wind. The solutions correspond to the values in the lower region of the angle of attack versus elevator bifurcation curve in the post-stall region. A steady wind is considered for the analysis and explores the possibility of chaotic motion by increasing the wind in a step wise manner. It is found that wind adds extra energy to the system which in turn drives the system in to chaos. The analysis is done with the help of phase portrait, Poincare map and amplitude spectrum and a quasi-periodic route to chaos via torus doubling is also presented.

  18. Comparing origins of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations with spectral-timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Abigail L.; Uttley, Phil

    2017-08-01

    The light curves of low-mass X-ray binaries show variability on timescales from milliseconds to months. The rapid (sub-second) variability is particularly interesting because it is thought to probe the inner region of the accretion disk and the central compact object. Observations suggest that different types of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are associated with different emitting-region geometries (e.g., disk-like or jet-like) in the innermost part of the X-ray binary, that are varying possibly due to general relativistic precession. A new way to analyze QPOs is with spectral-timing, which seeks to investigate how matter behaves in the strong gravitational field around the compact object by causally linking the variations from different spectral components. We developed a technique for phase-resolved spectroscopy of QPOs, and are applying it to two types of low-frequency QPOs from the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4. Over a QPO “period”, we find that the energy spectrum changes not only in normalization, but also in spectral shape. We can quantify how the spectral shape changes as a function of QPO phase, and the two different QPOs show markedly different spectral changes. The "Type B" low-frequency QPO shows evidence of a large-scale-height (jet-like) power-law- emitting precessing region, while in the same outburst the "Type C" low-frequency QPO shows evidence of a small-scale-height (disk-like) power-law-emitting precessing region. These interpretations can be used to look into the evolution of matter in the strong-gravity regime.

  19. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  20. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  1. LOW-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM THE 11 Hz ACCRETING PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: NOT FRAME DRAGGING

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Ingram, A.; Linares, M.; Homan, J.

    2012-11-01

    We report on six RXTE observations taken during the 2010 outburst of the 11 Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During these observations we find power spectra which resemble those seen in Z-type high-luminosity neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, with a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the 35-50 Hz range simultaneous with a kHz QPO and broadband noise. Using well-known frequency-frequency correlations, we identify the 35-50 Hz QPOs as the horizontal branch oscillations, which were previously suggested to be due to Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. As IGR J17480-2446 spins more than an order of magnitude more slowly than any of the other neutron stars where these QPOs were found, this QPO cannot be explained by frame dragging. By extension, this casts doubt on the LT precession model for other low-frequency QPOs in neutron stars and perhaps even black hole systems.

  2. UNIVERSAL SCALING OF THE 3:2 TWIN-PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES WITH BLACK HOLE MASS AND SPIN REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin-Lin; Yuan, Weimin; Pan, Hai-Wu; Liu, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    We discuss further observational support of an idea formulated a decade ago by Abramowicz, Kluźniak, McClintock and Remillard. They demonstrated that the 3:2 pairs of frequencies of the twin-peak black hole (BH) high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) scale inversely with the BH masses and that the scaling covers the entire range from stellar to supermassive BHs. For this reason, they believed that the QPOs may be used for accurate measurements of masses and spins of BHs.

  3. High-resolution simulation of deep pencil beam surveys - analysis of quasi-periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A. G.; Buchert, T.

    1993-07-01

    We carry out pencil beam constructions in a high-resolution simulation of the large-scale structure of galaxies. The initial density fluctuations are taken to have a truncated power spectrum. All the models have {OMEGA} = 1. As an example we present the results for the case of "Hot-Dark-Matter" (HDM) initial conditions with scale-free n = 1 power index on large scales as a representative of models with sufficient large-scale power. We use an analytic approximation for particle trajectories of a self-gravitating dust continuum and apply a local dynamical biasing of volume elements to identify luminous matter in the model. Using this method, we are able to resolve formally a simulation box of 1200h^-1^ Mpc (e.g. for HDM initial conditions) down to the scale of galactic halos using 2160^3^ particles. We consider this as the minimal resolution necessary for a sensible simulation of deep pencil beam data. Pencil beam probes are taken for a given epoch using the parameters of observed beams. In particular, our analysis concentrates on the detection of a quasi-periodicity in the beam probes using several different methods. The resulting beam ensembles are analyzed statistically using number distributions, pair-count histograms, unnormalized pair-counts, power spectrum analysis and trial-period folding. Periodicities are classified according to their significance level in the power spectrum of the beams. The simulation is designed for application to parameter studies which prepare future observational projects. We find that a large percentage of the beams show quasi- periodicities with periods which cluster at a certain length scale. The periods found range between one and eight times the cutoff length in the initial fluctuation spectrum. At significance levels similar to those of the data of Broadhurst et al. (1990), we find about 15% of the pencil beams to show periodicities, about 30% of which are around the mean separation of rich clusters, while the distribution of

  4. Dependence of kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies on accretion-related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan; Çatmabacak, Önder

    2016-07-01

    To study the possible dependence of kHz QPO frequencies on the parameters such as the mass accretion rate, the surface magnetic field strength, mass, and radius of the neutron star, we consider the up-to-date distribution of neutron star LMXBs in the kHz QPO frequency versus X-ray luminosity plane. We confirm the absence of any correlation between QPO frequencies and luminosity in the ensemble of LMXBs. Searching for the dependence of QPO data on accretion-related parameters, we find a correlation between the lower kHz QPO frequency and the parameter combining mass accretion rate with magnetic field strength. The correlation cannot be adequately described by a simple power law due to observed scattering of individual source data in the ensemble of Z and atoll sources. Based on disk-magnetosphere boundary region, the model function for QPO frequency can delineate the correlation taking into account the scattering of individual sources. In addition to mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength, the model function also depends on the radial width of the boundary region near the magnetopause. Modelling the variation of the width with mass accretion rate, we also provide an explanation for the parallel tracks phenomenon observed in the case of individual sources.

  5. Frequency ratio of twin kHz quasi-periodic oscillations: The case of 4U1820-303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, Didier; Boutelier, Martin

    2008-05-01

    By analyzing all archival Rossi X-ray timing explorer (RXTE) data of the neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U1820-303, we investigate the detectability of simultaneous twin kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) as a function of their frequency, width and root mean squared (RMS) amplitudes. In a blind search over the whole data set (spanning over about 10 years), we show that in continuous time intervals (2000-3000 s), twin QPOs are preferentially detected over narrow range of frequencies (˜100 Hz wide), leading to a clustering in the distribution of frequency ratios, and a gap around the point (600, 900) Hz in the correlation line that links the upper QPO frequency to the lower QPO frequency. A deficit of lower QPOs around 600 Hz had already been noticed by Belloni et al. [Belloni, T., Méndez, M., Homan, J., 2005. A&A 437, 209], it is now confirmed using a much larger data set. We show that the lack of twin QPOs within the gap is not due to a lack of sensitivity for QPO detection, if the parameters of the QPOs (RMS and width) can be interpolated within the gap, using values measured before and after. Since as previously noticed, the gap cannot be attributed to an incomplete sampling of the source states, it thus implies a sudden change of the QPO properties within the gap, either a loss of coherence or an amplitude decrease, or alternatively, that there may be forbidden frequencies in this system.

  6. Detection of Very Low-frequency, Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the 2015 Outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, D.; Younes, G.; Ingram, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Göğüş, E.; Bachetti, M.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Chenevez, J.; Motta, S.; van der Klis, M.; Granot, J.; Gehrels, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Walton, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 June, the black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) V404 Cygni went into outburst for the first time since 1989. Here, we present a comprehensive search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of V404 Cygni during its recent outburst, utilizing data from six instruments on board five different X-ray missions: Swift/XRT, Fermi/GBM, Chandra/ACIS, INTEGRAL’s IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X, and NuSTAR. We report the detection of a QPO at 18 mHz simultaneously with both Fermi/GBM and Swift/XRT, another example of a rare but slowly growing new class of mHz-QPOs in BHXRBs linked to sources with a high orbital inclination. Additionally, we find a duo of QPOs in a Chandra/ACIS observation at 73 mHz and 1.03 Hz, as well as a QPO at 136 mHz in a single Swift/XRT observation that can be interpreted as standard Type-C QPOs. Aside from the detected QPOs, there is significant structure in the broadband power, with a strong feature observable in the Chandra observations between 0.1 and 1 Hz. We discuss our results in the context of current models for QPO formation.

  7. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Robert E; Lewin, Walter H. G.; vanderKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1998-01-01

    By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broad-band noise (0.001- 64 Hz; BBN) and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the so-called "Very High State" is spectrally intermediate to the Soft/High-State and Hard/Low-State. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anti-correlation; where the BBN variability switches from High-State to Low-State; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broad-band variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the Hard/Low and Soft/High States. We conclude that these QPO should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPO observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the Hard/Low State, and we compare these to the QPO observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.

  8. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Robert E.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; VanDerKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouvewliotou, Chryssa

    1999-01-01

    By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broadband noise (BBN) (0.001-64 Hz) and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the "very high state" is spectrally intermediate to the soft/high state and hard/low state. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anticorrelation; where the BBN variability switches from high state to low state; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broadband variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the hard/low and soft/high states. We conclude that these QPOs should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPOs observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the hard/low state, and we compare these to the QPOs observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.

  9. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Robert E; Lewin, Walter H. G.; vanderKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1998-01-01

    By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broad-band noise (0.001- 64 Hz; BBN) and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the so-called "Very High State" is spectrally intermediate to the Soft/High-State and Hard/Low-State. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anti-correlation; where the BBN variability switches from High-State to Low-State; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broad-band variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the Hard/Low and Soft/High States. We conclude that these QPO should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPO observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the Hard/Low State, and we compare these to the QPO observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.

  10. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Robert E.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; VanDerKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouvewliotou, Chryssa

    1999-01-01

    By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broadband noise (BBN) (0.001-64 Hz) and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the "very high state" is spectrally intermediate to the soft/high state and hard/low state. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anticorrelation; where the BBN variability switches from high state to low state; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broadband variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the hard/low and soft/high states. We conclude that these QPOs should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPOs observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the hard/low state, and we compare these to the QPOs observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.

  11. Reproducing the Correlations of Type C Low-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillation Parameters in XTE J1550–564 with a Spiral Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varniere, Peggy; Vincent, Frederic H.

    2017-01-01

    While it has been observed that the parameters intrinsic to the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations are related in a nonlinear manner among themselves, there has been, up to now, no model to explain or reproduce how the frequency, the FWHM, and the rms amplitude of the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations behave with respect to one another. Here we are using a simple toy model representing the emission from a standard disk and a spiral such as that caused by the accretion–ejection instability to reproduce the overall observed behavior and shed some light on its origin. This allows us to prove the ability of such a spiral structure to be at the origin of flux modulation over more than an order of magnitude in frequency.

  12. Spectral broadening and compression of high-intensity laser pulses in quasi-periodic systems with Kerr nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasov, Sergei N; Koposova, E V; Yashin, V E

    2012-11-30

    We report the results of theoretical studies and numerical simulations of optical high-power pulse compression systems based on the spectral broadening in a Kerr nonlinear medium with subsequent pulse compression in a dispersive delay line. It is shown that the effective spectral broadening requires suppressing a smallscale instability arising due to self-focusing, which is possible in quasi-periodic systems consisting of a nonlinear medium and optical relay telescopes transmitting images of the laser beam through the system. The numerical calculations have shown the possibility of broadening the spectrum, followed by 15-fold pulse compression until the instability is excited. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  13. High performance hybrid rGO/Ag quasi-periodic mesh transparent electrodes for flexible electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. S.; Ivanchenko, F. S.; Simunin, M. M.; Shiverskiy, A. V.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Nemtsev, I. V.; Fadeev, Y. V.; Karpova, D. V.; Khartov, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    A possibility of creating a stable hybrid coating based on the hybrid of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Ag quasi-periodic mesh (q-mesh) coating has been demonstrated. The main advantages of the suggested method are the low cost of the processes and the technology scalability. The Ag q-mesh coating is formed by means of the magnetron sputtering of silver on the original template obtained as a result of quasi-periodic cracking of a silica film. The protective rGO film is formed by low temperature reduction of a graphene oxide (GO) film, applied by the spray-deposition in the solution of NaBH4. The coatings have low sheet resistance (12.3 Ω/sq) and high optical transparency (82.2%). The hybrid coatings are characterized by high chemical stability, as well as they show high stability to deformation impacts. High performance of the hybrid coatings as electrodes in the sandwich-system «electrode-electrochromic composition-electrode» has been demonstrated. The hybrid electrodes allow the electrochromic sandwich to function without any visible degradation for a long time, while an unprotected mesh electrode does not allow performing even a single switching cycle.

  14. ON THE GEOMETRIC NATURE OF LOW-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN NEUTRON-STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Fridriksson, Joel K.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a detailed analysis of the so-called ∼1 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the eclipsing and dipping neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748–676. This type of QPO has previously been shown to have a geometric origin. Our study focuses on the evolution of the QPO as the source moves through the color–color diagram in which it traces out an atoll-source-like track. The QPO frequency increases from ∼0.4 Hz in the hard state to ∼25 Hz as the source approaches the soft state. Combining power spectra based on QPO frequency reveals additional features that strongly resemble those seen in non-dipping/eclipsing atoll sources. We show that the low-frequency QPOs in atoll sources and the ∼1 Hz QPO in EXO 0748–676 follow similar relations with respect to the noise components in their power spectra. We conclude that the frequencies of both types of QPOs are likely set by (the same) precession of a misaligned inner accretion disk. For high-inclination systems like EXO 0748–676 this results in modulations of the neutron-star emission due to obscuration or scattering, while for lower-inclination systems the modulations likely arise from relativistic Doppler-boosting and light-bending effects.

  15. Quasi-periodic (~mHz) dayside auroral brightennings associated with high-speed solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.

    2013-12-01

    It has been reported that dayside auroral pulsations of a few mHz frequency can occur when variations of solar wind dynamic pressure at the same frequency appear. Magnetospheric compression/decompression is attributed to the auroral pulsations. Here we report another type of dayside auroral pulsations not associated with solar wind dynamic pressure changes by using global auroral images acquired from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) on board the Polar satellite. From one periodic (~2 - 8 mHz) auroral event that occurred on February 8, 2000, it is found that the auroral enhancements covered most of the day (~05 - 16 MLT) sector and did not show a latitudinal dependence. Based on in situ particle data from DMSP SSJ/4, the brightennings were associated mainly with enhanced particle precipitations from the central plasma sheet (i.e., diffuse aurora). There was no geomagnetic pulsation on the ground and in the dawn sector of the magnetosheath as indicated by the Geotail measurements. While the auroral pulsations occurred during high solar wind speed (> 600 km/s), they commenced when the interplanetary magnetic field turned northward, suggesting the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability being a source of the pulsations. We will present detail analysis results and discuss other possible mechanisms in the context of current theories.

  16. Cluster observations of quasi-periodic impulsive signatures in the dayside northern lobe: High-latitude flux transfer events?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, S. M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Balogh, A.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Kistler, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of quasi-periodic reversals in GSM B(sub Z) observed by the four Cluster spacecraft in the northern dayside lobe poleward of the cusp on 23 February 2001. During an interval of about 35 min, multiple reversals (negative to positive) in B(sub Z) of approximately 1-min duration with an approximate 8-min recurrence time were observed. The individual structures do not resemble low-latitude flux transfer events (FTE) [Russell and Elphic, 1979] but the 8-min recurrence frequency suggests that intermittent reconnection may be occurring .Measurements (appropriately lagged) of the solar wind at ACE show that the IMF was southward-oriented with a strong B(sub X) and that a modest dynamic pressure increased as the events started. The multi-point observations afforded by the Cluster spacecraft were used to infer the motion (direction and speed) of the observed magnetic field reversals. The associated currents were also calculated and they are consistent with the spatial confinement of the observed magnetic field reversals. We propose that the observed reversals are due to flux tubes reconnecting with closed field lines on the dayside. Ancillary data from the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) instruments were used to develop a physical picture of the reversals.

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of RXTE Data from Cyg X-1. Spectral Index-Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency-Luminosity Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nickolai; Titarchuk, Lev

    2006-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of approx. 2.2 Ms of Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) archival data from Cyg X-1. Using the generic Comptonization model we reveal that the spectrum of Cyg X-1 consists of three components: a thermal seed photon spectrum, a Comptonized part of the seed photon spectrum and the iron line. We find a strong correlation between 0.1-20 Hz frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power-law index. Presence of two spectral phases (states) are clearly seen in the data when the spectral indices saturate at low and high values of QPO frequencies. This saturation effect was discovered earlier in a number of black hole candidate (BHC) sources and now we strongly confirm this phenomenon in Cyg X-1. In the soft state this index- QPO frequency correlation shows a saturation of the photon index Gamma approx. 2.1 at high values of the low frequency upsilon(sub L). The saturation level of Gamma approx. 2.1 is the lowest value found yet in BHCs. The bolometric luminosity does not show clear correlation with the index. We also show that Fe K(sub alpha) emission line strength (equivalent width, EW) correlates with the QPO frequency. EW increases from 200 eV in the low/hard state to 1.5 keV in the high/soft state. The revealed observational correlations allow us to propose a scenario for the spectral transition and iron line formation which occur in BHC sources. We also present the spectral state (the power-law index) evolution for eight years of Cyg X-1 observations by RXTE.

  18. Grouped and Multistep Nanoheteroepitaxy: Toward High-Quality GaN on Quasi-Periodic Nano-Mask.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaohui; Yu, Tongjun; Wei, Yang; Ji, Cheng; Cheng, Yutian; Zong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Yang, Zhijian; Kang, Xiangning; Zhang, Guoyi; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-07-20

    A novel nanoheteroepitaxy method, namely, the grouped and multistep nanoheteroepitaxy (GM-NHE), is proposed to attain a high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. This method combines the effects of sub-100 nm nucleation and multistep lateral growth by using a low-cost but unique carbon nanotube mask, which consists of nanoscale growth windows with a quasi-periodic 2D fill factor. It is found that GM-NHE can facilely reduce threading dislocation density (TDD) and modulate residual stress on foreign substrate without any regrowth. As a result, high-quality GaN epilayer is produced with homogeneously low TDD of 4.51 × 10(7) cm(-2) and 2D-modulated stress, and the performance of the subsequent 410 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is greatly boosted. In this way, with the facile fabrication of nanomask and the one-off epitaxy procedure, GaN epilayer is prominently improved with the assistance of nanotechnology, which demonstrates great application potential for high-efficiency TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  19. Observation of quasi-periodic frequency sweeping in electron cyclotron emission of nonequilibrium mirror-confined plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, M. E.; Shalashov, A. G.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Golubev, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Chirping frequency patterns have been observed in the electron cyclotron emission from strongly nonequilibrium plasma confined in a table-top mirror magnetic trap. Such patterns are typical for the formation of nonlinear phase-space structures in a proximity of the wave-particle resonances of a kinetically unstable plasma, also known as the “holes and clumps” mechanism. Our data provides the first experimental evidence for the acting of this mechanism in the electron cyclotron frequency domain.

  20. Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Fiorito, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between the low frequencies (1-10 Hz) of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several black hole (BH) candidate sources, in low (hard) states, steep power law (soft) states, and transitions between these states. The observations indicate that the X-ray spectra of such state (phases) show the presence of a power-law component and are sometimes related to simultaneous radio emission, indicating the probable presence of a jet. Strong QPOs (>20% rms) are present in the power density spectrum in the spectral range where the power-law component is dominant (i.e., 60%90%). This evidence contradicts the dominant, long-standing interpretation of QPOs as a signature of the thermal accretion disk. We present the data from the literature and our own data to illustrate the dominance of power-law index-QPO frequency correlations. We provide a model that identifies and explains the origin of the QPOs and how they are imprinted on the properties of the power-law flux component. We argue for the existence of a bounded compact coronal region that is a natural consequence of the adjustment of the Keplerian disk flow to the innermost sub-Keplerian boundary conditions near the central object and that ultimately leads to the formation of a transition layer (TL) between the adjustment radius and the innermost boundary. The model predicts two phases or states dictated by the photon upscattering produced in the TL: (1) a hard state, in which the TL is optically thin and very hot (kT approximately greater than 50 keV), producing photon upscattering via thermal Comptonization (the photon spectrum index Gamma approximates 1.7 for this state is dictated by gravitational energy release and Compton cooling in an optically thin shock near the adjustment radius), and (2) a soft state that is optically thick and relatively cold (kT approximately less than 5 keV the index for this state, Gamma

  1. A New Correlation with Lower Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Oscillation Frequency in the Ensemble of Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Duran, Şİvan; Çatmabacak, Önder; Çatmabacak, Onur

    2016-11-01

    We study the dependence of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) frequency on accretion-related parameters in the ensemble of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries. Based on the mass accretion rate, \\dot{M}, and the magnetic field strength, B, on the surface of the neutron star, we find a correlation between the lower kHz QPO frequency and \\dot{M}/{B}2. The correlation holds in the current ensemble of Z and atoll sources and therefore can explain the lack of correlation between the kHz QPO frequency and X-ray luminosity in the same ensemble. The average run of lower kHz QPO frequencies throughout the correlation can be described by a power-law fit to source data. The simple power law, however, cannot describe the frequency distribution in an individual source. The model function fit to frequency data, on the other hand, can account for the observed distribution of lower kHz QPO frequencies in the case of individual sources as well as the ensemble of sources. The model function depends on the basic length scales, such as the magnetospheric radius and the radial width of the boundary region, both of which are expected to vary with \\dot{M} to determine the QPO frequencies. In addition to modifying the length scales, and hence the QPO frequencies, the variation in \\dot{M}, being sufficiently large, may also lead to distinct accretion regimes, which would be characterized by Z and atoll phases.

  2. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Frequencies in AN Accretion Disk and Comparison with the Numerical Results from Non-Rotating Black Hole Computed by the Grh Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.

  3. LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.

  4. XMM-Newton discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations in the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J19140+0951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Motta, S. E.; Israel, G. L.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) IGR J19140+0951, during a 40 ks XMM-Newton observation performed in 2015, which caught the source in its faintest state ever observed. At the start of the observation, IGR J19140+0951 was at a low flux of 2 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 (2-10 keV; LX = 3 × 1033 erg s-1 at 3.6 kpc), then its emission rose reaching a flux ˜10 times higher, in a flare-like activity. The investigation of the power spectrum reveals the presence of QPOs, detected only in the second part of the observation, with a strong peak at a frequency of 1.46 ± 0.07 mHz, together with higher harmonics. The X-ray spectrum is highly absorbed (NH = 1023 cm-2), well fitted by a power law with a photon index in the range 1.2-1.8. The re-analysis of a Chandra archival observation shows a modulation at ˜0.17 ± 0.05 mHz, very likely the neutron-star spin period (although a QPO cannot be excluded). We discuss the origin of the 1.46 mHz QPO in the framework of both disc-fed and wind-fed HMXBs, favouring the quasi-spherical accretion scenario. The low flux observed by XMM-Newton leads to about three orders of magnitude the source dynamic range, overlapping with the one observed from Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs). However, since its duty cycle is not as low as in SFXTs, IGR J19140+0951 is an intermediate system between persistent supergiant HMXBs and SFXTs, suggesting a smooth transition between these two sub-classes.

  5. Quasi-periodicities at Year-like Timescales in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.; Treves, A.

    2016-03-01

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  6. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  7. How to Distinguish Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray Binaries? Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nickolai

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong correlations between 1-10 Hz frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several Black Hole (BH) candidate sources when seen in the low/hard state, the steep power-law (soft) state, and in transition between these states. In the soft state these index-QPO frequency correlations show a saturation of the photon index GAMMA approximately equal to 2.7 at high values of the low frequency nu(sub L). This saturation effect was previously identified as a black hole signature. In this paper we argue that this saturation does not occur, at least for one neutron star (NS) source 4U 1728-34, for which the index GAMMA monotonically increases with nu(sub L) to the values of 6 and higher. We base this conclusion on our analysis of approximately 1.5 Msec of RXTE archival data for 4U 1728-34. We reveal the spectral evolution of the Comptonized blackbody spectra when the source transitions from the hard to soft states. The hard state spectrum is a typical thermal Comptonization spectrum of the soft photons which originate in the disk and the NS outer photospheric layers. The hard state photon index is GAMMA approximately 2. The soft state spectrum consists of two blackbody components which are only slightly Comptonized. Thus we can claim (as expected from theory) that in NS sources thermal equilibrium is established for the soft state. To the contrary in BH sources, the equilibrium is never established due to the presence of the BH horizon. The emergent BH spectrum, even in the high/soft state, has a power law component. We also identify the low QPO frequency nu(sub L) as a fundamental frequency of the quasi-spherical component of the transition layer (presumably related to the corona and the NS and disk magnetic closed field lines). The lower frequency nu(sub SL) is identified as the frequency of oscillations of a quasi-cylindrical configuration of the TL (presumably related to the NS and disk magnetic

  8. Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole (BH) Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in BHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Fiorito, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    -photon upscattering and photon trapping in converging flow into BH. In the TL model for corona the QPO frequency vnu(sub high) is related to the gravitational (close to Keplerian) frequency nu(sub K) at the outer (adjustment) radius and nu(sub low) is related to the TL s normal mode (magnetoacoustic) oscillation frequency nu(sub MA). The observed correlations between index and low and high QPO frequencies are readily explained in terms of this model. We also suggest a new method for evaluation of the BH mass using the index-frequency correlation.

  9. Energy dependence of r.m.s amplitude of low frequency broadband noise and kHz quasi periodic oscillations in 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Soma

    2016-07-01

    The neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52 is known to show kHz QPOs as well as low frequency broad band noise. The energy dependence of the fractional r.m.s of these variations reflect the underlying radiative mechanism responsible for the phenomena. In this work we compute the energy depedence for 26 instances of kHz QPO observed by RXTE. We typically find as reported before, that the r.m.s increases with energy with slope of ˜0.5. This indicates that the variation is in the hot thermal compotonization component and in particular the QPO is likely to be driven by variation in the thermal heating rate of the hot plasma. For the same data, we compute the energy dependent r.m.s variability of the low frequency broad band noise component by considering the light curves. In contrast to the behaviour seen for the kHz QPO, the energy dependence is nearly flat i.e. the r.m.s. is energy independent. This indicates that the driver here may be the soft photon source. Thus the radiative mechanism driving the low frequency broad band noise and the high frequency QPO are different in nature.

  10. Optical localization in quasi-periodic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Mariz, A. M.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate the optical transmission spectra of quasi-periodic dielectric multilayer slabs arranged in a fashion that exhibits what has been called deterministic disorders. They can be of the so-called substitutional sequences type, and are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (e.g. a Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (e.g. Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). The transmission coefficients are conveniently derived by using a theoretical model based on the transfer-matrix approach. A comparison between the oblique-incidence optical transmission spectrum and the normal-incidence one shows quite a different transmission behaviours over a particular range of frequency.

  11. Quasi-periodic climate change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines evidence that the Martian climate undergoes quasi-periodic variations, including the polar layered terrain, differences between the residual polar caps, and the current net southward flow of H2O. The driving functions for these variations are oscillations in the elements of the Martian orbit coupled with precession of the Martian spin axis. These 'astronomic variations' control the distribution of the insolation, which in turn influences the partition of volatiles between atmospheric and surface reservoirs. The major effects anticipated at low obliquity are growth of the polar caps, substantial decrease in surface pressure, cessation of duststorms, release of CO2 from the regolith, and poleward migration of H2O ground ice. At high obliquity, the mass of the perennial polar caps decreases and permanent CO2 frost disappears, CO2 desorbs from the regolith at high latitudes, the surface pressure may increase to several times its current value, and the atmospheric dust load increases.

  12. Saturn's Quasi-Periodic Magnetohydrodynamic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Dougherty, M. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Sulaiman, A.; Masters, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Chen, C. H. K.; Kivelson, M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Achilleos, N. A.; Sorba, A. M.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Quasi-periodic 1 hour fluctuations have been recently observed in numerous instruments on-board the Cassini spacecraft. The source of these fluctuations has remained elusive to date. Here we present a case study of such fluctuations observed using the magnetometer instrument during six days in December 2006. We find that magnetic field observations at high-latitudes have small scale ( 0.4 nT) Alfvénic fluctuations present and these fluctuations are concentrated in wave-packets similar to those observed in Kleindienst et al., 2009. The observed wave-packets recur periodically at the northern magnetic oscillation period. Furthermore, we explore the nature of these fluctuations with regards to the consistency of the 1 h period using a magnetospheric box model. Our model results suggest that the observed magnetic fluctuations are standing second harmonic Alfvén waves within Saturn's outer magnetosphere.

  13. Testing the relativistic precession model using low-frequency and kHz quasi-periodic oscillations in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries with known spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doesburgh, Marieke; van der Klis, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    We analyse all available RXTE data on a sample of 13 low-mass X-ray binaries with known neutron star spin that are not persistent pulsars. We carefully measure the correlations between the centroid frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We compare these correlations to the prediction of the relativistic precession model that, due to frame dragging, a QPO will occur at the Lense-Thirring precession frequency νLT of a test-particle orbit whose orbital frequency is the upper kHz QPO frequency νu. Contrary to the most prominent previous studies, we find two different oscillations in the range predicted for νLT that are simultaneously present over a wide range of νu. Additionally, one of the low-frequency noise components evolves into a (third) QPO in the νLT range when νu exceeds 600 Hz. The frequencies of these QPOs all correlate to νu following power laws with indices between 0.4 and 3.3, significantly exceeding the predicted value of 2.0 in 80 per cent of the cases (at 3 to >20σ). Also, there is no evidence that the neutron star spin frequency affects any of these three QPO frequencies, as would be expected for frame dragging. Finally, the observed QPO frequencies tend to be higher than the νLT predicted for reasonable neutron star specific moment of inertia. In the light of recent successes of precession models in black holes, we briefly discuss ways in which such precession can occur in neutron stars at frequencies different from test-particle values and consistent with those observed. A precessing torus geometry and other torques than frame dragging may allow precession to produce the observed frequency correlations, but can only explain one of the three QPOs in the νLT range.

  14. Quasi-Periodically Driven Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdeny, Albert; Puig, Joaquim; Mintert, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Floquet theory provides rigorous foundations for the theory of periodically driven quantum systems. In the case of non-periodic driving, however, the situation is not so well understood. Here, we provide a critical review of the theoretical framework developed for quasi-periodically driven quantum systems. Although the theoretical footing is still under development, we argue that quasi-periodically driven quantum systems can be treated with generalisations of Floquet theory in suitable parameter regimes. Moreover, we provide a generalisation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion and argue that quasi-periodic driving offers a promising route for quantum simulations.

  15. Search for a correlation between kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and accretion-related parameters in the ensemble of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çatmabacak, Önder; Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of neutron star sources in the ensemble of low-mass X-ray binaries shows no evidence for a correlation between kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequencies and X-ray luminosity. Sources differing by orders of magnitude in luminosity can exhibit similar range of QPO frequencies. We study the possibility for the existence of a correlation between kHz QPO frequencies and accretion related parameters. The parameters such as the mass accretion rate and the size of the boundary region in the innermost disk are expected to be related to X-ray luminosity. Using the up-to-date data of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, we search for a possible correlation between lower kHz QPO frequencies and mass accretion rate through the mass and radius values predicted by different equations of state for the neutron star. The range of mass accretion rate for each source can be estimated if the accretion luminosity is assumed to be represented well by the X-ray luminosity of the source. Although we find no correlation between mass accretion rate and QPO frequencies, the source distribution seems to be in accordance with a correlation between kHz QPO frequencies and the parameter combining the neutron star magnetic field and the mas accretion rate. The model function we employ to descibe the correlation is able to account for the scattering of individual sources around a simple power law. The correlation argues disk-magnetosphere interaction as the origin of these millisecond oscillations.

  16. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission by a plate with quasi-periodic surface ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhui; Ke, Manzhu Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, an acoustic system with broadband asymmetric transmission is designed and fabricated, which consists of a water-immersed aluminum plate engraved with quasi-periodically-patterned ridges on single surface. It demonstrates that when the acoustic waves are launched into the system from the structured side, they can couple into the Lamb modes in the plate efficiently and attain a high transmission; on the contrary, when the waves are incident from the opposite flat side, the coupling is weak, and the transmission is low. Superior to systems with periodic patterning, this quasi-periodically-patterned system has a broad working frequency range due to the collective contributions from the multiple diffractions specific to the structure.

  17. Flexible flapping wings can exhibit quasi-periodic motion!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Chandan; Sarkar, Sunetra

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of a flexible flapping wing is investigated by modelling it as a coupled nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system in the low Reynolds number flow regime in accordance to the flight of flapping wing micro air vehicles (MAVs). A bifurcation analysis, by varying the free-stream wind velocity (U ∞) as the control parameter, revealed the presence of a new dynamics in the form of a quasi-periodic attractor in the flapping wing motion. The structural and aerodynamic nonlinearities present in the system cause a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, where stable limit cycle oscillation emerges from fixed point response beyond a critical value of the free-stream velocity. Further increasing the control parameter, another bifurcation named Neimark-Sacker bifurcation takes place and as a result, the flapping wing exhibits quasi-periodic motion. The presence of Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the flapping flow-field dynamics is an interesting find and the present work focuses on it's associated dynamical behaviour. Various dynamical system tools like frequency spectra, phase space, Poincaré section, first return map have been implemented successfully to confirm the presence of quasi-periodicity.

  18. Quasi-periodic gratings: diffraction orders accelerate along curves.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Li, Hailiang; Zhu, Xiaoli; Hua, Yilei; Xie, Changqing

    2013-08-01

    Light diffracting to different diffraction orders of a periodic grating generally propagates along a set of straight trajectories. Here we show that certain quasi-periodic gratings can produce curved diffraction orders. These curved lobes are created by the caustic interference of the originally straight diffraction orders and manifest themselves as accelerating beams. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of multiple accelerating beam generation with a single binary grating. Our work makes a quantitative link between the quasi-periodicity of a grating and the resulting caustic diffraction orders. Furthermore, the use of binary devices has important applications in acoustics, x-ray optics, and electron beam engineering and is also useful when high optical power is needed.

  19. Quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays produced by electrochemical synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Miller, A.E.; Yue, D.F.; Banerjee, G.; Ricker, R.E.; Jones, S.; Eastman, J.A.; Baugher, E.; Chandrasekhar, M.

    1994-06-01

    We discuss a ``gentle`` electrochemical technique for fabricating quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays. The technique exploits a self-organizing phenomenon to produce quasi-periodic arrangement of dots and provides excellent control over dot size and interdot spacing. Unlike conventional nanolithography, it does not cause radiation damage to the structures during exposure to pattern delineating beams (e-beam, ion-beam or x-ray). Moreover, it does not require harsh processing steps like reactive ion etching, offers a minimum feature size of {approximately}40 {angstrom}, allows the fabrication of structures on nonplanar surfaces (e.g. spherical or cylindrical substrates), is amenable to mass production (millions of wafers can be processed simultaneously) and is potentially orders of magnitude cheaper than conventional nanofabrication. In this paper, we describe our initial results and show the promise of this technique for low-cost and high-yield nanosynthesis.

  20. Invariant curves of quasi-periodic reversible mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin

    2005-03-01

    We deal with the existence of invariant curves of planar reversible mappings which are quasi-periodic in one of the spatial variables. As applications, we will study the existence of quasi-periodic solutions and the boundedness of solutions for a pendulum-type equation and an asymmetric oscillator depending quasi-periodically on time.

  1. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND BROADBAND VARIABILITY IN SHORT MAGNETAR BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Uttley, Phil; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Goegues, Ersin; Granot, Jonathan; Vaughan, Simon; Finger, Mark H.

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. However, with only three giant flares ever recorded, and only two with data of sufficient quality to search for QPOs, such analysis is seriously data limited. We set out a procedure for doing QPO searches in the far more numerous, short, less energetic magnetar bursts. The short, transient nature of these bursts requires the implementation of sophisticated statistical techniques to make reliable inferences. Using Bayesian statistics, we model the periodogram as a combination of red noise at low frequencies and white noise at high frequencies, which we show is a conservative approach to the problem. We use empirical models to make inferences about the potential signature of periodic and QPOs at these frequencies. We compare our method with previously used techniques and find that although it is on the whole more conservative, it is also more reliable in ruling out false positives. We illustrate our Bayesian method by applying it to a sample of 27 bursts from the magnetar SGR J0501+4516 observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and we find no evidence for the presence of QPOs in any of the bursts in the unbinned spectra, but do find a candidate detection in the binned spectra of one burst. However, whether this signal is due to a genuine quasi-periodic process, or can be attributed to unmodeled effects in the noise is at this point a matter of interpretation.

  2. Quasi-periodic orbits about the translunar libration point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Kamel, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical solutions for quasi-periodic orbits about the translunar libration point are obtained by using the method of Lindstedt-Poincare and computerized algebraic manipulations. The solutions include the effects of nonlinearities, lunar orbital eccentricity, and the sun's gravitational field. For a small-amplitude orbit, the orbital path as viewed from the earth traces out a Lissajous figure. This is due to a small difference in the fundamental frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane oscillations. However, when the amplitude of the in-plane oscillation is greater than 32,379 km, there is a corresponding value of the out-of-plane amplitude that will produce a path where the fundamental frequencies are equal. This synchronized trajectory describes a 'halo orbit' of the moon.

  3. Quasi-periodic orbits about the translunar libration point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Kamel, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions for quasi-periodic orbits about the translunar libration point are obtained by using the method of Lindstedt-Poincare and computerized algebraic manipulations. The solutions include the effects of nonlinearities, lunar orbital eccentricity, and the sun's gravitational field. For a small-amplitude orbit, the orbital path as viewed from the earth traces out a Lissajous figure. This is due to a small difference in the fundamental frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane oscillations. However, when the amplitude of the in-plane oscillation is greater than 32,379 km, there is a corresponding value of the out-of-plane amplitude that will produce a path where the fundamental frequencies are equal. This synchronized trajectory describes a 'halo orbit' of the moon.

  4. A γ-ray Quasi-periodic Modulation in the Blazar PKS 0301-243?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-Fei; Yan, Da-Hai; Zhou, Jia-Neng; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Li

    2017-08-01

    We report a nominally high-confidence γ-ray quasi-periodic modulation in the blazar PKS 0301-243. For this target, we analyze its Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data from 2008 August to 2017 May. Two techniques, i.e., maximum likelihood optimization and exposure-weighted aperture photometry, are used to build the γ-ray light curves. Then, both the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and the weighted wavelet Z-transform are applied to the light curves to search for period signals. A quasi-periodicity with a period of 2.1 ± 0.3 yr appears at the significance level of ˜ 5σ , although it should be noted that this putative quasi-period variability is seen in a data set that is barely four times longer. We speculate that this γ-ray quasi-periodic modulation may be evidence of a binary supermassive black hole.

  5. Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Daylan Esmer, Göksel; Talazan, Pamir

    2013-02-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs.

  6. Computation of Quasi-Periodic Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Tori: Algorithms, Numerical Explorations and Mechanisms of Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, Marta; Haro, Àlex

    2017-05-01

    We present several algorithms for computing normally hyperbolic invariant tori carrying quasi-periodic motion of a fixed frequency in families of dynamical systems. The algorithms are based on a KAM scheme presented in Canadell and Haro (J Nonlinear Sci, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00332-017-9389-y), to find the parameterization of the torus with prescribed dynamics by detuning parameters of the model. The algorithms use different hyperbolicity and reducibility properties and, in particular, compute also the invariant bundles and Floquet transformations. We implement these methods in several 2-parameter families of dynamical systems, to compute quasi-periodic arcs, that is, the parameters for which 1D normally hyperbolic invariant tori with a given fixed frequency do exist. The implementation lets us to perform the continuations up to the tip of the quasi-periodic arcs, for which the invariant curves break down. Three different mechanisms of breakdown are analyzed, using several observables, leading to several conjectures.

  7. Equatorial Noise Emissions and Their Quasi-Periodic Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Hrbackova, Z.; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Parrot, M.; Hayosh, M.

    2015-12-01

    Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency routinely observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate in the extraordinary mode nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic structure related to the ion cyclotron frequency in the source region. We analyze more than 2000 EN events observed by the wave instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft, and we find that about 5% of EN events are not continuous in time, but exhibit a quasi-periodic (QP) modulation of the wave intensity. Typical modulation periods are on the order of minutes. The events predominantly occur in the noon-to-dawn local time sector, and their occurrence is related to the periods of increased geomagnetic activity and higher solar wind speeds. We suggest that the QP modulation of EN events may be due to compressional ULF pulsations, which periodically modulate the wave growth in the source region. These compressional ULF pulsations were identified in about half of the events. Finally, we demonstrate that EN emissions with QP modulation of the wave intensity can propagate down to altitudes as low as 700 km.

  8. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  9. Quasi-periodic solutions for an asymmetric oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peng; Li, Xiong; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the dynamical behaviour of the differential equation x‧‧+ax+-bx-=f(t), where {{x}+}=\\max ≤ft\\{x,0\\right\\} , {{x}-}=\\max ≤ft\\{-x,0\\right\\} , a and b are two different positive constants, and f (t) is a smooth quasi-periodic function. For this purpose, firstly, we have to establish some variants of the invariant curve theorem of planar smooth quasi-periodic mappings, which was proved recently by the authors (see Huang et al preprint). Then we will discuss the boundedness of all solutions and the existence of quasi-periodic solutions for the above asymmetric oscillation.

  10. Hard apex transition in quasi-periodic oscillators - Closing of the accretion gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehle, Garrett T.; Blandford, Roger D.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that the 'hard apex' transition in the X-ray two-color diagrams for low-mass X-ray binaries exhibiting quasi-periodic oscillation is associated with closure of a gap between the accretion disk and the star. At low accretion rates, gas crosses this gap intermittently. However, when the mass accretion rate increases, the disk thickens and its inner edge touches the star, thus forming a boundary layer through which the gas flows steadily. This explanation is viable provided that the equation of state of nuclear matter is not significantly harder than the Bethe-Johnson I prescription. Accretion gap scenarios are possibly distinguishable from models which invoke a small magnetosphere around the neutron star, in that they preclude large stellar magnetic fields and associate the high-frequency (horizontal-branch) oscillations with different sites.

  11. Hard apex transition in quasi-periodic oscillators - Closing of the accretion gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehle, Garrett T.; Blandford, Roger D.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that the 'hard apex' transition in the X-ray two-color diagrams for low-mass X-ray binaries exhibiting quasi-periodic oscillation is associated with closure of a gap between the accretion disk and the star. At low accretion rates, gas crosses this gap intermittently. However, when the mass accretion rate increases, the disk thickens and its inner edge touches the star, thus forming a boundary layer through which the gas flows steadily. This explanation is viable provided that the equation of state of nuclear matter is not significantly harder than the Bethe-Johnson I prescription. Accretion gap scenarios are possibly distinguishable from models which invoke a small magnetosphere around the neutron star, in that they preclude large stellar magnetic fields and associate the high-frequency (horizontal-branch) oscillations with different sites.

  12. Modelling of quasi-periodic oscillations with wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Yilmaz, A.

    1997-08-01

    Model dispersion relations are introduced to explore power spectra of the normal-branch (NB) and horizontal-branch (HB) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs; for reviews see Van der Klis (1989)[ARA&A, 27, 517], (1992) [Proc. of NATO ASI X-Ray Binaries and Recycled Pulsars, eds. E.P.J. Van den Heuvel & S.A. Rappaport, Kluwer, Dordrecht], (1995)[Proc. of NATO ASI The Lives of the Neutron Stars, eds. M.A. Alpar, Ümit Kiziloğlu, & J. van Paradijs, Kluwer, Dordrecht]) of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in terms of wave packets and to illustrate the presence of frequency bands around the Kepler and beat frequencies. For the NB QPOs wave packets of sound waves in a thick middle disk state, with frequencies determined by the rotation frequency, have wavelengths comparable to the size of the middle disk. For Z-sources on the HB, the wave packets result from disturbances in the inner disk induced by the neutron star magnetic field which rotates at the beat frequency with respect to the inner disk. For both the NB and the HB QPOs, we construct simple model dispersion relations, and show that the QPO peaks in the observed power spectra correspond to reasonable wavelengths and system parameters. The kilohertz QPOs, which were discovered after the original version of this paper was submitted, are also discussed as a possible realization of the Kepler and beat frequency bands. Problems of integrating the kHz and HB QPOs in a disk model are briefly noted. It is tentatively suggested that supersonic and wave propagation regions of the inner disk have complementary functions for the origin of kHz and HB QPOs respectively.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of metallic quasi-periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjin

    2008-01-21

    A variety of intriguing interference patterns are generated as a template to create metallic quasi-periodic structures using our robust experimental setup. A combination of thermal evaporation and lift-off process, the 2D metallic quasi-periodic structures are generated, a twelve-fold symmetry structure can be clearly observed in fabricated structures with four exposures. The excitation of surface plasmon (SP) resonances, which are determined by the geometry of metallic structures, the incident angle alpha, and the refractive index n(d) of the adjacent dielectric medium, is demonstrated in the optical transmission experiments. The optical transmission of metallic quasi-periodic structures can be tuned by varying the refractive index n(d), changing the period a and altering the incident angle alpha. The experimental results agree well with the predication for SP resonances. It's the first step to investigate the interesting optical properties of metallic quasi-periodic structures.

