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Sample records for high impedance preamplifier

  1. Evaluation of Two Guralp Preamplifiers for GS13 Seismometer Application.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new preamplifier, the Guralp Preamplifier for GS13, manufactured by Guralp. These preamplifiers are used to interface between Guralp digitizers and Geotech GS13 Seismometers. The purpose of the preamplifier evaluation was to measure the performance characteristics in such areas as power consumption, input impedance, sensitivity, full scale, self-noise, dynamic range, system noise, response, passband, and timing. The Guralp GS13 Preamplifiers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  2. Direct matching methods for coils and preamplifiers in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xueming; Fischer, Elmar; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, direct matching methods for coils and preamplifiers in receiver arrays are presented. Instead of compensating the reactance of the input impedance of preamplifiers, in our method, the reactance was used to resonate with the coil matching networks and thus to decouple the coils. Furthermore, coil matching networks and preamplifier input matching networks were combined, meaning the coil loop can be matched to the transistor in the preamplifier directly. These matching methods and, for comparison, the conventional matching method were implemented with custom-made preamplifiers and coils. Decoupling and noise-matching performance were compared between these three configurations. Phase shifting networks between coils and preamplifiers are not necessary in our matching methods. With fewer components, these matching networks showed lower noise factors, while similar preamplifier-decoupling performance was found for all three methods.

  3. Design of a 3T preamplifier which stability is insensitive to coil loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xueming; Fischer, Elmar; Korvink, Jan G.; Gruschke, Oliver; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    In MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), preamplifiers are needed to amplify signals obtained from MRI receiver coils. Under various loading conditions of the corresponding receiver coils, preamplifiers see different source impedance at their input and may become unstable. Therefore preamplifiers which stability is not sensitive to coil loading are desirable. In this article, a coil-loading-insensitive preamplifier for MRI is presented, derived from an unstable preamplifier. Different approaches to improve stability were used during this derivation. Since a very low noise factor is essential for MRI preamplifiers, noise contributions from passive components in the MRI preamplifier have to be considered during the stabilization process. As a result, the initially unstable preamplifier became stable with regard to coil loading, while other MRI requirements, as the extremely low noise factor, were still fulfilled. The newly designed preamplifier was manufactured, characterized and tested in the MRI spectrometer. Compared to a commercially available preamplifier, the newly designed preamplifier has similar imaging performance but other advantages like smaller size and better stability. Furthermore, presented stabilization approaches can be generalized to stabilize other unstable low-noise amplifiers.

  4. A low noise single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform mass spectrometry using a T feedback network

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier has been introduced for improving performance in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. A low noise junction field-effect transistor (JFET), BF862, is used as the main amplification stage of this trans-impedance preamplifier, and a T-shaped feedback network is introduced as both the feedback and the gate biasing solutions. The T feedback network has been studied using an operational amplifier (Op Amp), AD8099. Such a feedback system allows ∼100-fold less feedback resistance at a given transimpedance, hence preserving bandwidth, which is beneficial to applications demanding high gain. The single-transistor preamplifier yields a tested transimpedance of ∼104 Ω (80 dBΩ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 1 MHz (mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of around 180-180k for a 12-T FT-ICR system), with a low power consumption of ∼6 mW, which implies that this preamplifier is well suited to a 12-T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. In trading noise performance for higher trans-impedance, an alternative preamplifier design, an AD8099 preamplifier with the T feedback network, has also been studied with a capability of ∼106 Ω (120 dBΩ) transimpedance in the same frequency range. The resistive components in the T feedback network reported here can be replaced by complex impedances, which allows adaptation of this feedback system to other frequency, transimpedance, and noise characteristics for applications not only in other mass spectrometers, such as Orbitrap, time-of-flight (TOF), and ion trap systems, but also in other charge/current detecting systems such as spectroscopy systems, microscopy systems, optical communication systems, or charge-coupled devices (CCDs). PMID:23020394

  5. A low noise single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform mass spectrometry using a T feedback network.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J; O'Connor, Peter B

    2012-09-01

    A novel single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier has been introduced for improving performance in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. A low noise junction field-effect transistor (JFET), BF862, is used as the main amplification stage of this trans-impedance preamplifier, and a T-shaped feedback network is introduced as both the feedback and the gate biasing solutions. The T feedback network has been studied using an operational amplifier (Op Amp), AD8099. Such a feedback system allows ~100-fold less feedback resistance at a given transimpedance, hence preserving bandwidth, which is beneficial to applications demanding high gain. The single-transistor preamplifier yields a tested transimpedance of ~10(4) Ω (80 dBΩ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 1 MHz (mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of around 180-180k for a 12-T FT-ICR system), with a low power consumption of ~6 mW, which implies that this preamplifier is well suited to a 12-T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. In trading noise performance for higher trans-impedance, an alternative preamplifier design, an AD8099 preamplifier with the T feedback network, has also been studied with a capability of ~10(6) Ω (120 dBΩ) transimpedance in the same frequency range. The resistive components in the T feedback network reported here can be replaced by complex impedances, which allows adaptation of this feedback system to other frequency, transimpedance, and noise characteristics for applications not only in other mass spectrometers, such as Orbitrap, time-of-flight (TOF), and ion trap systems, but also in other charge/current detecting systems such as spectroscopy systems, microscopy systems, optical communication systems, or charge-coupled devices (CCDs).