  14. A renormalization operator for 1D maps under quasi-periodic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorba, À.; Rabassa, P.; Tatjer, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper concerns the reducibility loss of (periodic) invariant curves of quasi-periodically forced one-dimensional maps and its relationship with the renormalization operator. Let gα be a one-parametric family of one-dimensional maps with a cascade of period doubling bifurcations. Between each of these bifurcations, there exists a parameter value αn such that gα_n has a superstable periodic orbit of period 2n. Consider a quasi-periodic perturbation (with only one frequency) of the one-dimensional family of maps, and let us call ε the perturbing parameter. For ε small enough, the superstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed map become attracting invariant curves (depending on α and ε) of the perturbed system. Under a suitable hypothesis, it is known that there exist two reducibility loss bifurcation curves around each parameter value (αn, 0), which can be locally expressed as (α_n^+(\\varepsilon), \\varepsilon) and (α_n^-(\\varepsilon), \\varepsilon) . We propose an extension of the classic one-dimensional (doubling) renormalization operator to the quasi-periodic case. We show that this extension is well defined and the operator is differentiable. Moreover, we show that the slopes of reducibility loss bifurcation \\frac{d}{d\\varepsilon} α_n^+/-(0) can be written in terms of the tangent map of the new quasi-periodic renormalization operator. In particular, our result applies to the families of quasi-periodic forced perturbations of the Logistic Map typically encountered in the literature. We also present a numerical study that demonstrates that the asymptotic behaviour of \\{\\frac{d}{d\\varepsilon} α_n^+/-(0)\\}n≥ 0 is governed by the dynamics of the proposed quasi-periodic renormalization operator.

  15. Microwave properties of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays patterned with periodic and quasi-periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuxiong; Chen, Zheng; Li, Liangliang

    2015-05-01

    Microwave properties of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays patterned with periodic and quasi-periodic structures were investigated in this study. The periodic and quasi-periodic structures were designed based on Fibonacci sequence and golden ratio. Ni nanowires arrays were electrodeposited in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with patterned Cu electrodes, and then the AAO templates were attached to the coplanar waveguide lines fabricated on quartz substrate for measurement. The S21 of both periodic and quasi-periodic structure-patterned Ni nanowire arrays showed an extra absorption peak besides the absorption peak due to the ferromagnetic resonance of Ni nanowires. The frequency of the absorption peak caused by the patterned structure could be higher than 40 GHz when the length and arrangement of the structural units were modified. In addition, the frequency of the absorption peak due to the quasi-periodic structure was calculated based on a simple analytical model, and the calculated value was consistent with the measured one. The experimental data showed that it could be a feasible approach to tune the performance of microwave devices by patterning ferromagnetic nanowires.

  16. Quasi-periodic Signatures in the Transition Region and Corona: Waves or Flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations with periods of order 3-10 minutes in coronal loops with TRACE and EIT (and later with EUVI and EIS), these oscillations have mostly been interpreted as evidence for propagating slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves in a low plasma beta environment originating, most-likely, in the chromosphere. We show that this interpretation is not unique, and that at least for plage-related coronal loops, it may not be the most likely cause for the observed quasi-periodicities. We use Monte Carlo simulations to show that current oscillation detection methods based on wavelet analysis, and wave tracking cannot distinguish the quasi-periodic signals of such waves in coronal imaging timeseries with those caused by the faint signal from upflows at 50-150 km/s that have lifetimes of order 1-2 minutes and that occur randomly in time and occur on granular timescales. Such upflows were recently discovered as blueward line asymmetries with EIS and have been linked to chromospheric, spicular upflows that are rapidly heated to coronal temperatures. We use EIS and SUMER spectra to show that these faint upflows at the footpoints of coronal loops sometimes occur quasi-periodically on timescales of order 5-15 minutes. Finally, we show that recent EIS measurements of intensity and velocity oscillations, that have been interpreted as direct evidence for propagating waves, are fully compatible with a scenario in which faint upflows at high speed occur quasi-periodically. We show evidence from spectral line asymmetry analysis that support this scenario. We suggest that a significant fraction of the quasi-periodicities observed with coronal imagers and spectrographs that have previously been interpreted as propagating magnetoacoustic waves, may instead be caused by these upflows. The uncertainty in the identification of the physical cause for coronal oscillations significantly impacts the prospects of successful coronal seismology using propagating, slow

  17. Dripping handrails and the quasi-periodic oscillations of the AM Herculis objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James N.; Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S.

    1994-01-01

    AM Her objects exhibit periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic variability on timescales ranging from seconds to years. Here, we investigate a process for the production of aperiodic and quasi-periodic accretion rate fluctuations. We consider the nonlinear dynamical model known as the dripping handrail (DHR). The DHR, basically a model for certain types of spatially extended systems and loosely based on water condensing on and dripping off a handrail, has recently been used as a model for the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Here, we show that (1) the DHR is a robust QPO generation process in that it leads to QPO production under a wide range of conditions and assumptions; (2) the phenomenology of the DHR is consistent with the observed aperiodic and quasi-periodic varibility of the AM Her QPO source VV Pup over timescales ranging from 16 ms to 20 s; and (3) a single DHR model can produce both broadband QPOs and features with quality Q greater than 20 as observed in several AM Her QPO sources.

  18. Dripping handrails and the quasi-periodic oscillations of the AM Herculis objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James N.; Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S.

    1994-01-01

    AM Her objects exhibit periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic variability on timescales ranging from seconds to years. Here, we investigate a process for the production of aperiodic and quasi-periodic accretion rate fluctuations. We consider the nonlinear dynamical model known as the dripping handrail (DHR). The DHR, basically a model for certain types of spatially extended systems and loosely based on water condensing on and dripping off a handrail, has recently been used as a model for the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Here, we show that (1) the DHR is a robust QPO generation process in that it leads to QPO production under a wide range of conditions and assumptions; (2) the phenomenology of the DHR is consistent with the observed aperiodic and quasi-periodic varibility of the AM Her QPO source VV Pup over timescales ranging from 16 ms to 20 s; and (3) a single DHR model can produce both broadband QPOs and features with quality Q greater than 20 as observed in several AM Her QPO sources.

  19. Quasi-periodic oscillations in celestial x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    van der Klis, M.

    1988-11-01

    Much of what we know about x-ray sources in our galaxy derives from regularities in the way the intensity of their radiation varies with time. Cyclic increases and decreases in intensity can indicate that a star is orbiting the x-ray source, eclipsing it periodically. X-ray pulses uniformly spaced less than a few seconds apart, on the other hand, imply that the source is a high-density object, know as a neutron star, that happens to be strongly magnetized and spinning rapidly as well. Intermittent bursts of x rays also indicated the presence of a neutron star, but one on whose surface enormous thermonuclear explosions are taking place. In late 1984 and early 1985, the author and his colleagues realized that their observations of one of the brightest galactic-bulge sources, GX5-1, had revealed a peculiar type of regular variation in its x-ray intensity. The observations were made with a satellite of the European Space Agency, the x-ray observatory, EXOSAT. The variations observed in the intensity of GX5-1's x-ray emissions were particularly surprising because they were not strictly periodic: in any given observation the interval between x-ray intensity peaks was likely to be close to .03 second, but often it was a bit longer or shorter. Such not quite periodic fluctuations are generally called quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO's). 6 figs.

  20. Pressure-driven reconnection and quasi periodical oscillations in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents a model for an ohmically heated plasma in which a feedback exists between thermal conduction and transport, on one side, and the magneto-hydro-dynamical stability of the system, on the other side. In presence of a reconnection threshold for the magnetic field, a variety of periodical or quasi periodical oscillations for the physical quantities describing the system are evidenced. The model is employed to interpret the observed quasi periodical oscillations of electron temperature and perturbed magnetic field around the so called “Single Helical” state in the reversed field pinch, but its relevance for other periodical phenomena observed in magnetic confinement systems, especially in tokamaks, is suggested.

  1. MASS-ANGULAR-MOMENTUM RELATIONS IMPLIED BY MODELS OF TWIN PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Sramkova, Eva; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin; Goluchova, Katerina E-mail: martin.urbanec@fpf.slu.cz E-mail: terek@volny.cz

    2012-12-01

    Twin peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in the X-ray power-density spectra of several accreting low-mass neutron star (NS) binaries. Observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1 display unusually low QPO frequencies. Using these observations, we have previously considered the relativistic precession (RP) twin peak QPO model to estimate the mass of the central NS in Circinus X-1. We have shown that such an estimate results in a specific mass-angular-momentum (M - j) relation rather than a single preferred combination of M and j. Here we confront our previous results with another binary, the atoll source 4U 1636-53 that displays the twin peak QPOs at very high frequencies, and extend the consideration to various twin peak QPO models. In analogy to the RP model, we find that these imply their own specific M - j relations. We explore these relations for both sources and note differences in the {chi}{sup 2} behavior that represent a dichotomy between high- and low-frequency sources. Based on the RP model, we demonstrate that this dichotomy is related to a strong variability of the model predictive power across the frequency plane. This variability naturally comes from the radial dependence of characteristic frequencies of orbital motion. As a consequence, the restrictions on the models resulting from observations of low-frequency sources are weaker than those in the case of high-frequency sources. Finally we also discuss the need for a correction to the RP model and consider the removing of M - j degeneracies, based on the twin peak QPO-independent angular momentum estimates.

  2. Influence of quasi-periodic gravitational modulation on convective instability of reaction fronts in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allali, Karam; Belhaq, Mohamed; El Karouni, Kamal

    2012-04-01

    The influence of a time-dependent gravity on the convective instability of reaction fronts in porous media is investigated in this paper. It is assumed that the time-dependent modulation is quasi-periodic with two frequencies σ1 and σ2 that are incommensurate with each other. The model consists of the heat equation, the equation for the depth of conversion and the equations of motion under the Darcy law. The convective threshold is approximated performing a linear stability analysis on a reduced singular perturbation problem using the matched asymptotic expansion method. The reduced interface problem is solved using numerical simulations. It is shown that if the reacting fluid is heated from below, a stabilizing effect of a reaction fronts in a porous medium can be gained for appropriate values of amplitudes and frequencies ratio σ={σ2}/{σ1} of the quasi-periodic vibration.

  3. On quasi-periodic solutions for generalized Boussinesq equation with quadratic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanling; Xu, Junxiang; Xu, Xindong

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation: utt - uxx + (u2 + uxx)xx = 0 with boundary conditions ux(0, t) = ux(π, t) = uxxx(0, t) = uxxx(π, t) = 0 is considered. It is proved that the equation admits a Whitney smooth family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with 2-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. The proof is based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and Birkhoff normal form.

  4. Links between quasi-periodic oscillations and accretion states in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, S. E.; Rouco-Escorial, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Sanna, A.

    2017-06-01

    We analysed the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data from a sample of bright accreting neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). With the aim of studying the quasi-periodic variability as a function of the accretion regime, we carried out a systematic search of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray time series of these systems, using the integrated fractional variability as a tracker for the accretion states. We found that the three QPO types originally identified in the 1980s for the brightest LMXBs, the so-called Z sources, i.e. horizontal, normal and flaring branch oscillations (HBOs, NBOs and FBOs, respectively), are also identified in the slightly less bright NS LMXBs, the so-called atoll sources, where we see QPOs with a behaviour consistent with the HBOs and FBOs. We compared the quasi-periodic variability properties of our NS sample with those of a sample of black hole (BH) LMXBs. We confirm the association between HBOs, NBOs and FBOs observed in Z sources, with the type-C, type-B and type-A QPOs, respectively, observed in BH systems, and we extended the comparison to the HBO-like and FBO-like QPOs seen in atoll sources. We conclude that the variability properties of BH and weakly magnetized NS LMXBs show strong similarities, with QPOs only weakly sensitive to the nature of the central compact object in both classes of systems. We find that the historical association between kHz QPOs and high-frequency QPOs, seen around NSs and BHs, respectively, is not obvious when comparing similar accretion states in the two kinds of systems.

  5. Submillimeter Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Magnetically Choked Accretion Flow Models of SgrA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2013-09-01

    High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetically choked accretion flows around rapidly rotating black holes (BHs). We perform polarized radiative transfer calculations with the ASTRORAY code to explore the manifestations of these QPOs for SgrA*. We construct a simulation-based model of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and find model parameters by fitting the mean polarized source spectrum. The simulated QPOs have a total submillimeter flux amplitude up to 5% and a linearly polarized flux amplitude up to 2%. The oscillations reach high levels of significance 10σ-30σ and high-quality factors Q ≈ 5. The oscillation period T ≈ 100 M ≈ 35 minutes corresponds to the rotation period of the BH magnetosphere that produces a trailing spiral in resolved disk images. The total flux signal is significant over noise for all tested frequencies 87 GHz, 230 GHz, and 857 GHz and inclination angles 10°, 37°, and 80°. The non-detection in the 230 GHz SubMillimeter Array light curve is consistent with a low signal level and a low sampling rate. The presence of submillimeter QPOs in SgrA* will be better tested with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  6. SUBMILLIMETER QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN MAGNETICALLY CHOKED ACCRETION FLOW MODELS OF SgrA*

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2013-09-10

    High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetically choked accretion flows around rapidly rotating black holes (BHs). We perform polarized radiative transfer calculations with the ASTRORAY code to explore the manifestations of these QPOs for SgrA*. We construct a simulation-based model of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and find model parameters by fitting the mean polarized source spectrum. The simulated QPOs have a total submillimeter flux amplitude up to 5% and a linearly polarized flux amplitude up to 2%. The oscillations reach high levels of significance 10{sigma}-30{sigma} and high-quality factors Q Almost-Equal-To 5. The oscillation period T Almost-Equal-To 100 M Almost-Equal-To 35 minutes corresponds to the rotation period of the BH magnetosphere that produces a trailing spiral in resolved disk images. The total flux signal is significant over noise for all tested frequencies 87 GHz, 230 GHz, and 857 GHz and inclination angles 10 Degree-Sign , 37 Degree-Sign , and 80 Degree-Sign . The non-detection in the 230 GHz SubMillimeter Array light curve is consistent with a low signal level and a low sampling rate. The presence of submillimeter QPOs in SgrA* will be better tested with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  7. Testing Gravity with Quasi-periodic Oscillations from Accreting Black Holes: The Case of Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pani, Paolo; Stella, Luigi; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting black holes are associated with phenomena occurring near the horizon. Future very large area X-ray instruments will be able to measure QPO frequencies with very high precision, thus probing this strong-field region. Using the relativistic precession model, we show the way in which QPO frequencies could be used to test general relativity (GR) against those alternative theories of gravity which predict deviations from the classical theory in the strong-field and high-curvature regimes. We consider one of the best-motivated high-curvature corrections to GR, namely, the Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet theory, and show that a detection of QPOs with the expected sensitivity of the proposed ESA M-class mission LOFT would set the most stringent constraints on the parameter space of this theory.

  8. Quasi-periodic Acceleration of Electrons in the Flare on 2012 July 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Kontar, Eduard P.; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Gao, Guannan

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of nonthermal emission in an M7.7 class flare on 2012 July 19 are investigated with spatially resolved observations at microwave and HXR bands and with spectral observations at decimetric, metric waves. Microwave emission at 17 GHz of two footpoints, HXR emission at 20-50 keV of the north footpoint and loop top, and type III bursts at 0.7-3 GHz show prominent in-phase oscillations at 270 s. The microwave emission of the loop leg has less pulsation but stronger emission. Through the estimation of plasma density around the loop top from EUV observations, we find that the local plasma frequency would be 1.5 GHz or even higher. Thus, type III bursts at 700 MHz originate above the loop top. Quasi-periodic acceleration or injection of energetic electrons is proposed to dominate these in-phase QPPs of nonthermal emission from footpoints, loop top, and above. In the overlying region, drifting pulsations (DPS) at 200-600 MHz oscillate at a distinct period (200 s). Its global structure drifts toward lower frequency, which is closely related to upward plasmoids observed simultaneously from EUV emission. Hence, nonthermal emission from overlying plasmoids and underlying flaring loops show different oscillating periods. Two individual systems of quasi-periodic acceleration of electrons are proposed to coincide in the bi-direction outflows from the reconnection region.

  9. Quasi-periodic continuation along a continuous symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Matthew David

    Given a system of differential equations which admits a continuous group of symmetries and possesses a periodic solution, we show that under certain nondegeneracy assumptions there always exists a continuous family containing infinitely many periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories. This generalizes the continuation method of Poincaré to orbits which are not necessarily periodic. We apply these results in the setting of the Lagrangian N -body problem of homogeneous potential to characterize an infinite family of rotating nonplanar "hip-hop" orbits in the four-body problem of equal masses, and show how some other trajectories in the N -body theory may be extended to infinite families of periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  10. Quasi-periodic oscillations in a symmetric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, B. N.; Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    Observational evidence has been presented for the existence of quasi-periodic fluctuations of the tropical circulation with periods around two weeks and around 40 days. It is expected that an understanding of the mechanisms of these quasi-periodic oscillations in the tropical atmosphere will improve the predictability of the short range climate fluctuations in the tropics. The present study evolved as an outgrowth of an investigation conducted by Goswami et al. (1984). In this investigation remarkable oscillations of the Hadlay circulation for an ocean covered earth were observed. In the current study evidence is presented regarding the episodic behavior of the tropical circulation in general, and the propagation characteristics of these oscillations in the lower atmosphere. Attention is given to the results of six different experiments.

  11. About Tidal Evolution of Quasi-Periodic Orbits of Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershkov, Sergey V.

    2017-06-01

    Tidal interactions between Planet and its satellites are known to be the main phenomena, which are determining the orbital evolution of the satellites. The modern ansatz in the theory of tidal dissipation in Saturn was developed previously by the international team of scientists from various countries in the field of celestial mechanics. Our applying to the theory of tidal dissipation concerns the investigating of the system of ODE-equations (ordinary differential equations) that govern the orbital evolution of the satellites; such an extremely non-linear system of 2 ordinary differential equations describes the mutual internal dynamics for the eccentricity of the orbit along with involving the semi-major axis of the proper satellite into such a monstrous equations. In our derivation, we have presented the elegant analytical solutions to the system above; so, the motivation of our ansatz is to transform the previously presented system of equations to the convenient form, in which the minimum of numerical calculations are required to obtain the final solutions. Preferably, it should be the analytical solutions; we have presented the solution as a set of quasi- periodic cycles via re-inversing of the proper ultra- elliptical integral. It means a quasi-periodic character of the evolution of the eccentricity, of the semi-major axis for the satellite orbit as well as of the quasi-periodic character of the tidal dissipation in the Planet.

  12. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN LASCO CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Cho, K.-S.; Bong, S. C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Umapathy, S.; Vrsnak, B. E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.k

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations in the speed profile of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the radial distance range 2-30 solar radii are studied. We considered the height-time data of the 307 CMEs recorded by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) during 2005 January-March. In order to study the speed-distance profile of the CMEs, we have used only 116 events for which there are at least 10 height-time measurements made in the LASCO field of view. The instantaneous CME speed is estimated using a pair of height-time data points, providing the speed-distance profile. We found quasi-periodic patterns in at least 15 speed-distance profiles, where the speed amplitudes are larger than the speed errors. For these events we have determined the speed amplitude and period of oscillations. The periods of quasi-periodic oscillations are found in the range 48-240 minutes, tending to increase with height. The oscillations have similar properties as those reported by Krall et al., who interpreted them in terms of the flux-rope model. The nature of forces responsible for the motion of CMEs and their oscillations are discussed.

  13. SOFT LAGS IN NEUTRON STAR kHz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS: EVIDENCE FOR REVERBERATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, Didier

    2013-06-10

    High frequency soft reverberation lags have now been detected from stellar mass and supermassive black holes. Their interpretation involves reflection of a hard source of photons onto an accretion disk, producing a delayed reflected emission, with a time lag consistent with the light travel time between the irradiating source and the disk. Independently of the location of the clock, the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) emission is thought to arise from the neutron star boundary layer. Here, we search for the signature of reverberation of the kHz QPO emission, by measuring the soft lags and the lag energy spectrum of the lower kHz QPOs from 4U1608-522. Soft lags, ranging from {approx}15 to {approx}40 {mu}s, between the 3-8 keV and 8-30 keV modulated emissions are detected between 565 and 890 Hz. The soft lags are not constant with frequency and show a smooth decrease between 680 Hz and 890 Hz. The broad band X-ray spectrum is modeled as the sum of a disk and a thermal Comptonized component, plus a broad iron line, expected from reflection. The spectral parameters follow a smooth relationship with the QPO frequency, in particular the fitted inner disk radius decreases steadily with frequency. Both the bump around the iron line in the lag energy spectrum and the consistency between the lag changes and the inferred changes of the inner disk radius, from either spectral fitting or the QPO frequency, suggest that the soft lags may indeed involve reverberation of the hard pulsating QPO source on the disk.

  14. Observations of Quasi-Periodic Whistler Mode Waves by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George; Wilkinson, Darrelle; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Santolik, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Observed in Earth's inner magnetosphere, quasi-periodic whistler mode emissions (QP) are electromagnetic waves in the frequency range from a few hundred Hz to a few kHz that exhibit a periodic modulation (typically a few minutes) of their wave intensity. These waves were first detected at high latitude ground stations, but more recently have been observed by a number of spacecraft, including the twin Van Allen Probes. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument simultaneously measures the vector wave magnetic field and electric field, allowing wave propagation parameters, such as wave normal angle and Poynting vector, to be obtained. Almost four years of Van Allen Probes data have been examined and a statistical survey of the occurrence and properties of the QP emissions has been performed. The QP emissions were found to have periods ranging from 1 to 16 minutes with events lasting from less than 1 hour up to 6 hours. Some events were detected on successive orbits and a number of events were simultaneously detected by both spacecraft, even during large spacecraft separations, providing an opportunity to investigate the source and propagation properties of these waves.

  15. MICROWAVE QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATION WITH MILLISECOND BURSTS IN A SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 AUGUST 9

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Baolin; Tan Chengming

    2012-04-10

    A peculiar microwave quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) accompanying a hard X-ray (HXR) QPP of about 20 s duration occurred just before the maximum of an X6.9 solar flare on 2011 August 9. The most interesting aspect is that the microwave QPP consists of millisecond timescale superfine structures. Each microwave QPP pulse is made up of clusters of millisecond spike bursts or narrowband type III bursts. There are three different frequency drift rates: the global frequency drift rate of the microwave QPP pulse group, the frequency drift rate of the microwave QPP pulse, and the frequency drift rate of individual millisecond spikes or type III bursts. The physical analysis indicates that the energetic electrons accelerating from a large-scale highly dynamic magnetic reconnecting current sheet above the flaring loop propagate downward, impact the flaring plasma loop, and produce HXR bursts. The tearing-mode (TM) oscillations in the current sheet modulate HXR emission and generate HXR QPP; the energetic electrons propagating downward produce Langmuir turbulence and plasma waves, resulting in plasma emission. The modulation of TM oscillation on the plasma emission in the current-carrying plasma loop may generate microwave QPP. The TM instability produces magnetic islands in the loop. Each X-point will be a small reconnection site and will accelerate the ambient electrons. These accelerated electrons impact the ambient plasma and trigger the millisecond spike clusters or the group of type III bursts. Possibly, each millisecond spike burst or type III burst is one of the elementary bursts (EBs). A large number of such EB clusters form an intense flaring microwave burst.

  16. Relationship of Type III Radio Bursts with Quasi-periodic Pulsations in a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanova, E. G.; Kashapova, L. K.; Reid, H. A. S.; Myagkova, I. N.

    2016-11-01

    We studied a solar flare with pronounced quasi-periodic pulsations detected in the microwave, X-ray, and radio bands. We used correlation, Fourier, and wavelet analyses methods to examine the temporal fine structures and relationships between the time profiles in each wave band. We found that the time profiles of the microwaves, hard X-rays, and type III radio bursts vary quasi-periodically with a common period of 40 - 50 s. The average amplitude of the variations is high, above 30 % of the background flux level, and reaches 80 % after the flare maximum. We did not find this periodicity in either the thermal X-ray flux component or in the source size dynamics. Our findings indicate that the detected periodicity is probably associated with periodic dynamics in the injection of non-thermal electrons, which can be produced by periodic modulation of magnetic reconnection.

  17. Analysis of stochastically forced quasi-periodic attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-11-30

    A problem of the analysis of stochastically forced quasi-periodic auto-oscillations of nonlinear dynamic systems is considered. A stationary distribution of random trajectories in the neighborhood of the corresponding deterministic attractor (torus) is studied. A parametric description of quadratic approximation of the quasipotential based on the stochastic sensitivity functions (SSF) technique is given. Using this technique, we analyse a dispersion of stochastic flows near the torus. For the case of two-torus in three-dimensional space, the stochastic sensitivity function is constructed.

  18. Development of a quasi-periodic undulator for the HLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Hui-Hua; Chen, Wan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Sun, Shu-Chen; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-07-01

    China's first quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) has been developed for the Hefei Light Source (HLS). It uses a magnetic configuration with varied thicknesses of NdFeB blocks, which is based on the QPU of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The depression of 3rd harmonic radiation is significantly improved over the ESRF QPU, as deduced from the measured magnetic fields. A method of configuring shims of different geometries and sizes, based on a symmetric principle to correct multi-pole field integrals, is demonstrated.

  19. Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo

    2016-07-01

    With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.

  20. Quasi-Periodic Flares From Star-Accretion Disc Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lixin; von Fuerst, S.; Blandford, R.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a theory relating the observed quasi-periodoic IR/X-ray signals at the Galactic center and from other massive black holes to collisions between the accretion disc and stars orbiting around the black hole. When an orbiting star passes through the black hole's accretion disc, part of the star's orbital energy is lost in the collision and transformed to radiation as a flare. As the star continues to orbit around the black hole, it hits the disc and produces these energetic flares repeatedly. Due the to precession of the stellar orbit and the bending of light near black hole, these signals will not be periodic but quasi-periodic. The features of the signals, such as the patten of time divisions between consecutive signals and their intensity profiles, can be affected by the mass and spin of the black hole, the disc structure, and the orbital elements of the stellar orbit. We present simulated stellar orbits, disc images, and lightcurves. By comparing different stellar orbits around a Schwarzschild or a Kerr metric black hole and the corresponding lightcurves, we examine how the paramters of the star and black hole result in different features of the signals. Furthermore, we study how the observed quasi-periodic signals can be used to probe the black hole.

  1. Quasi-Periodic Bifurcations of Higher-Dimensional Tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Motomasa; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Endo, Tetsuro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We classify the local bifurcations of quasi-periodic d-dimensional tori in maps (abbr. MTd) and in flows (abbr. FTd) for d ≥ 1. It is convenient to classify these bifurcations into normal bifurcations and resonance bifurcations. Normal bifurcations of MTd can be classified into four classes: namely, saddle-node, period doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, normal bifurcations of FTd can be classified into three classes: saddle-node, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. These bifurcations are determined by the type of the dominant Lyapunov bundle. Resonance bifurcations are well known as phase locking of quasi-periodic solutions. These bifurcations are classified into two classes for both MTd and FTd: namely, saddle-node cycle and heteroclinic cycle bifurcations of the (d - 1)-dimensional tori. The former is reversible, while the latter is irreversible. In addition, we propose a method for analyzing higher-dimensional tori, which uses one-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST1) and zero-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST0). The bifurcations of ST1 can be classified into five classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. The bifurcations of ST0 can be classified into four classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, we clarify the relationship between the bifurcations of ST1/ST0 and the bifurcations of MTd/FTd. We present examples of all of these bifurcations.

  2. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION OF A CORONAL BRIGHT POINT

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Dipankar; Tian, Hui E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-06-20

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are small-scale luminous features seen in the solar corona. Quasi-periodic brightenings are frequently observed in the BPs and are generally linked with underlying magnetic flux changes. We study the dynamics of a BP seen in the coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and spectroscopic data from the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The detailed analysis shows that the BP evolves throughout our observing period along with changes in underlying photospheric magnetic flux and shows periodic brightenings in different EUV and far-UV images. With the highest possible spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we attempted to identify the sources of these oscillations. IRIS sit-and-stare observation provided a unique opportunity to study the time evolution of one footpoint of the BP as the slit position crossed it. We noticed enhanced line profile asymmetry, enhanced line width, intensity enhancements, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of sudden flows along the line-of-sight direction. We propose that transition region explosive events originating from small-scale reconnections and the reconnection outflows are affecting the line profiles. The correlation between all these parameters is consistent with the repetitive reconnection scenario and could explain the quasi-periodic nature of the brightening.

  3. The quasi-periodicity of the minority game revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Gabriel; Caridi, Inés; Guala, Sebastián; Marenco, Javier

    2013-10-01

    We analyze two well-known related aspects regarding the sequence of minority sides from the Minority Game (MG) in its symmetric phase: period-two dynamics and quasi-periodic behavior. We also study the sequence of minority sides in a general way within a graph-theoretical framework. In order to analyze the outcome dynamics of the MG, it is useful to define the MG, namely an MG with a new choosing rule of the strategy to play, which takes into account both prior preferences and game information. In this way, each time an agent is undecided because two of her best strategies predict different choices while being equally successful so far, she selects her a priori favorite strategy to play, instead of performing a random tie-break as in the MG. This new choosing rule leaves the generic behavior of the model unaffected and simplifies the game analysis. Furthermore, interesting properties arise which are only partially present in the MG, like the quasi-periodic behavior of the sequence of minority sides, which turns out to be periodic for the MG.

  4. THz laser based on quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshev, K V

    2013-06-30

    The use of quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices as an active element of a quantum cascade laser of terahertz range is proposed and theoretically investigated. A multi-colour emission, having from three to six peaks of optical gain, is found in Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and figurate superlattices in electric fields of intensity F = 11 - 13 kV cm{sup -1} in the frequency range f = 2 - 4 THz. The peaks depend linearly on the electric field, retain the height of 20 cm{sup -1}, and strongly depend on the thickness of the AlGaAs-layers. (lasers)

  5. Effect of temperature on terahertz photonic and omnidirectional band gaps in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals composed of semiconductor InSb.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bipin K; Pandey, Praveen C

    2016-07-20

    Engineering of thermally tunable terahertz photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps has been demonstrated theoretically in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals (PCs) containing semiconductor and dielectric materials. The considered quasi-periodic structures are taken in the form of Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and double periodic sequences. We have shown that the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps in the quasi-periodic structures with semiconductor constituents are strongly depend on the temperature, thickness of the constituted semiconductor and dielectric material layers, and generations of the quasi-periodic sequences. It has been found that the number of photonic bandgaps increases with layer thickness and generation of the quasi-periodic sequences. Omnidirectional bandgaps in the structures have also been obtained. Results show that the bandwidths of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps are tunable by changing the temperature and lattice parameters of the structures. The generation of quasi-periodic sequences can also change the properties of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps remarkably. The frequency range of the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps can be tuned by the change of temperature and layer thickness of the considered quasi-periodic structures. This work will be useful to design tunable terahertz PC devices.

  6. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  7. Wave propagation in a quasi-periodic waveguide network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sheelan; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a classical wave propagating through a quasi-periodic Fibonacci array of waveguide segments in the form of loops. The formulation is general, and applicable for electromagnetic or acoustic waves through such structures. We examine the conditions for resonant transmission in a Fibonacci waveguide structure. The local positional correlation between the loops is found to be responsible for the resonance. We also show that, depending on the number of segments attached to a particular loop, the intensity at the nodes displays a perfectly periodic or a self-similar pattern. The former pattern corresponds to a perfectly extended mode of propagation, which is to be contrasted to the electron or phonon characteristics of a pure one-dimensional Fibonacci quasi-crystal.

  8. Quasi-periodic pulsations in partially occulted flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaforz, Zaneta; Tomczak, Michal

    The model of oscillating magnetic traps (OMT) suggests that the cusp-like magnetic structures located in an upper part of flare loops are responsible for quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) observed sometimes in hard X-rays (HXR). Electrons within these oscillating traps are efficiently accelerated and confined, therefore the traps should be recognize as loop-top HXR sources. However, these sources are difficult for reconstruction in the presence of the stronger footpoint HXR sources. To overcome this problem, we analyzed partially occulted flares, observed by Yohkoh, from the survey of Tomczak (2009). We will present the correlation between the diameter of the loop-top HXR source and the period of pulsations. We will present also some interesting examples of observations, for which changes in QPPs coincide with the changes in appearance of loop-top sources.

  9. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs. II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation

  10. Quasi-periodic Fluctuations and Chromospheric Evaporation in a Solar Flare Ribbon Observed by Hinode/EIS, IRIS, and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Inglis, Andrew R.

    2016-10-01

    The Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of an M7.3 flare ribbon in AR 12036 on 2014 April 18. Quasi-periodic (P ≈ 75.6 ± 9.2 s) intensity fluctuations occurred in emission lines of O iv, Mg vi, Mg vii, Si vii, Fe xiv, and Fe xvi during the flare's impulsive rise, and ended when the maximum intensity in Fe xxiii was reached. The profiles of the O iv-Fe xvi lines reveal that they were all redshifted during most of the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, while the Fe xxiii profile revealed multiple components including one or two highly blueshifted ones. This indicates that the flare underwent explosive chromospheric evaporation during its impulsive rise. Fluctuations in the relative Doppler velocities were seen, but their amplitudes were too subtle to extract significant quasi-periodicities. RHESSI detected 25-100 keV hard-X-ray sources in the ribbon near the EIS slit's pointing position during the peaks in the EIS intensity fluctuations. The observations are consistent with a series of energy injections into the chromosphere by nonthermal particle beams. Electron densities derived with Fe xiv (4.6 × 1010 cm-3) and Mg vii (7.8 × 109 cm-3) average line intensity ratios during the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, combined with the radiative loss function of an optically thin plasma, yield radiative cooling times of 32 s at 2.0 × 106 K, and 46 s at 6.3 × 105 K (about half the quasi-period); assuming Fe xiv's density for Fe xxiii yields a radiative cooling time of 103 s (13 times the quasi-period) at 1.4 × 107 K.

  11. Quasi-Periodic Fluctuations and Chromospheric Evaporation in a Solar Flare Ribbon Observed by Hinode/EIS, IRIS, and RHESSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Inglis, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of an M7.3 flare ribbon in AR 12036 on 2014 April 18. Quasi-periodic (P approx. = 75.6 +/- 9.2 s) intensity fluctuations occurred in emission lines of O IV, Mg VI, Mg VII, Si VII, Fe XIV, and Fe XVI during the flare's impulsive rise, and ended when the maximum intensity in Fe XXIII was reached. The profiles of the O IV- Fe XVI lines reveal that they were all redshifted during most of the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, while the Fe XXIII profile revealed multiple components including one or two highly blueshifted ones. This indicates that the flare underwent explosive chromospheric evaporation during its impulsive rise. Fluctuations in the relative Doppler velocities were seen, but their amplitudes were too subtle to extract significant quasi-periodicities. RHESSI detected 25-100 keV hard-X-ray sources in the ribbon near the EIS slit's pointing position during the peaks in the EIS intensity fluctuations. The observations are consistent with a series of energy injections into the chromosphere by nonthermal particle beams. Electron densities derived with Fe XIV (4.6 x 10(exp 10) per cu cm) and Mg VII (7.8 x 10(exp 9) per cu cm) average line intensity ratios during the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, combined with the radiative loss function of an optically thin plasma, yield radiative cooling times of 32 s at 2.0 x 10(exp 6) K, and 46 s at 6.3 x 10(exp 5) K (about half the quasi-period); assuming Fe XIV's density for Fe XXIII yields a radiative cooling time of 10(exp 3) s (13 times the quasi-period) at 1.4 x 10(exp 7) K.

  12. Sources of Quasi-periodic Pulses in the Flare of 18 August 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, A.; Meshalkina, N.; Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M.; Palshin, V.; Lesovoi, S.

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed spatial and spectral characteristics of quasi-periodic pulses (QPP) for the limb flare on 18 August 2012, using new data from a complex of spectral and imaging instruments developed by the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope team and the Wind/Konus γ-ray spectrometer. A sequence of broadband pulses with periods of approximately ten seconds were observed in X-rays at energies between 25 keV and 300 keV, and in microwaves at frequencies from a few GHz up to 34 GHz during an interval of one minute. The QPP X-ray source was located slightly above the limb where the southern legs of large and small EUV loop systems were close to each other. Before the QPPs occurred, the soft X-ray emission and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager signal from the energy channels below 25 keV were gradually arising for several minutes at the same location. It was found that each X-ray pulse showed a soft-hard-soft behavior. The 17 and 34 GHz microwave sources were at the footpoints of the small loop system, the source emitting in the 4.2 - 7.4 GHz band in the large system. The QPPs were probably generated by modulated acceleration processes in the energy-release site. We determined the plasma parameters in the radio sources by analyzing the spectra. The microwave pulses might be explained by relatively weak variations of the spectral hardness of the emitting electrons.

  13. Free precession in quasi-periodic oscillators. [in accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    The recent discoveries of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) brought about a surge of theoretical work concerned with the disk-magnetosphere boundary in accreting neutron stars. Much of the detailed theoretical discussion deals with the beat-frequency model (BFM). The beat frequency (BF) spectrum resulting from applying the BFM to the most general freely rotating neutron star, i.e., a freely precessing neutron star whose angular momentum vector is, in addition, not perpendicular to the disk, is considered. It is found that in the course of free precession, the BF spectrum usually changes, with the various QPO lines changing in intensity. This allows, in principle, phenomena of frequency changing not due to changes in luminosity such as those observed in Cyg X-2 and, perhaps, in other QPOs. Such 'mode' changes may, in turn, reflect the nature of the disk-magnetosphere coupling in QPOs.

  14. Influence of Periodic and Quasi-periodic Gravitational Modulation on Convective Instability of Reaction Fronts in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allali, K.; Belhaq, M.

    This work gives an overview on the effect of vertical periodic and QP gravitational modulations on the convective instability of reaction fronts in porous media. The model consists of the heat equation, the equation for the depth of conversion and the equations of motion under the Darcy law. Attention is focused on two cases. The case of a periodic gravitational vibration with a modulated amplitude, and the case of quasi-periodic vibration having two incommensurate frequencies. In both cases the heating is acted from below such that the sense of reaction is opposite to the gravity sense. The convective instability threshold is obtained by reducing the original reaction-diffusion problem to a singular perturbation one using the matched asymptotic expansion. The obtained reduced problem is then solved numerically after performing the linear stability analysis of the steady-state solution for the interface. It is shown that in the case of the modulation of the periodic vibration amplitude, a destabilizing effect of reaction fronts can be gained for a frequency modulation equal to half the frequency of the vibration, whereas a stabilizing effect is observed when the frequency of the modulation is twice that of the vibration. In the case of a quasi-periodic gravitational vibration it is indicated that for appropriate values of amplitudes and frequencies ratio of the quasi-periodic excitation, a stabilizing effect of reaction fronts can be successfully achieved.

  15. Quasi-Periodic Variably Polarizing Undulator at HiSOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, A.; Goto, K.; Arita, M.; Okuda, T.; Mitsuyasu, T.; Fujioka, K.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2013-03-01

    A 1.8-m-long 78-mm-period quasi-periodic APLPE-II undulator was installed in the 700-MeV HiSOR storage ring of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. At the minimum gap, achievable lowest photon energies are 3.1 eV, 6.5 eV, and 4.8 eV for horizontal linear, vertical linear, and circular polarization, respectively. Observed photon energies of fundamental and higher harmonic radiations are in good agreement with those of model calculations using measured magnetic field of undulator and the HiSOR beam parameters. Also, observed flux through a slit and a grating monochromator was more than twice larger than that from previously installed 100-mm-period helical undulator for the whole range of radiation spectra. The feedforward COD correction was done to avoid the intensity fluctuation of photon beam in other beamlines due to the gap and phase motion of undulator. No fatal effect on the stored electron beam by installing the undulator was observed though a slight beam size change was observed at the minimum gap.

  16. Twin-Peak Quasi Periodic Oscillations and Tri-dimen-sional Spiral Modes of Disks Around Black Holes*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebusco, P.; Coppi, B.

    2008-11-01

    Existing explanations of high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) from compact objects have shortcomings [1] that a theory based on the excitation of tri-dimensional spiral modes [2] co-rotating with the plasma near a black hole can avoid. The modes that are likely to prevail, with the largest growth rates, are localized relatively close to the last stable orbit (a.k.a. ISCO). The modulation of the radiation due to the rotating plasma density enhancements associated with the spirals and reaching the observer, is evaluated by an appropriate extension of existing analyses [3] developed for a rotating ``hot spot'' model. As a result of relevant non-linear decays, the lowest harmonics mφ=2 and mφ=3 of the considered spiral modes (where mφ is the toroidal mode number) are envisioned to acquire the largest amplitudes justifing the observed 3/2 ratios of the two peaks of the frequency spectra of high frequency QPOs. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E and the Pappalardo Fellowship. [1] B. Coppi and P. Rebusco, Paper P5.154, E.P.S. Inter. Conf. (Crete, Greece, 2008).[2] B. Coppi, Paper P1.177, E.P.S. Inter. Conf. (Crete, Greece, 2008).[3] J. D. Schmittman and E. Bertschinger, Ap. J. 606, 1098 (2004).

  17. Tunability of acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.

  18. Synchronizations of Quasi-period and Hyperchaos in Injected Two-section Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sen-lin

    2013-03-01

    A novel hyperchaos synchronization system is presented. Hyperchaos synchronization in injection two-section semiconductor lasers was achieved for its application in secure communication. We found also a route from single-period to hyperchaos after passing quasi-period and chaos with increasing frequency detuning while the receiver synchronized with the transmitter in these dynamical regions. All optical private data communication encoded by a rate of 0.16 Gbit/s on/off phase shift key and a rate of 0.16 Gbit/s amplitude modulation and photoelectric private data communication encoded by a rate of 0.2 Gbit/s on/off current shift key and a current modulation of 0.12 GHz frequency, respectively, are simulated via this hyperchaos synchronization system. Decoding has been numerically demonstrated to achieve successfully.

  19. Subarcsecond bright points and quasi-periodic upflows below a quiescent filament observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission provides high-resolution observations of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJIs). These data have become available for investigating the dynamic features in the transition region (TR) below the on-disk filaments. Aims: The driver of "counter-streaming" flows along the filament spine is still unknown yet. The magnetic structures and the upflows at the footpoints of the filaments and their relations with the filament mainbody have not been well understood. We study the dynamic evolution at the footpoints of filaments in order to find some clues for solving these questions. Methods: Using UV spectra and SJIs from the IRIS, along with coronal images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we present the new features in a quiescent filament channel: subarcsecond bright points (BPs) and quasi-periodic upflows. Results: The BPs in the TR have a spatial scale of about 350-580 km and lifetimes of more than several tens of minutes. They are located at stronger magnetic structures in the filament channel with a magnetic flux of about 1017-1018 Mx. Quasi-periodic brightenings and upflows are observed in the BPs, and the period is about 4-5 min. The BP and the associated jet-like upflow comprise a "tadpole-shaped" structure. The upflows move along bright filament threads, and their directions are almost parallel to the spine of the filament. The upflows initiated from the BPs with opposite polarity magnetic fields have opposite directions. The velocity of the upflows in the plane of sky is about 5-50 km s-1. The emission line of Si IV 1402.77 Å at the locations of upflows exhibits obvious blueshifts of about 5-30 km s-1, and the line profile is broadened with the width of more than 20 km s-1. Conclusions: The BPs seem to be the bases of filament threads, and the upflows are able to convey mass for the dynamic balance of the filament. The "counter-streaming" flows in previous observations

  20. The magnetohydrodynamical model of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-08-10

    We study the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with a new magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, in which the compressed magnetosphere is considered. The previous MHD model is reexamined and the relation between the frequencies of the kHz QPOs and the accretion rate in LMXBs is obtained. Our result agrees with the observations of six sources (4U 0614+09, 4U 1636-53, 4U 1608-52, 4U 1915-15, 4U 1728-34, and XTE 1807-294) with measured spins. In this model, the kHz QPOs originate from the MHD waves in the compressed magnetosphere. The single kHz QPOs and twin kHz QPOs are produced in two different parts of the accretion disk and the boundary is close to the corotation radius. The lower QPO frequency in a frequency-accretion rate diagram is cut off at a low accretion rate and the twin kHz QPOs encounter a top ceiling at a high accretion rate due to the restriction of the innermost stable circular orbit.