  6. Preamplifiers for non-contact capacitive biopotential measurements.

    PubMed

    Peng, GuoChen; Ignjatovic, Zeljko; Bocko, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    Non-contact biopotential sensing is an attractive measurement strategy for a number of health monitoring applications, primarily the ECG and the EEG. In all such applications a key technical challenge is the design of a low-noise trans-impedance preamplifier for the typically low-capacitance, high source impedance sensing electrodes. In this paper, we compare voltage and charge amplifier designs in terms of their common mode rejection ratio, noise performance, and frequency response. Both amplifier types employ the same operational-transconductance amplifier (OTA), which was fabricated in a 0.35 um CMOS process. The results show that a charge amplifier configuration has advantages for small electrode-to-subject coupling capacitance values (less than 10 pF--typical of noncontact electrodes) and that the voltage amplifier configuration has advantages for electrode capacitances above 10 pF.

  7. Preamplifiers for non-contact capacitive biopotential measurements*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, GuoChen; Ignjatovic, Zeljko; Bocko, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Non-contact biopotential sensing is an attractive measurement strategy for a number of health monitoring applications, primarily the ECG and the EEG. In all such applications a key technical challenge is the design of a low-noise trans-impedance preamplifier for the typically low-capacitance, high source impedance sensing electrodes. In this paper, we compare voltage and charge amplifier designs in terms of their common mode rejection ratio, noise performance, and frequency response. Both amplifier types employ the same operational-transconductance amplifier (OTA), which was fabricated in a 0.35um CMOS process. The results show that a charge amplifier configuration has advantages for small electrode-to-subject coupling capacitance values (less than 10 pF - typical of noncontact electrodes) and that the voltage amplifier configuration has advantages for electrode capacitances above 10 pF. PMID:24109979

  8. Development of Integrated Preamplifier for High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Low-Power Handheld Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Li, Xiang; Lau, Sien-Ting; Hu, ChangHong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a front-end circuit consisting of an integrated preamplifier with a Sallen-Key Butterworth filter for very-high-frequency ultrasonic transducers and a low-power handheld receiver. This preamplifier was fabricated using a 0.18-μm 7WL SiGe bi-polar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process. The Sallen-Key filter is used to increase the voltage gain of the front-end circuit for high-frequency transducers which are generally low in sensitivity. The measured peak voltage gain of the frontend circuits for the BiCMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 41.28 dB at 100 MHz with a −6-dB bandwidth of 91%, and the dc power consumption of the BiCMOS preamplifier was 49.53 mW. The peak voltage gain of the front-end circuits for the CMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 39.52 dB at 100 MHz with a −6-dB bandwidth of 108%, and the dc power consumption of the CMOS preamplifier was 43.57 mW. Pulse-echo responses and wire phantom images with a single-element ultrasonic transducer have been acquired to demonstrate the performance of the front-end circuit. PMID:23443700

  9. Design and testing of a low impedance transceiver circuit for nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A low impedance transceiver circuit consisting of a transmit-receive switch circuit, a class-D amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was newly designed and tested for a nitrogen-14 NQR. An NQR signal at 1.37MHz from imidazole was successfully observed with the dead time of ~85µs under the high Q transmission (Q~120) and reception (Q~140). The noise performance of the low impedance TIA with an NQR probe was comparable with a commercial low noise 50Ω amplifier (voltage input noise: 0.25 nV/Hz) which was also connected to the probe. The protection voltage for the pre-amplifier using the low impedance transceiver was ~10 times smaller than that for the pre-amplifier using a 50Ω conventional transceiver, which is suitable for NQR remote sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A system for automated noise parameter measurements on MR preamplifiers and application to high B(0) fields.

    PubMed

    Lagore, Russell L; Roberts, Brodi Roduta; Possanzini, Cecilia; Saylor, Charles; Fallone, B Gino; De Zanche, Nicola

    2014-08-01

    A noise figure and noise parameter measurement system was developed that consists of a combination spectrum and network analyzer, preamplifier, programmable power supply, noise source, tuning board, and desktop computer. The system uses the Y-factor method for noise figure calculation and allows calibrations to correct for a decrease in excess noise ratio between the noise source and device under test, second stage (system) noise, ambient temperature variations, and available gain of the device under test. Noise parameters are extracted by performing noise figure measurements at several source impedance values obtained by adjusting an electronically controlled tuner. Results for several amplifiers at 128 MHz and 200 MHz agree with independent measurements and with the corresponding datasheets. With some modifications, the system was also used to characterize the noise figure of MRI preamplifiers in strong static magnetic fields up to 9.4 T. In most amplifiers tested the gain was found to be reduced by the magnetic field, while the noise figure increased. These changes are detrimental to signal quality (SNR) and are dependent on the electron mobility and design of the amplifier's semiconductor devices. Consequently, gallium arsenide (GaAs) field-effect transistors are most sensitive to magnetic fields due to their high electron mobility and long, narrow channel, while silicon-germanium (SiGe) bipolar transistor amplifiers are largely immune due to their very thin base. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fast response pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, PiJi; Tai, Yunjian; Liu, Huiping

    2008-03-01

    The pyroelectric detector is wide used for its simple structure and high performance to price ratio. It has been used in thermal detecting, infrared spectrum and laser testing. When the pyroelectric detector was applied in practice, fast reponse speed is need. For improving the response speed of the pyroelectric detector some specific technology has been used in the preamplifier schematic. High sense and fast response character of the pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device had been achieved. When the device is applied in acute concussion condition, it must survive from the acute concussion condition testing. For it reliability some specific technology was used in the device fabricating procedure. At last the performance parameter testing result and simulation application condition result given in this paper show the performance of the pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device had achieved the advance goal.