  1. The Magnetohydrodynamical Model of Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    We study the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with a new magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, in which the compressed magnetosphere is considered. The previous MHD model is reexamined and the relation between the frequencies of the kHz QPOs and the accretion rate in LMXBs is obtained. Our result agrees with the observations of six sources (4U 0614+09, 4U 1636-53, 4U 1608-52, 4U 1915-15, 4U 1728-34, and XTE 1807-294) with measured spins. In this model, the kHz QPOs originate from the MHD waves in the compressed magnetosphere. The single kHz QPOs and twin kHz QPOs are produced in two different parts of the accretion disk and the boundary is close to the corotation radius. The lower QPO frequency in a frequency-accretion rate diagram is cut off at a low accretion rate and the twin kHz QPOs encounter a top ceiling at a high accretion rate due to the restriction of the innermost stable circular orbit.

  2. Constructing Quasi-Periodic Wave Solutions of Differential-Difference Equation by Hirota Bilinear Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper, based on the Riemann theta function, the Hirota bilinear method is extended to directly construct a kind of quasi-periodic wave solution of a new integrable differential-difference equation. The asymptotic property of the quasi-periodic wave solution is analyzed in detail. It will be shown that quasi-periodic wave solution converge to the soliton solutions under certain conditions and small amplitude limit.

  3. Effect of vertical quasi-periodic vibrations on the stability of the free surface of a fluid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoubi, Mohamed; Aniss, Saïd

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of vertical quasi-periodic oscillations on the stability of the free surface of a horizontal liquid layer. The quasi-periodic motion considered here is characterized by two incommensurate frequencies, Ω1 and Ω2 , i.e. the ratio ω=Ω2/Ω1 is irrational. The linear quasi-periodic oscillator, corresponding to the governing equations of the Faraday instability, is treated using the harmonic balance method developed by Rand et al. and Zounes and Rand, and by numerical methods using the Floquet analysis and knowing that an irrational number can be approximated by a rational number. We determine the marginal stability curves in terms of reduced amplitude forcing and wave number for inviscid and viscous liquids. For both cases, we show that the neutral stability curves depend strongly on the frequency ratio of oscillations, ω, when this parameter is below √{2}. Beyond this value, there is no effect of ω and the first resonance occurs always at the wave number corresponding to the value of the natural frequency squared, δ=0.25. Below the value ω=√{2}, variations of the wave number as a function of ω and Ω1^{} are presented for the inviscid case. However, for the viscous case, we show the existence of the bicritical points and we present the instability threshold versus Ω1^{} for different values of ω.

  4. TESTING GRAVITY WITH QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS FROM ACCRETING BLACK HOLES: THE CASE OF THE EINSTEIN–DILATON–GAUSS–BONNET THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria; Pani, Paolo; Stella, Luigi

    2015-03-10

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting black holes are associated with phenomena occurring near the horizon. Future very large area X-ray instruments will be able to measure QPO frequencies with very high precision, thus probing this strong-field region. Using the relativistic precession model, we show the way in which QPO frequencies could be used to test general relativity (GR) against those alternative theories of gravity which predict deviations from the classical theory in the strong-field and high-curvature regimes. We consider one of the best-motivated high-curvature corrections to GR, namely, the Einstein–Dilaton–Gauss–Bonnet theory, and show that a detection of QPOs with the expected sensitivity of the proposed ESA M-class mission LOFT would set the most stringent constraints on the parameter space of this theory.

  5. GENERATION OF QUASI-PERIODIC WAVES AND FLOWS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE BY OSCILLATORY RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J. A.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R. E-mail: gary.verth@northumbria.ac.uk E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk

    2012-04-10

    We investigate the long-term evolution of an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube emerging into a gravitationally stratified coronal hole environment and report on the resulting oscillations and outflows. We perform 2.5-dimensional nonlinear numerical simulations, generalizing the models of McLaughlin et al. and Murray et al. We find that the physical mechanism of oscillatory reconnection naturally generates quasi-periodic vertical outflows, with a transverse/swaying aspect. The vertical outflows consist of both a periodic aspect and evidence of a positively directed flow. The speed of the vertical outflow (20-60 km s{sup -1}) is comparable to those reported in the observational literature. We also perform a parametric study varying the magnetic strength of the buoyant flux tube and find a range of associated periodicities: 1.75-3.5 minutes. Thus, the mechanism of oscillatory reconnection may provide a physical explanation to some of the high-speed, quasi-periodic, transverse outflows/jets recently reported by a multitude of authors and instruments.

  6. Coupled orbital angular momentum conversions in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO₃ crystal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinyuan; Yang, Guang; Wei, Dunzhao; Wei, Dan; Ni, Rui; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wei; Lu, Y Q; Zhu, S N; Xiao, Min

    2016-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the orbital angular momentum (OAM) conversion by the coupled nonlinear optical processes in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal. In such a crystal, third-harmonic generation (THG) is realized by the coupled second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) processes, i.e., SHG is dependent on SFG and vice versa. The OAMs of the interacting waves are proved to be conserved in such coupled nonlinear optical processes. As we increase the input OAM in the experiment, the conversion efficiency decreases because of the reduced fundamental power density. Our results provide better understanding for the OAM conversions, which can be used to efficiently produce an optical OAM state at a short wavelength.

  7. Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets

    SciTech Connect

    Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor

    2015-05-15

    We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone, and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.

  8. Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor

    2015-05-01

    We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone, and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.

  9. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  10. Quasi-periodic oscillations in the Z source GX 5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G.; Lubin, Lori M.; Tan, Jianmin; Van Der Klis, Michiel; Van Paradijs, Jan; Penninx, Wim; Dotani, Tadayasu; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study has been conducted of the time variability in the Z source GX 5-1 using Ginga, which observed the source in the horizontal and normal branches (HB, NB). Intensity-dependent HF, quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) were observed in the HB, in which the source flux varied by a factor of 1.9. The QPO frequency in this portion of the HB ranges from about 13 to 17 Hz; this is lower than previously observed in any Z source. The HF and LF QPO were simultaneously observed in the NB. The strength of both forms of QPO and the strength of the LF noise increase rapidly with increasing photon energy.

  11. Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets.

    PubMed

    Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor

    2015-05-01

    We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone, and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.

  12. Spectral variation during one quasi-periodic oscillation cycle in the black hole candidate H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    From the nature of energy dependence of the power density spectra, it is believed that the oscillation of the Compton cloud may be related to low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs). In the context of two component advective flow (TCAF) solution, the centrifugal pressure supported boundary layer of a transonic flow acts as the Compton cloud. This region undergoes resonance oscillation when cooling time scale roughly agrees with infall time scale as matter crosses this region. By carefully separating photons emitted at different phases of a complete oscillation, we establish beyond reasonable doubt that such an oscillation is the cause of LFQPOs. We show that the degree of Comptonization and therefore the spectral properties of the flow oscillate systematically with the phase of LFQPOs. We analysis the properties of a 0.2Hz LFQPO exhibited by a black hole candidate H 1743-322 using the 3-80 keV data from NuSTAR satellite. This object was chosen because of availability of high quality data for a relatively low frequency oscillation, rendering easy phase-wise of separation of the light curve data.

  13. CHARACTERIZING INTERMITTENCY OF 4-Hz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION IN XTE J1550–564 USING HILBERT–HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2015-12-10

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550–564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550–564. By adaptively decomposing the ∼4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ∼4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense–Thirring precession model.

  14. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550-564. By adaptively decomposing the ˜4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ˜4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  15. Talbot-carpets of periodic and quasi-periodic close-packed 2D mask structures calculated by a modified chirp-z-algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Jacqueline; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Gatto, Alexandre; Thomae, Daniel; Brunner, Robert

    2012-06-01

    In this contribution we simulate theoretically the resulting 3D Talbot-carpets of different initial close-packed 2D mask structures. Especially, we investigate the transition from regular periodic to quasi-periodic tessellations. For the pure periodic mask structure a hexagonally tessellation was selected. The calculated field distribution adjacent to the mask still shows a lateral six-fold symmetry but also a rather complex characteristics in the propagation direction. In particular, the appearance and the repetition of self-imaging planes deviate significantly from the classical Talbot-effect. For the quasi-periodic tessellation a Penrose tapestry based on rhombus pairs was chosen. A pronounced lateral fivefold symmetry becomes visible in the field distribution. In the propagation direction dominant planes with increased intensity are observed clearly, but, instead of a simple periodicity, a complex behavior becomes obvious. The numerical algorithm used in our simulations is based on a modified angular spectrum method, in which Bluestein's fast Fourier (FFT) algorithm is applied. This approach allows to decouple the sampling points in the real space and in the spatial frequency domain so that both parameter can be chosen independently. The introduced fast and flexible algorithm requires a minimized number of numerical steps and a minimal computation time, but still offers high accuracy.

  16. Invariant tori for reversible nonlinear Schrödinger equations under quasi-periodic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Zhaowei; Si, Jianguo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, by infinite-dimensional reversible KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory, we prove the existence of invariant tori (thus quasi-periodic solutions) for a class of quasi-periodically forced reversible derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equations under periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions. In the proof, we also use Birkhoff normal form techniques.

  17. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Quasi-Periodic Variability in NGC 5408 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa; Soria, Roberto; Uttley, Phil; Cropper, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of quasiperiodic variability in the 0.2 - 10 keV X-ray flux from the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1. The average power spectrum of all EPIC-pn data reveals a strong 20 mHz QPO with an average amplitude (rms) of 9%, and a coherence, Q identical with nu(sub 0)/sigma approximately equal to 6. In a 33 ksec time interval when the 20 mHz QPO is strongest we also find evidence for a 2nd QPO peak at 15 mHz, the first indication for a close pair of QPOs in a ULX source. Interestingly, the frequency ratio of this QPO pair is inconsistent with 3:2 at the 3 sigma level, but is consistent with a 4:3 ratio. A powerlaw noise component with slope near 1.5 is also present below 0.1 Hz with evidence for a break to a flatter slope at about 3 mHz. The source shows substantial broadband variability, with a total amplitude (rms) of about 30% in the 0.1 - 100 mHz frequency band, and there is strong energy dependence to the variability. The power spectrum of hard X-ray photons (greater than 2 keV) shows a "classic" flat-topped continuum breaking to a power law with index 1.5 - 2. Both the break and 20 mHz QPO are detected in the hard band, and the 20 mHz QPO is essentially at the break. The QPO is both strong and narrow in this band, having an amplitude (rms) of 15%, and Q approx. equal to 25. The energy spectrum is well fit by three components, a "cool" disk with kT = 0.15 keV, a steep power law with index 2.56, and a thermal plasma at kT = 0.87 keV. The disk, power law, and thermal plasma components contribute 35, 60, and 5% of the 0.3 - 10 keV flux, respectively. Both the timing and spectral properties of NGC 5408 X-1 are strikingly reminiscent of Galactic black hole systems at high inferred accretion rates, but with its characteristic frequencies (QPO and break frequencies) scaled down by a factor of 10 - 100. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of models for ULXs, and their implications for the object's mass.

  19. Quasi-periodic mid-Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events linked by oscillations of the phosphorus and oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T.; Handoh, I.

    2003-04-01

    A series of oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) occurred in the mid-Cretaceous warm period (120-80 Ma) that have been linked with high rates of organic carbon burial, warm high- and low- latitude temperatures and sea-level changes. OAEs have been studied individually, but a causal mechanism that connects them has been lacking. We show that peaks in phosphorus accumulation in marine sediments broadly coincide with OAEs 1a, 1b, 1d, 2 and 3, and exhibit a 5-6 Myr quasi-periodicity, which for reactive-P is prominent over 100-80 Ma. Oxic-anoxic oscillations of this frequency are also found in a model of the coupled N, P, C and O2 biogeochemical cycles. These are maintained by a positive feedback between phosphate concentration, biological productivity and anoxia and a counteracting, but slower, negative feedback between atmospheric oxygen and anoxia. A step increase in phosphorus weathering rate can shift the system into self-sustaining oscillation. This could have been caused by tectonic and volcanic forcing increasing atmospheric CO2 and global warmth 120-80 Ma, augmented by the rise of flowering plants circa 100 Ma. With a plausible forcing scenario, we are able to reproduce the approximate timing of OAEs 1a, 1b, 1d, 2 and 3 in the model.

  20. An evolving MHD vortex street model for quasi-periodic solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siregar, Edouard; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation are used to provide a dynamical basis for the 'vortex street' model of the quasi-periodic meridional flow observed by Voyager 2 in the outer heliosphere. Various observations suggest the existence near the current sheet at solar minimum, of a vorticity distribution of two opposite shear layers with an antisymmetric staggered velocity pattern due to structured high-speed wind surrounding low-speed equatorial flow. It is shown that this flow pattern leads to the formation of a highly stable vortex street through the nonlinear interaction of the two shear layers. Spatial profiles of various simulated parameters (velocity, density, meridional flow angle and the location of magnetic sector boundaries) and their relative locations in the quasi-steady vortex street are generally in good agreement with the observations.

  1. On quasi-periodic variations of low-energy cosmic rays observed near earth.

    PubMed

    Kudela, Karel; Langer, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) may partially, especially at high altitudes, contribute to the dosimetric characteristics. Along with irregular CR variations as Forbush decreases and solar particle events are, the quasi-periodic variations may be of some relevance too. A very short review (with references to original papers) of the present knowledge of various types of such variations is presented, namely (i) diurnal wave, (ii) ~27 d variability due to the solar rotation, (iii) Rieger-type periodicity, and (iv) quasi-biennial oscillations as well as waves on longer time scales related to solar activity and to polarity of magnetic field of the Sun. Variability is illustrated in measurements of secondary CR on the ground including the high-altitude observations at Lomnický štít. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  3. Intensity-dependent quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray flux of GX5 - 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Jansen, F.; Van Paradijs, J.; Van Den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray flux of the bright galactic bulge source GX5 - 1 shows intensity-dependent quasi-periodic oscillations between 20 and 40 Hz, appearing as a broad peak in the power spectrum whose centroid frequency, width, and integrated excess power strongly depend on the source intensity. The strength and steepness of low-frequency noise present in the power spectra below 15 Hz also depend on the source intensity. No evidence is found for coherent X-ray pulsations between 0.5 and 2000 Hz. Possible mechanisms to explain these new phenomena are discussed.

  4. QUASI-PERIODIC FORMALDEHYDE MASER FLARES IN THE MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR OBJECT IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Goss, W. M.; Kurtz, S.; Richards, A. M. S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.; Sewilo, M.

    2010-07-10

    We report results of an extensive observational campaign of the 6 cm formaldehyde maser in the young massive stellar object IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20) conducted from 2002 to 2009. Using the Arecibo Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Green Bank Telescope, we discovered quasi-periodic formaldehyde flares (P {approx} 237 days). Based on Arecibo observations, we also discovered correlated variability between formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) masers. The H{sub 2}CO and CH{sub 3}OH masers are not spatially coincident, as demonstrated by different line velocities and high angular resolution MERLIN observations. The flares could be caused by variations in the infrared radiation field, possibly modulated by periodic accretion onto a young binary system.

  5. Efficient generation of periodic and quasi-periodic non-diffractive optical fields with phase holograms.

    PubMed

    Arrizón, Victor; de-la-Llave, David Sánchez; Méndez, Guadalupe; Ruiz, Ulises

    2011-05-23

    The superposition of multiple plane waves with appropriate propagation vectors generates a periodic or quasi-periodic non-diffractive optical field. We show that the Fourier spectrum of the phase modulation of this field is formed by two disjoint parts, one of which is proportional to the Fourier spectrum of the field itself. Based on this result we prove that the non-diffractive field can be generated, with remarkable high accuracy and efficiency, in a Fourier domain spatial filtering setup, using a synthetic phase hologram whose transmittance is the phase modulation of the field. In a couple of cases this result is presented analytically, and in other cases the proof is computational and experimental.

  6. QUASI-PERIODICITIES OF THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT PKS 2155–304

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.

    2014-09-20

    We have searched for periodicities in our VRIJHK photometry of PKS 2155–304, which covers the years 2005-2012. A peak of the Fourier spectrum with high significance is found at T ∼ 315 days, confirming the recent findings by Zhang et al. The examination of the gamma-ray light curves from the Fermi archives yields a significant signal at ∼2T, which, while nominally significant, involves data spanning only ∼6T. Assuming a black hole mass of 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, the Keplerian distance corresponding to the quasi-period T is ∼10{sup 16} cm, about 50 Schwarzschild radii.

  7. Optical properties of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disordered one-dimensional photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Chiasera, Alessandro; Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Photonic structures are building blocks for many optical applications in which light manipulation is required spanning optical filtering, lasing, light emitting diodes, sensing and photovoltaics. The fabrication of one-dimensional photonic structures is achievable with a variety of different techniques, such as spin coating, sputtering, evaporation, pulse laser deposition, or extrusion. Such different techniques enable facile integration of the photonic structure with many types of devices. Photonic crystals are characterized by a spatial modulation of the dielectric constant on the length scale of the wavelength of light giving rise to energy ranges where light cannot propagate through the crystal - the photonic band gap. While mostly photonic crystals are referred to as periodic arrangements, in this review we aim to highlight as well how aperiodicity and disorder affects light modulation. In this review article, we introduce the concepts of periodicity, quasi-periodicity, and disorder in photonic crystals, focussing on the one-dimensional case. We discuss in detail the physical peculiarities, the fabrication techniques, and the applications of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disorder photonic structures, highlighting how the degree of crystallinity matters in the manipulation of light. We report different types of disorder in 1D photonic structures and we discuss their properties in terms of light transmission. We discuss the relationship between the average total transmission, in a range of wavelengths around the photonic band gap of the corresponding photonic crystal, and the homogeneity of the photonic structures, quantified by the Shannon index. Then we discuss the light transmission in structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters following a power law distribution. Finally, in the case of structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters with a truncated uniform distribution, we discuss: i) how

  8. Quasi-periodic outflows observed by the X-Ray Telescope onboard Hinode in the boundary of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li-Jia; Tian, Hui; He, Jian-Sen

    2010-12-01

    Persistent outflows have recently been detected at the boundaries of some active regions. Although these outflows are suggested to be possible sources of the slow solar wind, the nature of these outflows is poorly understood. Through an analysis of an image sequence obtained by the X-Ray Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft, we found that quasi-periodic outflows are present in the boundary of an active region. The flows are observed to occur intermittently, often with a period of 5-10 min. The projected flow speed can reach more than 200 km s-1, while its distribution peaks around 50 km s-1. This sporadic high-speed outflow may play an important role in the mass loading process of the slow solar wind. Our results may imply that the outflow of the slow solar wind in the boundary of the active region is intermittent and quasi-periodic in nature.

  9. DISCOVERY OF QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE RECURRENT BURST EMISSION FROM SGR 1806-20

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mezeini, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Alaa I. E-mail: ai@aucegypt.ed E-mail: ai@space.mit.ed

    2010-10-01

    We present evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the recurrent outburst emission from the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20 using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations. By searching a sample of 30 bursts for timing signals at the frequencies of the QPOs discovered in the 2004 December 27 giant flare from the source, we find three QPOs at 84, 103, and 648 Hz in three different bursts. The first two QPOs lie within {approx}1{sigma} from the 92 Hz QPO detected in the giant flare. The third QPO lies within {approx}9{sigma} from the 625 Hz QPO also detected in the same flare. The detected QPOs are found in bursts with different durations, morphologies, and brightness, and are vindicated by Monte Carlo simulations, which set a lower limit confidence interval {>=}4.3{sigma}. We also find evidence for candidate QPOs at higher frequencies in other bursts with lower statistical significance. The fact that we can find evidence for QPOs in the recurrent bursts at frequencies relatively close to those found in the giant flare is intriguing and can offer insight about the origin of the oscillations. We confront our finding against the available theoretical models and discuss the connection between the QPOs we report and those detected in the giant flares. The implications to the neutron star properties are also discussed.

  10. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. III. QUASI-PERIODIC VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu

    2011-01-01

    According to the no-hair theorem, astrophysical black holes are uniquely described by their masses and spins. An observational test of the no-hair theorem can be performed by measuring at least three different multipole moments of the spacetime of a black hole and verifying whether their values are consistent with the unique combinations of the Kerr solution. In this paper, we study quasi-periodic variability observed in the emission from black holes across the electromagnetic spectrum as a test of the no-hair theorem. We derive expressions for the Keplerian and epicyclic frequencies in a quasi-Kerr spacetime, in which the quadrupole moment is a free parameter in addition to mass and spin. We show that, for moderate spins, the Keplerian frequency is practically independent of small deviations of the quadrupole moment from the Kerr value, while the epicyclic frequencies exhibit significant variations. We apply this framework to quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in black hole X-ray binaries in two different scenarios. In the case that a pair of QPOs can be identified as the fundamental g- and c-modes in the accretion disk, we show that the no-hair theorem can be tested in conjunction with an independent mass measurement. If pairs of oscillations are identified with non-parametric resonance of dynamical frequencies in the accretion disk, then testing the no-hair theorem also requires an independent measurement of the black hole spin. In addition, we argue that VLBI observations of Sgr A* may test the no-hair theorem through a combination of imaging observations and the detection of quasi-periodic variability.

  11. Twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations in X-ray binaries: clues from their amplitude and coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanà, C.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; Gomes, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with either a black hole or a neutron star show power spectra characterized by several enhanced fractions of power at given frequencies, such as quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Twin-peak high-frequency QPOs (HF QPOs) are typical of the orbital motion time-scale for matter orbiting within 10 r_{g} from the compact object (r_{g}=GM/c^{2} is the gravitational radius of the compact object). Thus, such modulations could arise from the energy released by accreting clumps of matter interacting with the strong gravitational field of the compact object. Twin-peak HF QPOs are characterized by their central frequency ν, root mean square amplitude (rms) and coherence Q=νΔν, where Δν is the width of the peak. Here we investigate on the characteristic behavior of the rms observed in several LMXBs. We highlight the work done by the strong tidal force as root source of the energy (rms) released by a QPO. By means of the Schwarzschild potential we estimate the maximum allowed radius of clumps of matter that can survive to tides in the inner part of the accretion disk. It turns to be R˜ 40 m for matter in an accretion disk around a 2 M_{odot} neutron star and R˜ 150 m for matter around a 10 M_{odot } black hole. The work loaded by tides on the clump of matter depends on the Schwarzschild potential shape for the given orbit. We highlight that for orbits approaching to the inner most stable circular orbit (ISCO) the changing Schwarzschild potential shape may account for the observed behavior of the energy (rms) carried by the twin-peak HF QPOs.

  12. Drift-Free Position Estimation of Periodic or Quasi-Periodic Motion Using Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Latt, Win Tun; Veluvolu, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Ang, Wei Tech

    2011-01-01

    Position sensing with inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes usually requires other aided sensors or prior knowledge of motion characteristics to remove position drift resulting from integration of acceleration or velocity so as to obtain accurate position estimation. A method based on analytical integration has previously been developed to obtain accurate position estimate of periodic or quasi-periodic motion from inertial sensors using prior knowledge of the motion but without using aided sensors. In this paper, a new method is proposed which employs linear filtering stage coupled with adaptive filtering stage to remove drift and attenuation. The prior knowledge of the motion the proposed method requires is only approximate band of frequencies of the motion. Existing adaptive filtering methods based on Fourier series such as weighted-frequency Fourier linear combiner (WFLC), and band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC) are modified to combine with the proposed method. To validate and compare the performance of the proposed method with the method based on analytical integration, simulation study is performed using periodic signals as well as real physiological tremor data, and real-time experiments are conducted using an ADXL-203 accelerometer. Results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed method outperforms the existing analytical integration method. PMID:22163935

  13. Correlation between spectral state and quasi-periodic oscillation parameters in GX 5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Jansen, F.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sztajno, M.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of seven Exosat observations, the bimodal spectral behavior and the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)/red noise properties of GX 5-1 show a strict correlation. In one of the two spectral states (characterized by a 'horizontal branch' in the hardness-intensity diagram), strong 20-40 Hz QPO and red noise below about 60 Hz were always present. In the other ('normal branch'), no QPO between 6 and 60 Hz or red noise above 1 Hz were detected, but there was an indication for weak QPO near 5 Hz. In both states 'very low frequency noise' (VLFN) is detected below 0.1 Hz which has a power-law shape and and which extends down to the lowest observed frequencies (0.0001 Hz). The VLFN is probably not directly related to the QPO. The results are compared to those on Sco X-1 and Cyg X-2 and it is concluded that, although all three sources show bimodal spectral and QPO/red noise behavior, there is a qualitative difference between GX 5-1 and Cyg X-2 on one hand and Sco X-1 on the other.

  14. Correlation between spectral state and quasi-periodic oscillation parameters in GX 5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Jansen, F.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sztajno, M.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of seven Exosat observations, the bimodal spectral behavior and the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)/red noise properties of GX 5-1 show a strict correlation. In one of the two spectral states (characterized by a 'horizontal branch' in the hardness-intensity diagram), strong 20-40 Hz QPO and red noise below about 60 Hz were always present. In the other ('normal branch'), no QPO between 6 and 60 Hz or red noise above 1 Hz were detected, but there was an indication for weak QPO near 5 Hz. In both states 'very low frequency noise' (VLFN) is detected below 0.1 Hz which has a power-law shape and and which extends down to the lowest observed frequencies (0.0001 Hz). The VLFN is probably not directly related to the QPO. The results are compared to those on Sco X-1 and Cyg X-2 and it is concluded that, although all three sources show bimodal spectral and QPO/red noise behavior, there is a qualitative difference between GX 5-1 and Cyg X-2 on one hand and Sco X-1 on the other.

  15. Relation between the properties of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and spectral parameters in 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Evandro M.; Méndez, Mariano; Zhang, Guobao; Sanna, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the relation between the parameters of the energy spectrum and the frequency and amplitude of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. We fit the 3-180-keV spectrum of this source with a model that includes a thermal Comptonization component. We show that the frequencies of both kHz QPOs follow the same relation as a function of the parameters of this spectral component, except for a systematic frequency shift, whereas the rms fractional amplitude of each QPO follows a different relation with respect to those same parameters. This implies that, while the dynamical mechanism that sets the frequencies of the QPO can be the same for both kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (kHz QPOs), the radiative mechanisms that set the amplitudes of the lower and the upper kHz QPO are likely different. We discuss the implications of these results to the modelling of the kHz QPOs and the possibility that the lower kHz QPO reflects a resonance between the Comptonizing medium and the photons from the accretion disc and/or the neutron star surface.

  16. Formation of quasi-periodic nano- and microstructures on silicon surface under IR and UV femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ionin, Andrei A; Golosov, E V; Kolobov, Yu R; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Ligachev, A E; Makarov, Sergei V; Novoselov, Yurii N; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V

    2011-09-30

    Quasi-periodic nano- and microstructures have been formed on silicon surface using IR ( {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 744 nm) and UV ( {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 248 nm) femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the incident energy density and the number of pulses on the structured surface topology has been investigated. The silicon nanostructurisation thresholds have been determined for the above-mentioned wavelengths. Modulation of the surface relief at the doubled spatial frequency is revealed and explained qualitatively. The periods of the nanostructures formed on the silicon surface under IR and UV femtosecond laser pulses are comparatively analysed and discussed.

  17. The global long-range order of quasi-periodic patterns in Islamic architecture.

    PubMed

    Al Ajlouni, Rima A

    2012-03-01

    Three decades after their discovery, the unique long-range structure of quasicrystals still poses a perplexing puzzle. The fact that some ancient Islamic patterns share similar quasi-periodic symmetries has prompted several scientists to investigate their underlying geometry and construction methods. However, available structural models depend heavily on local rules and hence they were unable to explain the global long-range order of Islamic quasi-periodic patterns. This paper shows that ancient designers, using simple consecutive geometry, have resolved the complicated long-range principles of quasi-periodic formations. Derived from these principles, a global multi-level structural model is presented that is able to describe the global long-range translational and orientational order of quasi-periodic formations. The proposed model suggests that the position of building units, locally and globally, is defined by one framework, and not tiled based on local rules (matching, overlapping or subdividing). In this way, quasi-periodic formations can grow rapidly ad infinitum without the need for any defects or mismatches. The proposed model, which presents a novel approach to the study of quasi-periodic symmetries, will hopefully provide a deeper understanding of the structure of quasicrystals at an atomic scale, allowing scientists to achieve improved control over their composition and structure.

  18. Robust detection of quasi-periodic variability: A HAWKI mini survey of late T dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefair, S. P.; Burningham, B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    We present HAWK-I J-band light curves of five late-type T dwarfs (T6.5-T7.5) with a typical duration of four hours, and investigate the evidence for quasi-periodic photometric variability on intra-night timescales. Our photometry reaches precisions in the range 7-20 mmag, after removing instrumental systematics that correlate with sky background, seeing and airmass. Based upon a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis, the latest object in the sample - ULAS J2321 (T7.5) - appears to show quasi-periodic variability with a period of 1.64 hours and an amplitude of 3 mmag. Given the low amplitude of variability and presence of systematics in our lightcurves, we discuss a Bayesian approach to robustly determine if quasi-periodic variability is present in a lightcurve affected by red noise. Using this approach, we conclude that the evidence for quasi-periodic variability in ULAS J2321 is not significant. As a result, we suggest that studies which identify quasi-periodic variables using the false alarm probability from a Lomb-Scargle periodogram are likely to over-estimate the number of variable objects, even if field stars are used to set a higher false alarm probability threshold. Instead we argue that a hybrid approach combining a false alarm probability cut, followed by Bayesian model selection, is necessary for robust identification of quasi-periodic variability in lightcurves with red noise.

  19. Drifting Quasi-Periodic Modulation of the Fast Magnetosonic Mode: Van Allen Probe Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.

    2014-12-01

    The fast magnetosonic mode is one of the dominant wave modes in the Earth's radiation belts. These waves influence the ring current by scattering ions in energy in the 10's of keV range, and are believed to be a heat source for radiation belt electrons. The fast magnetosonic mode observed around the Earth's inner equatorial magnetosphere sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic modulation as detected by the Van Allen probes. During each modulation the wave frequency exhibits a strong drifting (dispersive) signature characterized by a rising tone. Each tone is composed of harmonics with spacing close to the proton cyclotron frequency. The tones are band limited in frequency and mainly observed above the 20th harmonic of the local proton cyclotron frequency. We observe this modulation mainly outside the plasmapause, but it has also been observed to penetrate down to 1.5 RE. The modulation is observed up to magnetic latitudes of ±17º, at all magnetic local times, but its signatures are more pronounced on the dayside. For events where lower frequency ULF waves are detected, the period of the ULF wave is about twice the modulation period of the fast magnetosonic mode, suggesting strong wave-wave interactions. The modulation period varies from 50 to 200 s and its duration ranges from 0.2 to 3 h, with the maximum duration limited by the spacecraft orbit. We hypothesize that the rising tone is produced by changing Alfven velocities created by steepened density fluctuations due to plasma modification by an underlying ULF wave.

  20. Existence of quasi-periodic solutions of fast excited van der Pol-Mathieu-Duffing equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lin; Li, Xuemei

    2015-12-01

    The van der Pol-Mathieu-Duffing equation x ̈ + ( Ω0 2 + h 1 cos Ω 1 t + h 2 cos Ω 2 t ) x - ( α - β x 2 ) x ˙ - h 3 x 3 = h 4 Ω3 2 cos x cos Ω 3 t is considered in this paper, where α, β, h1, h2, h3, h4, Ω1, Ω2 are small parameters, α, β > 0, the frequency Ω3 is large compared to Ω1 and Ω2, the above parameters are real. For ∀α, β > 0, we use KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory to prove that the van der Pol-Mathieu-Duffing equation possesses quasi-periodic solutions for most of the parameters Ω0, Ω1, Ω2, Ω3, it verifies some phenomenon of Fahsi and Belhaq [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. 14, 244-253 (2009)] and can be regarded as a extension of Abouhazim et al. [Nonlinear Dyn. 39, 395-409 (2005)].

  1. Optical properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Wu, Zhixin; Cao, Yanyan; Zhang, Huiyun

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel type of one-dimensional photonic crystal called Fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene photonic crystal (FGPC), in which the structure in each dielectric cell follows the Fibonacci sequence and the graphene monolayers are embedded between adjacent dielectric layers. The transmission properties of FGPC are investigated using transfer matrix method in detail. It is shown that both photonic band gap induced by graphene (GIBPG) and the Bragg gap exist in the structure. We study the band gaps of TE and TM waves at different incident angles or chemical potentials. It is found that the band gaps can be tuned via a gate voltage and GIBPG is almost omnidirectional and insensitive to the polarization. In order to investigate difference between the GIPBG and Bragg gap, we plot the electromagnetic field profiles inside FGPC for some critical frequencies. The propagation loss of the structure caused by absorption of graphene is researched in detail. Also, the passing bands of Fibonacci sequences of different orders and their splitting behavior at higher order are investigated.

  2. Electrostatic and aerodynamic forced vibrations of a thin flexible electrode: Quasi-periodic vs. chaotic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanu, Sushma B.; Barbel, Stanley I.; Ward, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow are studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments, the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using a dimensionless operating parameter that is the ratio of the induced and the free stream velocities. Numerical results are validated with experimental data. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the equation of motion. Aerodynamic forcing is modelled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to the square of the air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with the experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitude, displacement frequency, and quasi-periodic displacement of the cantilever tip.

  3. Characterisation of a quasi-periodic mixing mechanism in stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kanwar Nain; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Caulfield, C. P.; Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence (MUST) Team

    2016-11-01

    We conduct experiments to examine a quasi-periodic mixing event that occurs in stratified Taylor-Couette flow, i.e. axially-stratified flow in the annular region between two concentric cylinders which can rotate at different angular velocities. It has been previously observed that, in two-layer density stratified Taylor-Couette flow, there is an intermittent periodic mixing event which is continuously advected around the annulus. We track this mixing event within the annular gap of the Taylor-Couette apparatus by continuously measuring density perturbations at the sharp interface separating the two layers as a function of radial location. It has been seen that when Ri =g'Ro/(RiΩi) 2 7 , where Ri, Ro are the inner and outer cylinder radius, respectively, g' the reduced gravity characterising the density jump between the layers and Ωi is the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, the power of the mixing event in the frequency spectrum of the density data drops significantly. This process seems to be consistent at all radial locations throughout the annulus. This phenomenon is further investigated using velocity information obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV). EPSRC programme Grant EP/K034529/1 & SGPC-CCT Scholarship.

  4. Significance testing for quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, C. E.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    The robust detection of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares has been the topic of recent debate. In light of this, we have adapted a method described by Vaughan (2005, A&A, 431, 391) to aid with the search for QPPs in flare time series data. The method identifies statistically significant periodic signals in power spectra, and properly accounts for red noise as well as the uncertainties associated with the data. We show how the method can be further developed to be used with rebinned power spectra, allowing us to detect QPPs whose signal is spread over more than one frequency bin. An advantage of these methods is that there is no need to detrend the data prior to creating the power spectrum. Examples are given where the methods have been applied to synthetic data, as well as real flare time series data with candidate QPPs from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph. These show that, despite the transient nature of QPPs, peaks corresponding to the QPPs can be seen at a significant level in the power spectrum without any form of detrending or other processing of the original time series data, providing the background trends are not too steep.

  5. Search for Persistent Quasi-Periodicities in the Solar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    2007-12-01

    Previous analysis of the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field from 1962 - 1998 has revealed a dominant frequency of 27.03 days to 0.02 day accuracy (Neugebauer, et al., 2000). We have repeated and extended this analysis with OMNI data from 1963 - 2007 obtained from the Coordinated Heliospheric Observations (COHO) database. Over this longer data string we find that the 27.03 day Lomb-Scargle periodogram peak is reduced while two side peaks near 26.8 days and 27.6 days become almost as strong. In the interval 1999-2007 there are two dominant periods near 26.5 days and 27.2 days. As a solar counterpart to the above analysis we have searched for persistent rotation periods near 27 days of global patterns of photospheric magnetic fields derived from Wilcox Solar Observatory synoptic Carrington rotation maps. Techniques applied include, principal components analysis, independent component analysis, singular spectrum analysis, wavelet spectral analysis, and complex demodulation. We find a variety of quasi- periodicities between 26 and 29 days that remain coherent for 1 - 2 years. In the southern solar hemisphere the strongest periodicity is at 28.2 days, while in the northern hemisphere it is around 26.5 days. Neugebauer, M., Smith, Smith, E.J., Ruzmaikin, A., Feynman, J., Vaughan, A.H. 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 106, A5, 8363.

  6. QUASI-PERIODIC WIGGLES OF MICROWAVE ZEBRA STRUCTURES IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sijie; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua; Nakariakov, V. M.; Selzer, L. A.

    2013-11-10

    Quasi-periodic wiggles of microwave zebra pattern (ZP) structures with periods ranging from about 0.5 s to 1.5 s are found in an X-class solar flare on 2006 December 13 at the 2.6-3.8 GHz with the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS/Huairou). Periodogram and correlation analysis show that the wiggles have two to three significant periodicities and are almost in phase between stripes at different frequencies. The Alfvén speed estimated from the ZP structures is about 700 km s{sup –1}. We find the spatial size of the wave-guiding plasma structure to be about 1 Mm with a detected period of about 1 s. This suggests that the ZP wiggles can be associated with the fast magnetoacoustic oscillations in the flaring active region. The lack of a significant phase shift between wiggles of different stripes suggests that the ZP wiggles are caused by a standing sausage oscillation.

  7. Electrostatic and aerodynamic forced vibrations of a thin flexible electrode: Quasi-periodic vs. chaotic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Madanu, Sushma B; Barbel, Stanley I; Ward, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow are studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments, the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using a dimensionless operating parameter that is the ratio of the induced and the free stream velocities. Numerical results are validated with experimental data. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the equation of motion. Aerodynamic forcing is modelled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to the square of the air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with the experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitude, displacement frequency, and quasi-periodic displacement of the cantilever tip.

  8. A Search for Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Pan; Luo, Yu-Hui; Yang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Cheng; Cai, Yan; Yang, Hai-Tao

    2017-09-01

    We have searched quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the 15 GHz light curve of the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 monitored by the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 m telescope during the period from 2008 January to 2016 February, using the Lomb–Scargle Periodogram, power spectral density (PSD), discrete autocorrelation function, and phase dispersion minimization (PDM) techniques. The red noise background has been established via the PSD method, and no QPO can be derived at the 3σ confidence level accounting for the impact of the red noise variability. We conclude that the light curve of 1ES 1959+650 can be explained by a stochastic red noise process that contributes greatly to the total observed variability amplitude, dominates the power spectrum, causes spurious bumps and wiggles in the autocorrelation function and can result in the variance of the folded light curve decreasing toward lower temporal frequencies when few-cycle, sinusoid-like patterns are present. Moreover, many early supposed periodicity claims for blazar light curves need to be reevaluated assuming red noise.

  9. Electrostatic and aerodynamic forced vibrations of a thin flexible electrode: Quasi-periodic vs. chaotic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Madanu, Sushma B.; Barbel, Stanley I.; Ward, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow are studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments, the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using a dimensionless operating parameter that is the ratio of the induced and the free stream velocities. Numerical results are validated with experimental data. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the equation of motion. Aerodynamic forcing is modelled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to the square of the air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with the experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitude, displacement frequency, and quasi-periodic displacement of the cantilever tip.

  10. Kilo-Second Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Cataclysmic Variable DW Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Makoto; Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Novak, Rudolf; Pietz, Jochen

    2002-04-01

    Our photometric monitoring revealed that DWCnc, which was originally classified as a dwarf nova (V=15 - 17.5) remained at a bright state of Rc=14.68 +/- 0.07 for 61days. In conjunction with optical spectra lacking a strong He II emission line, we propose that the object is not a dwarf nova, but a non-magnetic nova-like variable. Throughout our monitoring, the object showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with amplitudes reaching about 0.3mag. Our period analysis yielded a power spectrum with two peaks of QPOs, whose center periods are 37.5 +/- 0.1 and 73.4 +/- 0.4 min and, furthermore, with a significant power in frequencies lower than the QPOs. DWCnc is a unique cataclysmic variable in which kilo-second QPOs were continuously detected for 61days. We propose two possible interpretations of DWCnc: (i) A permanent superhumper below the period minimum of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variab les. (ii) A nova-like variable having an orbital period over 3hours. In this case, the QPOs may be caused by trapped disk oscillations.

  11. Electromagnetic wave propagation in quasi-periodic photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    El Boudouti, E H; Hassouani, Y El; Aynaou, H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Akjouj, A; Velasco, V R

    2007-06-20

    We study theoretically and experimentally the properties of quasiperiodic one-dimensional serial loop structures made of segments and loops arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence (FS). Two systems are considered. (i) By inserting the FS horizontally between two waveguides, we give experimental evidence of the scaling behaviour of the amplitude and the phase of the transmission coefficient. (ii) By grafting the FS vertically along a guide, we obtain from the maxima of the transmission coefficient the eigenmodes of the finite structure (assuming the vanishing of the magnetic field at the boundaries of the FS). We show that these two systems (i) and (ii) exhibit the property of self-similarity of order three at certain frequencies where the quasiperiodicity is most effective. In addition, because of the different boundary conditions imposed on the ends of the FS, we show that horizontal and vertical structures give different information on the localization of the different modes inside the FS. Finally, we show that the eigenmodes of the finite FS coincide exactly with the surface modes of two semi-infinite superlattices obtained by the cleavage of an infinite superlattice formed by a periodic repetition of a given FS.

  12. Planar lens with a quasi-periodic circular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Thaibao Q.; Zhu, Li; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, subwavelength dielectric gratings have been engineered for use as planar focusing elements at optical communication frequencies. Pioneering designs were based on aperiodic one-dimensional gratings, which were polarization-sensitive and designed bar by bar. In this paper, we present our recent designs which eliminated the polarization dependence by using a novel two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and algorithm to build the lens. In this way, lens can be designed algorithmically, with the inherent geometry requiring the use of only one period for the hexagonal lattice. We propose a unique geometry for designing two-dimensional grating lenses: dielectric posts arrayed in concentric circles. Because it is straightforward to space concentric rings apart at varying distances, we no longer need to restrict the design to a uniform grating period. By choosing two periodicities to work with, we managed to algorithmically design a two-dimensional lens, but with the advantage that our smallest feature sizes are up to twice as large as those of lenses designed with only one period. This increases the ease of fabrication for lenses working at current wavelengths and opens up the possibility for working with shorter wavelengths. Furthermore, this concentrically arrayed grating lens can be designed using phase information calculated for a periodic hexagonal lattice, even though the two designs show very little geometric resemblance. Also, we found that the grating lens is suitable not only for focusing plane waves, but also for imaging point sources. Finally, we show that bifocal lenses can be crated from diffraction gratings using our algorithm as well.

  13. Postburst Quasi-periodic Oscillations from GRO J1744-28 and from the Rapid Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Fox, Derek W.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Rutledge, Robert E.; van Paradijs, Jan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1997-06-01

    The repetitive X-ray bursts from the accretion-powered pulsar GRO J1744-28 show similarities to the type II X-ray bursts from the Rapid Burster. Several authors (notably, Lewin et al.) have suggested that the bursts from GRO J1744-28 are type II bursts (which arise from the sudden release of gravitational potential energy). In this paper, we present another similarity between these sources. Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of GRO J1744-28 show that at least 10 out of 94 bursts are followed by quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies of ~0.4 Hz. The period of the oscillations decreases over their ~30-80 s lifetime, and they occur during a spectrally hard ``shoulder'' (or ``plateau'') that follows the burst. In one case, the QPOs show a modulation envelope that resembles simple beating between two narrow-band oscillations at ~0.325 and ~0.375 Hz. Using EXOSAT observations, Lubin et al. found QPOs with frequencies of 0.039-0.056 Hz following 10 out of 95 type II bursts from the Rapid Burster. As in GRO J1744-28, the period of these oscillations decreased over their ~100 s lifetime, and they occurred only during spectrally hard ``humps'' in the persistent emission. Even though the QPO frequencies differ by a factor of ~10, we believe that this is further evidence that a similar accretion disk instability is responsible for the type II bursts from these two sources.

  14. Kinetics of relativistic electrons passing through quasi-periodic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, Eugene; Shul'ga, Nikolay

    2017-07-01

    We report a novel method for evaluating the energy spectrum of electrons emitting hard X-rays and gamma-rays in undulators and Compton sources. The method takes into account the quantum nature of recoils undergone by the electrons emitting high energy photons. The method is susceptible to evaluate a spectrum of electrons for the whole range of the emission rates per electron-pass through of the driving force, from much less than one emitted photon on average (Compton sources and short undulators) to many emitted photons (long undulators, relatively low-energy electrons). As shown in the former limiting case, the spectrum of electrons reflects the spectrum of emitted radiation whereas it is close to the Gaussian shape in the latter case. Limitation of coherency for the sources of high-energy electromagnetic radiation caused by recoils from emitted photons is also discussed.