  12. Ultra-low-noise preamplifier for condenser microphones.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the design of a low-noise preamplifier dedicated for condenser measurement microphones used in high sensitivity applications, in which amplifier noise is the main factor limiting sensitivity of the measurements. In measurement microphone preamplifiers, the dominant source of noise at lower frequencies is the bias resistance of the input stage. In the presented solution, resistors were connected to the input stage by means of switches. The switches are opened during measurements, which disconnects the resistors from the input stage and results in noise reduction. Closing the switches allows for fast charging of the microphone capacitance. At low frequencies the noise of the designed preamplifier is a few times lower in comparison to similar, commercially available instruments.

  13. Research and development of a high-performance differential-hybrid charge sensitive preamplifier.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Hu, Chuanhao; Wei, Shilong; Yang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Tan, Chengjun

    2017-02-01

    A differential-hybrid charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) was designed by taking a monolithic dual N-Channel Junction Field-effect Transistor (JFET) and a high-speed, low-noise, operational amplifier as the core parts. Input-stage of the circuit employs low-noise differential dual JFET, which ensures high input impedance and low noise. The differential dual transistor makes the quiescent point of the first-stage differential output stable, which is convenient for connecting with the post stage high-speed operational amplifier. Broadband could be amplified by connecting to the double differential dual transistors through the folded cascode-bootstrap. The amplifying circuit which replaces the interstage and post stage discrete components of a traditional CSP with integrated operational amplifier is simpler and more reliable. It simplifies the design of the quiescent point, gives full play to advantages of releasing large open-loop gain, and improves charge-voltage conversion gain stability. Particularly, the charge-voltage conversion gain is larger under a smaller feedback capacitor, thus enabling to gain better signal-noise ratio. The designed CSP was tested, reporting 3.3×10 13 V/C charge sensitivity, about 90ns rise time of signals, 35:1 signal-noise ratio to gamma-rays of 137 Cs (662keV) and a 0.023 fC/pF noise slope. Gamma-rays of 241 Am (59.5keV) were measured by the BPX66 detector and the designed CSP under room temperature, providing 1.97% energy resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications

    PubMed Central

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude. PMID:29099765

  15. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  16. High sensitivity cascaded preamplifier with an optical bridge structure in Brillouin distributed fiber sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Lin, Hang; Fu, Xinghu; Fu, Guangwei

    2013-12-01

    Fiber amplifiers such as Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) played a key role in developing long-haul transmission system and have been an important element for enabling the development of optical communication system. EDFA amplifies the optical signal directly, without the optical-electric-optical switch and has the advantages such as high gain, broad band, low noise figure. It is widely used in repeaterless submarine system, smart grid and community antenna television system. This article describe the application of optical-fiber amplifiers in distributed optical fiber sensing system, focusing on erbium-doped fiber preamplifiers in modern transmission optical systems. To enhance the measurement range of a spontaneous Brillouin intensity based distributed fiber optical sensor and improve the receiver sensitivity, a two cascaded EDFAs C-band preamplifier with an optical bridge structure is proposed in this paper. The first cascaded EDFA is consisted of a length of 4.3m erbium-doped fiber and pumped in a forward pump light using a laser operating at 975nm. The second one made by using a length of 16m erbium-doped fiber is pumped in a forward pump light which is the remnant pump light of the first cascaded EDFA. At the preamplifier output, DWDM, centered at the signal wavelength, is used to suppress unwanted amplified spontaneous emission. The experimental results show that the two cascade preamplifier with a bridge structure can be used to amplify for input Brillouin backscattering light greater than about -43dBm. The optical gain is characterized and more than 26dB is obtained at 1549.50nm with 300mW pump power.

  17. Task three: Report: STDN Antenna and preamplifier cost tradeoff study. [combinations of antennas and preamplifiers for several communication environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The general goal of this task, STDN Antenna and Preamplifier G/T Study, was to determine cost-effective combinations of antennas and preamplifiers for several sets of conditions for frequency, antenna elevation angle, and rain. The output of the study includes design curves and tables which indicate the best choice of antenna size and preamplifier type to provide a given G/T performance. The report indicates how to evaluate the cost effectiveness of proposed improvements to a given station. Certain parametric variations are presented to emphasize the improvement available by reducing RF losses and improving the antenna feed.

  18. Highly sensitive lidar with a thumb-sized sensor-head built using an optical fiber preamplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Mao, Xueon; Maeda, Mitsutoshi; Nagashima, Chie; Kagami, Manabu

    2011-06-01

    We developed a LIDAR system with a sensor head as small as 22 cc, in spite of the inclusion of a scanning mechanism. This LIDAR system not only has a small body, but is also highly sensitive. Our LIDAR system is based on time-of-flight measurements, and it incorporates an optical fiber. The main feature of our system is the utilization of optical amplifiers for both the transmitter and the receiver, and the optical amplifiers enabled us to exceed the detection limit of thermal noise. In conventional LIDAR systems the detection limit is determined by thermal noise, because the avalanche photo-diodes (APD) and trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA) that they use detect the received signals directly. In the case of our LIDAR system, received signal is amplified by an optical fiber amplifier in front of the photo diode and the TIA. Therefore, our LIDAR system can boost the signal level before the weak incoming signal is depleted by thermal noise. There are conditions under which the noise figure for the combination of an optical fiber amplifier and a photo diode is superior to the noise figure for an avalanche photo diode. We optimized the gain of the optical fiber amplifier and TIA in our LIDAR system such that it is capable of detecting a single photon. As a result, the detection limit of our LIDAR system is determined by shot noise. This small and highly sensitive measurement technology shows great potential for use in LIDAR with an optical preamplifier.

  19. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOEpatents

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Rehak, Pavel; Xi, Deming

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier.

  20. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOEpatents

    Bertuccio, G.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier. 6 figs.

  1. Optically pre-amplified lidar-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, Loic; Dolfi, Daniel; Huignard, Jean-Pierre

    2001-09-01

    We present the concept of an optically pre-amplified intensity modulated lidar, where the modulation frequency is in the microwave domain (1-10 GHz). Such a system permits to combine directivity of laser beams with mature radar processing. As an intensity modulated or dual-frequency laser beam is directed on a target, the backscattered intensity is collected by an optical system, pass through an optical preamplifier, and is detected on a high speed photodiode in a direct detection scheme. A radar type processing permits then to extract range, speed and identification information. The association of spatially multimode amplifier and direct detection allows low sensitivity to atmospheric turbulence and large field of view. We demonstrated theoretically that optical pre-amplification can greatly enhance sensitivity, even in spatially multimode amplifiers, such as free-space amplifier or multimode doped fiber. Computed range estimates based on this concept are presented. Laboratory demonstrations using 1 to 3 GHz modulated laser sources and >20 dB gain in multimode amplifiers are detailed. Preliminary experimental results on range and speed measurements and possible use for large amplitude vibrometry will be presented.

  2. JFET preamplifiers with different reset techniques on detector-grade high-resistivity silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, G. F.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental results relevant to JFET charge preamplifiers fabricated in a detector-compatible technology. This fabrication process, developed at the Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (ITC-IRST), Trento, Italy, is being tuned with the aim of integrating a multichannel mixed analog-digital circuit together with semiconductor detectors in a high-resistivity substrate. Possible applications are in the field of medical and industrial imaging, in space and high energy physics experiments. An all-NJFET charge sensitive amplifier, which can use either a resistive or a nonresistive reset in the feedback network, has been tested. The two configurations have been studied, paying particular attention to noise performances, in view of the design of the complete readout channel.

  3. Wide-band current preamplifier for conductance measurements with large input capacitance.

    PubMed

    Kretinin, Andrey V; Chung, Yunchul

    2012-08-01

    A wide-band current preamplifier based on a composite operational amplifier is proposed. It has been shown that the bandwidth of the preamplifier can be significantly increased by enhancing the effective open-loop gain. The described 10(7) V/A current gain preamplifier had the bandwidth of about 100 kHz with the 1 nF input shunt capacitance. The measured preamplifier current noise was 46 fA/√Hz at 1 kHz, close to the design noise minimum. The voltage noise was found to be about 2.9 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz, which is in a good agreement with the value expected for the particular operational amplifier used in the input stage. By analysing the total produced noise we found that the optimal frequency range suitable for the fast lock-in measurements is from 1 kHz to 2 kHz. To obtain the same signal-to-noise ratio, the reported preamplifier requires ~10% of the integration time needed in measurements made with a conventional preamplifier.

  4. Evaluation of Two Guralp Preamplifiers for GS21 Seismometer Application.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; Slad, George William

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two Guralp preamplifiers for use with a GS21 seismometer application. The two preamplifiers have a gain factor of 61.39. The purpose of the preamplifier evaluation was to determine a measured gain factor, transfer function, total harmonic distortion, self-noise, application passband, dynamic range, seismometer calibration pass-through, and to comment on any issues encountered during the evaluation. The test results included in this report were in response to static, tonal, and dynamic input signals. The Guralp GS21 preamplifiers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treatymore » Organization (CTBTO). Test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and 1241 for Analog to Digital Converters« less

  5. A low-cost, ultra-fast and ultra-low noise preamplifier for silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasmi, Khaled

    2018-02-01

    An ultra-fast and ultra-low noise preamplifier for amplifying the fast and weak electrical signals generated by silicon avalanche photodiodes has been designed and developed. It is characterized by its simplicity, compactness, reliability and low cost of construction. A very wide bandwidth of 300 MHz, a very good linearity from 1 kHz to 280 MHz, an ultra-low noise level at the input of only 1.7 nV Hz-1/2 and a very good stability are its key features. The compact size (70 mm  ×  90 mm) and light weight (45 g), as well as its excellent characteristics, make this preamplifier very competitive compared to any commercial preamplifier. The preamplifier, which is a main part of the detection system of a homemade laser remote sensing system, has been successfully tested. In addition, it is versatile and can be used in any optical detection system requiring high speed and very low noise electronics.

  6. Note: A timing micro-channel plate detector with backside fast preamplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000

    2014-03-15

    A timing micro-channel plate detector with a backside double-channel fast preamplifier was developed to avoid distortion during signal propagation from the anode to the preamplifier. The mechanical and electronic structure is described. The detector including its backside preamplifier is tested by a {sup 241}Am α-source and a rise time of ∼2 ns with an output background noise of 4 mV{sub rms} was achieved.

  7. High speed preamplifier circuit, detection electronics, and radiation detection systems therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Riedel, Richard A [Knoxville, TN; Wintenberg, Alan L [Knoxville, TN; Clonts, Lloyd G [Knoxville, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-09-21

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  8. Baseline impedance measured during high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry reliably discriminates GERD patients.