  15. High Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatteschi, D.

    EPR has traditionally been used in order to obtain structural information on transition metal compounds, with exciting frequencies in the range 9-35 GHz.The recent availability of high magnetic field has prompted the use of higher frequencies. In this contribution the advantages of using High-Field-High-Frequency EPR (HF EPR) experiments are reviewed. After a brief introduction aiming to recall the fundamentals of EPR spectroscopy, a short description of the experimental apparatus needed to perform HF EPR measurements is provided. The remaining sections report selected examples showing how much information can be obtained by HF EPR spectra. They range from individual ions with integer spin to molecular clusters. Particular attention is devoted to the so called Single Molecule Magnets, SMM, i.e. to molecular clusters which show slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature. This effect is due to Ising type magnetic anisotropy which has been efficiently monitored through HF EPR s pectroscopy.

  16. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  17. Quasi-periodic climate changes on Mars - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The current understanding of the manner in which astronomical variations modulate the Martian climate and thereby lead to the occurrence of laminated polar terrain is considered. The seasonal cycles of dust, carbon dioxide and water, and their responses to astronomical variations, are studied. After an assessment of the way in which these cycles presently operate, for which pertinent spacecraft and ground-based observations are extant, attempts to predict how these cycles may differ under conditions of high and low obliquity and eccentricity are discussed. Attention is given not only to those areas in which there is broad agreement, but also to the controversial and speculative. Key questions include the proportion of dust and water ice in the laminae and its variations within individual layers, the relative importance of older laminae and lower-latitude material as sources of new laminae, and the factors responsible for the youth of the laminated terrain.

  18. FRACTIONAL AMPLITUDE OF KILOHERTZ QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM 4U 1728-34: EVIDENCE OF DECLINE AT HIGHER ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Bhattacharyya, Sudip E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in

    2012-09-01

    A kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) is an observationally robust high-frequency timing feature detected from neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). This feature can be very useful to probe the superdense core matter of neutron stars and the strong gravity regime. Although many models exist in the literature, the physical origin of kHz QPO is not known, and hence this feature cannot be used as a tool yet. The energy dependence of kHz QPO fractional rms amplitude is an important piece of the jigsaw puzzle to understand the physical origin of this timing feature. It is known that the fractional rms amplitude increases with energy at lower energies. At higher energies, the amplitude is usually believed to saturate, although this is not established. We combine tens of lower kHz QPOs from a neutron star LMXB 4U 1728-34 in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Consequently, we, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, find a significant and systematic decrease of the fractional rms amplitude with energy at higher photon energies. Assuming an energy spectrum model, blackbody+powerlaw, we explore if the sinusoidal variation of a single spectral parameter can reproduce the above-mentioned fractional rms amplitude behavior. Our analysis suggests that the oscillation of any single blackbody parameter is favored over the oscillation of any single power-law parameter, in order to explain the measured amplitude behavior. We also find that the quality factor of a lower kHz QPO does not plausibly depend on photon energy.

  19. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  20. Quasi-periodic fluctuation in Donchin's speller signals and its potential use for asynchronous control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2016-09-21

    When we examine the event-related potential (ERP) responses of Donchin's brain-computer interface (BCI) speller, a type of quasi-periodic fluctuation (FLUC) overlapping with the ERP components can be observed; this fluctuation is traditionally treated as interference. However, if the FLUC is detectable in a working BCI, it can be used for asynchronous control, i.e. to indicate whether the BCI is under the control state (CS) or under the non-control idle state (NC). Asynchronous control is an important issue to address to enable BCI's practical use. In this paper, we examine the characteristics of the FLUC and explore the possibility of using the FLUC for asynchronous control of the BCI. For detecting the FLUC, we propose a method based on the power spectrum and evaluate the detection rates in a simulation. As a result, high true positive rates (TPRs) and low false positive rates (FPRs) are obtained. Our work reveals that the FLUC is of great value for implementing an asynchronous BCI.

  1. One-Minute Quasi-Periodic Pulsations Seen in a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Z.

    2017-01-01

    We study quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the SOL2014-09-10 event that was detected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi satellite. Previous studies have found that this flare displays four-minute QPPs in a broad range of wavelengths. In this article, we find that this event also shows QPPs with a period of around one minute. Using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, the light curves are decomposed into fast- and slowly varying components with a separation at {≈} 100 seconds. The four-minute QPPs are in the slowly varying component, and the one-minute QPPs are identified with the fast-varying components in the impulsive and maximum phases. Similarly as the four-minute QPPs, the one-minute QPPs are simultaneously found in soft X-rays (SXR), extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and hard X-ray (HXR) emission. High correlations are found between the fast-varying components at the different wavelengths, especially between SXR and HXR. The spatial location of the sources of one-minute QPPs differ from those of the four-minute QPPs. The four-minute QPPs appear in the whole flare region, while the one-minute QPPs tend to originate from the flare loop footpoints. This finding provides an observational constraint for the physical origin of the QPPs.

  2. Detection of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the June 2015 Outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    In June 2015, the black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) V404 Cygni went into outburst for the first time in 26 years. The source is not only the closest known BHXRB, it is also known to undergo extreme variations in brightness, allowing us to study the source’s behaviour during flaring with the unprecedented detail afforded by modern space and ground-based instrumentation.Here we present a timing study and a comprehensive search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of V404 Cygni during its most recent outburst, utilizing data from six instruments on board five different X-ray missions: Swift/XRT, Fermi/GBM, Chandra/ACIS, INTEGRAL’s IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X, and NuSTAR.We find four previously unobserved, significant QPOs throughout the outburst. One QPO, at 18 mHz, is detected in simultaneous observations with both Fermi/GBM and Swift/XRT, and is a likely example of a rare, recently discovered class of mHz-QPOs in BHXRBs linked to high-inclination sources. We also find a broad structure in averaged periodograms of several Chandra/ACIS and INTEGRAL/JEM-X observations that contains significant variability, but is too broad to be called a QPO, reminiscent of a feature more commonly observed in Cygnus X-1. We discuss our results in the context of current models for QPO formation.

  3. Quasi-periodic Pulsations during the Impulsive and Decay phases of an X-class Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of ˜20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of ˜55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from ˜40 s up to ˜70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  4. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: An Overview of Recent Results (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Kupriyanova, Elena G.; Yuan, Ding

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (or QPPs) are periodic intensity variations in the flare emission that occur across all wavelength bands. In this article, we review the observational and modelling achievements since the previous review on this topic by Nakariakov and Melnikov ( Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119, 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that QPPs are an inherent feature of solar flares because almost all flares exhibit QPPs. Moreover, it is now firmly established that QPPs often show multiple periods. We also review possible mechanisms for generating QPPs. Up to now, it has not been possible to conclusively identify the triggering mechanism or cause of QPPs. The lack of this identification currently hampers possible seismological inferences of flare plasma parameters. QPPs in stellar flares have been detected for a long time, and the high-quality data of the Kepler mission allows studying the QPP more systematically. However, it has not been conclusively shown whether the timescales of stellar QPPs are different or the same as those in solar flares.

  5. Quasi-Periodic Pulsations During the Impulsive and Decay Phases of an X-Class Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of 20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of 55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from 40 s up to 70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  6. Probing Neutron Star Physics with Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars, the remnants of massive stellar explosions, are prime candidates for studying dense matter physics in conditions not accessible in the laboratory. Among the zoo of neutron star phenomena, magnetars, neutron stars with an extremely high magnetic field, are of particular interest for their spectacular bursting behaviour in X-rays and gamma-rays. They show thousands of recurrent short, bright bursts as well as some of the brightest gamma-ray events, called giant flares, ever observed on earth. The detection of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in giant flares and, more recently, in small recurrent bursts, is generally interpreted as the observable signature of global oscillations of the neutron star following a star quake. This detection has opened up the potential of neutron star seismology: probing the physical conditions in the interior of the star via the information conveyed in star quakes. In this talk, I will give an overview of observational studies of these sources, focusing on recent detections of QPOs in smaller bursts as well as results from the giant flares. I will then tie these observational results to theoretical models of the star quakes that tie observations to the neutron star interior and crust, and I will finish with an outlook of the future of magnetar seismology. DH is supported by the Moore-Sloan Data Science Environment at NYU.

  7. Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating magnetosonic waves observed by SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng

    Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves are scare in previous studies due to the relative low temporal and spatial resolution of past telescopes. Recently, they are detected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Here, two cases of QFP waves are presented. The analysis results indicate that QFP waves are tightly associated with the associated flares. It is indicate that QFP waves and the associated flares are possibly driven by the same physic process such as quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection process in producing flares.

  8. Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dallapiccola, Ramona; Gopinath, Ashwin; Stellacci, Francesco; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-04-14

    In this paper we investigate for the first time the near-field optical behavior of two-dimensional Fibonacci plasmonic lattices fabricated by electron-beam lithography on transparent quartz substrates. In particular, by performing near-field optical microscopy measurements and three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain simulations we demonstrate that near-field coupling of nanoparticle dimers in Fibonacci arrays results in a quasi-periodic lattice of localized nanoparticle plasmons. The possibility to accurately predict the spatial distribution of enhanced localized plasmon modes in quasi-periodic Fibonacci arrays can have a significant impact for the design and fabrication of novel nano-plasmonics devices.

  9. The mid-term and long-term solar quasi-periodic cycles and the possible relationship with planetary motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Baolin; Cheng, Zhuo

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates the solar quasi-periodic cycles with multi-timescales and the possible relationships with planetary motions. The solar cycles are derived from long-term observations of the relative sunspot number and microwave emission at frequency of 2.80 GHz. A series of solar quasi-periodic cycles with multi-timescales are registered. These cycles can be classified into three classes: (1) the strong PLC (PLC is defined as the solar cycle with a period very close to the ones of some planetary motions, named as planetary-like cycle) which is related strongly with planetary motions, including nine periodic modes with relatively short period ( P<12 yr), and related to the motions of the inner planets and of Jupiter; (2) the weak PLC, which is related weakly to planetary motions, including two periodic modes with relatively long period ( P>12 yr), and possibly related to the motions of outer planets; (3) the non-PLC, for which so far there has been found no clear evidence to show the relationship with any planetary motions. Among the planets, Jupiter plays a key role in most periodic modes due to its sidereal motion or spring tidal motions associated with other planets. Among planetary motions, the spring tidal motion of the inner planets and of Jupiter dominates the formation of most PLCs. The relationships between multi-timescale solar periodic modes and the planetary motions will help us to understand the essential nature and prediction of solar activities.

  10. Periodic motion of the magnetodisk as a cause of quasi-periodic variations in the Kronian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Z.; Szego, K.; Foldy, L.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Thomsen, M.

    2016-10-01

    Most of the phenomena that describe the magnetized plasma filling the huge magnetosphere of Saturn exhibit periodic behavior. The fundamental period reflected in many magnetospheric phenomena is the rotational period of the planet, but the relationship is not at all trivial. In most cases clear periodic behavior can be found only for relatively short time intervals, and often even in these intervals abrupt phase-shifts occur and non-rotational frequencies appear. Several sophisticated methods have been developed to filter out interfering fluctuations and find the basic periodicity and phase of the variations. Although these methods proved to be very useful, some information is inevitably lost in the process. To recover this otherwise lost information we follow a different strategy to analyse the quasi-periodic variations of the plasma properties. We assume that the motion of the magnetodisk is periodic and that the observed quasi-periodic variations are due to the interplay of this periodic motion and the effects governing the spatial dependence of the plasma parameters (F), especially their dependence on the distance (d) from the central sheet of the magnetodisk. We found that relatively simple F(d) functions are able to reproduce the observed complex temporal dependence of the plasma properties.

  11. IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR FLARE LOOPS WITH SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. T.; Mao, X. J.; Shen, Y. D.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-20

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of flaring emission with periods from a few seconds to tens of minutes have been widely detected from radio bands to {gamma}-ray emissions. However, in the past the spatial information of pulsations could not be utilized well due to the instrument limits. We report here imaging observations of the QPPs in three loop sections during a C1.7 flare with periods of P = 24 s-3 minutes by means of the extreme-ultraviolet 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We confirm that the QPPs with the shortest period of 24 s were not of an artifact produced by the Nyquist frequency of the AIA 12 s cadence. The QPPs in the three loop sections were interconnected and closely associated with the flare. The detected perturbations propagated along the loops at speeds of 65-200 km s{sup -1}, close to those of acoustic waves in them. The loops were made up of many bright blobs arranged in alternating bright and dark changes in intensity (spatial periodical distribution) with the wavelengths 2.4-5 Mm (as if they were magnetohydrodynamic waves). Furthermore, in the time-distance diagrams, the detected perturbation wavelengths of the QPPs are estimated to be {approx}10 Mm, which evidently do not fit the above ones of the spatial periodic distributions and produce a difference of a factor of 2-4 with them. It is suggested that the short QPPs with periods P < 60 s were possibly sausage-mode oscillations and the long QPPs with periods P > 60 s were the higher (e.g., >2nd) harmonics of slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  12. Multi-mode quasi-periodic pulsations in a solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Kupriyanova, E. G.; Ratcliffe, H.; Shibasaki, K.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) of the electromagnetic radiation emitted in solar and stellar flares are often detected in microwave, white light, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. Mechanisms for QPP are intensively debated in the literature. Previous studies revealed that QPP may manifest non-linear, non-stationary and, perhaps, multi-modal processes operating in flares. Aims: We study QPP of the microwave emission generated in an X3.2-class solar flare on 14 May, 2013, observed with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), aiming to reveal signatures of the non-linear, non-stationary, and multi-modal processes in the signal. Methods: The NoRH correlation signal obtained at the 17 GHz intensity has a clear QPP pattern. The signal was analysed with the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) that allows one to determine its instant amplitude and frequency, and their time variation. Results: It was established that the QPP consists of at least three well-defined intrinsic modes, with the mean periods of 15, 45, and 100 s. All the modes have quasi-harmonic behaviour with different modulation patterns. The 100 s intrinsic mode is a decaying oscillation, with the decay time of 250 s. The 15 s intrinsic mode shows a similar behaviour, with the decay time of 90 s. The 45 s mode has a wave-train behaviour. Conclusions: Dynamical properties of detected intrinsic modes indicate that the 100 s and 15 s modes are likely to be associated with fundamental kink and sausage modes of the flaring loop, respectively. The 100 s oscillation could also be caused by the fundamental longitudinal mode, while this interpretation requires the plasma temperature of about 30 million K and hence is not likely. The 45 s mode could be the second standing harmonics of the kink mode.

  13. MILLIHERTZ QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM TERZAN 5: A SHOWCASE OF BURNING REGIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Altamirano, D.; Cumming, A.; Keek, L.

    2012-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the thermonuclear bursts and millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (mHz QPOs) from the neutron star (NS) transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. The increase in burst rate that we found during its 2010 outburst, when persistent luminosity rose from 0.1 to 0.5 times the Eddington limit, is in qualitative agreement with thermonuclear burning theory yet contrary to all previous observations of thermonuclear bursts. Thermonuclear bursts gradually evolved into a mHz QPO when the accretion rate increased, and vice versa. The mHz QPOs from IGR J17480-2446 resemble those previously observed in other accreting NSs, yet they feature lower frequencies (by a factor {approx}3) and occur when the persistent luminosity is higher (by a factor 4-25). We find four distinct bursting regimes and a steep (close to inverse cubic) decrease of the burst recurrence time with increasing persistent luminosity. We compare these findings to nuclear burning models and find evidence for a transition between the pure helium and mixed hydrogen/helium ignition regimes when the persistent luminosity was about 0.3 times the Eddington limit. We also point out important discrepancies between the observed bursts and theory, which predicts brighter and less frequent bursts, and suggest that an additional source of heat in the NS envelope is required to reconcile the observed and expected burst properties. We discuss the impact of NS magnetic field and spin on the expected nuclear burning regimes, in the context of this particular pulsar.

  14. Imaging Observations of Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar Flare Loops with SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J. T.; Shen, Y. D.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Mao, X. J.

    2012-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of flaring emission with periods from a few seconds to tens of minutes have been widely detected from radio bands to γ-ray emissions. However, in the past the spatial information of pulsations could not be utilized well due to the instrument limits. We report here imaging observations of the QPPs in three loop sections during a C1.7 flare with periods of P = 24 s-3 minutes by means of the extreme-ultraviolet 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We confirm that the QPPs with the shortest period of 24 s were not of an artifact produced by the Nyquist frequency of the AIA 12 s cadence. The QPPs in the three loop sections were interconnected and closely associated with the flare. The detected perturbations propagated along the loops at speeds of 65-200 km s-1, close to those of acoustic waves in them. The loops were made up of many bright blobs arranged in alternating bright and dark changes in intensity (spatial periodical distribution) with the wavelengths 2.4-5 Mm (as if they were magnetohydrodynamic waves). Furthermore, in the time-distance diagrams, the detected perturbation wavelengths of the QPPs are estimated to be ~10 Mm, which evidently do not fit the above ones of the spatial periodic distributions and produce a difference of a factor of 2-4 with them. It is suggested that the short QPPs with periods P < 60 s were possibly sausage-mode oscillations and the long QPPs with periods P > 60 s were the higher (e.g., >2nd) harmonics of slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  15. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  16. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  17. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  18. Peculiar Emission Line Generation from Ultra-Rapid Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of Exotic Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to alert astronomers, particularly those using spectroscopic surveys, to the fact that exotic astronomical objects (e.g. quasars or active galactic nuclei) that send ultra-rapid quasi periodic pulses of optical light would generate spectroscopic features that look like emission lines. This gives a simple technique to find quasi periodic pulses separated by times smaller than a nanosecond. One should look for emission lines that cannot be identified with known spectral lines in spectra. Such signals, generated by slower pulses, could also be found in the far infra-red, millimeter and radio regions, where they could be detected as objects unusually bright in a single narrow-band filter or channel. The outstanding interest of the technique comes from its simplicity so that it can be used to find ultra-rapid quasi-periodic oscillators in large astronomical surveys. A very small fraction of objects presently identified as Lyman α emitters that do not have other spectral features to confirm the Lyman α redshift, may possibly be quasi-periodic oscillators. However this is only a hypothesis that needs more observations for confirmation.

  19. Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar hard X-ray and microwave flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosugi, Takeo; Kiplinger, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    For more than a decade, various studies have pointed out that hard X-ray and microwave time profiles of some solar flares show quasi-periodic fluctuations or pulsations. Nevertheless, it was not until recently that a flare displaying large amplitude quasi-periodic pulsations in X-rays and microwaves was observed with good spectral coverage and with a sufficient time resolution. The event occurred on June 7, 1980, at approximately 0312 UT, and exhibits seven intense pulses with a quasi-periodicity of approximately 8 seconds in microwaves, hard X-rays, and gamma-ray lines. On May 12, 1983, at approximately 0253 UT, another good example of this type of flare was observed both in hard X-rays and in microwaves. Temporal and spectral characteristics of this flare are compared with the event of June 7, 1980. In order to further explore these observational results and theoretical scenarios, a study of nine additional quasi-periodic events were incorporated with the results from the two flares described. Analysis of these events are briefly summarized.

  20. Variable classification in the LSST era: exploring a model for quasi-periodic light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinn, J. C.; Kochanek, C. S.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to yield ˜107 light curves over the course of its mission, which will require a concerted effort in automated classification. Stochastic processes provide one means of quantitatively describing variability with the potential advantage over simple light-curve statistics that the parameters may be physically meaningful. Here, we survey a large sample of periodic, quasi-periodic and stochastic Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-III variables using the damped random walk (DRW; CARMA(1,0)) and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO; CARMA(2,1)) stochastic process models. The QPO model is described by an amplitude, a period and a coherence time-scale, while the DRW has only an amplitude and a time-scale. We find that the periodic and quasi-periodic stellar variables are generally better described by a QPO than a DRW, while quasars are better described by the DRW model. There are ambiguities in interpreting the QPO coherence time due to non-sinusoidal light-curve shapes, signal-to-noise ratio, error mischaracterizations and cadence. Higher order implementations of the QPO model that better capture light-curve shapes are necessary for the coherence time to have its implied physical meaning. Independent of physical meaning, the extra parameter of the QPO model successfully distinguishes most of the classes of periodic and quasi-periodic variables we consider.

  1. The effects of periodic and quasi-periodic orders on the photonic bandgap structures of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ang, Thomas Y L; Chin, Mee Koy

    2009-03-30

    We present a coupling matrix formalism to investigate the effects of periodic and quasi-periodic orders on the photonic bandgap (PBG) structures of coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on microring resonators. For the periodic order case, size-tuned defects are introduced at periodic locations among the regular rings, which are size-untuned, to form a periodic ordered CROW system. The periodic coupled defects result in multiple localization states that lead to the formation of mini-defect bands and mini-PBGs within the PBG of a defect-free CROW. The position and number of such mini-defect bands depend on the size tuning of the defects. For the quasi-periodic order case, the arrangement of the defects and the regular rings in the ring cascade is an intermediate between periodic order and randomness, thus forming a quasi-periodic ordered CROW system. The effects of quasi-periodicity on the PBG structures are illustrated using the Fibonacci sequences, which result in a single high-Q localized state to appear that gradually transits to a mini-band within a wide photonic stop band as the number of lattice cells increases.

  2. Structure-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance characteristics and surface enhanced Raman scattering performances of quasi-periodic nanoarrays: Measurements and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Zhou, Jun; Rippa, Massimo; Petti, Lucia

    2015-10-28

    A set of periodic and quasi-periodic Au nanoarrays with different morphologies have been fabricated by using electron beam lithography technique, and their optical properties have been examined experimentally and analyzed theoretically by scanning near-field optical microscope and finite element method, respectively. Results present that the localized surface plasmon resonance of the as-prepared Au nanoarrays exhibit the structure-depended characteristics. Comparing with the periodic nanoarrays, the quasi-periodic ones demonstrate stronger electric field enhancement, especially for Thue-Morse nanoarray. Meanwhile, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecular labeled nanoarrays show that the quasi-periodic nanoarrays exhibit distinct SERS enhancement, for example, a higher enhancement factor of ∼10{sup 7} is obtained for the Thue-Morse nanoarray consisted of square pillars of 100 nm size. Therefore, it is significant to optimally design and fabricate the chip-scale quasi-periodic nanoarrays with high localized electric field enhancement for SERS applications in biosensing field.

  3. Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ˜664-1416 km s-1. Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ˜70 and ˜140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70-140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172-273 km s-1. The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.

  4. Radio Induced Fluorescence (RIF) Imaging Of E-region Quasi-periodic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    The horizontal structure of sporadic-E layers has been imaged using artificial airglow excited by high power radio waves. In January 1998, the HF facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico beamed a 80 MW signal upward at 3.175 MHz. The beam reflected in the E- region near 120 km altitude to excite green-line emissions at 557.7 nm. Ground based images showed quasi-periodic structures with periods near 2 and 10 km. These struc- tures been interpreted as being produced by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities in the neutral atmosphere. The excitation of radio induced fluorescence (RIF) emissions has been studied with both one-dimensional and two-dimensional computer simulations of the conversion of electromagnetic waves into electron plasma waves. The steep gradients on the bottomside of the E-layer provide conditions for efficient mode conversion. The re- sulting Langmuir waves accelerate electrons to energies between 2 and 10 eV. These suprathermal electrons collide with oxygen atoms to produce green-line emissions. The optical glow only occurs in the parts of the E-region where the plamsa is dense enough to reflect the 3.175 MHz radio waves. Results of the E-layer observations using the RIF technique have shown horizontal stuctures that are most likely produced by the K-H instability. A numerical model has been generated to demonstrate the effects of neutral wind shears on the E-region structures. The model includes the effects of both speed-shear and turning shear dy- namics. The results of the numerical model are used to suggest future research using high-power radio wave to study the ion dynamics of the lower thermosphere.

  5. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  6. A VLT-ULTRACAM study of the fast optical quasi-periodic oscillations in the polar V834 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Van Box Som, L.; Falize, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Breytenbach, H.; Ashley, R. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few seconds have been detected in some polars, the synchronised subclass of cataclysmic systems containing a strongly magnetised white dwarf which accretes matter from a red dwarf companion. The QPOs are thought to be related to instabilities of a shock formed in the accretion column, close to the white dwarf photosphere above the impact region. We present optical observations of the polar V834 Centauri performed with the fast ULTRACAM camera mounted on the ESO-VLT simultaneously in three filters (u', He ii λ4686, r') to study these oscillations and characterise their properties along the orbit when the column is seen at different viewing angles. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis have been performed and the mean frequency, rms amplitude, and coherence of the QPOs are derived; a detailed inspection of individual pulses has also been performed. The observations confirm the probable ubiquity of the QPOs for this source at all epochs when the source is in a high state, with observed mean amplitude of 2.1% (r'), 1.5% (He ii), and 0.6% (u'). The QPOs are present in the r' filter at all phases of the orbital cycle, with a higher relative amplitude around the maximum of the light curve. They are also detected in the He ii and u' filters but at a lower level. Trains of oscillations are clearly observed in the r' light curve and can be mimicked by a superposition of damped sinusoids with various parameters. The QPO energy distribution is comparable to that of the cyclotron flux, consistent for the r' and He ii filters but requiring a significant dilution in the u' filter. New 1D hydrodynamical simulations of shock instabilities, adapted to the physical parameters of V834 Cen, can account for the optical QPO amplitude and X-ray upper limit assuming a cross section of the accretion column in the range (4 - 5) × 1014 cm2. However, the predicted frequency is larger than the observed one by an order of magnitude. This

  7. HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL TRANSIENTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES WITH A SPECTRO-CORRELATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Rajalingam, M.; Abhilash, H. N.

    2016-02-15

    A new antenna system with a digital spectro-correlator that provides high temporal, spectral, and amplitude resolutions has been commissioned at the Gauribidanur Observatory near Bangalore in India. Presently, it is used for observations of the solar coronal transients in the scarcely explored frequency range ≈30–15 MHz. The details of the antenna system, the associated receiver setup, and the initial observational results are reported. Some of the observed transients exhibited quasi-periodicity in their time profiles at discrete frequencies. Estimates of the associated magnetic field strength (B) indicate that B ≈ 0.06–1 G at a typical frequency such as 19.5 MHz.

  8. SDO/AIA observations of periodic and quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with an EUV jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Richard; Verth, Gary; Erdelyi, Robertus; Srivastava, Abhi

    2013-04-01

    It has long been advocated that explosive magnetic activity is responsible for the mass-balance in the solar atmosphere, supplying the corona and the solar wind with heated plasma. The explosive events are thought to be the result of emerging bi-polar (EB) regions reconnecting with pre-existing, open fields, with the size of the EB's (i.e., granular, super-granular) being related to size of the resulting feature (i.e., spicules, EUV/X-ray jets). Recent evidence has suggested a deeper relationship between spicules and EUV jets (Sterling et al., 2010). We present here observations of a EUV jet observed with SDO/AIA close to a southern coronal hole. The jet can be considered as a 'Blowout jet' (using the terminology of Moore et al., 2010), launching vast amounts of chromospheric plasma into the atmosphere along with hotter material. The hotter part of the jet appears to be composed of multiple, (quasi-)periodic ejections that individually resemble fast moving (>100 km/s) spicules. The multiple ejections appear crucial for distributing the hotter material high into the corona, possibly suggesting that larger EUV/X-ray are composed of many smaller spicule-like events. Although the event is close to the limb, evidence for reconnection at the chromospheric level is provided. Further, evidence for helicity (or torsional motion) and the presence of slow and fast Magnetohydrodynamic waves is given, with the wave mode excitation likely due to the reconnection process. Exploiting the observed wave motion, we also use magneto-seismological techniques to determine local plasma parameters with sub-resolution accuracy along one of the jets unique features.

  9. Quasi-periodic injections of relativistic electrons in Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Andriopoulou, M.; Palmaerts, B.; Kurth, W. S.; Badman, S. V.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-periodic, short-period injections of relativistic electrons have been observed in both Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres, but understanding their origin or significance has been challenging, primarily due to the limited number of in-situ observations of such events by past flyby missions. Here we present the first survey of such injections in an outer planetary magnetosphere using almost nine years of energetic charged particle and magnetic field measurements at Saturn. We focus on events with a characteristic period of about 60-70 min (QP60, where QP stands for quasi-periodic). We find that the majority of QP60, which are very common in the outer magnetosphere, map outside Titan's orbit. QP60 are also observed over a very wide range of local times and latitudes. A local time asymmetry in their distribution is the most striking feature, with QP60 at dusk being between 5 and 25 times more frequent than at dawn. Field-line tracing and pitch angle distributions suggest that most events at dusk reside on closed field lines. They are distributed either near the magnetopause, or, in the case of the post-dusk (or pre-midnight) sector, up to about 30 RS inside it, along an area extending parallel to the dawn-dusk direction. QP60 at dawn map either on open field lines and/or near the magnetopause. Both the asymmetries and varying mapping characteristics as a function of local time indicate that generation of QP60 cannot be assigned to a single process. The locations of QP60 seem to trace sites that reconnection is expected to take place. In that respect, the subset of events observed post-dusk and deep inside the magnetopause may be directly or indirectly linked to the Vasyliunas reconnection cycle, while magnetopause reconnection/Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability could be invoked to explain all other events at the duskside. Using similar arguments, injections at the dawnside magnetosphere may result from solar-wind induced storms and/or magnetopause reconnection

  10. Construction of response solutions for two classes of quasi-periodically forced four-dimensional nonlinear systems with degenerate equilibrium point under small perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Wen; Si, Jianguo

    2017-05-01

    By developing two KAM theorems, in this paper, we show that two classes of quasi-periodically forced four-dimensional nonlinear systems with degenerate equilibrium point, a reversible system and a non-conservative system, admit a response solution under small perturbations. For the degenerate reversible system, applying special structure of unperturbed nonlinear term and Herman method, we successfully control the shift of equilibrium point, which is difficult in view of the degenerate linear term. For the degenerate non-conservative system, KAM method is brought into force even in completely degenerate case because of the restrictions on the smallness and average of perturbation. Moreover, arithmetic condition on the frequency is assumed to satisfy the Brjuno-Rüssmann's non-resonant condition. By the Pöschel-Rüssmann KAM method, we prove that these two kinds of perturbed systems can be reduced to a suitable normal form with zero as equilibrium point by a quasi-periodic transformation.

  11. Narrowband DWDM filters based on Fibonacci-class quasi-periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, S; Moravvej-Farshi, M K; Rostami, A; Zarifkar, A

    2007-08-20

    In this paper, we propose a narrowband DWDM filter structure, whose reflection band characteristics, meets the ITU-T standard. The proposed filter structure is based on Fibonacci quasi-periodic structures composed of multilayers with large index differences. Studying the effects of the optical and geometrical parameters of Fibonacci quasi-periodic structures on its filtering properties, we have realized that to achieve the ITU-T standard, we need to cascade two successive structures both with the same generation numbers j=4 and orders n=25 and apodized refractive indices. The apodization process helps to minimize the stop band sidelobes. We have also demonstrated that beside Fibonacci's order, n, the layers dimensions, and their refractive index ratios are the main design parameters.

  12. Quasi-periodic oscillations of the magnetopause during northward sheath magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokubun, S.; Kawano, H.; Nakamura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsuoka, A.; Frank, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Geotail satellite quasi-periodically crossed the dawn flank of magnetopause more than ten times during an interval of 1.5 hours on November 4, 1992. Magnetopause crossings were characterized by quasi-periodic pulses of a sawtooth wave form in the magnetic field and the plasma flow components tangential to the magnetopause. The magnetic field strength in the magnetosheath was larger than that in the magnetosphere. The direction of magnetic field outside the magnetopause current layer was northward with antisunward tilt, indicating the draping of magnetic field on the magnetopause. Boundary normals of wavy magnetopause systematically incline sunward on the upstream side, while they tend to incline antisunward with considerable deviation on the downstream side. Comparison with other multiple crossing events suggests that the November 4 event exhibits wavy structure of the dawn flank magnetopause associated with the northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

  13. The re-analysis of quasi-periodic oscillation of the blazar J1359+4011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao; Su, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    J1359+4011 is a flat spectral radio quasar monitored by the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 m radio telescope since 2008. The light curve of J1359+4011 in 15 GHz shows a possible quasi-periodic behavior by visual inspection. In order to confirm this quasi-periodic behavior, we utilize two classical methods: structure function method and discrete correlation function method, to investigate the possible time-scale of oscillation in the time series of J1359+4011. The analytical result shows a possible time-scale of oscillation of 120-130 days. The instabilities in the accretion flow could be a possible explanation for the modulation of the light curve; and global p-mode oscillations in a thick disc could be another possible reason for this behavior.

  14. Instability phenomena in impact damper system: From quasi-periodic motion to period-three motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shan; Wen, Guilin; Shen, Yongkang; Xu, Huidong

    2017-03-01

    The instability phenomena of quasi-periodic attractor in the impact-damper system are reported in this paper. This special phenomena are found by accident when the Hopf bifurcation of impact periodic motion is studied in parameter plane. Quasi-periodic attractor is found to lose stability by sudden jump to period-three attractor or saddle-node bifurcation of period-three attractor on the invariant set. The MDCM (multi-DOF cell mapping) method is used to study the variety of attraction basins of solutions near the critical points of the jump phenomena. Spiral and fragmented attraction basins of solutions in a chosen two-dimensional subspace can be observed.

  15. Possible Quasi-Periodic Gamma-ray Emission from Blazar PG 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David; Cutini, Sara; Ciprini, Stefano; Larsson, Stefan; Stamerra, Antonio; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report an update on a possible gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope exhibit an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The indication of a 2.18 +/- 0.08 year period gamma-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  16. Recent progress on quasi-periodic lattice Schrödinger operators and Hamiltonian PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    2004-04-01

    This is a survey of recent investigations of quasi-periodic localization on lattices (of both methods based on perturbation theory and non-perturbative methods) and of applications of KAM theories in connection with infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The focus is on applications of these investigations to the Schrödinger equation and the wave equation with periodic boundary conditions, and to non-linear random Schrödinger equations with short-range potentials.

  17. Towards a quasi-periodic mean field theory for globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaji, Murad; Glendinning, Paul

    1999-02-01

    We show how a quasi-periodic mean field theory may be used to understand the chaotic dynamics and geometry of globally coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. The Poincaré map of the mean field equations appears to have saddlenode-homoclinic bifurcations leading to chaotic motion, and the attractor has the characteristic ρ shape identified by numerical experiments on the full equations.

  18. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, M. ); Fluegeman, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  19. Explicit error bounds for the α-quasi-periodic Helmholtz problem.

    PubMed

    Lord, Natacha H; Mulholland, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers a finite element approach to modeling electromagnetic waves in a periodic diffraction grating. In particular, an a priori error estimate associated with the α-quasi-periodic transformation is derived. This involves the solution of the associated Helmholtz problem being written as a product of e(iαx) and an unknown function called the α-quasi-periodic solution. To begin with, the well-posedness of the continuous problem is examined using a variational formulation. The problem is then discretized, and a rigorous a priori error estimate, which guarantees the uniqueness of this approximate solution, is derived. In previous studies, the continuity of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map has simply been assumed and the dependency of the regularity constant on the system parameters, such as the wavenumber, has not been shown. To address this deficiency, in this paper an explicit dependence on the wavenumber and the degree of the polynomial basis in the a priori error estimate is obtained. Since the finite element method is well known for dealing with any geometries, comparison of numerical results obtained using the α-quasi-periodic transformation with a lattice sum technique is then presented.

  20. IMAGING AND SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-07-01

    We explore the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in a solar flare observed by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) on 2014 September 10. QPPs are identified as the regular and periodic peaks on the rapidly varying components, which are the light curves after removing the slowly varying components. The QPPs display only three peaks at the beginning on the hard X-ray emissions, but 10 peaks on the chromospheric and coronal line emissions, and more than seven peaks (each peak corresponds to a type III burst on the dynamic spectra) at the radio emissions. A uniform quasi-period of about 4 minutes is detected among them. AIA imaging observations exhibit that the 4-minute QPPs originate from the flare ribbon and tend to appear on the ribbon front. IRIS spectral observations show that each peak of the QPPs tends to a broad line width and a red Doppler velocity at C i, O iv, Si iv, and Fe xxi lines. Our findings indicate that the QPPs are produced by the non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by the induced quasi-periodic magnetic reconnections in this flare.

  1. Localization-delocalization transition in self-dual quasi-periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M. L.; Wang, G.; Li, N. B.; Nakayama, T.

    2015-06-01

    Within the framework of the Aubry-André model, one kind of self-dual quasi-periodic lattice, it is known that a sharp transition occurs from all eigenstates being extended to all being localized. The common perception for this type of quasi-periodic lattice is that the self-duality excludes the appearance of a finite critical energy separating localized from extended states. In this work, we propose a multi-chromatic quasi-periodic lattice model retaining the self-duality identical to the Aubry-André model. In this model we find numerically a well-defined localization-delocalization transition at the mobility edges in contrast with the Aubry-André model. As a result, the diffusion of wave packet exhibits a transition from ballistic to diffusive motion, and back to ballistic motion. We point out that experimental realizations of the predicted transition can be accessed with light waves in photonic lattices and matter waves in optical lattices.

  2. Electronic Circuit Experiments and SPICE Simulation of Double Covering Bifurcation of 2-Torus Quasi-Periodic Flow in Phase-Locked Loop Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, Kyohei; Endo, Tetsuro; Imai, Isao; Komuro, Motomasa

    2016-06-01

    Double covering (DC) bifurcation of a 2-torus quasi-periodic flow in a phase-locked loop circuit was experimentally investigated using an electronic circuit and via SPICE simulation; in the circuit, the input radio-frequency signal was frequency modulated by the sum of two asynchronous sinusoidal baseband signals. We observed both DC and period-doubling bifurcations of a discrete map on two Poincaré sections, which were realized by changing the sample timing from one baseband sinusoidal signal to the other. The results confirm the DC bifurcation of the original flow.

  3. A 200-Second Quasi-Periodicity After the Tidal Disruption of a Star by a Dormant Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Gueltkinm K.; Maitra, D.; King, A. L.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass, In the local Universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, often coming in the form of long term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a approx.200-s X-ray quasi-periodicity around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local Universe.

  4. A 200-second quasi-periodicity after the tidal disruption of a star by a dormant black hole.

    PubMed

    Reis, R C; Miller, J M; Reynolds, M T; Gültekin, K; Maitra, D; King, A L; Strohmayer, T E

    2012-08-24

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs; mass is greater than or approximately 10(5) times that of the Sun) are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass. In the local universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, which often comes in the form of long-term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a ~200-second x-ray quasi-periodicity around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local universe.

  5. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-14

    image resolution comparable to an ordinary photographic camera. In addition to inconvenient size, the cost of filling such a large aperture with... cost of implementing a LFTDR. Because of the large difference between the high frequency imaging frequencies and the low frequency reference frequency... cost . In addition since the measured reference phase must be multiplied by a factor a equal to the ratio of the imaging to the reference frequency

  6. High-frequency broadband transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, S. E.; Tomashevich, S. V.

    1981-05-01

    A systematic review of the theory and design principles of high-frequency broadband transformers is presented. It is shown that the transformers of highest performance are those whose coils consist of strips of double-wire and multiwire transmission lines. Such devices are characterized by a wide operating frequency range, and make possible operation at microwave frequencies at high levels of transmitted power.

  7. Solitons and quasi-periodic behaviors in an inhomogeneous optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Zuo, Da-Wei; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the attosecond pulses in an inhomogeneous optical fiber is studied. With the aid of auxiliary functions, we obtain the variable-coefficient Hirota bilinear equations and corresponding integrable constraints. Under those constraints, we obtain the Lax pair, conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Soliton structures and interactions are discussed: (1) For the one soliton, we discuss the influence of the group velocity dispersion term α(x) and fifth-order dispersion term δ(x) on the velocities and structures of the solitons, where x is the normalized propagation along the fiber, and derive a constraint contributing to the stationary soliton; (2) For the two solitons, we analyze the interactions between them with different values of α(x) and δ(x), and derive the quasi-periodic formulae for three cases of the bound states: When α(x) and δ(x) are the linear functions of x, quasi-periodic attraction and repulsion lead to the redistribution of the energy of the two solitons, and ratios among the quasi-periods are derived; When α(x) and δ(x) are the quadratic functions of x, the ratios among them are also obtained; When α(x) and δ(x) are the periodic functions of x, bi-periodic phenomena are obtained; (3) For the three solitons, including the parabolic, cubic, periodic and stationary structures, interactions among them with different values of the α(x) and δ(x) are presented.

  8. Above-the-loop-top Oscillation and Quasi-periodic Coronal Wave Generation in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-06-01

    Observations revealed that various kinds of oscillations are excited in solar flare regions. Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in flare emissions are commonly observed in a wide range of wavelengths. Recent observations have found that fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are quasi-periodically emitted from some flaring sites (quasi-periodic propagating fast-mode magnetoacoustic waves; QPFs). Both QPPs and QPFs imply a cyclic disturbance originating from the flaring sites. However, the physical mechanisms remain puzzling. By performing a set of two-dimensional MHD simulations of a solar flare, we discovered the local oscillation above the loops filled with evaporated plasma (above-the-loop-top region) and the generation of QPFs from such oscillating regions. Unlike all previous models for QPFs, our model includes essential physics for solar flares such as magnetic reconnection, heat conduction, and chromospheric evaporation. We revealed that QPFs can be spontaneously excited by the above-the-loop-top oscillation. We found that this oscillation is controlled by the backflow of the reconnection outflow. The new model revealed that flare loops and the above-the-loop-top region are full of shocks and waves, which is different from the previous expectations based on a standard flare model and previous simulations. In this paper, we show the QPF generation process based on our new picture of flare loops and will briefly discuss a possible relationship between QPFs and QPPs. Our findings will change the current view of solar flares to a new view in which they are a very dynamic phenomenon full of shocks and waves.

  9. Sources of Quasi-periodic Propagating Disturbances above a Solar Polar Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Fangran; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Xing; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu; Mou, Chaozhou; Fu, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating disturbances (PDs) are ubiquitous in polar coronal holes on the Sun. It remains unclear as to what generates PDs. In this work, we investigate how the PDs are generated in the solar atmosphere by analyzing a four-hour data set taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We find convincing evidence that spicular activities in the solar transition region, as seen in the AIA 304 Å passband, are responsible for PDs in the corona as revealed in the AIA 171 Å images. We conclude that spicules are an important source that triggers coronal PDs.

  10. Quasi-periodic solutions to the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiao; Geng, Xianguo; Zeng, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a discrete 3×3 matrix spectral problem, the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices is derived by using the stationary discrete zero-curvature equation. Resorting to the characteristic polynomial of the Lax matrix for the hierarchy, we introduce a trigonal curve Km-2 of genus m - 2 and present the related Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function on it. Asymptotic expansions for the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function are given near three infinite points on the trigonal curve, from which explicit quasi-periodic solutions for the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices are obtained in terms of the Riemann theta function.

  11. Analysis of quasi-periodic pore-network structure of centric marine diatom frustules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohoon, Gregory A.; Alvarez, Christine E.; Meyers, Keith; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Hildebrand, Mark; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    Diatoms are a common type of phytoplankton characterized by their silica exoskeleton known as a frustule. The diatom frustule is composed of two valves and a series of connecting girdle bands. Each diatom species has a unique frustule shape and valves in particular species display an intricate pattern of pores resembling a photonic crystal structure. We used several numerical techniques to analyze the periodic and quasi-periodic valve pore-network structure in diatoms of the Coscinodiscophyceae order. We quantitatively identify defect locations and pore spacing in the valve and use this information to better understand the optical and biological properties of the diatom.

  12. Quasi-periodic Climate Teleconnections via the North Atlantic Oscillation: A New Perspective From Tree Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, S. R.; Pagani, M.

    2004-12-01

    Internal modes of climate variability such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly contribute to regional weather patterns on an inter-annual basis. Changes in the behavior of these modes over decadal and/or centennial timescales may represent an important driver of past climate events and future climate change. Importantly, if the internal modes express band-limited (periodic to quasi-periodic) variability, they provide a useful template for climate forecasting. Unfortunately, our ability to directly quantify the periodic/quasi-periodic nature of climate response to the internal modes is constrained by the limited temporal extent of instrumental records. In this study we present a novel approach toward recognition of band-limited climatic effects of the NAO in proxy records that span the past 400 years. The spatial climatic response of the NAO between northern and southern Europe provides a framework for detecting the influence of the NAO in proxy climate records. Specifically, if the NAO-forced climate signal is present it should be strongly correlated and anti-phased between the northern and southern regions of western Europe. To prospect for the NAO signal in paleoclimate data we employ independent networks of tree ring width series from Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. These locations were selected because modern instrumental records of the NAO and precipitation are significantly correlated in these regions, and tree ring width sensitivity to climate variability is maximized. The tree-ring width data from western Europe reveals a distinct 25-year quasi-periodic synchronization of climate change between Scandinavia and the Mediterranean during the 17th-20th centuries. Based on the dipole character of this signal, we propose that it is representative of climate forcing via the NAO. On this timescale of climate variability, dry/cold climate events in northern Europe are closely tied to wet events in

  13. Quasi-periodic solutions for d-dimensional beam equation with derivative nonlinear perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Lufang; Cong, Hongzi

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we consider the d-dimensional beam equation with convolution potential under periodic boundary conditions. We will apply the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem in Eliasson and Kuksin [Ann. Math. 172, 371-435 (2010)] into this system and obtain that for sufficiently small ε, there is a large subset S′ of S such that for all s ∈ S′, the solution u of the unperturbed system persists as a time-quasi-periodic solution which has all Lyapunov exponents equal to zero and whose linearized equation is reducible to constant coefficients.