    PubMed

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Vela, M F; Crowell, M D; Katzka, D A

    2017-05-01

    Baseline impedance measured with ambulatory impedance pH monitoring (MII-pH) and a mucosal impedance catheter detects gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, these tools are limited by cost or patient tolerance. We investigated whether baseline impedance measured during high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) distinguishes GERD patients from controls. Consecutive patients with clinical HRIM and MII-pH testing were identified. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was defined by esophageal pH <4 for ≥5% of both the supine and total study time, whereas controls had an esophageal pH <4 for ≤3% of the study performed off PPI. Baseline impedance was measured over 15 seconds during the landmark period of HRIM and over three 10 minute intervals during the overnight period of MII-pH. Among 29 GERD patients and 26 controls, GERD patients had a mean esophageal acid exposure time of 22.7% compared to 1.2% in controls (P<.0001). Mean baseline impedance during HRIM was lower in GERD (1061 Ω) than controls (2814 Ω) (P<.0001). Baseline mucosal impedance measured during HRIM and MII-pH correlated (r=0.59, P<.0001). High-resolution esophageal manometry baseline impedance had high diagnostic accuracy for GERD, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.931 on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A HRIM baseline impedance threshold of 1582 Ω had a sensitivity of 86.2% and specificity of 88.5% for GERD, with a positive predictive value of 89.3% and negative predictive value of 85.2%. Baseline impedance measured during HRIM can reliably discriminate GERD patients with at least moderate esophageal acid exposure from controls. This diagnostic tool may represent an accurate, cost-effective, and less invasive test for GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in transthoracic electrical impedance at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hoon, R S; Balasubramanian, V; Tiwari, S C; Mathew, O P; Behl, A; Sharma, S C; Chadha, K S

    1977-01-01

    Mean transthoracic electrical impedance (impedance) which is inversely related to intrathoracic extravascular fluid volume was measured in 121 normal healthy volunteers at sea-level and at 3658 metres altitude. Fifty (group A) reached the high altitude location after an hour's journey in a pressurised aircraft. Twenty-five (group D) underwent slow road ascent including acclimatisation en route. Thirty permanent residents (group B) and 16 temporary residents at high altitude (group C) were also studied. Serial studies in the 30 subjects of group A who developed symptoms of high altidue sickness showed a significant decrease of impedance up to the fourth day of exposure to high altitude which later returned to normal. The 4 volunteers who developed severe symptoms showed the largest drop in impedance. A case of acute pulmonary oedema developing at 4300 metres showed an impedance value of 24-1 ohms on admission. After effective treatment the impedance increased by 11-9 to 36-0 ohms. Twenty asymptomatic subjects of group A and 25 of group D showed a small average increase in impedance values at high altitude. These obstructions suggest that measurement of transthoracic electrical impedance may be a valuable means of detecting incipient high altitude pulmonary oedema.

  10. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mason, R.J.

    1996-10-22

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

  11. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Rodney J.

    1996-01-01

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources.

  12. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  13. Pre-experiment testing of the Multi Channel Systems 16-channel preamplifier CPA16

    SciTech Connect

    Patin, J B; Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J

    2003-11-03

    The 16-channel preamplifier model CPA16 from Multi Channel Systems was studied. The CPA16 preamplifier/amplifier module is a candidate to be used as the preamplifiers and amplifiers for the focal plane detectors of the Mass Analyzer of Super Heavy Atoms (MASHA). The equipment used to test the CPA16, the results of testing the CPA16 with a pulser, a mixed {sup 229}Th/{sup 148}Gd source and a {sup 252}Cf source, and a summary of the results will be presented.

  14. Improvement of highly sensitive lidar with a thumb-sized sensor-head built using an optical fiber preamplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Mao, Xueon; Maeda, Mitsutoshi; Nagashima, Chie; Kagami, Manabu

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a LIDAR system with a sensor head which, although it includes a scanning mechanism, is less than 20 cc in size. The system is not only small, but is also highly sensitive. Our LIDAR system is based on time-of-flight measurements, and incorporates an optical fiber. The main feature of our system is the utilization of optical amplifiers for both the transmitter and the receiver, and the optical amplifiers enable us to exceed the detection limit set by thermal noise. In conventional LIDAR systems the detection limit is determined by the thermal noise, because the avalanche photo-diodes (APD) and trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA) that they use detect the received signals directly. In the case of our LIDAR system, the received signal is amplified by an optical fiber amplifier before reaching the photo diode and the TIA. Therefore, our LIDAR system boosts the signal level before the weak incoming signal is depleted by thermal noise. There are conditions under which the noise figure for the combination of an optical fiber amplifier and a photo diode is superior to the noise figure for an avalanche photo diode. We optimized the gains of the optical fiber amplifier and the TIA in our LIDAR system such that it would be capable of detecting a single photon. As a result, the detection limit of our system is determined by shot noise. We have previously demonstrated optical pre-amplified LIDAR with a perfect co-axial optical system[1]. For this we used a variable optical attenuator to remove internal reflection from the transmission and receiving lenses. However, the optical attenuator had an insertion loss of 6dB which reduced the sensitivity of the LIDAR. We re-designed the optical system such that it was semi-co-axial and removed the variable optical attenuator. As a result, we succeeded in scanning up to a range of 80 m. This small and highly sensitive measurement technology shows great potential for use in LIDAR.

  15. Novel design of low noise preamplifier for medical ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mashhour Bani

    2011-02-01

    A novel design of low noise amplifier for medical ultrasound transducers is described in this paper. Unlike conventional low noise preamplifiers, this design proposes a new circuit configuration which has electronically adjustable matching resistance that allows the preamplifier to be compatible with a variety of medical ultrasound transducers. The design employs current feedback operational amplifier to enhance the gain-bandwidth independence and improve the design slew rate. Simulation results show that the proposed design has very low output noise voltage spectral density and the level of this noise does not increase when its tunable matching resistance is increased or decreased.

  16. Miniature electrometer preamplifier effectively compensates for input capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Deboo, G. J.

    1966-01-01

    Negative capacitance preamplifier using a dual MOS /Metal Oxide Silicon/ transistor in conjunction with bipolar transistors is used with intracellular microelectrodes in recording bioelectric potentials. Applications would include use as a pickup plate video amplifier in storage tube tests and for pH and ionization chamber measurements.

  17. Impedance Discontinuity Reduction Between High-Speed Differential Connectors and PCB Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Sal; Agdinaoay, Rodell; Walter, Keith

    2013-01-01

    High-speed serial communication (i.e., Gigabit Ethernet) requires differential transmission and controlled impedances. Impedance control is essential throughout cabling, connector, and circuit board construction. An impedance discontinuity arises at the interface of a high-speed quadrax and twinax connectors and the attached printed circuit board (PCB). This discontinuity usually is lower impedance since the relative dielectric constant of the board is higher (i.e., polyimide approx. = 4) than the connector (Teflon approx. = 2.25). The discontinuity can be observed in transmit or receive eye diagrams, and can reduce the effective link margin of serial data networks. High-speed serial data network transmission improvements can be made at the connector-to-board interfaces as well as improving differential via hole impedances. The impedance discontinuity was improved by 10 percent by drilling a 20-mil (approx. = 0.5-mm) hole in between the pin of a differential connector spaced 55 mils (approx. = 1.4 mm) apart as it is attached to the PCB. The effective dielectric constant of the board can be lowered by drilling holes into the board material between the differential lines in a quadrax or twinax connector attachment points. The differential impedance is inversely proportional to the square root of the relative dielectric constant. This increases the differential impedance and thus reduces the above described impedance discontinuity. The differential via hole impedance can also be increased in the same manner. This technique can be extended to multiple smaller drilled holes as well as tapered holes (i.e., big in the middle followed by smaller ones diagonally).

  18. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-12-01

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/sqrt{Hz} when the transimpedance is about 85 dBΩ). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of ˜3 kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 MΩ when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect ˜110 charges in a single scan.

  19. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-12-15

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/{radical}(Hz) when the transimpedance is about 85 dB{Omega}). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of {approx}3more » kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 M{Omega} when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect {approx}110 charges in a single scan.« less

  20. Stable, high-order computation of impedance-impedance operators for three-dimensional layered medium simulations.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David P

    2018-04-01

    The faithful modelling of the propagation of linear waves in a layered, periodic structure is of paramount importance in many branches of the applied sciences. In this paper, we present a novel numerical algorithm for the simulation of such problems which is free of the artificial singularities present in related approaches. We advocate for a surface integral formulation which is phrased in terms of impedance-impedance operators that are immune to the Dirichlet eigenvalues which plague the Dirichlet-Neumann operators that appear in classical formulations. We demonstrate a high-order spectral algorithm to simulate these latter operators based upon a high-order perturbation of surfaces methodology which is rapid, robust and highly accurate. We demonstrate the validity and utility of our approach with a sequence of numerical simulations.

  1. Stable, high-order computation of impedance-impedance operators for three-dimensional layered medium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, David P.

    2018-04-01

    The faithful modelling of the propagation of linear waves in a layered, periodic structure is of paramount importance in many branches of the applied sciences. In this paper, we present a novel numerical algorithm for the simulation of such problems which is free of the artificial singularities present in related approaches. We advocate for a surface integral formulation which is phrased in terms of impedance-impedance operators that are immune to the Dirichlet eigenvalues which plague the Dirichlet-Neumann operators that appear in classical formulations. We demonstrate a high-order spectral algorithm to simulate these latter operators based upon a high-order perturbation of surfaces methodology which is rapid, robust and highly accurate. We demonstrate the validity and utility of our approach with a sequence of numerical simulations.

  2. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$\\end{document}Hz when the transimpedance is about 85 dBΩ). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of ∼3 kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 MΩ when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect ∼110 charges in a single scan. PMID:22225232

  3. Mixing-Chamber Preamplifier for Spin Qubit Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Matthew; Mounce, Andrew; England, Troy; Manginell, Ronald; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Spin qubit states are often read out with a nearby charge sensor. To improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth, we amplify a charge sensor with a low-current-bias, silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT). The HBT is located at the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator, which minimizes parasitic capacitance and amplifies signal before fridge noise is introduced. Using the HBT-charge-sensor circuit, we tune a few-electron quantum dot (QD) into resonance with a donor-like object and observe singlet-triplet (ST) behavior. ST separation in this MOS donor-implanted-QD molecular system is measured using magnetospectroscopy to be approximately 100 μeV. The low current bias of the HBT minimizes both heating of the charge-sensed QD as well as maintains an overall low power at the mixing chamber. HBT bias impact on QD electron temperature is examined and we find that the HBT preamplifier can operate at around 100 nW with a current gain of around 500 without influencing the electron temperature, which is around 150 mK. We will also examine single-shot readout of a charge state using the HBT preamplifier. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Quantum optics in a high impedance environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, Javier; Gheeraert, Nicolas; Krupko, Yuriy; Dassonneville, Remy; Planat, Luca; Foroughui, Farshad; Naud, Cecile; Guichard, Wiebke; Buisson, Olivier; Florens, Serge; Roch, Nicolas; Snyman, Izak

    Understanding light matter interaction remains a key topic in fundamental physics. Its strength is imposed by the fine structure constant, α. For most atomic and molecular systems α =e2/ℏc 4 πɛo = 1 / 137 << 1 , giving weak interactions. When dealing with superconducting artificial atoms, α is either proportional to 1 /Zc (magnetic coupling) or Zc (electric coupling), where Zc is the characteristic impedance of the environment. Recent experiments followed the first approach, coupling a flux qubit to a low impedance environment, demonstrating strong interaction (α 1). In our work, we reached the large α regime, following a complementary approach: we couple electrically a transmon qubit to an array of 5000 SQUIDs. This metamaterial provides high characteristic impedance ( 3 kΩ), in-situ flux tunability and full control over its dispersion relation. In this new regime, all usual approximations break down and new phenomena such as frequency conversion at the single photon level are expected.