  14. High frequency pulsed electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, David Wayne

    Electromigration life tests were performed on copper-alloyed aluminum test structures that were representative of modern CMOS metallization schemes, complete with Ti/TiN cladding layers and a tungsten-plug contact at the cathode. A total of 18 electrical stress treatments were applied. One was a DC current of 15 mA. The other 17 were pulsed currents, varied according to duty cycle and frequency. The pulse amplitude was 15 mA (˜2.7 × 10sp6 A/cmsp2) for all treatments. Duty cycles ranged from 33.3% to 80%, and frequencies fell into three rough ranges-100 KHz, 1 MHz, and 100 MHz. The ambient test temperature was 200sp°C in all experiments. Six to 9 samples were subjected to each treatment. Experimental data were gathered in the form of test stripe resistance versus time, R(t). For purposes of lifetime analysis, "failure" was defined by the criterion R(t)/R(0) = 1.10, and the median time to failure, tsb{50}, was used as the primary basis of comparison between test groups. It was found that the dependence of tsb{50} on pulse duty cycle conformed rather well to the so-called "average current density model" for duty cycles of 50% and higher. Lifetimes were less enhanced for a duty cycle of 33.3%, but they were still considerably longer than an "on-time" model would predict. No specific dependence of tsb{50} on pulse frequency was revealed by the data, that is, reasonably good predictions of tsb{50} could be made by recognizing the dominant influence of duty cycle. These findings confirm that IC miniaturization can be more aggressively pursued than an on-time prediction would allow. It is significant that this was found to be true for frequencies on the order of 100 MHz, where many present day digital applications operate. Post-test optical micrographs were obtained for each test subject in order to determine the location of electromigration damage. The pulse duty cycle was found to influence the location. Most damage occurred at the cathode contact, regardless of

  15. Tracking the evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation in RE J1034+396 using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-06-10

    RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform. Comparing with other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides bandpass-filtered data that can be used in the O – C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.

  16. Topological incommensurate magnetization plateaus in quasi-periodic quantum spin chains.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai-Ping; Cheng, Chen; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shu

    2015-02-13

    Uncovering topologically nontrivial states in nature is an intriguing and important issue in recent years. While most studies are based on the topological band insulators, the topological state in strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has not been extensively explored due to the failure of direct explanation from the topological band insulator theory on such systems and the origin of the topological property is unclear. Here we report the theoretical discovery of strongly correlated topological states in quasi-periodic Heisenberg spin chain systems corresponding to a series of incommensurate magnetization plateaus under the presence of the magnetic field, which are uniquely determined by the quasi-periodic structure of exchange couplings. The topological features of plateau states are demonstrated by the existence of non-trivial spin-flip edge excitations, which can be well characterized by nonzero topological invariants defined in a two-dimensional parameter space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the topological invariant of the plateau state can be read out from a generalized Streda formula and the spin-flip excitation spectrum exhibits a similar structure of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum for the two-dimensional quantum Hall system on a lattice.

  17. Stochastic Transients as a Source of Quasi-periodic Processes in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Su, Jiangtao; Jiao, Fangran; Walsh, Robert W.

    2016-06-01

    Solar dynamics and turbulence occur at all heights of the solar atmosphere and could be described as stochastic processes. We propose that finite-lifetime transients recurring at a certain place could trigger quasi-periodic processes in the associated structures. In this study, we developed a mathematical model for finite-lifetime and randomly occurring transients, and found that quasi-periodic processes with periods longer than the timescale of the transients, are detectable intrinsically in the form of trains. We simulate their propagation in an empirical solar atmospheric model with chromosphere, transition region, and corona. We found that, due to the filtering effect of the chromospheric cavity, only the resonance period of the acoustic resonator is able to propagate to the upper atmosphere; such a scenario is applicable to slow magnetoacoustic waves in sunspots and active regions. If the thermal structure of the atmosphere is less wild and acoustic resonance does not take place, the long-period oscillations could propagate to the upper atmosphere. Such a case would be more likely to occur in polar plumes.

  18. Source of Quasi-Periodic Brightenings of Solar Coronal Bright Points: Waves or Repeated Reconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Tanmoy; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are small-scale luminous features seen in the solar corona. Quasi-periodic brightenings are frequently observed in the BPs and are generally linked with underlying magnetic flux changes. We study the dynamics of a BP seen in the coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and spectroscopic data from the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The detailed analysis shows that the BP evolves throughout our observing period along with changes in underlying photospheric magnetic flux and shows periodic brightenings in different EUV and far-UV images. With the highest possible spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we attempted to identify the sources of these oscillations. IRIS sit-and-stare observation provided a unique opportunity to study the time evolution of one footpoint of the BP as the slit position crossed it. We noticed enhanced line profile asymmetry, enhanced line width, intensity enhancements, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of sudden flows along the line-of-sight direction. We propose that transition region explosive events originating from small-scale reconnections and the reconnection outflows are affecting the line profiles. The correlation between all these parameters is consistent with the repetitive reconnection scenario and could explain the quasi-periodic nature of the brightening.

  19. Quasi-periodic events in crystal plasticity and the self-organized avalanche oscillator.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Dimiduk, Dennis M; Choi, Woosong; Sethna, James P; Uchic, Michael D; Woodward, Christopher F; Zapperi, Stefano

    2012-10-25

    When external stresses in a system--physical, social or virtual--are relieved through impulsive events, it is natural to focus on the attributes of these avalanches. However, during the quiescent periods between them, stresses may be relieved through competing processes, such as slowly flowing water between earthquakes or thermally activated dislocation flow between plastic bursts in crystals. Such smooth responses can in turn have marked effects on the avalanche properties. Here we report an experimental investigation of slowly compressed nickel microcrystals, covering three orders of magnitude in nominal strain rate, in which we observe unconventional quasi-periodic avalanche bursts and higher critical exponents as the strain rate is decreased. Our experiments are faithfully reproduced by analytic and computational dislocation avalanche modelling that we have extended to incorporate dislocation relaxation, revealing the emergence of the self-organized avalanche oscillator: a novel critical state exhibiting oscillatory approaches towards a depinning critical point. This theory suggests that whenever avalanches compete with slow relaxation--in settings ranging from crystal microplasticity to earthquakes--dynamical quasi-periodic scale invariance ought to emerge.

  20. Topological incommensurate magnetization plateaus in quasi-periodic quantum spin chains

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hai-Ping; Cheng, Chen; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering topologically nontrivial states in nature is an intriguing and important issue in recent years. While most studies are based on the topological band insulators, the topological state in strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has not been extensively explored due to the failure of direct explanation from the topological band insulator theory on such systems and the origin of the topological property is unclear. Here we report the theoretical discovery of strongly correlated topological states in quasi-periodic Heisenberg spin chain systems corresponding to a series of incommensurate magnetization plateaus under the presence of the magnetic field, which are uniquely determined by the quasi-periodic structure of exchange couplings. The topological features of plateau states are demonstrated by the existence of non-trivial spin-flip edge excitations, which can be well characterized by nonzero topological invariants defined in a two-dimensional parameter space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the topological invariant of the plateau state can be read out from a generalized Streda formula and the spin-flip excitation spectrum exhibits a similar structure of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum for the two-dimensional quantum Hall system on a lattice. PMID:25678145

  1. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  2. Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillation from the Most Massive Stellar-Mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an approx.. = 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33 sigma confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q is identical with nu/delta nu, of approx. = 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of approx. = -2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies approx. > 0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A 7 mHz X-RAY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM THE MOST MASSIVE STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE IC 10 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Strohmayer, Tod E. E-mail: richard@astro.umd.edu

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an Almost-Equal-To 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33{sigma} confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q {identical_to} {nu}/{Delta}{nu}, of Almost-Equal-To 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of Almost-Equal-To - 2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies {approx}>0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the 'heartbeat' mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz 'dipper QPOs' of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.

  4. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-PROPAGATING MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND THE ASSOCIATED FLARE ON 2011 MAY 30

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-01

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  5. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  6. Experimental study of quasi-periodic on-off phenomena in a small-scale traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Ju, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    Periodic and spontaneous on-off oscillation belongs to the onset and damping behaviors of thermoacoustic engines, and investigations on this phenomenon lead to better operation of the thermoacoustic engines with stable performances. In this paper, the quasi- periodic on-off oscillation in a small-scale traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine with a resonator length of only 1 m was experimentally investigated. The type of working media, mean pressure and the input heating power are the main operating parameters, which significantly affect the formation of the periodic on-off oscillation. The experimental results demonstrated there was a critical charge pressure over which the periodic on-off oscillation could happen. For the small- scale engine with helium gas as the working media, the mean pressure threshold value was about 1.4 MPa and the on-off oscillation occurred with a single frequency. Using nitrogen and argon gas as the working media, the on-off oscillation was not observed. The reason was qualitatively analyzed as well.

  7. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of the soft gamma repeater J1550–5418

    SciTech Connect

    Huppenkothen, D.; D'Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; Van der Klis, M.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Baring, M. G.; Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y.; Granot, J.; Lin, L.; Von Kienlin, A.; Younes, G.

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550–5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ∼93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.

  8. Quasi-periodic solutions of the Belov-Chaltikian lattice hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xianguo; Zeng, Xin

    Utilizing the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the Belov-Chaltikian (BC) lattice hierarchy associated with a 3 × 3 discrete matrix spectral problem, we introduce a trigonal curve with three infinite points, from which we establish the associated Dubrovin-type equations. The essential properties of the Baker-Akhiezer function and the meromorphic function are discussed, that include their asymptotic behavior near three infinite points on the trigonal curve and the divisor of the meromorphic function. The Abel map is introduced to straighten out the continuous flow and the discrete flow in the Jacobian variety, from which the quasi-periodic solutions of the entire BC lattice hierarchy are obtained in terms of the Riemann theta function.

  9. Wideband absorption in fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Liu, Shaobin; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Xiangkun; Bian, Borui; Bao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A heterostructure containing a Fibonacci quasi-periodic layer and a resonant metal back reflector is proposed, which can realize wideband absorption. The Fibonacci layer is composed of graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials and isotropic media to obtain wideband absorption. To enhance absorption, an impedance-matching layer is put on top of the Fibonacci layer. It is shown to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves in an 11 terahertz absorption bandwidth for a transverse magnetic mode at normal angle incidence. The absorption bandwidth is affected by the reflection band gap. Compared with some previous designs, our proposed structure has a larger absorption bandwidth and higher absorption in the mid-infrared range. The results should be valuable in the design of infrared stealth and broadband optoelectronic devices.

  10. The effect of gravitational lensing on pulsed emission from neutron stars exhibiting quasi-periodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K. S.; Ftaclas, C.; Kearney, M.

    1988-01-01

    Some quasi-periodic oscillation models are based on accretion onto a neutron star possessing a weak magnetic field. These models successfully explain many aspects of the observed oscillations, yet they acquire a rapidly rotating neutron star possessing a magnetic field that can channel accretion flow, leading to uneven heating of the star surface. This is similar to what happens in accreting binary pulsars, yet modulation of X-ray flux at the spin period has not been observed. It is suggested that gravitational deflection of photons can be very effective in reducing this pulsed flux under exactly the conditions required in these QPO models. Gravitational effects appear to be essential to reducing the pulsed flux to levels consistent with observation. Implications for QPO observations and for the theory of binary pulsars are discussed.

  11. Quasi-periodic solutions for fully nonlinear forced reversible Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Roberto; Procesi, Michela

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we consider a class of fully nonlinear forced and reversible Schrödinger equations and prove existence and stability of quasi-periodic solutions. We use a Nash-Moser algorithm together with a reducibility theorem on the linearized operator in a neighborhood of zero. Due to the presence of the highest order derivatives in the non-linearity the classic KAM-reducibility argument fails and one needs to use a wider class of changes of variables such as diffeomorphisms of the torus and pseudo-differential operators. This procedure automatically produces a change of variables, well defined on the phase space of the equation, which diagonalizes the operator linearized at the solution. This gives the linear stability.

  12. Study of possible chaotic, quasi-periodic and periodic structures in quantum dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-11-15

    Existence of chaotic, quasi-periodic, and periodic structures of dust-ion acoustic waves is studied in quantum dusty plasmas through dynamical system approach. A system of coupled differential equations is derived from the fluid model and subsequently, variational matrix is obtained. The characteristic equation is obtained at the equilibrium point, and the behavior of nonlinear waves is studied numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The behavior of the dynamical system changes significantly when any of plasma parameters, such as the dust concentration parameter, temperature ratio, or the quantum diffraction parameter, is varied. The change of the characteristic of solution of the system is extensively studied. It is found that the system changes its behavior from chaotic pattern to limit cycle behavior.

  13. Periodic and quasi-periodic behavior in resource-dependent age structured population models.

    PubMed

    Dilão, R; Domingos, T

    2001-03-01

    To describe the dynamics of a resource-dependent age structured population, a general non-linear Leslie type model is derived. The dependence on the resources is introduced through the death rates of the reproductive age classes. The conditions assumed in the derivation of the model are regularity and plausible limiting behaviors of the functions in the model. It is shown that the model dynamics restricted to its omega-limit sets is a diffeomorphism of a compact set, and the period-1 fixed points of the model are structurally stable. The loss of stability of the non-zero steady state occurs by a discrete Hopf bifurcation. Under general conditions, and after the loss of stability of the structurally stable steady states, the time evolution of population numbers is periodic or quasi-periodic. Numerical analysis with prototype functions has been performed, and the conditions leading to chaotic behavior in time are discussed.

  14. Quasi-periodic acceleration of electrons by a plasmoid-driven shock in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, E.; Long, D.; Byrne, J.; Zucca, P.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic rays and solar energetic particles are thought to be accelerated to relativistic energies by shock waves in astrophysical plasmas. On the Sun, plasma shocks are often associated with the eruption of magnetized plasmoids, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, clear evidence linking these enigmatic phenomena, and the underlying process responsible for particle acceleration is not well understood. Here, we use extreme ultraviolet, radio, and white-light imaging of an event on 22 September 2011 to show that a CME-induced shock (Alfven Mach number 2.4) was coincident with a coronal wave and an intense decametric radio burst generated by electrons with kinetic energies of 2 - 46 keV (0.1 - 0.4 c). Our observations show that plasmoid-driven quasi-perpendicular shocks are capable of producing quasi-periodic acceleration of electrons, an effect consistent with a turbulent or rippled plasma shock surface.

  15. The Analyticity Breakdown for Frenkel-Kontorova Models in Quasi-periodic Media: Numerical Explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blass, Timothy; de la Llave, Rafael

    2013-03-01

    We study numerically the "analyticity breakdown" transition in 1-dimensional quasi-periodic media. This transition corresponds physically to the transition between pinned down and sliding ground states. Mathematically, it corresponds to the solutions of a functional equation losing their analyticity properties. We implemented some recent numerical algorithms that are efficient and backed up by rigorous results so that we can compute with confidence even close to the breakdown. We have uncovered several phenomena that we believe deserve a theoretical explanation: (A) The transition happens in a smooth surface. (B) There are scaling relations near breakdown. (C) The scaling near breakdown is very anisotropic. Derivatives in different directions blow up at different rates. Similar phenomena seem to happen in other KAM problems.

  16. Delayed feedback control and phase reduction of unstable quasi-periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Komuro, Motomasa

    2014-09-01

    The delayed feedback control (DFC) is applied to stabilize unstable quasi-periodic orbits (QPOs) in discrete-time systems. The feedback input is given by the difference between the current state and a time-delayed state in the DFC. However, there is an inevitable time-delay mismatch in QPOs. To evaluate the influence of the time-delay mismatch on the DFC, we propose a phase reduction method for QPOs and construct a phase response curve (PRC) from unstable QPOs directly. Using the PRC, we estimate the rotation number of QPO stabilized by the DFC. We show that the orbit of the DFC is consistent with the unstable QPO perturbed by a small state difference resulting from the time-delay mismatch, implying that the DFC can certainly stabilize the unstable QPO.

  17. Delayed feedback control and phase reduction of unstable quasi-periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Komuro, Motomasa

    2014-09-01

    The delayed feedback control (DFC) is applied to stabilize unstable quasi-periodic orbits (QPOs) in discrete-time systems. The feedback input is given by the difference between the current state and a time-delayed state in the DFC. However, there is an inevitable time-delay mismatch in QPOs. To evaluate the influence of the time-delay mismatch on the DFC, we propose a phase reduction method for QPOs and construct a phase response curve (PRC) from unstable QPOs directly. Using the PRC, we estimate the rotation number of QPO stabilized by the DFC. We show that the orbit of the DFC is consistent with the unstable QPO perturbed by a small state difference resulting from the time-delay mismatch, implying that the DFC can certainly stabilize the unstable QPO.

  18. Optical properties of structures composed of periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic sequences of particulate monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, V. A.; Miskevich, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The spectra of the coherent transmission and reflection coefficients of multilayers consisting of the periodic, Fibonacci (quasi-periodic), and Thue-Morse (aperiodic) sequences of plane-parallel monolayers of monodisperse spherical alumina and silica particles are investigated using the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) and the transfer matrix method (TMM). The additional opportunities for the transmission and reflection spectra manipulation in comparison with the periodic sequence of monolayers are demonstrated. Photonic band gaps in the spectra of the particulate structures are shifted to the short-wavelength range in comparison with those for systems of homogeneous layers. The shift is larger for the Thue-Morse sequence. The widths of the photonic band gaps for particulate systems are narrower than the ones for multilayers consisting of homogeneous layers of an equivalent volume of matter. The results can be used to create optical, optoelectronics, and photonics devices—for example, multispectral filters, light emitting diodes, solar cells, displays.

  19. Decomposition of the (2 + 1)- dimensional Gardner equation and its quasi-periodic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xianguo; Cao, Cewen

    2001-11-01

    To decompose the (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation, an isospectral problem and a corresponding hierarchy of (1 + 1)-dimensional soliton equations are proposed. The (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation is separated into the first two non-trivial (1 + 1)-dimensional soliton systems in the hierarchy, and in turn into two new compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations. Using the generating function flow method, the involutivity and the functional independence of the integrals are proved. The Abel-Jacobi coordinates are introduced to straighten out the associated flows. The Riemann-Jacobi inversion problem is discussed, from which quasi-periodic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation are obtained by resorting to the Riemann theta functions.

  20. Quasi-periodic solutions for quasi-linear generalized KdV equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    We prove the existence of Cantor families of small amplitude, linearly stable, quasi-periodic solutions of quasi-linear autonomous Hamiltonian generalized KdV equations. We consider the most general quasi-linear quadratic nonlinearity. The proof is based on an iterative Nash-Moser algorithm. To initialize this scheme, we need to perform a bifurcation analysis taking into account the strongly perturbative effects of the nonlinearity near the origin. In particular, we implement a weak version of the Birkhoff normal form method. The inversion of the linearized operators at each step of the iteration is achieved by pseudo-differential techniques, linear Birkhoff normal form algorithms and a linear KAM reducibility scheme.

  1. The eight-vertex model with quasi-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niccoli, G.; Terras, V.

    2016-01-01

    We study the inhomogeneous eight-vertex model (or equivalently the XYZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain) with all kinds of integrable quasi-periodic boundary conditions: periodic, {σ }x-twisted, {σ }y-twisted or {σ }z-twisted. We show that in all these cases but the periodic one with an even number of sites {N}, the transfer matrix of the model is related, by the vertex-IRF transformation, to the transfer matrix of the dynamical six-vertex model with antiperiodic boundary conditions, which we have recently solved by means of Sklyanin's separation of variables approach. We show moreover that, in all the twisted cases, the vertex-IRF transformation is bijective. This allows us to completely characterize, from our previous results on the antiperiodic dynamical six-vertex model, the twisted eight-vertex transfer matrix spectrum (proving that it is simple) and eigenstates. We also consider the periodic case for {N} odd. In this case we can define two independent vertex-IRF transformations, both not bijective, and by using them we show that the eight-vertex transfer matrix spectrum is doubly degenerate, and that it can, as well as the corresponding eigenstates, also be completely characterized in terms of the spectrum and eigenstates of the dynamical six-vertex antiperiodic transfer matrix. In all these cases we can adapt to the eight-vertex case the reformulations of the dynamical six-vertex transfer matrix spectrum and eigenstates that had been obtained by T-Q functional equations, where the Q-functions are elliptic polynomials with twist-dependent quasi-periods. Such reformulations enable one to characterize the eight-vertex transfer matrix spectrum by the solutions of some Bethe-type equations, and to rewrite the corresponding eigenstates as the multiple action of some operators on a pseudo-vacuum state, in a similar way as in the algebraic Bethe ansatz framework.

  2. Constraining Models of Twin-Peak Quasi-periodic Oscillations with Realistic Neutron Star Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Gabriel; Goluchová, Kateřina; Urbanec, Martin; Šrámková, Eva; Adámek, Karel; Urbancová, Gabriela; Pecháček, Tomáš; Bakala, Pavel; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Horák, Jiří; Juryšek, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several accreting low-mass neutron star (NS) binaries. In our previous work we have considered several QPO models. We have identified and explored mass-angular-momentum relations implied by individual QPO models for the atoll source 4U 1636-53. In this paper we extend our study and confront QPO models with various NS equations of state (EoS). We start with simplified calculations assuming Kerr background geometry and then present results of detailed calculations considering the influence of NS quadrupole moment (related to rotationally induced NS oblateness) assuming Hartle-Thorne spacetimes. We show that the application of concrete EoS together with a particular QPO model yields a specific mass-angular-momentum relation. However, we demonstrate that the degeneracy in mass and angular momentum can be removed when the NS spin frequency inferred from the X-ray burst observations is considered. We inspect a large set of EoS and discuss their compatibility with the considered QPO models. We conclude that when the NS spin frequency in 4U 1636-53 is close to 580 Hz, we can exclude 51 of the 90 considered combinations of EoS and QPO models. We also discuss additional restrictions that may exclude even more combinations. Namely, 13 EOS are compatible with the observed twin-peak QPOs and the relativistic precession model. However, when considering the low-frequency QPOs and Lense-Thirring precession, only 5 EOS are compatible with the model.

  3. Intermittency and lifetime of the 625 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation in the 2004 hyperflare from the magnetar SGR 1806-20 as evidence for magnetic coupling between the crust and the core

    SciTech Connect

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Levin, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in the 2004 giant flare from SGR 1806-20 are often interpreted as global magneto-elastic oscillations of the neutron star. There is, however, a large discrepancy between theoretical models, which predict that the highest frequency oscillations should die out rapidly, and the observations, which suggested that the highest-frequency signals persisted for ∼100 s in X-ray data from two different spacecraft. This discrepancy is particularly important for the high-frequency QPO at ∼625 Hz. However, previous analyses did not systematically test whether the signal could also be present in much shorter data segments, more consistent with the theoretical predictions. Here, we test for the presence of the high-frequency QPO at 625 Hz in data from both the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) systematically both in individual rotational cycles of the neutron star, as well as averaged over multiple successive rotational cycles at the same phase. We find that the QPO in the RXTE data is consistent with being only present in a single cycle, for a short duration of ∼0.5 s, whereas the RHESSI data are as consistent with a short-lived signal that appears and disappears as with a long-lived QPO. Taken together, this data provides evidence for strong magnetic interaction between the crust and the core.

  4. Statistical analysis and multi-instrument overview of the quasi-periodic 1-hour pulsations in Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmaerts, B.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Yates, J. N.

    2016-06-01

    The in-situ exploration of the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn has revealed different periodic processes. In particular, in the Saturnian magnetosphere, several studies have reported pulsations in the outer magnetosphere with a periodicity of about 1 h in the measurements of charged particle fluxes, plasma wave, magnetic field strength and auroral emissions brightness. The Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System detector of the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI/LEMMS) on board Cassini regularly detects 1-hour quasi-periodic enhancements in the intensities of electrons with an energy range from a hundred keV to several MeV. We extend an earlier survey of these relativistic electron injections using 10 years of LEMMS observations in addition to context measurements by several other Cassini magnetospheric experiments. The one-year extension of the data and a different method of detection of the injections do not lead to a discrepancy with the results of the previous survey, indicating an absence of a long-term temporal evolution of this phenomenon. We identified 720 pulsed events in the outer magnetosphere over a wide range of latitudes and local times, revealing that this phenomenon is common and frequent in Saturn's magnetosphere. However, the distribution of the injection events presents a strong local time asymmetry with ten times more events in the duskside than in the dawnside. In addition to the study of their topology, we present a first statistical analysis of the pulsed events properties. The morphology of the pulsations shows a weak local time dependence which could imply a high-latitude acceleration source. We provide some clues that the electron population associated with this pulsed phenomenon is distinct from the field-aligned electron beams previously observed in Saturn's magnetosphere, but both populations can be mixed. We have also investigated the signatures of each electron injection event in the observations acquired by the Radio

  5. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  6. High power, high frequency component test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Krawczonek, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has available a high frequency, high power laboratory facility for testing various components of aerospace and/or terrestrial power systems. This facility is described here. All of its capabilities and potential applications are detailed.

  7. O VI 1032 Å intensity and Doppler shift oscillations above a coronal hole: Magnetosonic waves or quasi-periodic upflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, S.; Raymond, J. C.; Rubinetti, S.; Taricco, C.

    2016-08-01

    On 1996 December 19, the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) conducted a special high-cadence sit-and-stare observation in the O vi 1032 Å spectral line above a polar coronal hole at a heliocentric distance of 1.38 R⊙. The ~ 9-h dataset was analyzed by applying advanced spectral techniques to investigate the possible presence of propagating waves. Highly significant oscillations in O vi intensity (P = 19.5 min) and Doppler shift (P = 7.2 min) were detected over two different portions of the UVCS entrance slit. A cross-correlation analysis between the O vi intensity and Doppler shift fluctuations shows that the most powerful oscillations were in phase or anti-phase over the same portions of the slit, thus providing a possible signature of propagating magnetosonic waves. The episodic nature of the observed oscillations and the large amplitudes of the Doppler shift fluctuations detected in our observations, if not attributable to line-of-sight effects or inefficient damping, may indicate that the observed fluctuations were produced by quasi-periodic upflows.

  8. The 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation structure in GRS 1915+105 and cubic subharmonics in the context of relativistic discoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rodríguez, M.; Solís-Sánchez, H.; López-Barquero, V.; Matamoros-Alvarado, B.; Venegas-Li, A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a simple toy model to explain the 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) structure in GRS 1915+105 and, more generally, the 2:3 QPO structure in XTE J1550-564, GRO J1655-40 and H1743-322. The model exploits the onset of subharmonics in the context of discoseismology. We suggest that the observed frequencies may be the consequence of a resonance between a fundamental g mode and an unobservable p wave. The results include the prediction that, as better data become available, a QPO with a frequency of twice the higher twin frequency and a large quality factor will be observed in twin peak sources, as it might already have been observed in the especially active GRS 1915+105.

  9. Detection of the first infra-red quasi-periodic oscillation in a black hole X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkar, M.; Casella, P.; Uttley, P.; O'Brien, K.; Russell, D.; Maccarone, T.; van der Klis, M.; Vincentelli, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of fast variability of Very Large Telescope/ISAAC (Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera) (infra-red), XMM-Newton/OM (optical) and EPIC-pn (X-ray), and RXTE/PCA (X-ray) observations of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 in a rising hard state of its outburst in 2010. We report the first detection of a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the infra-red band (IR) of a black hole X-ray binary. The QPO is detected at 0.08 Hz in the IR as well as two optical bands (U and V). Interestingly, these QPOs are at half the X-ray QPO frequency at 0.16 Hz, which is classified as the type-C QPO; a weak sub-harmonic close to the IR and optical QPO frequency is also detected in X-rays. The band-limited sub-second time-scale variability is strongly correlated in IR/X-ray bands, with X-rays leading the IR by over 120 ms. This short time delay, shape of the cross-correlation function and spectral energy distribution strongly indicate that this band-limited variable IR emission is the synchrotron emission from the jet. A jet origin for the IR QPO is strongly favoured, but cannot be definitively established with the current data. The spectral energy distribution indicates a thermal disc origin for the bulk of the optical emission, but the origin of the optical QPO is unclear. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

  10. Energy Spectra and High Frequency Oscillations in 4U 0614+091

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, E. C.; Kaaret, P.; Chen, K.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 4U 0614+091, combining timing and spectral analysis of RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) observations. The energy spectrum of the source can be described by a power law plus a blackbody component. The blackbody has a variable temperature (kT approximately 0.8 to 1.4 keV) and accounts for 10 to 25% of the total energy flux. The power law flux and photon index also vary (F approximately 0.8 to 1.6 x 10(exp -9) erg/sq cm.s and alpha approximately 2.0 to 2.8 respectively). We find a robust correlation of the frequency of the higher frequency QPO with the flux of the blackbody. The source follows the same relation even in observations separated by several months. The QPO frequency does not have a similarly unique correlation with the total flux or the flux of the power law component. The RMS amplitudes of the higher frequency QPO rise with energy but are consistent with a constant for the lower frequency QPO. These results may be interpreted in terms of a beat frequency model for the production of the high frequency QPOs.

  11. Revisiting Quasi-periodic Modulation in γ-Ray Blazar PKS 2155-304 with Fermi Pass 8 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-fei; Yan, Da-hai; Liao, Neng-hui; Wang, Jian-cheng

    2017-02-01

    We examine the gamma-ray quasi-periodic variability of PKS 2155-304 with the latest publicly available Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data, which covers the years from 2008 August to 2016 October. We produce the light curves in two ways: the exposure-weighted aperture photometry and the maximum likelihood optimization. The light curves are then analyzed by using Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Weighted Wavelet Z-transform, and the results reveal a significant quasi-periodicity with a period of 1.74 ± 0.13 years and a significance of ∼4.9σ. The constraint of multifrequencies quasi-periodic variabilities on blazar emission model is discussed.

  12. Quasi-periodic Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Gazi N.; Goller, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2 μm. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1-2.6 GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50 dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and quasi-periodic structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.

  13. Quasi-Periodic Slow Earthquakes and Their Association With Magmatic Activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Foster, J. H.; Sandwell, D.; Poland, M.; Myer, D.; Wolfe, C.; Patrick, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1998 the mobile south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i, has been the site of multiple slow earthquake (SE) events recorded principally with continuous GPS. One spatially coincident family of these SEs exhibited a high degree of periodicity (774 +/- 7 days) from 1998 to 2005 suggesting the next SE would be in mid-March, 2007. In fact, no anomalous deformation occurred there until the June 17 Father's day dike intrusion that caused up to 1m of opening along Kilauea's east rift zone. We analyzed deformation related to the Father's day event using GPS, tilt, ALOS and Envisat interferometry, microseismicity, and elastic dislocation modeling. Our analysis reveals significant motions of far-field sites that cannot be explained by dike-related deformation and that are very similar to previous SE displacements of the same sites, strongly suggesting that a SE occurred. Inclusion of this event in the overall time series yields SE repeat times of 798 +/- 50 days, apparently maintaining the quasi- periodicity of the Kilauea events. Furthermore, the timing of dike- and SE-related deformation and stress modeling suggest the Father's day dike triggered the slow earthquake. We explore the connection between magmatism and SEs at Kilauea and find a potential correlation between SE-timing and eruptive activity since 2000. This suggests the possibility that a mechanistic understanding of Kilauea SEs may require consideration of magmatic processes in addition to fault zone processes.

  14. Robust fast direct integral equation solver for quasi-periodic scattering problems with a large number of layers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Hyung; Barnett, Alex H

    2015-01-26

    We present a new boundary integral formulation for time-harmonic wave diffraction from two-dimensional structures with many layers of arbitrary periodic shape, such as multilayer dielectric gratings in TM polarization. Our scheme is robust at all scattering parameters, unlike the conventional quasi-periodic Green's function method which fails whenever any of the layers approaches a Wood anomaly. We achieve this by a decomposition into near- and far-field contributions. The former uses the free-space Green's function in a second-kind integral equation on one period of the material interfaces and their immediate left and right neighbors; the latter uses proxy point sources and small least-squares solves (Schur complements) to represent the remaining contribution from distant copies. By using high-order discretization on interfaces (including those with corners), the number of unknowns per layer is kept small. We achieve overall linear complexity in the number of layers, by direct solution of the resulting block tridiagonal system. For device characterization we present an efficient method to sweep over multiple incident angles, and show a 25× speedup over solving each angle independently. We solve the scattering from a 1000-layer structure with 3 × 105 unknowns to 9-digit accuracy in 2.5 minutes on a desktop workstation.

  15. Millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations in 4U 1636-53 associated with bursts with positive convexity only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Ming; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Zhang, Guobao

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the convexity of all type I X-ray bursts with millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (mHz QPOs) in 4U 1636-53 using archival observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We found that, at a 3.5σ confidence level, in all 39 cases in which the mHz QPOs disappeared at the time of an X-ray burst, the convexity of the burst is positive. The convexity measures the shape of the rising part of the burst light curve and, according to recent models, it is related to the ignition site of bursts on the neutron-star surface. This finding suggests that in 4U 1636-53 these 39 bursts and the marginally stable nuclear burning process responsible for the mHz QPOs take place at the neutron-star equator. This scenario could explain the inconsistency between the high accretion rate required for triggering mHz QPOs in theoretical models and the relatively low accretion rate derived from observations.

  16. Imaging observation of quasi-periodic disturbances' amplitudes increasing with height in the polar region of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. T.; Priya, T. G.; Liu, Y.; Shen, Y. D.

    2014-08-01

    At present, there have been few extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging observations of spatial variations of the density perturbations due to the slow magnetoacoustic waves (SMWs) propagating along the solar coronal magnetic fields. In this paper, we present such observations taken from the polar region of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and investigate the amplitude of quasi-periodic propagating disturbances that increase with height in the lower corona (0-9 Mm over the solar limb). We statistically determined the following parameters associated with the disturbances: pressure scale height, period, and wavelength in AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å channels. The scale height and wavelength are dependent of temperature, while the period is independent of temperature. The acoustic velocities inferred from the scale height highly correlate with the ratios of wavelength to period, i.e., phase speeds. They provide evidence that the propagating disturbances in the lower corona are likely SMWs and the spatial variations in EUV intensity in the polar region likely reflects the density compressional effect by the propagating SMWs.

  17. Quasi-periodic Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, Gazi N. Goller, Bernhard

    2014-09-07

    A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2 μm. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1–2.6 GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50 dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and quasi-periodic structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.

  18. A Model for Backscattering from Quasi Periodic Corn Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Zhao, Q.; O'Neill, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a model for backscattering at L-band from a corn canopy is proposed. The canopy consists of a quasi-periodic distribution of stalks and a random distribution of leaves. The Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) is employed to calculate the single scattered return from the corn field. The new feature of the method is that the coherence of the stalks in the row direction is incorporated in the model in a systematic fashion. Since the wavelength is on the order of the distance between corn stalks in a row, grating lobe behavior is observed at certain azimuth angles of incidence. The results are compared with experimental values measured in Huntsville, Alabama in 1998. The mean field and the effective dielectric constant of the canopy are obtained by using the Foldy approximation. The stalks are placed in the effective medium in a two dimensional lattice to simulate the row structure of a corn field. In order to mimic a real corn field, a quasi-periodic stalk distribution is assumed where the stalks are given small random perturbations about their lattice locations. Corn leaves are also embedded in the effective medium and the backscattered field from the stalks and the leaves is computed. The backscattering coefficient is calculated and averaged over successive stalk position perturbations. It is assumed that soil erosion has smoothed the soil sufficiently so that it can be assumed flat. Corn field backscatter data was collected from cornfields during the Huntsville 98 experimental campaign held at Alabama A&M University Research Station, Huntsville, Alabama in 1998 using the NASA/GW truck mounted radar. Extensive ground truth data was collected. This included soil moisture measurements and corn plant architectural data to be used in the model. In particular, the distances between the stalks in a single row have been measured. The L-band radar backscatter data was collected for both H and V polarizations and for look angles of 15o and 45o over a two week

  19. Influence of quasi-periodic cladding on single mode behavior in a leakage channel fiber: Towards the enhancement of modal discrimination and low bending loss of the LP01 mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valliammai, M.; Senthilnathan, K.; Ramesh Babu, P.; Sivabalan, S.

    2017-04-01

    A silica quasi-periodic clad leakage channel fiber (LCF) is proposed to enhance the mode filtering characteristics with large effective mode area (Aeff). In this work, we explore the fiber characteristics, namely, bending loss (BL), Aeff and differential loss for different micro-structured cladding LCF designs. Of the various LCFs, an octagonal core-octagonal quasi-periodic clad LCF provides a large loss ratio (>103) between fundamental mode (LP01 mode) and most competitive higher order mode (LP11 mode). Further, it exhibits a high BL of 66.48 dB/m for LP11 mode by resonance mode filtering along with a bend induced modal discrimination at 1.05 μm wavelength. The detailed numerical results reveal that the differential loss ratio goes high when the effective index of the second ring of eight sectional elements in a quasi-periodic cladding is scaled up and the Aeff increases when it is scaled down. Thus, the proposed octagonal core-octagonal quasi-periodic clad LCF exhibits a large mode area of 1161 μm2, a low BL of 0.04 dB/m for the LP01 mode and a high differential loss ratio of 1624 between LP11 and LP01 modes at a critical bending radius of 15 cm with an air-filling ratio of 0.4. These interesting properties of the LCF could pave way for developing a compact high power fiber laser system.

  20. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  1. [Principals of high frequency surgery].

    PubMed

    Bergler, W F; Hörmann, K; Hammerschmitt, N; Huber, K

    2004-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments are routinely and daily applied at a variety of indications in Otorhinolaryngology. They can be used for cutting, coagulation and devitalisation. All have in common that the high frequency energy is transported into the tissue via an instrument and by this causes a thermal change. Depending on the duration and characteristic of the electricity a vaporisation of the tissue is effected through coagulation, devitalisation and carbonisation. The knowledge of the effects on the tissue by the choice of the different instrument parameters and application systems is essential for an ingenious therapeutically indication. In principal the following application methods for electrosurgery by modulation of the high frequency parameters are distinguished: the monopolar and the bipolar coagulation and devitalisation and the monopolar and the bipolar cutting. This article deals with the physical basis, the effects in the tissue as well as the single application methods of the high frequency surgery.

  2. Detection of Possible Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Long-term Optical Light Curve of the BL Lac Object OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, G.; Zola, S.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ostrowski, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogłoza, W.; Dróżdż, M.; Siwak, M.; Liakos, A.; Kozieł-Wierzbowska, D.; Gazeas, K.; Debski, B.; Kundera, T.; Stachowski, G.; Paliya, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of periodicity in the broadband non-thermal emission of blazars has so far been proven to be elusive. However, there are a number of scenarios that could lead to quasi-periodic variations in blazar light curves. For example, an orbital or thermal/viscous period of accreting matter around central supermassive black holes could, in principle, be imprinted in the multi-wavelength emission of small-scale blazar jets, carrying such crucial information about plasma conditions within the jet launching regions. In this paper, we present the results of our time series analysis of the ˜9.2 yr long, and exceptionally well-sampled, optical light curve of the BL Lac object OJ 287. The study primarily used the data from our own observations performed at the Mt. Suhora and Kraków Observatories in Poland, and at the Athens Observatory in Greece. Additionally, SMARTS observations were used to fill some of the gaps in the data. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram and the weighted wavelet Z-transform methods were employed to search for possible quasi-periodic oscillations in the resulting optical light curve of the source. Both methods consistently yielded a possible quasi-periodic signal around the periods of ˜400 and ˜800 days, the former with a significance (over the underlying colored noise) of ≥slant 99 % . A number of likely explanations for this are discussed, with preference given to a modulation of the jet production efficiency by highly magnetized accretion disks. This supports previous findings and the interpretation reported recently in the literature for OJ 287 and other blazar sources.

  3. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  4. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  5. Quasi-periodic pulsations with multiple periods in hard X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2017-10-01

    We explore quasi-periodic pulsations with multiple periods in hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during the impulsive phase of a solar flare (SOL2014-09-10). The completely new observational result is that the shorter periods appear at lower energies of the X-ray photons at the beginning and the longer periods appear at higher energies at the end, with some intersection of the periods at medium energies. We also find shorter and then longer periods during the same phase of this flare. Using the wavelet power spectrum and fast Fourier transform spectrum, we analyse the normalized rapidly varying signal divided by its slowly varying signal, which is the smoothed original HXR flux. The periods of 27 and 37 s are derived at lower-energy channels between 17:25 and 17:29 ut (i.e. 12.0-27.3 and 27.3-50.9 keV). Then, the periods of 27, 46 and 60 s are observed at the medium-energy channel from 17:26 to 17:33 ut, such as 50.9-102.3 keV. Also, the period of 80 s is detected at the higher-energy channel from 17:28 to 17:33 ut, such as 102.3-296.4 keV.

  6. ON THE NATURE OF QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION PHASE LAGS IN BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2012-06-20

    Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes (BHs). In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provide feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and time-delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its nonlinear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy-dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signals in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly discuss the implications of the observed energy dependence of the QPO reverberation times and amplitudes on the nature of the power-law spectral component and its variability.

  7. Evidence Of Quasi Periodic Modulation In The Gamma-Ray Blazar PG1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutini, Sara; Ciprini, S.; Stamerra, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Perri, M.

    2016-10-01

    For the first time a gamma-ray and multi-wavelength nearly-periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus is reported by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E>100 MeV and E>1 GeV) is observed from the well-known GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The significance of the 2.18 +/- 0.08 year-period gamma-ray modulation, seen in 3.5 oscillation maxima observed, is supported by significant cross-correlated variations observed in radio and optical flux light curves, through data collected in the OVRO, Tuorla, KAIT, and CSS monitoring programs and Swift UVOT and XRT. As a BL Lac object, the mechanism driving the observed modulation could arise from the jet itself or from the process feeding the jet. It might point to interesting physical phenomena such as pulsational accretion flow instabilities, jet precession, or the tantalizing possibility of a milli-parsec scale binary super massive black hole system An intense multi-wavelength campaign aimed at unbiased monitoring of the source activity, from radio to VHE (E>100 GeV) gamma rays, started in 2015. It aims at revealing the physical scenarios that can account for such a variability pattern and at covering the next maximum, expected between the end of 2016 and beginning of 2017.

  8. Variations in Optical S+ Emission from the Io Plasma Torus: Evidence for Quasi Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R. Carey, Jr.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1997-04-01

    As part of its efforts to monitor and characterize periodic variations in the Io plasma torus, the Wisconsin Space Physics group acquired Fabry-Perot spectra of [S II] λλ6716, 6731 for a 5 week period in 1988. Previous analysis showed periodicity, but, surprisingly, not at 10.2 hr--the persistent 3% subcorotational period, often called System IV, reported in other long-term torus data sets. We show here that our 1988 data exhibit a quasi-periodic intensity variation at 10.2 hr, characterized by two distinct intensity enhancements that abruptly changed in relative magnitude during the observational run. We also present perpendicular ion temperature data from the same period, showing a periodic variation anticorrelated with intensity after the aforementioned abrupt change, but no significant periodicity beforehand. This non/anticorrelation appears to eliminate the possibility that a slowly moving magnetic field enhancement is responsible for the subcorotational periodicity. Considering these and other long-term data, we suggest that the various observed subcorotational features are not themselves responsible for the 3% subcorotational period, but rather are independent features modulated or otherwise affected by a permanent, global phenomenon in the torus lagging corotation by 3%.

  9. Quasi-periodic recurrence of large earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Weldon, Ray J.; Fumal, Tom E.

    2010-01-01

    It has been 153 yr since the last large earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault (California, United States), but the average interseismic interval is only ~100 yr. If the recurrence of large earthquakes is periodic, rather than random or clustered, the length of this period is notable and would generally increase the risk estimated in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses. Unfortunately, robust characterization of a distribution describing earthquake recurrence on a single fault is limited by the brevity of most earthquake records. Here we use statistical tests on a 3000 yr combined record of 29 ground-rupturing earthquakes from Wrightwood, California. We show that earthquake recurrence there is more regular than expected from a Poisson distribution and is not clustered, leading us to conclude that recurrence is quasi-periodic. The observation of unimodal time dependence is persistent across an observationally based sensitivity analysis that critically examines alternative interpretations of the geologic record. The results support formal forecast efforts that use renewal models to estimate probabilities of future earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault. Only four intervals (15%) from the record are longer than the present open interval, highlighting the current hazard posed by this fault.

  10. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Foullon, C.; Inglis, A. R.; Myagkova, I. N.