  5. Meandered-line antenna with integrated high-impedance surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, Michael A.

    2010-09-01

    A reduced-volume antenna composed of a meandered-line dipole antenna over a finite-width, high-impedance surface is presented. The structure is novel in that the high-impedance surface is implemented with four Sievenpiper via-mushroom unit cells, whose area is optimized to match the meandered-line dipole antenna. The result is an antenna similar in performance to patch antenna but one fourth the area that can be deployed directly on the surface of a conductor. Simulations demonstrate a 3.5 cm ({lambda}/4) square antenna with a bandwidth of 4% and a gain of 4.8 dBi at 2.5 GHz.

  6. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  7. High Impedance Comparator for Monitoring Water Resistivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holewinski, Paul K.

    1984-01-01

    A high-impedance comparator suitable for monitoring the resistivity of a deionized or distilled water line supplying water in the 50 Kohm/cm-2 Mohm/cm range is described. Includes information on required circuits (with diagrams), sensor probe assembly, and calibration techniques. (JN)

  8. Improved Performance Analysis of Free Space Optics Communication Link under Rain Conditions using EDFA Pre-amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2018-04-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) also known as Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is a communication technology in which free space/air is used as the propagation medium and optical signals are used as the information carriers. One of the most crucial factors which degrade the performance of FSO link is the signal attenuation due to different atmospheric weather conditions such as haze, rain, storm, and fog. In this paper, an improved performance analysis of a 2.5 Gbps FSO link under rain conditions has been reported using Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) as a pre-amplifier. The results show that the maximum link distance for an FSO link under rain weather conditions with acceptable performance levels (Q ˜6 and BER ≤ 10-9 in the absence of EDFA pre-amplifier is 1,250 m which increases to 1,675 m with the use of EDFA pre-amplifier.

  9. An Inexpensive, Very High Impedance Digital Voltmeter for Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceci, Marco S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a compact, digital voltmeter which exceeds, both in accuracy and input impedance, most commercial pH meters and potentiometers. The instrument consists of two parts: a very high impedance hybrid operational amplifier used as a voltage follower (ICH8500/A, Intersil) and a four and one-half digits LED display panel meter (RP-4500,…

  10. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  11. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Milanesio, D., E-mail: daniele.milanesio@polito.it; Maggiora, R.

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna,more » based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.« less

  12. A High Performance Impedance-based Platform for Evaporation Rate Detection.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Lee, Pee-Yew; Chen, Cheng-You; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    This paper describes the method of a novel impedance-based platform for the detection of the evaporation rate. The model compound hyaluronic acid was employed here for demonstration purposes. Multiple evaporation tests on the model compound as a humectant with various concentrations in solutions were conducted for comparison purposes. A conventional weight loss approach is known as the most straightforward, but time-consuming, measurement technique for evaporation rate detection. Yet, a clear disadvantage is that a large volume of sample is required and multiple sample tests cannot be conducted at the same time. For the first time in literature, an electrical impedance sensing chip is successfully applied to a real-time evaporation investigation in a time sharing, continuous and automatic manner. Moreover, as little as 0.5 ml of test samples is required in this impedance-based apparatus, and a large impedance variation is demonstrated among various dilute solutions. The proposed high-sensitivity and fast-response impedance sensing system is found to outperform a conventional weight loss approach in terms of evaporation rate detection.

  13. Liquid helium-cooled MOSFET preamplifier for use with astronomical bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid helium-cooled p-channel enhancement mode MOSFET, the 3N167, is found to have sufficiently low noise for use as a preamplifier with helium-cooled bolometers that are used in infrared astronomy. Its characteristics at 300, 77, and 4.2 K are presented. It is also shown to have useful application with certain photoconductive and photovoltaic infrared detectors.

  14. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 2; Advanced Treatment Impedance Models for High Frequency Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop improved models for the acoustic impedance of treatment panels at high frequencies, for application to subscale treatment designs. Effects that cause significant deviation of the impedance from simple geometric scaling are examined in detail, an improved high-frequency impedance model is developed, and the improved model is correlated with high-frequency impedance measurements. Only single-degree-of-freedom honeycomb sandwich resonator panels with either perforated sheet or "linear" wiremesh faceplates are considered. The objective is to understand those effects that cause the simple single-degree-of- freedom resonator panels to deviate at the higher-scaled frequency from the impedance that would be obtained at the corresponding full-scale frequency. This will allow the subscale panel to be designed to achieve a specified impedance spectrum over at least a limited range of frequencies. An advanced impedance prediction model has been developed that accounts for some of the known effects at high frequency that have previously been ignored as a small source of error for full-scale frequency ranges.

  15. Highly efficient all-dielectric optical tensor impedance metasurfaces for chiral polarization control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseok; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-10-15

    We propose a highly efficient (nearly lossless and impedance-matched) all-dielectric optical tensor impedance metasurface that mimics chiral effects at optical wavelengths. By cascading an array of rotated crossed silicon nanoblocks, we realize chiral optical tensor impedance metasurfaces that operate as circular polarization selective surfaces. Their efficiencies are maximized through a nonlinear numerical optimization process in which the tensor impedance metasurfaces are modeled via multi-conductor transmission line theory. From rigorous full-wave simulations that include all material losses, we show field transmission efficiencies of 94% for right- and left-handed circular polarization selective surfaces at 800 nm.