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of gamma-ray emission with a period of about 40 s are found in a single loop X-class solar flare on 2005 January 1 at photon energies up to 2-6 MeV with the SOlar Neutrons and Gamma-rays (SONG) experiment aboard the CORONAS-F mission. The oscillations are also found to be present in the microwave emission detected with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and in the hard X-ray and low energy gamma-ray channels of RHESSI. Periodogram and correlation analysis shows that the 40 s QPPs of microwave, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray emission are almost synchronous in all observation bands. Analysis of the spatial structure of hard X-ray and low energy (80-225 keV) gamma-ray QPP with RHESSI reveals synchronous while asymmetric QPP at both footpoints of the flaring loop. The difference between the averaged hard X-ray fluxes coming from the two footpoint sources is found to oscillate with a period of about 13 s for five cycles in the highest emission stage of the flare. The proposed mechanism generating the 40 s QPP is a triggering of magnetic reconnection by a kink oscillation in a nearby loop. The 13 s periodicity could be produced by the second harmonics of the sausage mode of the flaring loop.

  11. Possible Detection of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Sgr A* at 43 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Yuhei; Oka, Tomoharu; Miyoshi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are believed to be indirect evidence for black holes. Several authors have reported detections of QPOs from Sgr A*, the nucleus of our Galaxy, in infrared and X-ray wavelength during flare-ups. Miyoshi et al. (2011) reported a tentative detection of QPOs in the 43 GHz light curve of Sgr A* obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). To confirm their detection, we reanalysed their VLBA data very conservatively. The 43 GHz flux was calculated for every 15 seconds by assuming a two-dimensional Gaussian-shape spatial structure. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram of the 43 GHz flux just after a millimeter wave flare of Sgr A*, shows three apparent peaks at 10.2, 14.6 and 32.1 min. Two of them are barely consistent with the previously reported QPOs. Using the resonant oscillation model, we estimated the spin parameter of the Sgr A* black hole to be 0.56 assuming the mass of 4.3 × 106 M ⊙.

  12. Spherical accretion: the influence of inner boundary and quasi-periodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhang, Prasun; Sharma, Prateek; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-09-01

    Bondi accretion assumes that there is a sink of mass at the centre - which in the case of a black hole (BH) corresponds to the advection of matter across the event horizon. Other stars, such as a neutron star (NS), have surfaces and hence the infalling matter has to slow down at the surface. We study the initial value problem in which the matter distribution is uniform and at rest at t = 0. We consider different inner boundary conditions for BHs and NSs: outflow boundary condition (mimicking mass sink at the centre) valid for BHs; and reflective and steady-shock (allowing gas to cross the inner boundary at subsonic speeds) boundary conditions for NSs. We also obtain a similarity solution for cold accretion on to BHs and NSs. 1D simulations show the formation of an outward-propagating and a standing shock in NSs for reflective and steady-shock boundary conditions, respectively. Entropy is the highest at the bottom of the subsonic region for reflective boundary conditions. In 2D this profile is convectively unstable. Using steady-shock inner boundary conditions, the flow is unstable to the standing accretion shock instability in 2D, which leads to global shock oscillations and may be responsible for quasi-periodic oscillations seen in the light curves of accreting systems. For steady accretion in the quiescent state, spherical accretion rate on to an NS can be suppressed by orders of magnitude compared to that on to a BH.

  13. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N

    2016-02-15

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.

  14. A Model for (Quasi-)Periodic Multiwavelength Photometric Variability in Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Aurora Y.; Petkova, Maya A.; Wood, Kenneth; Whitney, Barbara A.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Gregory, Scott G.; Stauffer, J. R.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Rebull, L.; Alencar, S. H. P.

    2016-09-01

    We present radiation transfer models of rotating young stellar objects (YSOs) with hot spots in their atmospheres, inner disk warps, and other three-dimensional effects in the nearby circumstellar environment. Our models are based on the geometry expected from magneto-accretion theory, where material moving inward in the disk flows along magnetic field lines to the star and creates stellar hot spots upon impact. Due to rotation of the star and magnetosphere, the disk is variably illuminated. We compare our model light curves to data from the Spitzer YSOVAR project to determine if these processes can explain the variability observed at optical and mid-infrared wavelengths in young stars. We focus on those variables exhibiting “dipper” behavior that may be periodic, quasi-periodic, or aperiodic. We find that the stellar hot-spot size and temperature affects the optical and near-infrared light curves, while the shape and vertical extent of the inner disk warp affects the mid-IR light curve variations. Clumpy disk distributions with non-uniform fractal density structure produce more stochastic light curves. We conclude that magneto-accretion theory is consistent with certain aspects of the multiwavelength photometric variability exhibited by low-mass YSOs. More detailed modeling of individual sources can be used to better determine the stellar hot-spot and inner disk geometries of particular sources.

  15. Prediction of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Radiation Fogs. Part I: Comparison of Simple Similarity Approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, R. M.; Ravichandran, M. G.; Cox, S. K.

    1986-04-01

    There is considerable controversy in the literature concerning fog formation. One set of observations suggests that fog forms during a lull in turbulence, white another set of observations suggests that increased turbulence leads to fog formation.A number of first-order closure techniques are applied to numerical simulations. The results show that fog formation and development is directly correlated with the magnitude of the eddy mixing coefficients. Larger turbulence generation leads to more rapid fog development and to larger liquid water contents. The rate at which the fog top grows is directly related to the rate at which turbulence lifts the inversion.During the mature fog stage, a series of fog dissipation and redevelopment episodes occur. Liquid water develops in the upper regions of the fog during the turbulently quiet periods. Subsequent destabilization of the atmosphere increases turbulence generation and mixes the upper-level liquid water to the surface, creating surface fog intensification. Quasi-periodic oscillations in fog parameters are largest in the upper regions of the fog and become progressively damped in the lower regions of a thick fog.These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations reported by Jiusto and Lala and support the hypothesis that there are distinct stages of fog development.

  16. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer. PMID:26876008

  17. Multi-instrument observations of sub-minute quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominique, Marie; Zhukov, Andrei; Dolla, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Since a decade, quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) have been regularly reported to be observed in EUV and SXR during solar flares, while they were previously mostly observed in HXR and radio wavelengths. These new detections can be credited to a new generation of EUV space radiometers (SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA, etc.) that significantly enhanced the instrument performances in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and time resolution. These new instruments allow us to perform statistical analysis of QPPs, which could ultimately help solving the long-debated question of their origin. However, recently, the methods (mainly the way to pre-process data and to account for the noise) used to detect QPPs in those wavelengths were questioned. In this presentation, we will discuss our current understanding of QPPs and the difficulties inherent to their detection. I will particularly address the sub-minute QPPs in the EUV and analyze them in the broader picture of multi-wavelength detection. How do they compare to the pulsations observed in other wavelength ranges? Are sub-minute QPPs and QPPs with longer periods produced by the same processes? What can we learn from the analysis of QPPs? Possible answers to these questions will be presented and discussed.

  18. Statistical properties of quasi-periodic pulsations in white-light flares observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, C. E.; Armstrong, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Broomhall, A.-M.

    2016-07-01

    We embark on a study of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the decay phase of white-light stellar flares observed by Kepler. Out of the 1439 flares on 216 different stars detected in the short-cadence data using an automated search, 56 flares are found to have pronounced QPP-like signatures in the light curve, of which 11 have stable decaying oscillations. No correlation is found between the QPP period and the stellar temperature, radius, rotation period and surface gravity, suggesting that the QPPs are independent of global stellar parameters. Hence they are likely to be the result of processes occurring in the local environment. There is also no significant correlation between the QPP period and flare energy, however there is evidence that the period scales with the QPP decay time for the Gaussian damping scenario, but not to a significant degree for the exponentially damped case. This same scaling has been observed for MHD oscillations on the Sun, suggesting that they could be the cause of the QPPs in those flares. Scaling laws of the flare energy are also investigated, supporting previous reports of a strong correlation between the flare energy and stellar temperature/radius. A negative correlation between the flare energy and stellar surface gravity is also found.

  19. High-Frequency Channel Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    High-Frequency Channel Characterization Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 12730 High...Physical Sciences (Bruce Abraham) • Arizona State University (Tolga Duman, Subhadeep Roy) • Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc.(M. Porter, A. Abawi, P...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc,12730 High

  20. A global study of type B quasi-periodic oscillation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Li, Zi-Jian; Bu, Qing-Cui; Qu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    We performed a global study on the timing and spectral properties of type-B quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the outbursts of black hole X-ray binaries. The sample is built based on the observations of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), via searching in the literature in RXTE era for all the identified type-B QPOs. To enlarge the sample, we also investigated some type-B QPOs that are reported but not yet fully identified. Regarding to the time lag and hard/soft flux ratio, we found that the sources with type-B QPOs behave in two subgroups. In one subgroup, type-B QPO shows a hard time lag that first decreases and then reverse into a soft time lag along with softening of the energy spectrum. In the other subgroup, type-B QPOs distribute only in a small region with hard time lag and relatively soft hardness. These findings may be understood with a diversity of the homogeneity showing up for the hot inner flow of different sources. We confirm the universality of a positive relation between the type-B QPO frequency and the hard component luminosity in different sources. We explain the results by considering that the type-B QPO photons are produced in the inner accretion flow around the central black hole, under a local Eddington limit. Using this relationship, we derived a mass estimation of 9.3-27.1 M⊙ for the black hole in H 1743-322.

  1. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Cackett, Edward; Barret, Didier

    2017-08-01

    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Specifically, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy for the various LMXB systems where kHz QPOs are detected.

  2. Quasi-periodical variations of pulsars spin as mimicry of differential rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, I.; Gusev, A.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT Observation of pulsars is a powerful source of information for studying the dynamics and internal structure of neutron stars. Known about quasi-periodical fluctuations of the time-of-arrival of radiation(TOA) for some pulsars, which we explain as Chandler wobble, Free core nutation, Free inner core nutation and Inner core wobble in case three layer model. Using hamilton approximation to theory rotation of multilayer celestial bodies we estimate dynamical flattening for different layers for PSR B1828-11. It is known that an innate feature of pulsar radiation is high stability of the time-of-arrival (TOA) of pulses, and therefore the analysis of TOA fluctuations can reflect subtle effects of neutron stars dynamics. TOA variations of pulsars can be interpreted by three reasons: gravitational perturbation of pulsar by planetary bodies, peculiarities of a pulsar interior like Tkachenko oscillations and free precession motion, when axis of rotation do not coincide with vectors of the angular moment of solid crust, liquid outer core and crystal core. The radial velocity of a star is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the Doppler effect in its spectrum. Stars showing a small amplitude variation of the radial velocity can be interpreted as systems having planetary companions. Assuming that the pulsar PSR B1257+12 has a mass of 1:35M¯, the Keplerian orbital radii are 0.9, 1.4 and 2.1 AU and with masses are 3:1M©=sin(i), 10:2M©=sin(i), 4:6M©=sin(i), where i is the orbital inclination [7]. In 2000, Stairs, Lyne and Shemar reported about their discovery of long-term, highly-periodic and correlated variations of pulse shape and the rate of slow-down of the pulsar PSR B182811 with period variations approximately 1000, 500, 250 and 167 days, which may be a result of the spin axis caused by an asymmetry in the shape of the pulsar. The long-periodic precession phenomenon was also detected for a few pulsars: PSR 2217+47, PSR 0531+21, PSR B083345, PSR B182811, PSR B

  3. High frequency integrated MOS filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques exist for implementing integrated MOS filters. These techniques fit into the general categories of sampled and tuned continuous-time filters. Advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed. This paper focuses primarily on the high frequency capabilities of MOS integrated filters.

  4. Construction of quasi-periodic solutions of state-dependent delay differential equations by the parameterization method II: Analytic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaolong; de la Llave, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    We construct analytic quasi-periodic solutions of a state-dependent delay differential equation with quasi-periodically forcing. We show that if we consider a family of problems that depends on one dimensional parameters (with some non-degeneracy conditions), there is a positive measure set Π of parameters for which the system admits analytic quasi-periodic solutions. The main difficulty to be overcome is the appearance of small divisors and this is the reason why we need to exclude parameters. Our main result is proved by a Nash-Moser fast convergent method and is formulated in the a-posteriori format of numerical analysis. That is, given an approximate solution of a functional equation which satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, we can find a true solution close to it. This is in sharp contrast with the finite regularity theory developed in [18]. We conjecture that the exclusion of parameters is a real phenomenon and not a technical difficulty. More precisely, for generic families of perturbations, the quasi-periodic solutions are only finitely differentiable in open sets in the complement of parameters set Π.

  5. A Large-scale Search for Evidence of Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dennis, B. R.; Hayes, L.; Gallagher, P.

    2016-12-01

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in solar flares is poorly constrained, and critically the general prevalence of such signals in solar flares is unknown. Therefore, we perform a large-scale search for evidence of signals consistent with QPP in solar flares, focusing on the 1-300 s timescale. We analyze 675 M- and X-class flares observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series in 1-8 Å soft X-rays between 2011 February 1 and 2015 December 31. Additionally, over the same era we analyze Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) 15-25 keV X-ray data for each of these flares associated with a Fermi/GBM solar flare trigger, a total of 261 events. Using a model comparison method, we determine whether there is evidence for a substantial enhancement in the Fourier power spectrum that may be consistent with a QPP signature, based on three tested models; a power-law plus a constant, a broken power-law plus constant, and a power-law-plus-constant with an additional QPP signature component. From this, we determine that ˜30% of GOES events and ˜8% of Fermi/GBM events show strong signatures consistent with classical interpretations of QPP. For the remaining events either two or more tested models cannot be strongly distinguished from each other, or the events are well-described by single power-law or broken power-law Fourier power spectra. For both instruments, a preferred characteristic timescale of ˜5-30 s was found in the QPP-like events, with no dependence on flare magnitude in either GOES or GBM data. We also show that individual events in the sample show similar characteristic timescales in both GBM and GOES data sets. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of solar flares and possible QPP mechanisms.

  6. Searching for evidence of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares using the AFINO code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Andrew; Ireland, Jack; Dennis, Brian R.; Hayes, Laura Ann; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2017-08-01

    The AFINO (Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations) code is a new tool to allow analysis of temporal solar data in search of oscillatory signatures. Using AFINO, we carry out a large-scale search for evidence of signals consistent with quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in solar flares, focusing on the 1-300 s timescale. We analyze 675 M- and X-class flares observed by GOES in 1-8 Å soft X-rays between 2011 February 1 and 2015 December 31. Additionally, over the same era we analyze Fermi/GBM 15-25 keV X-ray data for each of these flares associated with a GBM solar flare trigger, a total of 261 events. Using a model comparison method and the Bayesian Information Criterion statistic, we determine whether there is evidence for a substantial enhancement in the Fourier power spectrum that may be consistent with a QPP-like signature.Quasi-steady periodic signatures appear more prevalently in thermal soft X-ray data than in the counterpart hard X-ray emission: according to AFINO ~30% of GOES flares but only ~8% of the same flares observed by GBM show strong signatures consistent with classical interpretations of QPP, which include MHD wave processes and oscillatory reconnection events. For both datasets, preferred characteristic timescales of ~5-30 s were found in the QPP-like events, with no clear dependence on flare magnitude. Individual events in the sample also show similar characteristic timescales in both GBM and GOES data sets, indicating that the same phenomenon is sometimes observed simultaneously in soft and hard X-rays. We discuss the implications of these survey results, and future developments of the analysis method. AFINO continues to run daily on new flares observed by GOES, and the full AFINO catalogue is made available online.

  7. A Large-Scale Search for Evidence of Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dennis, B. R..; Hayes, L.; Gallagher, P.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in solar flares is poorly constrained, and critically the general prevalence of such signals in solar flares is unknown. Therefore, we perform a large-scale search for evidence of signals consistent with QPP in solar flares, focusing on the 1300 s timescale. We analyze 675 M- and X-class flares observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series in 18 soft X-rays between 2011 February 1 and 2015 December 31. Additionally, over the same era we analyze Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) 1525 keV X-ray data for each of these flares associated with a Fermi/GBM solar flare trigger, a total of 261 events. Using a model comparison method, we determine whether there is evidence for a substantial enhancement in the Fourier power spectrum that may be consistent with a QPP signature, based on three tested models; a power-law plus a constant, a broken power-law plus constant, and a power-law-plus-constant with an additional QPP signature component. From this, we determine that approx. 30% of GOES events and approx. 8% of Fermi/GBM events show strong signatures consistent with classical interpretations of QPP. For the remaining events either two or more tested models cannot be strongly distinguished from each other, or the events are well-described by single power-law or broken power-law Fourier power spectra. For both instruments, a preferred characteristic time-scale of approx. 5-30 s was found in the QPP-like events, with no dependence on flare magnitude in either GOES or GBM data. We also show that individual events in the sample show similar characteristic time-scales in both GBM and GOES data sets. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of solar flares and possible QPP mechanisms.

  8. Possible quasi-periodic ejections in quasar B1308+326

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S. J.; Britzen, S.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Gan, H. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The search for periodic features in flux variability and kinematics of superluminal components in blazars is capable of providing significant clues for the understanding of the physical processes in their central engines (black-hole/accretion-disk systems), especially concerning the formation and structure of their relativistic jets and radiation mechanisms. Aims: The jet swing on parsec-scales and the change of the ejection position angle of the superluminal components with time in the quasar B1308+326 (z = 0.997) are investigated as quasi-periodic behaviors. Methods: A previously published precessing jet nozzle model is applied to model the source kinematics and a possible jet precession period is found. Results: Based on the model fitting of the kinematics for a subset of components, it is shown that their kinematics, including the shape of the inner trajectories and the motion of the components, could be well fitted in terms of the precessing jet nozzle model and a precession period of 16.9 ± 0.3 yr is derived. Different precession mechanisms are discussed and compared. Conclusions: It is shown that the swing of the ejection position angle of the superluminal knots observed in B1308+326 may be due to the orbital motion of a putative supermassive black hole binary in its nucleus. Some relevant parameters of the binary model are estimated. We also discuss the spin-induced precession mechanism in the single black hole scenario and an estimate for the spin of the Kerr black hole is obtained.

  9. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  10. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  11. TIME DELAYS IN QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect

    Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Schmutz, W.; Zender, J.

    2012-04-10

    We report observations of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.

  12. Chromospheric Condensation and Quasi-periodic Pulsations in a Circular-ribbon Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.

    2016-11-01

    lower limit of energy flux of the precipitating electrons, i.e., 0.65 × 1010 erg cm-2 s-1. The Si iv line intensity and SXR derivative show quasi-periodic pulsations with periods of 32-42 s, which are likely caused by intermittent null-point magnetic reconnections modulated by the fast wave propagating along the fan surface loops at a phase speed of 950-1250 km s-1. Periodic accelerations and precipitations of the electrons result in periodic heating observed in the Si iv line and SXR.

  13. Classification of Bifurcations of Quasi-Periodic Solutions Using Lyapunov Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, Kyohei; Komuro, Motomasa; Endo, Tetsuro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    In continuous-time dynamical systems, a periodic orbit becomes a fixed point on a certain Poincaré section. The eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix at this fixed point determine the local stability of the periodic orbit. Analogously, a quasi-periodic orbit (2-torus) becomes an invariant closed curve (ICC) on a Poincaré section. From the Lyapunov exponents of an ICC, we can determine the time average of the exponential divergence rate of the orbit, which corresponds to the eigenvalues of a fixed point. We denote the Lyapunov exponent with the smallest nonzero absolute value as the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent (DLE). A local bifurcation manifests as a crossing or touch of the DLE locus with zero. However, the type of bifurcation cannot be determined from the DLE. To overcome this problem, we define the Dominant Lyapunov Bundle (DLB), which corresponds to the dominant eigenvectors of a fixed point. We prove that the DLB of a 1-torus in a map can be classified into four types: A+ (annulus and orientation preserving), A- (annulus and orientation reversing), M (Möbius band), and F (focus). The DLB of a 2-torus in a flow can be classified into three types: A+ × A+, A- × M (equivalently M × A- and M × M), and F × F. From the results, we conjecture the possible local bifurcations in both cases. For the 1-torus in a map, we conjecture that type A+ and A- DLBs correspond to a saddle-node and period-doubling bifurcations, respectively, whereas a type M DLB denotes a double-covering bifurcation, and type F relates to a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Similarly, for the 2-torus in a flow, we conjecture that type A+ × A+ DLBs correspond to saddle-node bifurcations, type A- × M DLBs to double-covering bifurcations, and type F × F DLBs to the Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. After introducing the mathematical concepts, we provide a DLB-calculating algorithm and illustrate all of the above bifurcations by examples.

  14. Quasi-periodic processes in the flare loop generated by sudden temperature enhancements at loop footpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.; Jelínek, P.

    2016-05-01

    ~500 s the process with the periodically interacting shocks slowly changes to slow mode magnetosonic free oscillation. Furthermore, we detected quasi-periodic processes, even in the chromosphere under the location of the pressure perturbation. These processes can be observed in intensities and Doppler shifts of optical chromospheric lines. In the case with the asymmetric perturbations, we found that the processes are even more complex.

  15. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  16. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  17. A high-frequency Doppler feature in the power spectra of simulated GRMHD black hole accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Wellons, Sarah; Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2014-04-20

    Black hole binaries exhibit a wide range of variability phenomena, from large-scale state changes to broadband noise and quasi-periodic oscillations, but the physical nature of much of this variability is poorly understood. We examine the variability properties of three GRMHD simulations of thin accretion disks around black holes of varying spin, producing light curves and power spectra as would be seen by observers. We find that the simulated power spectra show a broad feature at high frequency, which increases in amplitude with the inclination of the observer. We show that this high-frequency feature is a product of the Doppler effect and that its location is a function of the mass and spin of the black hole. This Doppler feature demonstrates that power spectral properties of the accretion disk can be tied to, and potentially used to determine, physical properties of the black hole.

  18. Periodic and quasi-periodic attractors for the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury with a realistic tidal torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan; Gentile, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we make a detailed study of the spin-orbit dynamics of Mercury, as predicted by the realistic model that has been recently introduced in a series of papers mainly by Efroimsky and Makarov. We present numerical and analytical results concerning the nature of the librations of Mercury's spin in the 3:2 resonance. The results provide evidence that the librations are quasi-periodic in time, consisting of a slow oscillation, with an amplitude of order of arcminutes, superimposed on the 88-d libration. This contrasts with recent astronomical observations and hence suggests that the 3:2 resonance in which Mercury has been trapped might have been originally described by a large-amplitude quasi-periodic libration that, only at a later stage, with the formation of a molten core, evolved into the small-amplitude libration that is observed today.

  19. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Atwood, W. B.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS Bruel, P. E-mail: sara.cutini@asdc.asi.it E-mail: stefan@astro.su.se [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2015-11-10

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 ± 0.08 year period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ∼10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  20. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    DOE PAGES

    Ackerman, M.

    2015-11-10

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly-periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18±0.08 year-period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the OVRO, Tuorla, KAIT, and CSS monitoring programs and Swift UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ~ 10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillationmore » is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multi-wavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.« less

  1. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, M.

    2015-11-10

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly-periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18±0.08 year-period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the OVRO, Tuorla, KAIT, and CSS monitoring programs and Swift UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ~ 10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multi-wavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  2. Phase-rectified signal averaging for the detection of quasi-periodicities and the prediction of cardiovascular risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bauer, Axel; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Barthel, Petra; Schneider, Raphael; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2007-03-01

    We present the phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) method as an efficient technique for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations in noisy, nonstationary signals. It allows the assessment of system dynamics despite phase resetting and noise and in relation with either increases or decreases of the considered signal. We employ the method to study the quasi-periodicities of the human heart rate based on long-term ECG recordings. The center deflection of the PRSA curve characterizes the average capacity of the heart to decelerate (or accelerate) the cardiac rhythm. It can be measured by a central wavelet coefficient which we denote as deceleration capacity (DC). We find that decreased DC is a more precise predictor of mortality in survivors of heart attack than left ventricular ejection fraction, the current "gold standard" risk predictor. In addition, we discuss the dependence of the DC parameter on age and on diabetes.

  3. Omnidirectional reflection from finite periodic and Fibonacci quasi-periodic multilayers of alternating isotropic and birefringent thin films.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, E

    2002-02-01

    Omnidirectional reflection from periodic and Fibonacci quasi-periodic multilayers that are embedded in an isotropic medium is further analyzed. Besides the isotropic structures, birefringent structures are considered that comprise uniaxial layers in the principal-axis system, alternating with isotropic layers so that the refractive index of isotropic layers is equal to the principal extraordinary refractive index of the uniaxial layers. The transfer-matrix method is applied, and the same formalism is used forboth the isotropic and the uniaxial media in the principal-axis system. Simple and original relations are obtained for the invariant of the one-dimensional Fibonacci sequences at oblique incidence. Numerical examples are given comparatively for the isotropic and the birefringent structures in the case of periodic and Fibonacci quasi-periodic sequences at different values of the refractive indices.

  4. On quasi-periodic solutions of the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cewen; Wu, Yongtang; Geng, Xianguo

    1999-05-01

    The 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada equation is decomposed into systems of integrable ordinary differential equations resorting to the nonlinearization of Lax pairs. The Abel-Jacobi coordinates are introduced to straighten the flows, from which quasi-periodic solutions of the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada equation are obtained in terms of Riemann theta functions.

  5. Possible Quasi-periodic Modulation in the z = 1.1 Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0426-380

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-fei; Yan, Da-hai; Liao, Neng-hui; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jian-cheng; Cao, Li-Jia

    2017-06-01

    We search for γ-ray and optical periodic modulations in distant flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 0426-380 (the redshift z = 1.1). Using two techniques (i.e., the maximum likelihood optimization and the exposure-weighted aperture photometry), we obtain γ-ray light curves from Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data covering from 2008 August to 2016 December. We then analyze the light curves with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and the weighted wavelet Z-transform. A γ-ray quasi-periodicity with a period of 3.35 ± 0.68 yr is found at the significance level of ≃ 3.6 σ . The optical-UV flux covering from 2005 August to 2013 April provided by the ASI Science Data Center is also analyzed, but no significant quasi-periodicity is found. It should be pointed out that the result of the optical-UV data could be tentative because of the incompleteness of the data. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this FSRQ is needed to confirm its quasi-periodicity.

  6. High Frequency Stable Oscillate boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fenfang; Gonzalez-Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Ohl, Claus Dieter

    2015-11-01

    We present an unexpected regime of resonant bubble oscillations on a thin metal film submerged in water, which is continuously heated with a focused CW laser. The oscillatory bubble dynamics reveals a remarkably stable frequency of several 100 kHz and is resolved from the side using video recordings at 1 million frames per second. The emitted sound is measured simultaneously and shows higher harmonics. Once the laser is switched on the water in contact with the metal layer is superheated and an explosively expanding cavitation bubble is generated. However, after the collapse a microbubble is nucleated from the bubble remains which displays long lasting oscillations. Generally, pinch-off from of the upper part of the microbubble is observed generating a continuous stream of small gas bubbles rising upwards. The cavitation expansion, collapse, and the jetting of gas bubbles are detected by the hydrophone and are correlated to the high speed video. We find the bubble oscillation frequency is dependent on the bubble size and surface tension. A preliminary model based on Marangoni flow and heat transfer can explain the high flow velocities observed, yet the origin of bubble oscillation is currently not well understood.

  7. High Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing Zhe; Daviso, Eugenio; Can, Thach V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Jawla, Sudheer K.; Swager, Timothy M.; Temkin, Richard J.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus During the three decades 1980–2010, magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR developed into the method of choice to examine many chemical, physical and biological problems. In particular, a variety of dipolar recoupling methods to measure distances and torsion angles can now constrain molecular structures to high resolution. However, applications are often limited by the low sensitivity of the experiments, due in large part to the necessity of observing spectra of low-γ nuclei such as the I = ½ species 13C or 15N. The difficulty is still greater when quadrupolar nuclei, like 17O or 27Al, are involved. This problem has stimulated efforts to increase the sensitivity of MAS experiments. A particularly powerful approach is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) which takes advantage of the higher equilibrium polarization of electrons (which conventionally manifests in the great sensitivity advantage of EPR over NMR). In DNP, the sample is doped with a stable paramagnetic polarizing agent and irradiated with microwaves to transfer the high polarization in the electron spin reservoir to the nuclei of interest. The idea was first explored by Overhauser and Slichter in 1953. However, these experiments were carried out on static samples, at magnetic fields that are low by current standards. To be implemented in contemporary MAS NMR experiments, DNP requires microwave sources operating in the subterahertz regime — roughly 150–660 GHz — and cryogenic MAS probes. In addition, improvements were required in the polarizing agents, because the high concentrations of conventional radicals that are required to produce significant enhancements compromise spectral resolution. In the last two decades scientific and technical advances have addressed these problems and brought DNP to the point where it is achieving wide applicability. These advances include the development of high frequency gyrotron microwave sources operating in the subterahertz frequency range. In addition, low

  8. Damping and power spectra of quasi-periodic intensity disturbances above a solar polar coronal hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Fang-Ran; Xia, Li-Dong; Huang, Zheng-Hua; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Yuan, Ding; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu

    2016-06-01

    We study intensity disturbances above a solar polar coronal hole that can be seen in the AIA 171 Å and 193 Å passbands, aiming to provide more insights into their physical nature. The damping and power spectra of the intensity disturbances with frequencies from 0.07 mHz to 10.5 mHz are investigated. The damping of the intensity disturbances tends to be stronger at lower frequencies, and their damping behavior below 980″ (for comparison, the limb is at 945″) is different from what happens above. No significant difference is found between the damping of the intensity disturbances in the AIA 171 Å and that in the AIA 193 Å. The indices of the power spectra of the intensity disturbances are found to be slightly smaller in the AIA 171 Å than in the AIA 193 Å, but the difference is within one standard deviation. An additional enhanced component is present in the power spectra in a period range of 8-40 min at lower heights. The power spectra of a spicule is highly correlated with its associated intensity disturbance, which suggests that the power spectra of the intensity disturbances might be a mixture of spicules and wave activities. We suggest that each intensity disturbance in the polar coronal hole is possibly a series of independent slow magnetoacoustic waves triggered by spicular activities.

  9. Flare stars and solar bursts - High resolution in time and frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    Coronal loops on the sun and nearby stars are studied using observations at 20-cm wavelength with high resolution in time and frequency. Observations of the dwarf M star AD Leonis with high time resolution led to the discovery of a quasi-periodic train of circularly polarized spikes with a mean periodicity of 32 + or - 5 ms and a total duration of 150 ms. Observations at closely spaced wavelengths using the VLA revealed a narrow-band structure in solar bursts and in the slowly varying radiation of the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris. This narrow-band emission may be attributed to electron-cyclotron maser radiation. Maser action at the second or first harmonic of the gyrofrequency implies magnetic field strengths of 250 and 500 G, respectively. Hence, observations with high resolution in time and frequency suggest coherent processs in the coronas of the sun and dwarf M stars. It is noted that the scientific potential suggested by the present data can be realized by the development of a solar-stellar synthesis radiotelescope. This instrument would be dedicated to solar and stellar observations with high angular, temporal, and frequency resolution.

  10. High-Frequency Inductor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Finemet-type nanocrystalline alloy represents an advanced soft-magnetic metal-metal-type nanocomposite with an eddy-current-determined high- frequency limit. A survey of different heat treatments under tensile stress is presented to tailor the hysteresis loop by induced transversal anisotropy. The flattened loop having reduced effective permeability enhances the eddy- current limit in the MHz region; For example, continuous stress annealing in a tubular furnace of 1 m length at 650°C, pulling the ribbon with a velocity of 4 m/min under a tensile stress of 200 MPa, results in a wound core having a permeability of 120 and a frequency limit of 10 MHz. Careful annealing preserves the static coercivity below 10 A/m. The power loss at 0.1 T and 100 kHz is only 82 mW/cm3, which is an order of magnitude lower then the values obtained for Sendust™ cores in similar conditions.

  11. Amplifying High Frequency Acoustic Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, C

    2004-02-05

    In search of the hypothetical Higgs boson, a prototype electron accelerator structure has been developed for use in the Next Linear Collider (NLC), SLAC's proposed version of the machine necessary to create the predicted particle. The Next Linear Test Accelerator (NLCTA), designed to provide O.5GeV-lTeV center-of-mass collision energy, generates electromagnetic breakdowns inside its copper structure while the beam is running. The sparks vaporize the surface of the copper, and will eventually ruin the accelerator. They also create high-frequency (hf) acoustic signals (100 kHz-1 MHz). Acoustic sensors have been placed on the structure, however current knowledge regarding sound propagation in copper limits spark location to within one centimeter. A system was needed that simulates the sparks so further study of acoustic propagation can be pursued; the goal is locate them to within one millimeter. Various tests were done in order to identify an appropriate hf signal source, and to identify appropriate acoustic sensors to use. A high-voltage spark generator and the same sensors used on the actual structure proved most useful for the system. Two high-pass filters were also fabricated in order to measure signals that might be created above 2MHz. The 11-gain filter was used on the acoustic simulation system that was developed, and the 100-gain filter will be used on the NLCTA.

  12. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  13. Period Estimation for Sparsely-sampled Quasi-periodic Light Curves Applied to Miras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shiyuan; Yuan, Wenlong; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Long, James; Macri, Lucas M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a nonlinear semi-parametric Gaussian process model to estimate periods of Miras with sparsely sampled light curves. The model uses a sinusoidal basis for the periodic variation and a Gaussian process for the stochastic changes. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the period and the parameters of the Gaussian process, while integrating out the effects of other nuisance parameters in the model with respect to a suitable prior distribution obtained from earlier studies. Since the likelihood is highly multimodal for period, we implement a hybrid method that applies the quasi-Newton algorithm for Gaussian process parameters and search the period/frequency parameter space over a dense grid. A large-scale, high-fidelity simulation is conducted to mimic the sampling quality of Mira light curves obtained by the M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. The simulated data set is publicly available and can serve as a testbed for future evaluation of different period estimation methods. The semi-parametric model outperforms an existing algorithm on this simulated test data set as measured by period recovery rate and quality of the resulting period-luminosity relations.

  14. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  15. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY QPOs WITH A 3:2 FREQUENCY RATIO FROM A 5000 SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco; Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, Jon E-mail: brad.cenko@nasa.gov E-mail: richard@astro.umd.edu E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu

    2015-09-20

    Following the discovery of 3:2 resonance quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in M82X-1, we have constructed power density spectra (PDS) of all 15 (sufficiently long) XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 1313 X-1 (L{sub X} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}). We detect a strong QPO at a frequency of 0.29 ± 0.01 Hz in data obtained on 2012 December 16. Subsequent searching of all the remaining observations for a 3:2/2:3 frequency pair revealed a feature at 0.46 ± 0.02 Hz on 2003 December 13 (frequency ratio of 1.59 ± 0.09). The global significance of the 0.29 Hz feature considering all frequencies between 0.1 and 4 Hz is >3.5σ. The significance of the 0.46 ± 0.02 Hz QPO is >3.5σ for a search at 2/3 and 3/2 of 0.29 Hz. We also detect lower-frequency QPOs (32.9 ± 2.6 and 79.7 ± 1.2 mHz). All the QPOs are superimposed on a continuum consisting of flat-topped, band-limited noise, breaking into a power law at a frequency of 16 ± 3 mHz and white noise at ≳0.1 Hz. NGC 1313 X-1's PDS is analogous to stellar-mass black holes’ (StMBHs) PDS in the so-called steep power-law state, but with the respective frequencies (both QPOs and break frequencies) scaled down by a factor of ∼1000. Using the inverse mass-to-high-frequency QPO scaling of StMBHs, we estimate NGC 1313 X-1's black hole mass to be 5000 ± 1300 M{sub ⊙}, consistent with an inference from the scaling of the break frequency. However, the implied Eddington ratio, L{sub Edd} > 0.03 ± 0.01, is significantly lower compared to that of StMBHs in the steep power-law state (L{sub Edd} ≳ 0.2)

  17. High-frequency nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimberg, D.; Fiol, G.; Meuer, C.; Laemmlin, M.; Kuntz, M.

    2007-02-01

    Recent results on GaAs-based high-speed mode-locked quantum dot (QD) lasers and optical amplifiers with an operation wavelength centered at 1290 nm are reviewed and their complex dependence on device and operating parameters is discussed on the basis of experimental data obtained with integrated fiber-based QD device modules. Hybrid and passive mode-locking of QD lasers with repetition frequencies between 5 and 80 GHz, sub-ps pulse widths, ultra-low timing jitter down to 190 fs, high output peak power beyond 1 W and suppression of Q-switching are reported, showing the large potential of this class of devices for O-band optical fiber applications. Results on cw and dynamical characterization of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers are presented. QD amplifiers exhibit a close-to-ideal noise figure of 4 dB and demonstrate multi-wavelength amplification of three CWDM wavelengths simultaneously. Modelling of QD polarization dependence shows that it should be possible to achieve polarization insensitive SOAs using vertically coupled QD stacks. Amplification of ultra-fast 80 GHz optical combs and bit-error-free data signal amplification at 40 Gb/s with QD SOAs show the potential for their application in future 100 Gb Ethernet networks.

  18. 3D-Spirals Emerging from Plasma Disk Structures and High Frequency QPOs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebusco, P.; Coppi, B.; Bursa, M.

    2009-11-01

    An interpretation based on a novel kind of plasma modes[1] emerging from axisymmetric disks is proposed for High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (HFQPOs) in low mass X-ray binaries supporting the fact that QPOs can be a probe of strong field gravity. Tri-dimensional, tightly wound spirals are considered that co-rotate with the magnetized plasma disk structure surrounding a black hole at a radial distance that is related to the radius of the marginally stable orbit. These modes can be excited under the combined effects of the differential rotation and the vertical gradients of the plasma density and temperature. The spirals are localized over relatively narrow radial widths and have frequencies that are multiples of the plasma rotation frequency. The high toroidal number mφ modes are considered to decay into mφ=2 and mφ=3 modes, explaining the observed twin peak QPOs spectra with the 3:2 ratio. The modulation of the observed radiation associated with general relativistic effects is analyzed, considering different emission processes. These are connected to strong variations of the plasma collisionality parameters corresponding to a local rarefaction and heating, or to a local increase of plasma density and cooling due to the considered spirals. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE and the Pappalardo Fellowship program. 1. B. Coppi, MIT-LNS Report 08/08, to be published in A&A (2009).

  19. 3D-Spirals Emerging from Plasma Disks and High Frequency QPOs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebusco, P.; Coppi, B.; Bursa, M.

    2009-05-01

    An interpretation based on a novel kind of plasma modes emerging from axisymmetric disks is proposed for High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (HFQPOs) in low mass X-ray binaries as QPOs can be a probe of strong field gravity. Tri-dimensional, tightly wound spirals are considered that co-rotate with the magnetized plasma disk surrounding a black hole in the vicinity of the marginally stable orbit. These modes can be excited by the combined effects of the differential rotation and the vertical gradients of the plasma density and temperature. The spirals are localized over relatively narrow radial widths and have frequencies that are multiples of the plasma rotation frequency. The high toroidal number mφ modes are considered to decay into mφ=2 and mφ=3 modes, explaining the observed twin peak QPOs spectra with the 3:2 ratio. The modulation of the observed radiation associated with general relativistic effects is analyzed, considering different emission processes. These are connected to strong variations of the runaway electric field corresponding to a local rarefaction and heating, or to a local increase of plasma density and cooling due to the considered spirals. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE and the Pappalardo Fellowship program. B. Coppi, MIT/LNS Report 08/08, submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008).

  20. Phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations across source states in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Sanna, Andrea; Zhang, Guobao

    2016-09-01

    While there are many dynamical mechanisms and models that try to explain the origin and phenomenology of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen in the X-ray light curves of low-mass X-ray binaries, few of them address how the radiative processes occurring in these extreme environments give rise to the rich set of variability features actually observed in these light curves. A step towards this end comes from the study of the energy and frequency dependence of the phase lags of these QPOs. Here we used a methodology that allowed us to study, for the first time, the dependence of the phase lags of all QPOs in the range of 1-1300 Hz detected in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 upon energy and frequency as the source changes its states as it moves through the colour-colour diagram. Our results suggest that within the context of models of up-scattering Comptonization, the phase lags dependences upon frequency and energy can be used to extract size scales and physical conditions of the medium that produces the lags.

  1. Atomic frequency standards for ultra-high-frequency stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the Hg-199(+) trapped-ion frequency standard are outlined and compared to other atomic frequency standards, especially the hydrogen maser. The points discussed are those which make the trapped Hg-199(+) standard attractive: high line Q, reduced sensitivity to external magnetic fields, and simplicity of state selection, among others.

  2. Late Holocene shoreline behavior in embayments of Lake Michigan: Influence of quasi-periodic lake-level variations and sediment supply

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.; Baedke, S.J. . Indiana Geological Survey)

    1994-04-01

    Lake Michigan contains numerous former embayments into glacial deposits or bedrock. Many of the embayments contain dunes, spits, and captured lakes, but others contain arcuate strandplains of beach ridges. The strandplains are a geologic record of shoreline behavior and lake-level variation throughout the late Holocene. The larger strandplains show similar long-term patterns of beach-ridge development. The similar patterns are expected because variations in lake level are a primary control on shoreline behavior, and all embayments would have experienced relatively the same lake-level changes. Some variations in the long-term pattern of shoreline development do occur between strandplains. These dissimilarities are primarily a function of different rates of sediment supply to the shoreline of each embayment. Beach-ridge development within embayments can be represented on a rate of water level change versus rate of sediment supply diagram (Curray diagram) as three superimposed ovals on the positive rate of sediment supply side of the diagram. The three stacked ovals represent the three quasi-periodic lake-level variations defined by Thompson (1992) and show the position of the shoreline for a given time within the Curray diagram fields. For shorelines with a high rate of sediment supply, only the 30-year quasi-periodic variation would reach the aggradation line. For shorelines having significantly less sediment supply, rising lake level on the 150- and 600-year variations would force the 30-year oval across the aggradation line and well into the depositional and possibly the erosional transgression fields. Under these conditions erosion would occur that may remove, stack, or at least prevent one or more beach ridges from being developed.

  3. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  4. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  5. Evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekeur, N. W.; Taylor, A. R.; Potter, S. B.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304, during a period of enhanced gamma-ray brightness, is presented. The periodogram of the polarized flux revealed the existence of a prominent peak at T ˜ 13 min, detected at >99.7 per cent significance, and T ˜ 30 min, which was nominally significant at >99 per cent. This is the first evidence of QPOs in the polarization of an active galactic nucleus, potentially opening up a new avenue of studying this phenomenon.

  6. A condition for the existence of quasi-periodic nonlinear internal waves in the ocean shelf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khartiev, S. M.; Matishov, D. G.; Grigorenko, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Free internal gravity waves, which are typical of the shelf ocean zone are studied. A necessary condition for the existence of nonlinear wave disturbances quasi-periodic in time in a continuously stratified sea with variable depth H is found in the quasistatic and the "hard cap" approximation with respect to dissipative factors and latitudinal variation in the Coriolis parameter. The obtained assessment is equivalent to the condition obtained within the framework of linear theory for the case of the f-plane and a constant depth H.

  7. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  8. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  9. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  10. Detection of quasi-periodic processes in repeated measurements: New approach for the fitting and clusterization of different data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, R.; Rakhmatullin, R.

    2014-12-01

    Many experimentalists were accustomed to think that any independent measurement forms a non-correlated measurement that depends weakly from others. We are trying to reconsider this conventional point of view and prove that similar measurements form a strongly-correlated sequence of random functions with memory. In other words, successive measurements "remember" each other at least their nearest neighbors. This observation and justification on real data help to fit the wide set of data based on the Prony's function. The Prony's decomposition follows from the quasi-periodic (QP) properties of the measured functions and includes the Fourier transform as a partial case. New type of decomposition helps to obtain a specific amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the measured (random) functions analyzed and each random function contains less number of the fitting parameters in comparison with its number of initial data points. Actually, the calculated AFR can be considered as the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS), which will be extremely useful in cases where the simple model pretending on description of the measured data is absent but vital necessity of their quantitative description is remained. These possibilities open a new way for clusterization of the initial data and new information that is contained in these data gives a chance for their detailed analysis. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements realized for empty resonator (pure noise data) and resonator containing a sample (CeO2 in our case) confirmed the existence of the QP processes in reality. But we think that the detection of the QP processes is a common feature of many repeated measurements and this new property of successive measurements can attract an attention of many experimentalists. To formulate some general conditions that help to identify and then detect the presence of some QP process in the repeated experimental measurements. To find a functional equation and its solution that

  11. Phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations across source states in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Avellar, Marcio G. B.

    2017-06-01

    The majority of attempts to explain the origin and phenomenology of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in low-mass X-ray binaries invoke dynamical models, and it was just in recent years that renewed attention has been given on how radiative processes occurring in these extreme environments gives rise to the variability features observed in the X-ray light curves of these systems. The study of the dependence of the phase lags upon the energy and frequency of the QPOs is a step towards this end. The methodology we developed here allowed us to study for the first time these dependencies for all QPOs detected in the range of 1 to 1300 Hz in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 as the source changes its state during its cycle in the colour-colour diagram. Our results suggest that within the context of models of up-scattering Comptonization, the phase lags dependencies upon frequency and energy can be used to extract size scales and physical conditions of the medium that produces the lags.

  12. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology... of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology... less than a week; however, for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill,...

  13. Landau damping with high frequency impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-05-04

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  14. High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    a period of several years, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitting array near Gakona, Alaska , has increased in total...High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP Paul Rodriguez Naval Research Laboratory Information Technology Division Washington, DC 20375, USA Edward...high frequency (HF) radar facility used for research purposes. The basic science objective of HAARP is to study nonlinear effects associated with

  15. INVESTIGATING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND SPECTRAL COMPONENTS WITH NuSTAR DATA OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Jassal, Anjali Rao; Vadawale, Santosh V.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-01-20

    Low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are commonly observed during the hard states of black hole binaries. Several studies have established various observational/empirical correlations between spectral parameters and QPO properties, indicating a close link between the two. However, the exact mechanism of generation of QPOs is not yet well understood. In this paper, we present our attempts to comprehend the connection between the spectral components and the low-frequency QPO (LFQPO) observed in GRS 1915+105 using the data from NuSTAR. Detailed spectral modeling as well as the presence of the LFQPO and its energy dependence during this observation have been reported by Miller et al. and Zhang et al., respectively. We investigate the compatibility of the spectral model and the energy dependence of the QPO by simulating light curves in various energy bands for small variation of the spectral parameters. The basic concept here is to establish the connection, if any, between the QPO and the variation of either a spectral component or a specific parameter, which in turn can shed some light on the origin of the QPO. We begin with the best-fit spectral model of Miller et al. and simulate the light curve by varying the spectral parameters at frequencies close to the observed QPO frequency in order to generate the simulated QPO. Furthermore we simulate similar light curves in various energy bands in order to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the rms amplitude of the QPO. We find that the observed trend of increasing rms amplitude with energy can be reproduced qualitatively if the spectral index is assumed to be varying with the phases of the QPO. Variation of any other spectral parameter does not reproduce the observed energy dependence.

  16. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of magnetars SGR 1806–20 and SGR 1900+14 observed with RXTE

    SciTech Connect

    Huppenkothen, D.; Heil, L. M.; Watts, A. L.; Göğüş, E.

    2014-11-10

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the giant flares of magnetars are of particular interest due to their potential to open up a window into the neutron star interior via neutron star asteroseismology. However, only three giant flares have been observed. We therefore make use of the much larger data set of shorter, less energetic recurrent bursts. Here, we report on a search for QPOs in a large data set of bursts from the two most burst-active magnetars, SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14, observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find a single detection in an averaged periodogram comprising 30 bursts from SGR 1806–20, with a frequency of 57 Hz and a width of 5 Hz, remarkably similar to a giant flare QPO observed from SGR 1900+14. This QPO fits naturally within the framework of global magneto-elastic torsional oscillations employed to explain giant flare QPOs. Additionally, we uncover a limit on the applicability of Fourier analysis for light curves with low background count rates and strong variability on short timescales. In this regime, standard Fourier methodology and more sophisticated Fourier analyses fail in equal parts by yielding an unacceptably large number of false-positive detections. This problem is not straightforward to solve in the Fourier domain. Instead, we show how simulations of light curves can offer a viable solution for QPO searches in these light curves.

  17. A unified lense-thirring precession model for optical and X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Veledina, Alexandra; Poutanen, Juri; Ingram, Adam E-mail: juri.poutanen@oulu.fi

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations of accreting black holes reveal the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in the optical power density spectra. The corresponding oscillation periods match those found in X-rays, implying a common origin. Among the numerous suggested X-ray QPO mechanisms, some may also work in the optical. However, their relevance to the broadband—optical through X-ray—spectral properties have not been investigated. For the first time, we discuss the QPO mechanism in the context of the self-consistent spectral model. We propose that the QPOs are produced by Lense-Thirring precession of the hot accretion flow, whose outer parts radiate in optical wavelengths. At the same time, its innermost parts are emitting X-rays, which explains the observed connection of QPO periods. We predict that the X-ray and optical QPOs should be either in phase or shifted by half a period, depending on the observer position. We investigate the QPO harmonic content and find that the variability amplitudes at the fundamental frequency are larger in the optical, while the X-rays are expected to have strong harmonics. We then discuss the QPO spectral dependence and compare the expectations to the existing data.

  18. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  19. Quasi-periodic oscillations in superfluid, relativistic magnetars with nuclear pasta phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Pons, José A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the torsional magneto-elastic oscillations of relativistic superfluid magnetars and explore the effects of a phase transition in the crust-core interface (nuclear pasta) which results in a weaker elastic response. Exploring various models with different extension of nuclear pasta phases, we find that the differences in the oscillation spectrum present in purely elastic modes (weak magnetic field) are smeared out with increasing strength of the magnetic field. For magnetar conditions, the main characteristic and features of models without nuclear pasta are preserved. We find, in general, two classes of magneto-elastic oscillations which exhibit a different oscillation pattern. For Bp < 4 × 1014 G, the spectrum is characterized by the turning points and edges of the continuum which are mostly confined into the star's core, and have no constant phase. Increasing the magnetic field, we find, in addition, several magneto-elastic oscillations which reach the surface and have an angular structure similar to crustal modes. These global magneto-elastic oscillations show a constant phase and become dominant when Bp > 5 × 1014 G. We do not find any evidence of fundamental pure crustal modes in the low-frequency range (below 200 Hz) for Bp ≥ 1014 G.

  20. Properties of quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Chanmugam, G.; Shaviv, G.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies of time-dependent accretion onto magnetic white dwarfs, in which the cooling was assumed to be due to bremsstrahlung emission, have shown that the accretion shock undergoes oscillations. However, when cyclotron cooling is also included, the oscillations are damped for sufficiently strong magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate that the oscillations can be sustained by accretion-fluctuation-induced excitations. The frequency of the QPOs are shown to increase quadratically with the magnetic field strength. We interpret the oscillations as a two-phase process in which bremsstrahlung cooling dominates in one half-cycle and cyclotron cooling in the other. Such a process may have very different consequences compared to a single-phase process where the functional form of the cooling is essentially the same throughout the cycle. If in the two-phase process damping occurs mainly in the cyclotron cooling half-cycle, there will be a universal effective damping factor which tends to suppress all oscillation modes indiscriminately. The oscillations of the accretion shock also could be a limit cycle process in which the system vacillates between two branches.

  1. Anomalous magnetic response of a quasi-periodic mesoscopic ring in presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the properties of persistent charge current driven by magnetic flux in a quasi-periodic mesoscopic Fibonacci ring with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Within a tight-binding framework we work out individual state currents together with net current based on second-quantized approach. A significant enhancement of current is observed in presence of spin-orbit coupling and sometimes it becomes orders of magnitude higher compared to the spin-orbit interaction free Fibonacci ring. We also establish a scaling relation of persistent current with ring size, associated with the Fibonacci generation, from which one can directly estimate current for any arbitrary flux, even in presence of spin-orbit interaction, without doing numerical simulation. The present analysis indeed gives a unique opportunity of determining persistent current and has not been discussed so far.

  2. Phase identification of quasi-periodic flow measured by particle image velocimetry with a low sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chong; Wang, Hongping; Wang, Jinjun

    2013-05-01

    This work mainly deals with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) time coefficient method used for extracting phase information from quasi-periodic flow. The mathematical equivalence between this method and the traditional cross-correlation method is firstly proved. A two-dimensional circular cylinder wake flow measured by time-resolved particle image velocimetry within a range of Reynolds numbers is then used to evaluate the reliability of this method. The effect of both the sampling rate and Reynolds number on the identification accuracy is finally discussed. It is found that the POD time coefficient method provides a convenient alternative for phase identification, whose feasibility in low-sampling-rate measurement has additional advantages for experimentalists.

  3. Optical filters using Cantor quasi-periodic one dimensional photonic crystal based on Si/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahel, S.; Amri, R.; Bouaziz, L.; Gamra, D.; Lejeune, M.; Benlahsen, M.; Zellama, K.; Bouchriha, H.

    2016-09-01

    Quasi-periodic one-dimensional Cantor photonic crystals are elaborated by depositing alternating silicon and silica Si/SiO2 layers by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique with cold plasma. Transmittance and reflectance spectra of these quasi crystals exhibit a large photonic band gap in the infrared range at normal incidence which is well reproduced by a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix method. The obtained wide photonic band gap reveals the existence of permitted modes depending on the nature and characteristics of the built in system which can constitute optical windows. This effect can be a good alternative for the design of flexible filters used in many areas of applications such as telecommunication and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Quasi-periodic pulsations with varying period in multi-wavelength observations of an X-class flare

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jing; Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana

    2014-08-10

    This work presents an interesting phenomenon of the period variation in quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) observed during the impulsive phase of a coronal mass ejection-related X1.1 class flare on 2012 July 6. The period of QPPs was changed from 21 s at soft X-rays (SXR) to 22-23 s at microwaves, to ∼24 s at extreme ultraviolet emissions (EUV), and to 27-32 s at metric-decimetric waves. The microwave, EUV, and SXR QPPs, emitted from flare loops of different heights, were oscillating in phase. Fast kink mode oscillations were proposed to be the modulation mechanism, which may exist in a wide region in the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to the upper corona or even to the interplanetary space. Changed parameters of flare loops through the solar atmosphere could result in the varying period of QPPs at different wavelengths. The first appearing microwave QPPs and quasi-periodic metric-decimetric type III bursts were generated by energetic electrons. This may imply that particle acceleration or magnetic reconnection were located between these two non-thermal emission sources. Thermal QPPs (in SXR and EUV emissions) occurred later than the nonthermal ones, which would suggest a some time for plasma heating or energy dissipation in flare loops during burst processes. At the beginning of flare, a sudden collapse and expansion of two separated flare loop structures occurred simultaneously with the multi-wavelength QPPs. An implosion in the corona, including both collapse and expansion of flare loops, could be a trigger of loop oscillations in a very large region in the solar atmosphere.

  5. Propagation of high frequencies in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, D.

    1989-04-01

    To determine if seismic signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz are useful for detecting events and discriminating between earthquakes and explosions, approximately 180 events from the three-component high-frequency seismic element (HFSE) installed at the center of the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) have been analyzed. The attenuation of high-frequency signals in Scandinavia varies with distance, azimuth, magnitude, and source effects. Most of the events were detected with HFSE, although detections were better on the NRSA where signal processing techniques were used. Based on a preliminary analysis, high-frequency data do not appear to be a useful discriminant in Scandinavia. 21 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  7. Lightning protection devices for high frequencies equipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, J.

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Mechanism of a Lightning Stroke from Antenna to Ground; Principles of Protection Devices for Feeders; Electrical Characteristics of H.F. Protection Devices; Calculation of H.F. Protection Devices; Catalogue Devices for High Frequency Protection; Some Measurement Results for Tees; Measurement Results for Decoupling Line Devices; Installation of High Frequency Devices.

  8. Psychophysical tuning curves at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Ifat; Plack, Christopher J.

    2005-10-01

    For most normal-hearing listeners, absolute thresholds increase rapidly above about 16 kHz. One hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of the hearing-threshold curve is imposed by the transmission characteristics of the middle ear, which attenuates the sound input [Masterton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45, 966-985 (1969)]. An alternative hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of hearing is imposed by the tonotopicity of the cochlea [Ruggero and Temchin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13206-13210 (2002)]. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses. Forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were derived for signal frequencies of 12-17.5 kHz. For the highest signal frequencies, the high-frequency slopes of some PTCs were steeper than the slope of the hearing-threshold curve. The results also show that the human auditory system displays frequency selectivity for characteristic frequencies (CFs) as high as 17 kHz, above the frequency at which absolute thresholds begin to increase rapidly. The findings suggest that, for CFs up to 17 kHz, the high-frequency limitation in humans is imposed in part by the middle-ear attenuation, and not by the tonotopicity of the cochlea.

  9. Quasi-periodic, global oscillations in sea level pressure on intraseasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiranmayi, L.; Bhat, G. S.

    2009-06-01

    The sea level pressure (SLP) variability in 30-60 day intraseasonal timescales is investigated using 25 years of reanalysis data addressing two issues. The first concerns the non-zero zonal mean component of SLP near the equator and its meridional connections, and the second concerns the fast eastward propagation (EP) speed of SLP compared to that of zonal wind. It is shown that the entire globe resonates with high amplitude wave activity during some periods which may last for few to several months, followed by lull periods of varying duration. SLP variations in the tropical belt are highly coherent from 25°S to 25°N, uncorrelated with variations in mid latitudes and again significantly correlated but with opposite phase around 60°S and 65°N. Near the equator (8°S-8°N), the zonal mean contributes significantly to the total variance in SLP, and after its removal, SLP shows a dominant zonal wavenumber one structure having a periodicity of 40 days and EP speeds comparable to that of zonal winds in the Indian Ocean. SLP from many of the atmospheric and coupled general circulation models show similar behaviour in the meridional direction although their propagation characteristics in the tropical belt differ widely.

  10. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...] Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High..., for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, SONAR equipment could be used...

  11. A high frequency silicon pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, S. K.; Gross, C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and design considerations as well as fabrication and experimental work involved in the development of high-frequency silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are discussed. A sensor is presented with a rectangular diaphragm of 0.0127 cm x 0.0254 cm x 1.06 micron; the sensor has a natural frequency of 625 kHz and a sensitivity of 0.82 mv/v-psi. High-frequency results from shock tube testing and low-frequency (less than 50 kHz) comparison with microphones are given.

  12. Radio and γ-Ray Variability in the BL Lac PKS 0219‑164: Detection of Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Radio Light Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Gopal

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we explore the long-term variability properties of the blazar PKS 0219‑164 in the radio and the γ-ray regime, utilizing the OVRO 15 GHz and the Fermi/LAT observations from the period 2008–2017. We found that γ-ray emission is more variable than the radio emission implying that γ-ray emission possibly originated in more compact regions while the radio emission represented continuum emission from the large-scale jets. Also, in the γ-ray, the source exhibited spectral variability, characterized by the softer-when-brighter trend, a less frequently observed feature in the high-energy emission by BL Lacs. In radio, using Lomb–Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet z-transform, we detected a strong signal of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) with a periodicity of 270 ± 26 days with possible harmonics of 550 ± 42 and 1150 ± 157 day periods. At a time when detections of QPOs in blazars are still under debate, the observed QPO with high statistical significance (∼97%–99% global significance over underlying red-noise processes) and persistent over nearly 10 oscillations could make one of the strongest cases for the detection of QPOs in blazar light curves. We discuss various blazar models that might lead to the γ-ray and radio variability, QPO, and the achromatic behavior seen in the high-energy emission from the source.

  13. Characterizing quasi-periodic disturbances in GPS TEC data and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtz, J.; Coster, A. J.; Goncharenko, L.; Zhang, S.

    2012-12-01

    We examine a large data set (2003-2009) of total electron content (TEC) values derived from a global network of differential GPS receivers that was downloaded from the Madrigal database. We report on TEC oscillations at multiple periods ranging from 5 to ~30 days. A significant portion of oscillations with 9-day and 13.5-day periods is driven by the recurrent geomagnetic activity, as evident from the analysis of geomagnetic indices. The TEC disturbances in response to the recurrent geomagnetic activity are stronger at middle and high latitudes, and are less pronounced at lower latitudes (< 30 degrees). We also observe a correlation between TEC and the 28-day lunar cycle that is more evident at lower (equatorial) latitudes in both northern and southern hemispheres. The TEC disturbances associated with the lunar cycle are well pronounced during the northern hemisphere winter and equinox seasons.

  14. Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.

  15. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  16. Prestin and high frequency hearing in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the evolution of ultrasonic hearing in echolocating bats and cetaceans has involved adaptive amino acid replacements in the cochlear gene prestin. A substantial number of these changes have occurred in parallel in both groups, suggesting that particular amino acid residues might confer greater auditory sensitivity to high frequencies. Here we review some of these findings, and consider whether similar signatures of prestin protein sequence evolution also occur in mammals that possess high frequency hearing for passive localization and conversely, whether this gene has undergone less change in mammals that lack high frequency hearing. PMID:21655450

  17. Observation of three-dimensional structures of quasi-periodic echoes associated with mid-latitude sporadic-E layers by MU radar ultra-multi-channel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hashiguchi, H.; Maegawa, A.

    2006-07-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) backscatter observed by VHF radars associated with the mid-latitude Sporadic-E (Es) layers is characterized by distinct striations on range-time-intensity (RTI) plots. Two competing models claim to explain the structure of unstable regions that scatter the radar waves: horizontally drifting patches at an almost constant altitude and unstable regions elongated in altitude along the geomagnetic field line. We have conducted interferometric imaging observations of QP radar echoes to investigate spatial structures of QP echoes, precisely. Kyoto University's newly developed ultra-multi-channel receiving system of middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar was used. We used 19 independent channels for the radar imaging, and determined the three-dimensional structure and the motion of the QP echoes. During the observation from 30 May to 02 June 2005, well-defined QP echoes were observed on the nights of 31 May, 01 June, and 02 June 2005. Some of QP echoes were found at altitudes higher than 120 km and appeared to descend in altitude as they approached the radar. This result suggests that backscatter regions are developed along the geomagnetic field line from Es layer altitudes to as high as 130 km and that the fluctuations in plasma density and electric field observed by Pfaff et al. (2005) using in-situ measurements form a part of QP echoes.

  18. Optical Fabry-Perot filter based on photonic band gap quasi-periodic one-dimensional multilayer according to the definite Rudin-Shapiro distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, a new type of optical filter using photonic band gap materials has been suggested. Indeed, a combination of periodic H(LH)J and Rudin-Shapiro quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic multilayer systems (RSM) were used. SiO2 (L) and TiO2 (H) were chosen as two elementary layers with refractive indexes nL = 1.45 and nH = 2.30 respectively. The study configuration is H(LH)J[RSM]PH(LH)J, which forms an effective Fabry-Perot filter (FPF), where J and P are respectively the repetition number of periodic and (RSM) stacks. We have numerically investigated by means of transfer-matrix approach the transmission properties in the visible spectral range of FPF system. We show that the number and position of resonator peaks are dependent on the (RSM) repetition number P and incidence angle of exciting light. The effect of these two parameters for producing an improved polychromatic filter with high finesse coefficient (F) and quality factor (Q) is studied in details.

  19. Probing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the resonance models for high-frequency QPOs and comparison with the continuum-fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2012-09-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance ν{sub θ}:ν{sub r} = 3:1, where ν{sub θ} and ν{sub r} are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects.

  20. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  1. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  2. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  3. An introduction to high frequency radioteletype systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnau, Roger R.

    1989-10-01

    A basic introductory guide is provided to modern High Frequency (HF) data communications systems. Described are modern commercial radioteletype systems, data communication protocols, and various secrets of the trade.

  4. Neural coding of high-frequency tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Available evidence was presented indicating that neural discharges in the auditory nerve display characteristic periodicities in response to any tonal stimulus including high-frequency stimuli, and that this periodicity corresponds to the subjective pitch.

  5. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  6. A quasi-periodic modulation of the iron line centroid energy in the black hole binary H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel; Middleton, Matthew; Done, Chris; Altamirano, Diego; Heil, Lucy; Uttley, Phil; Axelsson, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes often show a `Type-C' quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in their X-ray flux and an iron emission line in their X-ray spectrum. The iron line is generated through continuum photons reflecting off the accretion disc, and its shape is distorted by relativistic motion of the orbiting plasma and the gravitational pull of the black hole. The physical origin of the QPO has long been debated, but is often attributed to Lense-Thirring precession, a General Relativistic effect causing the inner flow to precess as the spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time. This predicts a characteristic rocking of the iron line between red- and blueshift as the receding and approaching sides of the disc are respectively illuminated. Here we report on XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the black hole binary H1743-322 in which the line energy varies systematically over the ˜4 s QPO cycle (3.70σ significance), as predicted. This provides strong evidence that the QPO is produced by Lense-Thirring precession, constituting the first detection of this effect in the strong gravitation regime. There are however elements of our results harder to explain, with one section of data behaving differently than all the others. Our result enables the future application of tomographic techniques to map the inner regions of black hole accretion discs.

  7. Millihertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations in 4U 1636-536: Putting Possible Constraints on the Neutron Star Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, H.; Yu, W.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-11-01

    Based on previous studies of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries, mHz QPOs are believed to be related to “marginally stable” burning on the NS surface. Our study of phase-resolved energy spectra of these oscillations in 4U 1636-53 shows that the oscillations are not caused by variations in the blackbody temperature of the NS, but reveals a correlation between the change of the count rate during the mHz QPO pulse and the spatial extent of a region emitting blackbody emission. The maximum size of the emission area, {R}{BB}2={216.7}-86.4+93.2 km2, provides direct evidence that the oscillations originate from a variable surface area constrained on the NS and are therefore not related to instabilities in the accretion disk. The obtained lower limit on the size of the NS (11.0 km) rules out equations of state that prefer small NS radii. Observations of mHz QPOs in NS LMXBs with NICER and eXTP will reduce the statistical uncertainty in the lower limit on the NS radius, which together with better estimates of the hardening factor and distance, will allow for improved discrimination between different equations of state and compact star models. Furthermore, future missions will allow us to measure the peak blackbody emission area for a single mHz QPO pulse, which will push the lower limit to larger radii.

  8. A composite study of the quasi-periodic subtropical wind maxima over the South Pacific during November 1984-April 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Ken-Chung; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1995-01-01

    A composite of 10 cases of zonal wind maxima at 200 hPa over the subtropical region stretching from Australia to the central Pacific is examined for the six-month period, November 1984-April 1985. This region is unique in that distinct westerly jets frequently form and propagate eastward at latitudes between 20 deg and 35 deg S in the summer season. Some statistical tests were applied and suggest that the flow patterns are quasi periodic, consisting of a tendency for new jet streaks to develop over the eastern Australian region approximately every one to two weeks. These jets then take about 10 days to propagate across the western Pacific before dissipating or, perhaps, moving toward higher latitudes. Their average propagation speed is approximately 4 m/s. An examination of the case-to-case variability of the jets provides additional evidence that they are significant features. A diagnosis of the trough/ridge systems at 200 and 850 hPa, together with calculations of the vertically integrated mean and shear kinetic energies suggests that baroclinic processes dominate in the entrance and center regions of the jet, whereas barotropic processes dominate in the exit and downstream regions.

  9. Quasi-Periodicities in the Anomalous Emission Events in Pulsars B1859+07 and B0919+06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Haley; Rankin, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    A quasi-periodicity has been identified in the strange emission shifts in pulsar B1859+07 and possibly B0919+06. These events, first investigated by Rankin, Rodriguez & Wright in 2006, originally appeared disordered or random, but further mapping as well as Fourier analysis has revealed that they occur on a fairly regular basis of approximately 150 rotation periods in B1859+07 and perhaps some 700 in B0919+06. The events-which we now refer to as "swooshes"-are not the result of any known type of mode-changing, but rather we find that they are a uniquely different effect, produced by some mechanism other than any known pulse-modulation phenomenon. Given that we have yet to find another explanation for the swooshes, we have appealed to a last resort for periodicities in astrophysics: orbital dynamics in a binary system. Such putative "companions" would then have semi-major axes comparable to the light cylinder radius for both pulsars. However, in order to resist tidal disruption their densities must be at least some 10^5 grams/cm^3-therefore white-dwarf cores or something even denser might be indicated.

  10. Quasi-periodicities in the anomalous emission events in pulsars B1859+07 and B0919+06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Haley M.; Orfeo, Daniel J.; Rankin, Joanna M.; Weisberg, Joel M.

    2016-10-01

    A quasi-periodicity has been identified in the strange emission shifts in pulsar B1859+07 and possibly B0919+06. These events, first investigated by Rankin, Rodriguez & Wright in 2006, originally appeared disordered or random, but further mapping as well as Fourier analysis has revealed that they occur on a fairly regular basis of approximately 150 rotation periods in B1859+07 and perhaps some 700 in B0919+06. The events - which we now refer to as `swooshes' - are not the result of any known type of mode-changing, but rather we find that they are a uniquely different effect, produced by some mechanism other than any known pulse-modulation phenomenon. Given that we have yet to find another explanation for the swooshes, we have appealed to a last resort for periodicities in astrophysics: orbital dynamics in a binary system. Such putative `companions' would then have semimajor axes comparable to the light cylinder radius for both pulsars. However, in order to resist tidal disruption, their densities must be at least some 105 g cm-3 - therefore, white-dwarf cores or something even denser might be indicated.

  11. Dissociation and Ionization of Quasi-Periodically Vibrating H2+ in Intense Few-Cycle Mid-Infrared Laser Fields

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shicheng; Yu, Chao; Yuan, Guanglu; Wu, Tong; Lu, Ruifeng

    2017-01-01

    Using quantum mechanics calculations, we theoretically study the dissociation and ionization dynamics of the hydrogen-molecule ion in strong laser fields. Having prepared the nuclear wave packet of H2+ in a specific vibrational state, a pump laser is used to produce a vibrational excitation, leading to quasi-periodical vibration without ionization. Then, a time-delayed few-cycle laser is applied to trigger the dissociation or ionization of H2+. Both the time delay and the intensity of the probe laser alter the competition between dissociation and ionization. We also explore the dependence of kinetic-energy release spectra of fragments on the time delay, showing that the channels of above-threshold dissociation and below-threshold dissociation are opened and closed periodically. Also, dissociation from different channels is influenced by nuclear motion. The dissociation mechanism has been described in detail using the Floquet picture. This work provides a useful method for steering the electronic and nuclear dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields. PMID:28165034

  12. Long-period quasi-periodic oscillations of a small-scale magnetic structure on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Smirnova, V. V.; Strekalova, P. V.; Riehokainen, A.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Long-period quasi-periodic variations of the average magnetic field in a small-scale magnetic structure on the Sun are analysed. The structure is situated at the photospheric level and is involved in a facula formation in the chromosphere. Methods: The observational signal obtained from the SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetograms of the target structure has a non-stationary behaviour, and is therefore processed with the Hilbert-Huang Transform spectral technique. Results: The empirical decomposition of the original signal and subsequent testing of the statistical significance of its intrinsic modes reveal the presence of the white and pink noisy components for the periods shorter and longer than 10 min, respectively, and a significant oscillatory mode. The oscillation is found to have a non-stationary period growing from approximately 80 to 230 min and an increasing relative amplitude, while the mean magnetic field in the oscillating structure is seen to decrease. The observed behaviour could be interpreted either by the dynamical interaction of the structure with the boundaries of supergranula cells in the region of interest or in terms of the vortex shedding appearing during the magnetic flux emergence.

  13. Dissociation and Ionization of Quasi-Periodically Vibrating H2+ in Intense Few-Cycle Mid-Infrared Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shicheng; Yu, Chao; Yuan, Guanglu; Wu, Tong; Lu, Ruifeng

    2017-02-01

    Using quantum mechanics calculations, we theoretically study the dissociation and ionization dynamics of the hydrogen-molecule ion in strong laser fields. Having prepared the nuclear wave packet of H2+ in a specific vibrational state, a pump laser is used to produce a vibrational excitation, leading to quasi-periodical vibration without ionization. Then, a time-delayed few-cycle laser is applied to trigger the dissociation or ionization of H2+. Both the time delay and the intensity of the probe laser alter the competition between dissociation and ionization. We also explore the dependence of kinetic-energy release spectra of fragments on the time delay, showing that the channels of above-threshold dissociation and below-threshold dissociation are opened and closed periodically. Also, dissociation from different channels is influenced by nuclear motion. The dissociation mechanism has been described in detail using the Floquet picture. This work provides a useful method for steering the electronic and nuclear dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields.

  14. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Abukari, S. S. Mensah, S. Y.; Twum, A.; Mensah, N. G.; Adu, K. A.; Rabiu, M.

    2012-12-15

    We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ω{sub B} for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ω{sub B} for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  15. Accuracy of High Frequency Maximum Usable Frequencies (MUF) Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    shown in Figure 35 to be rat er constant at about 20 percent for MINIMUF-3.5. Whereas for HFMUFES 4 it is above 30 per- 57 CL - a / C 4L 4’ w I Z. LL U...Predictin2 the Performance of High-Frequency Skywave Telecomunication Systems (the use of the HFMJFES 4 Program), by GW Haydon, M Leftin , and R Rosich...in Ionospheric Maping by Numerical Methods, by WB Jones, RP Graham, and M Leftin , 12 May 1966. (Also Environmental Science Services Administration

  16. Construction of invariant whiskered tori by a parameterization method. Part II: Quasi-periodic and almost periodic breathers in coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontich, Ernest; de la Llave, Rafael; Sire, Yannick

    2015-09-01

    We construct quasi-periodic and almost periodic solutions for coupled Hamiltonian systems on an infinite lattice which is translation invariant. The couplings can be long range, provided that they decay moderately fast with respect to the distance. For the solutions we construct, most of the sites are moving in a neighborhood of a hyperbolic fixed point, but there are oscillating sites clustered around a sequence of nodes. The amplitude of these oscillations does not need to tend to zero. In particular, the almost periodic solutions do not decay at infinity. The main result is an a posteriori theorem. We formulate an invariance equation. Solutions of this equation are embeddings of an invariant torus on which the motion is conjugate to a rotation. We show that, if there is an approximate solution of the invariance equation that satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, there is a true solution close by. This does not require that the system is close to integrable, hence it can be used to validate numerical calculations or formal expansions. The proof of this a posteriori theorem is based on a Nash-Moser iteration, which does not use transformation theory. Simpler versions of the scheme were developed in [28]. One technical tool, important for our purposes, is the use of weighted spaces that capture the idea that the maps under consideration are local interactions. Using these weighted spaces, the estimates of iterative steps are similar to those in finite dimensional spaces. In particular, the estimates are independent of the number of nodes that get excited. Using these techniques, given two breathers, we can place them apart and obtain an approximate solution, which leads to a true solution nearby. By repeating the process infinitely often, we can get solutions with infinitely many frequencies which do not tend to zero at infinity.

  17. Discoveries of high-frequency QPOs from intermediate-mass black holes with XMM, RXTE and NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranga Reddy Pasham, Deeraj; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Steiner, James F.

    2017-08-01

    Stable, twin-peak X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs; frequency range of 100-450 Hz) in a 3:2 frequency ratio have been observed from a sample of stellar-mass black holes (e.g., Belloni et al. 2012). These frequencies scale inversely with the black hole mass as expected from general relativistic motion near a black hole. Under the black hole unification paradigm, it has been argued that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBH) should also exhibit the 3:2 ratio high-frequency QPOs, but at frequencies lower than stellar-mass black holes. Thence, such QPOs will provide an accurate measurement of IMBH masses (Abramowicz et al. 2004).Combining all the entire archival RXTE/PCA observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we discovered stable, twin-peak X-ray QPOs at 3.3 and 5 Hz (3:2 frequency ratio). Scaling these frequencies to the oscillations of the stellar-mass black holes of known mass implies that M82 X-1's black hole is 428+-105 solar masses (Pasham, Strohmayer & Mushotzky 2014). We discovered similar 3:2 frequency ratio QPOs from another ULX NGC 1313 X-1 (0.30 and 0.45 Hz). These frequencies imply a black hole mass of 5000+-1300 solar masses in NGC 1313 X-1 (Pasham et al. 2015b). In addition to these results I will discuss some early results from NICER observations of ULXs.

  18. Swift-XRT observations of Quasi-periodic oscillations seen in the Super Soft Source emission from Classical and Recurrent Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardmore, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We report short timescale, soft X-ray flux quasi-periodic oscillations that have been seen by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) during the super soft source (SSS) emission phase from novae. A periodogram analysis revealed oscillations were visible in the 0.3-10 keV XRT light curves obtained from RS Oph (period, P=35.0 s), KT Eri (P=34.9s), V339 Del (P=54.0s), and V5668 Sgr (P=69.7s), with fractional rms variabilities ranging from 1-8 per cent. During day 32-59 of the RS Oph outburst, the oscillation central frequency appeared quite variable, ranging from 26.2-31.1 mHz, caused by a lower coherence at this time. However, after day 50 the oscillation became more coherent, with a frequency that slowly increased from 28.3-28.9 mHz over 9 days, before the trend reversed. The oscillation frequency was less variable in KT Eri and V339 Del. No other correlations, such as between the oscillation frequency or amplitude with source intensity, were seen. A wavelet analysis of the variability seen in RS Oph, KT Eri and V339 Del revealed the oscillations were sometimes visible for entire XRT snapshots lasting 1.0-1.5 ks, yet on other occasions, they were detected for only ˜120 s (i.e. ˜2-4 cycles). The modulation fractional amplitude was variable, occasionally reaching values of 15-20 per cent for a few cycles. During times when the coherence was low, the oscillation phase was seen to jump by ˜0.4-0.6 cycles in RS Oph, then remain stable for ˜10 cycles. KT Eri showed smaller phase jumps of ˜0.2 cycles. We detect a significant spectral variation through the 35s oscillation seen in RS~Oph, with the spectrum becoming harder at the time of the modulation maximum. Fits to the oscillation maximum and minima spectra suggest the increased flux between 0.6-0.75 keV in the former is caused by a 25 per cent reduction in the neutral oxygen column density at this phase. We discuss the possible origins behind the oscillations.

  19. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  20. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOEpatents

    Felker, Brian; McDaniel, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  1. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  2. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  3. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  4. Acoustic-gravity waves in the nonisothermal atmosphere and its influence on the magnetospheric quasi-periodic vlf emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Olga; Bespalov, Peter; Misonova, Vera; Petrov, Kiril

    2014-05-01

    We examine two mutually complementing tasks related to the theoretical analysis of acoustic-gravity disturbances in the Earth's atmosphere and its influence on magnetosphere processes. Our research is based on modern atmospherical models. We study waves propagation, absorption, and filtration. The atmospheric nonisothermicity is taken into account, for example, by introduction of a two-layered atmosphere temperature model. For a study of more delicate effects, a piecewise-linear model, for which the analytical solution is written by the hypergeometric functions, is employed. Also we consider an influence of acoustic-gravity waves on VLF electromagnetic wave excitation in the magnetosphere. This influence occurs as a result of the following processes: a modulation of the plasma density by acoustic-gravity waves in the ionosphere, a modulation of reflection from the ionosphere for VLF waves, and a modification of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor for VLF waves. Variation of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor has an influence on the operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser, where the active substances are radiation belts particles and the working modes are electromagnetic VLF waves (whistler-type waves). The plasma magnetospheric maser can be responsible for an excitation of self-oscillations. These self-oscillations are frequently characterized by alternating stages of accumulation and precipitation of energetic particles into the ionosphere during a pulse of whistler emissions. Numerical and analytical investigations of the response of self-oscillations to harmonic oscillations of the whistler reflection coefficient shows that even a small modulation rate can significantly changes the magnetospheric VLF emissions. Our results can explain the causes of the modulation of energetic electron fluxes and whistler wave intensity with a time scale from 10 to 150 seconds in the day-side magnetosphere. Such quasi-periodic VLF emissions are often observed in the sub

  5. Tomographic reflection modelling of quasi-periodic oscillations in the black hole binary H 1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel; Middleton, Matthew; Altamirano, Diego; Uttley, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Accreting stellar mass black holes (BHs) routinely exhibit Type-C quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). These are often interpreted as Lense-Thirring precession of the inner accretion flow, a relativistic effect whereby the spin of the BH distorts the surrounding space-time, inducing nodal precession. The best evidence for the precession model is the recent discovery, using a long joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observation of H 1743-322, that the centroid energy of the iron florescence line changes systematically with QPO phase. This was interpreted as the inner flow illuminating different azimuths of the accretion disc as it precesses, giving rise to a blueshifted/redshifted iron line when the approaching/receding disc material is illuminated. Here, we develop a physical model for this interpretation, including a self-consistent reflection continuum, and fit this to the same H 1743-322 data. We use an analytic function to parametrize the asymmetric illumination pattern on the disc surface that would result from inner flow precession, and find that the data are well described if two bright patches rotate about the disc surface. This model is preferred to alternatives considering an oscillating disc ionization parameter, disc inner radius and radial emissivity profile. We find that the reflection fraction varies with QPO phase (3.5σ), adding to the now formidable body of evidence that Type-C QPOs are a geometric effect. This is the first example of tomographic QPO modelling, initiating a powerful new technique that utilizes QPOs in order to map the dynamics of accreting material close to the BH.

  6. Quasi-periodic slow slip events in the afterslip area of the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarai, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Shinzaburo

    2013-05-01

    The time evolution of afterslip on a plate boundary experiencing interplate earthquakes is expected to show logarithmic decay. The global positioning system network in Japan has been monitoring transient deformation since the occurrence of two large interplate earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.7 in the Hyuga-nada area, southwest Japan, in 1996. The spatial and temporal evolution of aseismic interplate slip based on crustal deformation data indicates that afterslip followed the two earthquakes and gradually declined to background rates by around 2004 with total moment magnitude of 7.3. However, quasi-periodic slow slip events suddenly began within the afterslip area in 2005 with approximately one year duration and two-year recurrence interval. The moment magnitudes of the three slow slip events since January 2005 range from 6.7 to 6.8. This differs greatly from the expected behavior of logarithmic decay over time. Both velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening rate-and-state modes have been implicated as the cause of afterslip, whose location is complementary to the main shock area of velocity-weakening, while a slow slip event occurs in the velocity-weakening area with different frictional properties from those of an afterslip area. In light of the seemingly different frictional properties, the coexistence of afterslip and slow slip events in the same area would provide additional information about precisely how the plate interface is behaving. The monitoring of these slow slip events should give the clues to understanding the coexistence of long-term afterslip and slow slip events and the increasing risk of earthquakes in neighboring areas.

  7. Observation of a Short Period Quasi-periodic Pulsation in Solar X-Ray, Microwave, and EUV Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the multiwavelength analysis of a 13 s quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) observed in hard X-ray (12–300 keV) and microwave (4.9–34 GHz) emissions during a C-class flare that occurred on 2015 September 21. Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 304 and 171 Å images show an emerging loop/flux tube (L1) moving radially outward, which interacts with the preexisting structures within the active region (AR). The QPP was observed during the expansion of and rising motion of L1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph microwave images in 17/34 GHz channels reveal a single radio source that was co-spatial with a neighboring loop (L2). In addition, using AIA 304 Å images, we detected intensity oscillations in the legs of L2 with a period of about 26 s. A similar oscillation period was observed in the GOES soft X-ray flux derivative. This oscillation period seems to increase with time. We suggest that the observed QPP is most likely generated by the interaction between L2 and L3 observed in the AIA hot channels (131 and 94 Å). The merging speed of loops L2 and L3 was ∼35 km s‑1. L1 was destroyed possibly by its interaction with preexisting structures in the AR, and produced a cool jet with the speed of ∼106–118 km s‑1 associated with a narrow CME (∼770 km s‑1). Another mechanism of the QPP in terms of a sausage oscillation of the loop (L2) is also possible.

  8. Quasi-periodic pulsations with periods that change depending on whether the pulsations have thermal or nonthermal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Zhang, Q. M.; Huang, Y.; Ning, Z. J.; Su, Y. N.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) typically display periodic and regular peaks in the light curves during the flare emissions. Sometimes, QPPs show multiple periods at the same wavelength. However, changing periods in various channels are rare. Aims: We report QPPs in a solar flare on 2014 October 27. They showed a period change that depended on whether thermal or nonthermal components were included. The flare was simultaneously observed by many instruments. Methods: Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT), we decomposed the light curves at multiple wavelengths into slowly varying and rapidly varying signals. Then we identified the QPPs as the regular and periodic peaks from the rapidly varying signals. The periods are derived with the wavelet method and confirmed based on the FFT spectra of the rapidly varying signals. Results: We find a period of 50 s from the thermal emissions during the impulsive phase of the flare, that is, in the soft X-ray bands. At the same time, a period of about 100 s is detected from the nonthermal emissions, such as hard X-ray and microwave channels. The period ratio is exactly 2.0, which might be due to the modulations of the magnetic reconnection rate by the fundamental and harmonic modes of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Our results further show that the 100 s period is present over a broad wavelength, such as hard X-rays, extreme-UV/UV, and microwave emissions, indicating the periodic magnetic reconnection in this flare. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report about period changes from thermal to nonthermal components in a single flare that occur at almost the same time. This new observational finding could be a challenge to the theory of flare QPPs.

  9. High frequency ultrasonic scattering by biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shung, K. Kirk; Maruvada, Subha

    2002-05-01

    High frequency (HF) diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices at frequencies higher than 20 MHz have found applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, a better understanding of ultrasonic scattering in biological tissues such as blood, liver, myocardium in the high frequency range is crucial. This work has previously been hampered by the lack of suitable transducers. With the availability of HF transducers going to 90 MHz, HF attenuation and backscatter experiments have been made on porcine red blood cell (RBC) suspensions, for which much data on attenuation and backscatter can be found in the literature in the lower frequency range for frequencies, from 30 to 90 MHz and on bovine tissues for frequencies from 10 to 30 MHz using a modified substitution method that allow the utilization of focused transducers. These results will be reviewed in this talk along with relevant theoretical models that could be applied to interpreting them. The relevance of the parameter that has been frequently used in the biomedical ultrasound literature to describe backscattering, the backscattering coefficient, will be critically examined.

  10. Degradation of PAHs by high frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, Ioannis D; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2011-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic compounds, which have been reported in the literature to efficiently degrade at low (e.g. 20 kHz) and moderate (e.g. 506 kHz) ultrasound frequencies. The present study focuses on degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by ultrasound at three different relatively high frequencies (i.e. 582, 862, and 1142 kHz). The experimental results indicate that for all three frequencies and power inputs ≥ 133 W phenanthrene degrades to concentrations lower than our experimental detection limit (<1 μg/L). Phenanthrene degrades significantly faster at 582 kHz than at 862 and 1142 kHz. For all three frequencies, the degradation rates per unit mass are similar for naphthalene and phenanthrene and lower for pyrene. Furthermore, naphthalene degradation requires less energy than phenanthrene, which requires less energy than pyrene under the same conditions. No hexane-extractable metabolites were identified in the solutions.

  11. High-frequency micromechanical columnar resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kehrbusch, Jenny; Ilin, Elena A; Bozek, Peter; Radzio, Bernhard; Oesterschulze, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency silicon columnar microresonators are fabricated using a simple but effective technological scheme. An optimized fabrication scheme was invented to obtain mechanically protected microcolumns with lateral dimensions controlled on a scale of at least 1 μm. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the environmental conditions on the mechanical resonator properties. At ambient conditions, we observed a frequency stability δf/f of less than 10−6 during 5 h of operation at almost constant temperature. However, varying the temperature shifts the frequency by approximately −173 Hz °C− 1. In accordance with a viscous damping model of the ambient gas, we perceived that the quality factor of the first flexural mode decreased with the inverse of the square root of pressure. However, in the low-pressure regime, a linear dependence was observed. We also investigated the influence of the type of the immersing gas on the resonant frequency. PMID:27877296

  12. RF Breakdown in High Frequency Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Doebert, S

    2004-05-27

    RF breakdown in high-frequency accelerators appears to limit the maximum achievable gradient as well as the reliability of such devices. Experimental results from high power tests, obtained mostly in the framework of the NLC/GLC project at 11 GHz and from the CLIC study at 30 GHz, will be used to illustrate the important issues. The dependence of the breakdown phenomena on rf pulse length, operating frequency and fabrication material will be described. Since reliability is extremely important for large scale accelerators such as a linear collider, the measurements of breakdown rate as a function of the operating gradient will be highlighted.

  13. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  14. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  15. Metrology For High-Frequency Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, T. Mitch; Imtiaz, Atif; Nembach, Hans T.; Rice, Paul; Kabos, Pavel

    2007-09-26

    Two metrological tools for high-frequency measurements of nanoscale systems are described: (i) two/N-port analysis of nanoscale devices as well as (ii) near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) for materials characterization. Calibrated two/N-port measurements were made on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) welded to a coplanar waveguide. Significant changes in the extracted high-frequency electrical response of the welded MWNT were measured when the contacts to the MWNT were modified. Additionally, NSMM was used to characterize films of nanotube soot deposited on copper and sapphire substrates. The material properties of the films showed a strong dependence on the substrate material.

  16. Evidence for Quasi-Periodic X-ray Dips from an ULX: Implications for the Binary Motion and the Orbital Inclination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2012-01-01

    We report results from long-term X-ray (0.3-8.0 keY) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of quasi-periodic dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy-dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 +/- 4 days the amplitude of which decreases during the second half of the light curve and (3) energy spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data, possibly due to a change in the ionization state of the circumbinary material. We interpret the X-ray modulations in the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination low-mass X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 +/- 23 days in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk (similar to the phenomenon of dipping LMXBs), this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination approx > 60 deg. We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.

  17. Evidence For Quasi-Periodic X-ray Dips From An Ultraluminous X-ray Source: Implications for the Binary Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    We report results from long-term (approx.1240 days) X-ray (0.3-8.0 keV) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Here we expand on earlier work by Strohmayer (2009) who used only a part of the present data set. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of sharp, quasi-periodic, energy-independent dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 +/- 4 days, the amplitude of which weakens during the second half of the light curve, and (3) spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data. We interpret the X-ray modulations within the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination accreting X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 +/- 23 days, in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported by Strohmayer (2009). We discuss the overall X-ray modulation within the framework of accretion via Roche-lobe overflow of the donor star. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk, this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination > or approx.70deg. We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC X-RAY DIPS FROM AN ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE BINARY MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E. E-mail: tod.strohmayer@nasa.gov

    2013-02-10

    We report results from long-term ( Almost-Equal-To 1240 days) X-ray (0.3-8.0 keV) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Here we expand on earlier work by Strohmayer (2009) who used only a part of the present data set. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of sharp, quasi-periodic, energy-independent dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 {+-} 4 days, the amplitude of which weakens during the second half of the light curve, and (3) spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data. We interpret the X-ray modulations within the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination accreting X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 {+-} 23 days, in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported by Strohmayer (2009). We discuss the overall X-ray modulation within the framework of accretion via Roche-lobe overflow of the donor star. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk, this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination {approx}>70 Degree-Sign . We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.

  19. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  20. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  1. High resolution low frequency ultrasonic tomography.

    PubMed

    Lasaygues, P; Lefebvre, J P; Mensah, S

    1997-10-01

    Ultrasonic reflection tomography results from a linearization of the inverse acoustic scattering problem, named the inverse Born approximation. The goal of ultrasonic reflection tomography is to obtain reflectivity images from backscattered measurements. This is a Fourier synthesis problem and the first step is to correctly cover the frequency space of the object. For this inverse problem, we use the classical algorithm of tomographic reconstruction by summation of filtered backprojections. In practice, only a limited number of views are available with our mechanical rig, typically 180, and the frequency bandwidth of the pulses is very limited, typically one octave. The resolving power of the system is them limited by the bandwidth of the pulse. Low and high frequencies can be restored by use of a deconvolution algorithm that enhances resolution. We used a deconvolution technique based on the Papoulis method. The advantage of this technique is conservation of the overall frequency information content of the signals. The enhancement procedure was tested by imaging a square aluminium rod with a cross-section less than the wavelength. In this application, the central frequency of the transducer was 250 kHz so that the central wavelength was 6 mm whereas the cross-section of the rod was 4 mm. Although the Born approximation was not theoretically valid in this case (high contrast), a good reconstruction was obtained.

  2. Detection and Interpretation of Long-lived X-Ray Quasi-periodic Pulsations in the X-class Solar Flare on 2013 May 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Tolbert, Anne K.; Inglis, Andrew; Ireland, Jack; Wang, Tongjiang; Holman, Gordon D.; Hayes, Laura A.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2017-02-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) seen in the time derivative of the GOES soft X-ray light curves are analyzed for the X3.2 event on 2013 May 14. The pulsations are apparent for a total of at least two hours from the impulsive phase to well into the decay phase, with a total of 163 distinct pulses evident to the naked eye. A wavelet analysis shows that the characteristic timescale of these pulsations increases systematically from ∼25 s at 01:10 UT, the time of the GOES peak, to ∼100 s at 02:00 UT. A second “ridge” in the wavelet power spectrum, most likely associated with flaring emission from a different active region, shows an increase from ∼40 s at 01:40 UT to ∼100 s at 03:10 UT. We assume that the QPP that produced the first ridge result from vertical kink-mode oscillations of the newly formed loops following magnetic reconnection in the coronal current sheet. This allows us to estimate the magnetic field strength as a function of altitude given the density, loop length, and QPP timescale as functions of time determined from the GOES light curves and Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) images. The calculated magnetic field strength of the newly formed loops ranges from ∼500 G at an altitude of 24 Mm to a low value of ∼10 G at 60 Mm, in general agreement with the expected values at these altitudes. Fast sausage-mode oscillations are also discussed and cannot be ruled out as an alternate mechanism for producing the QPP.

  3. Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s Quasi Periodic Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inam, S. C.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.; Stark, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and average spin-up rate during the XMM-Newton observations were found to be 354.7940+/-0.0008 s and (7.4 +/- 0.9) x 10(exp -13) Hz/s respectively. In the power spectrum of the 0.9-11 keV EPIC-PN lightcurve, we found quasi periodic oscillations around 0.044 Hz (22.7 s) with an rms fractional amplitude approx. 6.6 %. We interpreted this QPO feature as the Keplerian motion of inhomogeneities through the inner disk. In the X-ray spectrum, in addition to the power law component with high energy cutoff and approx. 6.4 keV fluorescent iron emission line, we discovered a soft component consistent with a blackbody emission with kT approx. 1.9 keV. The pulse phase spectroscopy of the source revealed that the blackbody flux peaked at the peak of the pulse with an emission radius approx. 0.3 km, suggesting the polar cap on the neutron star approx. 6.42 keV was shown to peak at the off-pulse phase, supporting the idea that this feature arises from fluorescent emission of the circumstellar material around the neutron star rather than the hot region in the vicinity of the neutron star polar cap.

  4. EVIDENCE OF A WARM ABSORBER THAT VARIES WITH QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION PHASE IN THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS RE J1034+396

    SciTech Connect

    Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon M. E-mail: jonmm@umich.ed

    2010-07-20

    A recent observation of the nearby (z = 0.042) narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 on 2007 May 31 showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux. We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of this observation, using data obtained by the EPIC PN detector on board XMM-Newton. The 'low' phase spectrum, associated with the troughs in the light curve, shows (at >4{sigma} confidence level) an absorption edge at 0.86 {+-} 0.05 keV with an absorption depth of 0.3 {+-} 0.1. Ionized oxygen edges are hallmarks of X-ray warm absorbers in Seyfert active galactic nuclei; the observed edge is consistent with H-like O VIII and implies a column density of N{sub OVIII} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. The edge is not seen in the 'high' phase spectrum associated with the crests in the light curve, suggesting the presence of a warm absorber in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole that periodically obscures the continuum emission. If the QPO arises due to Keplerian orbital motion around the central black hole, the periodic appearance of the O VIII edge would imply a radius of {approx}9.4(M/[4x10{sup 6}M{sub sun}]){sup -2/3}(P/[1 hr]){sup 2/3} r{sub g} for the size of the warm absorber.

  5. Detection and Interpretation of Long-lived X-Ray Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in the X-Class Solar Flare on 2013 May 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Tolbert, Anne K.; Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew; Wang, Tongjiang; Holman, Gordon D.; Hayes, Laura A.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) seen in the time derivative of the GOES soft X-ray light curves are analyzed for the X3.2 event on 2013 May 14. The pulsations are apparent for a total of at least two hours from the impulsive phase to well into the decay phase, with a total of 163 distinct pulses evident to the naked eye. A wavelet analysis shows that the characteristic timescale of these pulsations increases systematically from approx. 25 s at 01:10 UT, the time of the GOES peak, to approx. 100 s at 02:00 UT. A second ridge in the wavelet power spectrum, most likely associated with flaring emission from a different active region, shows an increase from approx. 40 s at 01:40 UT to approx. 100 s at 03:10 UT. We assume that the QPP that produced the first ridge result from vertical kink-mode oscillations of the newly formed loops following magnetic reconnection in the coronal current sheet. This allows us to estimate the magnetic field strength as a function of altitude given the density, loop length, and QPP timescale as functions of time determined from the GOES light curves and Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) images. The calculated magnetic field strength of the newly formed loops ranges from approx. 500 G at an altitude of 24Mm to a low value of approx. 10 G at 60 Mm, in general agreement with the expected values at these altitudes. Fast sausage-mode oscillations are also discussed and cannot be ruled out as an alternate mechanism for producing the QPP.

  6. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Eliyahu, D.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than −60 dBc Hz−1 at 10 Hz, −90 dBc Hz−1 at 100 Hz and −170 dBc Hz−1 at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10−10 at 1–100 s integration time—orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption. PMID:26260955

  7. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Ilchenko, V S; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2015-08-11

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than -60 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 Hz, -90 dBc Hz(-1) at 100 Hz and -170 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10(-10) at 1-100 s integration time-orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption.

  8. [High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates].

    PubMed

    2002-09-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may be considered as an alternative in the management of severe neonatal respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. In patients with diffuse pulmonary disease, HFOV can applied as a rescue therapy with a high lung volume strategy to obtain adequate alveolar recruitment. We review the mechanisms of gas exchange, as well as the indications, monitoring and special features of the use HVOF in the neonatal period.

  9. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-01-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834

  10. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm‑1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  11. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-06

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm(-1) at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  12. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  13. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  14. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  15. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  16. Frequency dependent polarization analysis of high-frequency seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeffrey; Vernon, Frank L., III; Lindberg, Craig R.

    1987-11-01

    We present a multitaper algorithm to estimate the polarization of particle motion as a function of frequency from three-component seismic data. This algorithm is based on a singular value decomposition of a matrix of eigenspectra at a given frequency. The right complex eigenvector zˆ corresonding to the largest singular value of the matrix has the same direction as the dominant polarization of seismic motion at that frequency. The elements of the polarization vector zˆ specify the relative amplitudes and phases of motion measured along the recorded components within a chosen frequency band. The width of this frequency band is determined by the time-bandwidth product of the prolate spheroidal tapers used in the analysis. We manipulate the components of zˆ to determine the apparent azimuth and angle of incidence of seismic motion as a function of frequency. The orthogonality of the eigentapers allows one to calculate easily uncertainties in the estimated azimuth and angle of incidence. We apply this algorithm to data from the Anza Seismic Telemetered Array in the frequency band 0 ≤ ƒ ≤ 30 Hz. The polarization is not always a smooth function of frequency and can exhibit sharp jumps, suggesting the existence of scattered modes within the crustal waveguide and/or receiver site resonances.

  17. High-frequency resonant-tunneling oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Calawa, A. R.; Manfra, M. J.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-frequency resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators are described. Oscillations up to a frequency of 420 GHz have been achieved in the GaAs/AlAs system. Recent results obtained with In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs and InAs/AlSb RTDs show a greatly increased power density and indicate the potential for fundamental oscillations up to about 1 THz. These results are consistent with a lumped-element equivalent circuit model of the RTD. The model shows that the maximum oscillation frequency of the GaAs/AlAs RTDs is limited primarily by series resistance, and that the power density is limited by low peak-to-valley current ratio.

  18. High Frequency Laser-Based Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, R; Chinn, D; Balogun, O; Murray, T

    2005-09-12

    To obtain micrometer resolution of materials using acoustics requires frequencies around 1 GHz. Attenuation of such frequencies is high, limiting the thickness of the parts that can be characterized. Although acoustic microscopes can operate up to several GHz in frequency, they are used primarily as a surface characterization tool. The use of a pulsed laser for acoustic generation allows generation directly in the part, eliminating the loss of energy associated with coupling the energy from a piezoelectric transducer to the part of interest. The use of pulsed laser acoustic generation in combination with optical detection is investigated for the non-contact characterization of materials with features that must be characterized to micrometer resolution.

  19. Protection circuitry for high frequency ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaggares, N. Chris; Tang, Raymond K.; Sinclair, A. N., Prof.; Foster, F. S., Prof.; Haraierciwz, Kasia; Starkoski, Brian

    2000-05-01

    Most commercial ultrasonic NDE equipment employs a voltage spike to stimulate a piezoelectric transducer. To protect the signal processing unit from damage from this spike, a voltage limiter or "diode clamp" is included in the pulser-receiver, and limits the voltage reaching the amplifier or oscilloscope. In this project, the deleterious effects of such limiters on the ultrasonic echo in the high frequency (50-100 MHz range) have been quantified: these effects include significant distortion in the frequency content, and oscillations causing a drop in timing resolution by over a factor of 2. To address these problems, a high-voltage high-frequency switch has been designed to replace the voltage limiter; the switch directs the high-voltage spike away from the signal processing/display unit, towards an impedance-matched termination. A prototype circuit has been built, based on two high-voltage MOSFET's acting as a switch for the bi-polar stimulation pulse. The reduction in echo distortion and improvement in time resolution have been successfully modeled with the CAD tool HSPICE, although parasitic capacitance in the current generation of commercial MOSFET's is a continuing concern.

  20. High frequency x-ray generator basics.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Wlad T

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic functional principles of high frequency x-ray generators. The emphasis is put on physical concepts that determine the engineering solutions to the problem of efficient generation and control of high voltage power required to drive the x-ray tube. The physics of magnetically coupled circuits is discussed first, as a background for the discussion of engineering issues related to high-frequency power transformer design. Attention is paid to physical processes that influence such factors as size, efficiency, and reliability of a high voltage power transformer. The basic electrical circuit of a high frequency generator is analyzed next, with focus on functional principles. This section investigates the role and function of basic components, such as power supply, inverter, and voltage doubler. Essential electronic circuits of generator control are then examined, including regulation of voltage, current and timing of electrical power delivery to the x-ray tube. Finally, issues related to efficient feedback control, including basic design of the AEC circuitry are reviewed.

  1. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  2. Noise temperature in graphene at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Raúl; Iglesias, José M.; Pascual, Elena; Martín, María J.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical method for obtaining the frequency-dependent noise temperature in monolayer graphene is presented. From the mobility and diffusion coefficient values provided by Monte Carlo simulation, the noise temperature in graphene is studied up to the THz range, considering also the influence of different substrate types. The influence of the applied electric field is investigated: the noise temperature is found to increase with the applied field, dropping down at high frequencies (in the sub-THz range). The results show that the low-frequency value of the noise temperature in graphene on a substrate tends to be reduced as compared to the case of suspended graphene due to the important effect of remote polar phonon interactions, thus indicating a reduced emitted noise power; however, at very high frequencies the influence of the substrate tends to be significantly reduced, and the differences between the suspended and on-substrate cases tend to be minimized. The values obtained are comparable to those observed in GaAs and semiconductor nitrides.

  3. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  4. Hydrodynamic interactions between many-particles falling under gravity in a viscous fluid: analysis of periodic and quasi-periodic motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruca, Marta; Division of Complex Fluids Team

    2014-11-01

    We investigate dynamics of many particles settling under gravity in a viscous fluid within the Stokes flow regime. We consider several families of regular initial configurations of a large number of point-particles which lead to periodic and quasi-periodic motions of the particles. We vary the relative distance between particles and observe how does it affect the dynamics. We observe the oscillations under some out-of-phase rearrangements of the particles. We also see a large influence of initial conditions on the system stability. By perturbating the regular configurations we obtain the dynamics corresponding to the dynamics of drop of suspension. We also explore the dynamics of such system in porous media where analogous quasi-periodic motions have been found.

  5. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS OF {approx}15 MINUTES IN THE OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE OF THE BL LAC S5 0716+714

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Bindu; Gupta, Alok C.; Joshi, U. C.; Ganesh, S.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2010-08-20

    Over the course of 3 hr on 2008 December 27, we obtained optical (R band) observations of the blazar S5 0716+714 at a very fast cadence of 10 s. Using several different techniques, we find fluctuations with an approximately 15 minute quasi-period to be present in the first portion of these data at a >3{sigma} confidence level. This is the fastest quasi-periodic oscillation that has been claimed to be observed in any blazar at any wavelength. While these data are insufficient to strongly constrain models for such fluctuations, the presence of such a short timescale when the source is not in a very low state seems to favor the action of turbulence behind a shock in the blazar's relativistic jet.

  6. An Abstract Nash-Moser Theorem and Quasi-Periodic Solutions for NLW and NLS on Compact Lie Groups and Homogeneous Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Massimiliano; Corsi, Livia; Procesi, Michela

    2015-03-01

    We prove an abstract implicit function theorem with parameters for smooth operators defined on scales of sequence spaces, modeled for the search of quasi-periodic solutions of PDEs. The tame estimates required for the inverse linearised operators at each step of the iterative scheme are deduced via a multiscale inductive argument. The Cantor-like set of parameters where the solution exists is defined in a non inductive way. This formulation completely decouples the iterative scheme from the measure theoretical analysis of the parameters where the small divisors non-resonance conditions are verified. As an application, we deduce the existence of quasi-periodic solutions for forced NLW and NLS equations on any compact Lie group or manifold which is homogeneous with respect to a compact Lie group, extending previous results valid only for tori. A basic tool of harmonic analysis is the highest weight theory for the irreducible representations of compact Lie groups.

  7. Climatic and human impacts on quasi-periodic and abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at multiple time scales in Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyu; Xu, Xiaojuan; Lin, Zhenshan; Zhang, Mingyang; Mi, Ying; Huang, Changchun; Yang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    With the ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Method (EEMD) and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall Test, the quasi-periodic and abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at multiple time scales, and their relations to climate changes and human activities from 1951 to 2010 in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu (China) were studied. The results showed the following. (1) The change in sedimentation rate can be completely decomposed into three quasi-periodic changes on 3.7, 6.4, and 24-yr time scales, and a long-term trend. (2) The quasi-periodic changes in sedimentation rate are significantly and positively related to changes in annual average temperature at 6.4 and 24-yr time scales and human activities at 3.7-yr time scales, and not significantly related to precipitation at these time scales. The trend of sedimentation rate has a negative relation with temperature, but positive relations with precipitation and human activities. As a whole, the total variance contribution of climate changes to the quasi-periodic changes of sedimentation rate is close to that of human activities; (3) Temperature and precipitation are possibly related to the abrupt change of sedimentation rate as a whole. Floods have significant impacts on abrupt changes in the sedimentation rate at 3.7, 6.4 and 24-yr time scales. Moreover, some abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at 3.7- and 6.4-yr time scales are partly related to the changes of precipitation at 3.1-yr time scale and temperature at 5-yr time scale. The results of this study will help identify the impacts of climate change and human activities on lake sedimentation at different time scales, and will be available for use as a guide for reasonable development and effective protection of lake resources.

  8. High Frequency Guided Wave Virtual Array SAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    The principles of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) are generalized for application to high frequency plate wave signals. It is shown that a flaw signal received in long-range plate wave propagation can be analyzed as if the signals were measured by an infinite array of transducers in an unbounded medium. It is shown that SAFT-based flaw sizing can be performed with as few as three or less actual measurement positions.

  9. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    physiologic and clin- ical outcomes. Pediatric and adult inhalational injury studies have linked HFPV to an improvement in static lung compliance...sedation–analgesic combinations (usually fentanyl with the individual or combined use of midazolam and propofol and/or dexmedetomidine), patient...1998;84:1174–7. 34. Frantz ID III, Close RH. Alveolar pressure swings during high frequency ventilation in rabbits. Pediatr Res 1985;19:162–6. 35. Pillow

  10. Quasi-periodic variations in x-ray emission and long-term radio observations: Evidence for a two-component jet in Sw J1644+57

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiu-Zhou; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Huang, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Bing; Gao, He E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-06-10

    The continued observations of Sw J1644+57 in X-ray and radio bands accumulated a rich data set to study the relativistic jet launched in this tidal disruption event. The X-ray light curve of Sw J1644+57 from 5-30 days presents two kinds of quasi-periodic variations: a 200 s quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and a 2.7 day quasi-periodic variation. The latter has been interpreted by a precessing jet launched near the Bardeen-Petterson radius of a warped disk. Here we suggest that the ∼200 s QPO could be associated with a second, narrower jet sweeping the observer line-of-sight periodically, which is launched from a spinning black hole in the misaligned direction with respect to the black hole's angular momentum. In addition, we show that this two-component jet model can interpret the radio light curve of the event, especially the re-brightening feature starting ∼100 days after the trigger. From the data we infer that inner jet may have a Lorentz factor of Γ{sub j} ∼ 5.5 and a kinetic energy of E {sub k,} {sub iso} ∼ 3.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, while the outer jet may have a Lorentz factor of Γ{sub j} ∼ 2.5 and a kinetic energy of E{sub k,} {sub iso} ∼ 3.0 × 10{sup 53} erg.

  11. Rapid trajectory design in the Earth-Moon ephemeris system via an interactive catalog of periodic and quasi-periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Davide; Bosanac, Natasha; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Upcoming missions and prospective design concepts in the Earth-Moon system extensively leverage multi-body dynamics that may facilitate access to strategic locations or reduce propellant usage. To incorporate these dynamical structures into the mission design process, Purdue University and the NASA Goddard Flight Space Center have initiated the construction of a trajectory design framework to rapidly access and compare solutions from the circular restricted three-body problem. This framework, based upon a 'dynamic' catalog of periodic and quasi-periodic orbits within the Earth-Moon system, can guide an end-to-end trajectory design in an ephemeris model. In particular, the inclusion of quasi-periodic orbits further expands the design space, potentially enabling the detection of additional orbit options. To demonstrate the concept of a 'dynamic' catalog, a prototype graphical interface is developed. Strategies to characterize and represent periodic and quasi-periodic information for interactive trajectory comparison and selection are discussed. Two sample applications for formation flying near the Earth-Moon L2 point and lunar space infrastructures are explored to demonstrate the efficacy of a 'dynamic' catalog for rapid trajectory design and validity in higher-fidelity models.

  12. Rapidly convergent quasi-periodic Green functions for scattering by arrays of cylinders-including Wood anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Oscar P; Fernandez-Lado, Agustin G

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a full-spectrum Green-function methodology (which is valid, in particular, at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies) for evaluation of scattering by periodic arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section-with application to wire gratings, particle arrays and reflectarrays and, indeed, general arrays of conducting or dielectric bounded obstacles under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized illumination. The proposed method, which, for definiteness, is demonstrated here for arrays of perfectly conducting particles under transverse electric polarization, is based on the use of the shifted Green-function method introduced in a recent contribution (Bruno & Delourme 2014 J. Computat. Phys.262, 262-290 (doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2013.12.047)). A certain infinite term arises at Wood anomalies for the cylinder-array problems considered here that is not present in the previous rough-surface case. As shown in this paper, these infinite terms can be treated via an application of ideas related to the Woodbury-Sherman-Morrison formulae. The resulting approach, which is applicable to general arrays of obstacles even at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies, exhibits fast convergence and high accuracies. For example, a few hundreds of milliseconds suffice for the proposed approach to evaluate solutions throughout the resonance region (wavelengths comparable to the period and cylinder sizes) with full single-precision accuracy.

  13. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  14. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  15. High to very high frequency metal/anomaly detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Daniel C.; Brennan, Michael L.; Steer, Michael B.; Melber, Adam W.; Cua, John T.

    2014-05-01

    Typical metal detectors work at very low to low frequencies. In this paper, a metal/anomaly detector design that operates in the high to very high frequency range is presented. This design uses a high-Q tuned loop antenna for metal/anomaly detection. By measuring the return loss or voltage standing wave ratio a frequency notch can be detected. Tuning to the optimal location of the notch can be accomplished by monitoring the phase response. This phase monitoring technique can be used to ground balance the detector. As a metal object is moved along the longitudinal axis of the loop antenna a substantial shift in the frequency of the notch is detected. For metal targets, the frequency shift is positive, and for ferrite and other targets, the frequency shift is negative. This frequency shift is created by the proximity of the target causing a change in the impedance of the antenna. Experiments with a prototype antenna show long-range detection with low power requirements. The detector requires only one loop with one winding which is used for both transmit and receive. This allows for a metal/anomaly detector with a very simple design. The design is lightweight and, depending on loop size, significantly increases detection depth performance. In the full paper, modeling and further experimental results will be presented. Performance results for various types of soil and for different types of targets are presented.

  16. High-frequency plasma-heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brambilla, Marco; Lallia, Pascal

    1978-01-01

    An array of adjacent wave guides feed high-frequency energy into a vacuum chamber in which a toroidal plasma is confined by a magnetic field, the wave guide array being located between two toroidal current windings. Waves are excited in the wave guide at a frequency substantially equal to the lower frequency hybrid wave of the plasma and a substantially equal phase shift is provided from one guide to the next between the waves therein. For plasmas of low peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TE.sub.01 mode and the output electric field is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. For exciting waves in plasmas of high peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TM.sub.01 mode and the magnetic field at the wave guide outlets is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. The wave excited at the outlet of the wave guide array is a progressive wave propagating in the direction opposite to that of the toroidal current and is, therefore, not absorbed by so-called "runaway" electrons.

  17. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    PubMed

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  18. Computer modeling of tactical high frequency antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Bobby G., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.

  19. High-frequency ultrasonic wire bonding systems

    PubMed

    Tsujino; Yoshihara; Sano; Ihara

    2000-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of longitudinal-complex transverse vibration systems with multiple resonance frequencies of 350-980 kHz for ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI or electronic devices were studied. The complex vibration systems can be applied for direct welding of semiconductor tips (face-down bonding, flip-chip bonding) and packaging of electronic devices. A longitudinal-complex transverse vibration bonding system consists of a complex transverse vibration rod, two driving longitudinal transducers 7.0 mm in diameter and a transverse vibration welding tip. The vibration distributions along ceramic and stainless-steel welding tips were measured at up to 980 kHz. A high-frequency vibration system with a height of 20.7 mm and a weight of less than 15 g was obtained.

  20. High-power femtosecond Raman frequency shifter.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr; Losev, Leonid; Hauri, Christoph P

    2016-10-15

    We report on the generation of broadband, high-energy femtosecond pulses centered at 1.28 μm by stimulated Raman scattering in a pressurized hydrogen cell. Stimulated Raman scattering is performed by two chirped and delayed pulses originating from a multi-mJ Ti:sapphire amplifier. The Stokes pulse carries record-high energy of 4.4 mJ and is recompressed down to 66 fs by a reflective grating pair. We characterized the short-wavelength mid-infrared source in view of energy stability, beam profile, and conversion efficiency at repetition rates of 100 and 10 Hz. The demonstrated high-energy frequency shifter will benefit intense THz sources based on highly nonlinear organic crystals.

  1. Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along Quasi-Periodic Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakaki, H.

    2010-01-04

    We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along quasi-periodic steps. By using two samples, conductance G{sub para}(V{sub g}) parallel to the steps and G{sub perp}(V{sub g}) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V{sub g}. At sufficiently high V{sub g}, G{sub para} at 80 K is several times as high as G{sub perp}, which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V{sub g} is reduced to -0.7 V, G{sub perp} almost vanishes, while {sub Gpara} stays sizable unless V{sub g} is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.

  2. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  3. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-01-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  4. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-10-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  5. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  6. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  7. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Jen; Jenkins, Keith A; Valdes Garcia, Alberto; Franklin, Aaron D; Bol, Ageeth A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2011-09-14

    While graphene transistors have proven capable of delivering gigahertz-range cutoff frequencies, applying the devices to RF circuits has been largely hindered by the lack of current saturation in the zero band gap graphene. Herein, the first high-frequency voltage amplifier is demonstrated using large-area chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has a 6-finger gate design with gate length of 500 nm. The graphene common-source amplifier exhibits ∼5 dB low frequency gain with the 3 dB bandwidth greater than 6 GHz. This first AC voltage gain demonstration of a GFET is attributed to the clear current saturation in the device, which is enabled by an ultrathin gate dielectric (4 nm HfO(2)) of the embedded gate structures. The device also shows extrinsic transconductance of 1.2 mS/μm at 1 V drain bias, the highest for graphene FETs using large-scale graphene reported to date.

  8. High Frequency Self-pulsing Microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, John; Pollard, William; Staack, David

    2014-10-01

    Pulsing behavior in high-pressure microplasmas was studied. Microplasmas are of interest because of potential application in plasma switches for robust electronics. These devices require fast switching. Self-pulsing microplasmas were generated in a variable-length spark gap at pressures between 0 and 220 psig in Air, Ar, N2, H2, and He for spark gap lengths from 15 to 1810 μm. Resulting breakdown voltages varied between 90 and 1500 V. Voltage measurements show pulse frequencies as high as 8.9 MHz in argon at 100 psig. These findings demonstrate the potential for fast switching of plasma switches that incorporate high-pressure microplasmas. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant #1057175, and the Department of Defense, ARO Grant #W911NF1210007.

  9. High-Frequency Fluctuations During Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Ji, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Fox, W. R., II

    2014-12-01

    During collisionless reconnection, the decoupling of the field from the plasma is known to occur only within the localized ion and electron diffusion regions, however predictions from fully kinetic simulations do not agree with experimental observations on the size of the electron diffusion region, implying differing reconnection mechanisms. Previous experiments, along with 2D and 3D simulations, have conclusively shown that this discrepancy cannot be explained by either classical collisions or Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability (Roytershtyn 2010, 2013). Due to computational limitations, however, previous simulations were constrained to have minimal scale separation between the electron skin depth and the Debye length (de/λD ~ 10), much smaller than in experiments (de/λD ~ 300). This lack of scale-separation can drastically modify the electrostatic microphysics within the diffusion layer. Using 3D, fully explicit kinetic simulations with a realistic and unprecedentedly large separation between the Debye length and the electron skin depth, de/λD = 64, we show that high frequency electrostatic waves (ω >> ωLH) can exist within the electron diffusion region. These waves generate small-scale turbulence within the electron diffusion region which acts to broaden the layer. Anomalous resistivity is also generated by the turbulence and significantly modifies the force balance. In addition to simulation results, initial experimental measurements of high frequency fluctuations (electrostatic and electromagnetic, f ≤ 1 GHz) in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) will be presented.

  10. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  11. High-Frequency X-Ray Oscillations and X-Ray Spectral Evolution in Galactic Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Morgan, E. H.; Muno, M.

    2002-12-01

    There are now 5 Galactic black hole candidates that have exhibited quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in X-rays in the range of 67 to 300 Hz. The rms amplitudes are near 1 % of the average flux, and in two cases there are significant changes in the QPO frequency. The short timescales and origin in X-rays suggest that these QPOs signify inner accretion disk oscillations rooted in General Relativity, but the particular mechanism is uncertain. For two of these cases, GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105, we trace the conditions under which these QPOs appear in terms of the division of luminosity between the X-ray components due to the accretion disk and the hard X-ray power law. In this context, the fast QPOs are most likely to occur when there is high luminosity in both the disk and the X-ray power-law component. On the other hand, the QPOs are not seen when the X-ray spectrum resembles either a pure disk or a dominant power-law component associated with a radio jet. The results imply a closer kinship for these QPOs than might be concluded from considerations of the gross shape of the X-ray spectrum.

  12. QUASI-PERIODIC SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DURING AN X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2015-05-01

    We first report the quasi-periodic slipping motion of flare loops during an eruptive X-class flare on 2014 September 10. The slipping motion was investigated at a specific location along one of the two ribbons and can be observed throughout the impulsive phase of the flare. The apparent slipping velocity was 20–110 km s{sup −1}, and the associated period was 3–6 minutes. The footpoints of flare loops appeared as small-scale bright knots observed in 1400 Å, corresponding to fine structures of the flare ribbon. These bright knots were observed to move along the southern part of the longer ribbon and also exhibited a quasi-periodic pattern. The Si iv 1402.77 Å line was redshifted by 30–50 km s{sup −1} at the locations of moving knots with a ∼40–60 km s{sup −1} line width, larger than other sites of the flare ribbon. We suggest that the quasi-periodic slipping reconnection is involved in this process and the redshift at the bright knots is probably indicative of reconnection downflow. The emission line of Si iv at the northern part of the longer ribbon also exhibited obvious redshifts of about 10–70 km s{sup −1} in the impulsive phase of the flare, with the redshifts at the outer edges of the ribbon larger than those in the middle. The redshift velocities at post-flare loops reached about 80–100 km s{sup −1} in the transition region.

  13. Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C.T.

    1981-02-08

    This paper is intended as a survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma. We are rapidly approaching an era when this subject will become important in the laboratory. For pedagogical reasons we have chosen to examine plasma processes by relating them to a particular reference plasma which will consist of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT=1 KeV (10/sup 70/K) and an electron density N = 3 x 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cm/sup 3/ and an ion density N/sub i/ = 5 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/). We will consider the transport in such a plasma of photons ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy. Such photons will probably be frequently used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas.

  14. Frequency stable high power lasers in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a laser heterodyne gravity wave antenna that would operate in solar orbit with a one million kilometer path length is discussed. Laser technology that would be appropriate for operation of this space-based gravity wave detector is also discussed. The rapid progress in diode laser coupled with the energy storage and potentially sub-Hertz linewidths of solid state lasers, and the possibility of efficient frequency conversion by nonlinear optical techniques defines a technology that is appropriate for laser interferometry in space. The present status of diode-laser-pumped, solid state lasers is summarized and future progress is projected in areas of linewidth control, high average power, operating efficiency, and operational lifetimes that are essential for space-based applications.

  15. High frequency oscillators for chaotic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, A. N.; Blakely, J. N.; Corron, N. J.; Dean, R. N.

    2016-05-01

    This work focuses on implementing a class of exactly solvable chaotic oscillators at speeds that allow real world radar applications. The implementation of a chaotic radar using a solvable system has many advantages due to the generation of aperiodic, random-like waveforms with an analytic representation. These advantages include high range resolution, no range ambiguity, and spread spectrum characteristics. These systems allow for optimal detection of a noise-like signal by the means of a linear matched filter using simple and inexpensive methods. This paper outlines the use of exactly solvable chaos in ranging systems, while addressing electronic design issues related to the frequency dependence of the system's stretching function introduced by the use of negative impedance converters (NICs).

  16. High-Frequency Mechanostimulation of Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Suana, K Grace; Holz, Michelle; Wang, Wei; Westerhaus, Hannes; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2017-01-02

    Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating. We here use these oscillations to address single adhesion receptors. The effect of molecular oscillatory forces on cell adhesion has been analyzed using single-cell force spectroscopy and gene expression studies. Our experiments demonstrate a reinforcement of cell adhesion as well as upregulated expression levels of adhesion-associated genes as a result of the nanoscale "tickling" of integrins. This novel type of mechanical stimulus provides a previously unprecedented molecular control of cellular mechanosensing.

  17. Electro- and thermo-optic effects on multi-wavelength Solc filters based on chi(2) nonlinear quasi-periodic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Yeong Lak; Lee, Jongmin

    2008-04-28

    We investigate electro- and thermo-optic effects on multi-wavelength Solc filters based on chi(2) nonlinear quasi-periodic photonic crystals. The multi-wavelength Solc filters are composed of two building blocks A and B, in which each containing a pair of antiparallel poled domains, arranged as a Fibonacci sequence. The transmittances at filtering wavelengths can be modulated from 0 to 100% by applying an external voltage but the filtering wave-lengths are unchanged. The filtering wavelengths can be tuned by varying temperature. As temperature decreases, the filtering wavelengths increase (approximately -0.45 nm/degrees C).

  18. Ballistic Transport for the Schrödinger Operator with Limit-Periodic or Quasi-Periodic Potential in Dimension Two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshina, Yulia; Lee, Young-Ran; Shterenberg, Roman; Stolz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    We prove the existence of ballistic transport for the Schrödinger operator with limit-periodic or quasi-periodic potential in dimension two. This is done under certain regularity assumptions on the potential which have been used in prior work to establish the existence of an absolutely continuous component and other spectral properties. The latter include detailed information on the structure of generalized eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. These allow one to establish the crucial ballistic lower bound through integration by parts on an appropriate extension of a Cantor set in momentum space, as well as through stationary phase arguments.

  19. Modulating action of low frequency oscillations on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Liqiu, Wei E-mail: weiliqiu@hit.edu.cn; Liang, Han; Ziyi, Yang; Jing, Li; Yong, Cao; Daren, Yu; Jianhua, Du

    2015-02-07

    It is found that the low frequency oscillations have modulating action on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters. The physical mechanism of this modulation is discussed and verified by numerical simulations. Theoretical analyses indicate that the wide-range fluctuations of plasma density and electric field associated with the low frequency oscillations affect the electron drift velocity and anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field. The amplitude and frequency of high frequency oscillations are modulated by low frequency oscillations, which show the periodic variation in the time scale of low frequency oscillations.

  20. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  1. Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology.

    PubMed

    Teppone, Mikhail; Avakyan, Romen

    2010-11-01

    This article represents a review of the literature, mainly from Russian sources, dealing with the therapeutic application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter band applied to experimental and clinical oncology. At the early stage of these studies, efficacy and safety of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (extremely high frequency [EHF]) was proved for various types of malignant tumors. The majority of the further studies demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation in treating patients suffering from both benign and malignant tumors. Developments led to treatment on skin melanoma, cancer of the ear-nose-throat, bowel and breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, lung, and stomach, solid tumors, as well as lymphoma. The main indications for this therapy are (1) preparation prior to radical treatment; (2) prevention and treatment of side-effects and complications from chemotherapy and radiotherapy; (3) prevention of metastases, relapses, and dissemination of the tumor; (4) treatment of the paraneoplastic syndrome; and (5) palliative therapy of incurable patients. In spite of the fact that not all mechanisms underlying effects of EHF therapy are known as yet, this therapeutic modality has been shown to have great potential in clinical oncology from studies performed in Eastern Europe and Russia.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis Au-Bi2Te3 Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film with a Hierarchical Sub-Micron Antireflection Quasi-Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Junlong; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Yuan; Xue, Ruiyang; Wang, Yuhua; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Di

    2015-06-03

    In this work, Au-Bi(2)Te(3) nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus) forewing (T_FW) as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without the requirement of expensive equipment and energy intensive processes. The microstructure and the morphology of the Au-Bi(2)Te(3) nanocomposite thermoelectric film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coupled the plasmon resonances of the Au nanoparticles with the hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure, the Au-Bi(2)Te(3) nanocomposite thermoelectric film possesses an effective infrared absorption and infrared photothermal conversion performance. Based on the finite difference time domain method and the Joule effect, the heat generation and the heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi(2)Te(3) nanocomposite thermoelectric film were studied. The heterogeneity of heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi(2)Te(3) nanocomposite thermoelectric film opens up a novel promising technique for generating thermoelectric power under illumination.

  3. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM₂.₅ concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-chang

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, daily movements of mean PM₂.₅ concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration in a concise and intuitive way.

  4. High Frequency Electromagnetic Propagation/Scattering Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77...Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [12] Y.T. Lo, S.W. Lee, editors, Antenna Handbook, Theory...Widom, Eigenvalue Distribution of Time and Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [20] D.

  5. ENGLISH WORDS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARD, WILLIAM; MCDAVID, VIRGINIA

    THE BIAS OF THE FREQUENCY OF THE 122 MOST COMMONLY USED ENGLISH WORDS WAS STUDIED. THE METHOD USED TO ASSEMBLE THESE DATA IS DESCRIBED FULLY. THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED WORDS WERE TAKEN FROM A DISSERTATION BY GEORGE K. MONROE, "PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION OF GRAPHIC POSTBASE AFFIXES IN ENGLISH," GODFREY DEWEY, "RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF ENGLISH SPEECH…

  6. Clinical Utilisation of High-frequency DPOAEs.

    PubMed

    Poling, Gayla; Lee, Jungmee; Siegel, Jonathan; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing auditory function at frequencies above 8kHz to detect age-related changes and ototoxic damage in the cochlea is well established but not commonplace. Physiological changes in the auditory periphery due to age and ototoxicity are initially evident, and most prominent, at frequencies above 8kHz [1]. The most well investigated use of hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions above 8kHz is in monitoring auditory function in patients undergoing chemotherapy [2]. Ototoxic changes in hearing thresholds at frequencies between 10-14kHz prior to the manifestation of any changes at lower frequencies have been consistently documented in these patients. Age-related changes in hearing also appear at frequencies above 8kHz prior to any observable changes at regular audiometric frequencies [3]. The value of using hearing thresholds at frequencies above 8kHz to detect noise-induced hearing loss is debated in the literature with some reports of hearing thresholds at frequencies above 8kHz demonstrating more sensitivity to noise-induced damage than others [4].

  7. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  8. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

    1991-07-23

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

  9. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Mansfield, Dennis K.; Vocaturo, Michael; Guttadora, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

  10. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma-ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997.6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma-ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 deg of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 deg of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma-ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  11. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  12. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  13. Fibre Bragg gratings subject to high strain at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. A.

    2011-05-01

    A simple optical interrogation scheme based on an erbium doped fibre super-fluorescent source and a high Finesse Fabry Perot driven at effective frequencies of 20 kHz over ~ 60nm range is used to recover the output signals from Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) that can be deployed in a serial array. The FBG were modulated at frequencies up to 10 kHz and strains up to ~4000μstrain. These signals were recovered in the time domain with a very high bandwidth digital scope using a two dimensional waterfall display consisting of a number of segments where the time between segments is equal to the inverse of the system scanning frequency; essentially the sequential 'x' axis tick markers in a conventional x-y graph format. The amplitude induced changes in the wavelength of the FBG are converted to different times and observed as sequential horizontal scans along the time axis of the waterfall, correspond to the variations in the wavelength of the FBG (y axis). Signals from serial FBG arrays appear at different time slices on the time axis enabling near simultaneous determination of the induced strain of each grating.

  14. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  15. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  16. High-Frequency and Very-high-Frequency (HF&VHF) above-groundelectromagnetic impedance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frangos, William; Becker, Alex; Lee, K.H.

    2002-09-20

    We have field-tested an apparatus for measuring the electromagnetic impedance above the ground at a plurality of frequencies in the 0.3 - 30 MHz range. This window in the frequency spectrum, which lies between frequencies used for GPR and those used for conventional loop-loop EM soundings, has not been used because of difficulties in fielding equipment for making absolute and accurate measurements. Model and physical parameter studies however confirm that data in this frequency band can be used to construct high-resolution maps of electrical conductivity and permittivity of near-surface material. Our equipment was assembled using commercial electric and magnetic antennas. The magnetic loop source is excited by a conventional signal generator - power amplifier assembly. Signal detection is accomplished using RF lock-in amplifiers. All system elements are appropriately isolated by optic - fiber links. We estimate a measurement accuracy of about {+-} 10% for an 8-m separation between source and detector. Field tests were done at the University of California Richmond Field Station where the near surface electrical structure is well known. The experimental data at this site are mainly a function of electrical conductivity. In this context, we have obtained good agreement with the known local variations in resistivity both with depth and with position along a 35-m traverse. Additional tests in more resistive regimes where dielectric permittivity is not negligible yield spectral data compatible with the less well known near-surface electrical properties.

  17. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  18. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  19. Light Echos in Kerr Geometry: A Source of High Frequency QPOs from Random X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumura, K.; Kazanas, D.

    2008-01-01

    We propose that high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) can be produced from randomly-formed X-ray bursts (flashes) by plasma interior to the ergosphere of a rapidly-rotating black hole. We show by direct computation of their orbits that the photons comprising the observed X-ray light curves, if due to a multitude of such flashes, are affected significantly by the black hole's dragging of inertial frames; the photons of each such burst arrive to an observer at infinity in multiple (double or triple), distinct 'bunches' separated by a roughly constant time lag of t/M approximately equal to 14, regardless of the bursts' azimuthal position. We argue that every other such 'bunch' represents photons that follow trajectories with an additional orbit around the black hole at the photon circular orbit radius (a photon 'echo'). The presence of this constant lag in the response function of the system leads to a QPO feature in its power density spectra, even though the corresponding light curve consists of a totally stochastic signal. This effect is by and large due to the black hole spin and is shown to gradually diminish as the spin parameter a decreases or the radial position of the burst moves outside the static limit surface (ergosphere). Our calculations indicate that for a black hole with Kerr parameter of a/M=0.99 and mass of M=10*Msun the QPO is expected at a frequency of approximately 1.3-1.4 kHz. We discuss the plausibility and observational implications of our model/results as well as its limitations.

  20. Light Echos in Kerr Geometry: A Source of High Frequency QPOs from Random X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumura, K.; Kazanas, D.

    2008-01-01

    We propose that high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) can be produced from randomly-formed X-ray bursts (flashes) by plasma interior to the ergosphere of a rapidly-rotating black hole. We show by direct computation of their orbits that the photons comprising the observed X-ray light curves, if due to a multitude of such flashes, are affected significantly by the black hole's dragging of inertial frames; the photons of each such burst arrive to an observer at infinity in multiple (double or triple), distinct 'bunches' separated by a roughly constant time lag of t/M approximately equal to 14, regardless of the bursts' azimuthal position. We argue that every other such 'bunch' represents photons that follow trajectories with an additional orbit around the black hole at the photon circular orbit radius (a photon 'echo'). The presence of this constant lag in the response function of the system leads to a QPO feature in its power density spectra, even though the corresponding light curve consists of a totally stochastic signal. This effect is by and large due to the black hole spin and is shown to gradually diminish as the spin parameter a decreases or the radial position of the burst moves outside the static limit surface (ergosphere). Our calculations indicate that for a black hole with Kerr parameter of a/M=0.99 and mass of M=10*Msun the QPO is expected at a frequency of approximately 1.3-1.4 kHz. We discuss the plausibility and observational implications of our model/results as well as its limitations.