  16. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systemsmore » for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.« less

  17. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer for direct coupled use with continuous discharge preamplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system is disclosed which accepts directly coupled input data from a detector with a continuous discharge type preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system`s principal elements are an analog signal conditioning section, a combinatorial logic section which implements digital triangular filtering and pileup inspection, and a microprocessor which accepts values captured by the logic section and uses them to compute x-ray energy values. Operating without pole-zero correction, the system achieves high resolution by capturing, in conjunction with each peak value from the digital filter, an associated value of the unfiltered signal, and using this latter signal to correct the former for errors which arise from its local slope terms. This correction greatly reduces both energy resolution degradation and peak centroid shifting in the output spectrum as a function of input count rate. When the noise of this correction is excessive, a modification allows two filtered averages of the signal to be captured and a corrected peak amplitude computed therefrom. 14 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer for direct coupled use with continuous discharge preamplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.

    1998-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts directly coupled input data from a detector with a continuous discharge type preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system's principal elements are an analog signal conditioning section, a combinatorial logic section which implements digital triangular filtering and pileup inspection, and a microprocessor which accepts values captured by the logic section and uses them to compute x-ray energy values. Operating without pole-zero correction, the system achieves high resolution by capturing, in conjunction with each peak value from the digital filter, an associated value of the unfiltered signal, and using this latter signal to correct the former for errors which arise from its local slope terms. This correction greatly reduces both energy resolution degradation and peak centroid shifting in the output spectrum as a function of input count rate. When the noise of this correction is excessive, a modification allows two filtered averages of the signal to be captured and a corrected peak amplitude computed therefrom.

  19. Compact low-noise preamplifier for noise spectroscopy with biased photodiodes in cargo inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Bob; Langeveld, Willem G. J.

    2013-09-01

    Noise Spectroscopy, a.k.a. Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis (Z-SCAN), is a statistical technique to determine a quantity called the "noise figure" from digitized waveforms of pulses of transmitted x-rays in cargo inspection systems. Depending only on quantities related to the x-ray energies, it measures a characteristic of the transmitted x-ray spectrum, which depends on the atomic number, Z, of the material penetrated. The noise figure can thus be used for material separation. In an 80-detector prototype, scintillators are used with large-area photodiodes biased at 80V and digitized using 50-MSPS 12-bit ADC boards. We present an ultra-compact low-noise preamplifier design, with one high-gain and one low-gain channel per detector for improved dynamic range. To achieve adequate detection sensitivity and spatial resolution each dual-gain preamplifier channel must fit within a 12.7 mm wide circuit board footprint and maintain adequate noise immunity to conducted and radiated interference from adjacent channels. The novel design included iterative SPICE analysis of transient response, dynamic range, frequency response, and noise analysis to optimize the selection and configuration of amplifiers and filter response. We discuss low-noise active and passive components and low-noise techniques for circuit board layout that are essential to achieving the design goals, and how the completed circuit board performed in comparison to the predicted responses.

  20. The development of the miniaturized waveform receiver with the function measuring Antenna Impedance in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H.; Kojima, H.; Fukuhara, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma wave is one of the most essential physical quantities in the solar terrestrial physics. The role of plasma wave receiver onboard satellites is to detect plasma waves in space with a good signal to noise ratio. There are two types of plasma wave receivers, the sweep frequency analyzer and the waveform capture. While the sweep frequency analyzer provides plasma wave spectra, the waveform capture obtains waveforms with phase information that is significant in studying nonlinear phenomena. Antenna sensors to observe electric fields of the plasma waves show different features in plasmas from in vacuum. The antenna impedances have specific characteristics in the frequency domain because of the dispersion of plasmas. These antenna impedances are expressed with complex number. We need to know not only the antenna impedances but also the transfer functions of plasma wave receiver's circuits in order to calibrate observed waveforms precisely. The impedances of the electric field antennas are affected by a state of surrounding plasmas. Since satellites run through various regions with different plasma parameters, we precisely should measure the antenna impedances onboard spacecraft. On the contrary, we can obtain the plasma density and by measuring the antenna impedances. Several formulas of the antenna impedance measurement system were proposed. A synchronous detection method is used on the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which will be launched in 2014. The digital data are stored in the onboard memory. They are read out and converted to the analog waveforms by D/A converter. They are fed into the input of the preamplifiers of antenna sensors through a resistor. We can calculate a transfer function of the circuit by applying the synchronous detection method to the output waveform from waveform receivers and digital data as a signal source. The size of this system is same as an A5 board. In recent years, Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC

  1. Detection of High-impedance Arcing Faults in Radial Distribution DC Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Button, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High voltage, low current arcing faults in DC power systems have been researched at the NASA Glenn Research Center in order to develop a method for detecting these 'hidden faults', in-situ, before damage to cables and components from localized heating can occur. A simple arc generator was built and high-speed and low-speed monitoring of the voltage and current waveforms, respectively, has shown that these high impedance faults produce a significant increase in high frequency content in the DC bus voltage and low frequency content in the DC system current. Based on these observations, an algorithm was developed using a high-speed data acquisition system that was able to accurately detect high impedance arcing events induced in a single-line system based on the frequency content of the DC bus voltage or the system current. Next, a multi-line, radial distribution system was researched to see if the arc location could be determined through the voltage information when multiple 'detectors' are present in the system. It was shown that a small, passive LC filter was sufficient to reliably isolate the fault to a single line in a multi-line distribution system. Of course, no modification is necessary if only the current information is used to locate the arc. However, data shows that it might be necessary to monitor both the system current and bus voltage to improve the chances of detecting and locating high impedance arcing faults

  2. A low-power CMOS trans-impedance amplifier for FM/cw ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Zhao, Yi-qiang; Sheng, Yun; Zhao, Hong-liang; Yu, Hai-xia

    2013-09-01

    A scannerless ladar imaging system based on a unique frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique is able to entirely capture the target environment, using a focal plane array to construct a 3D picture of the target. This paper presents a low power trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) designed and implemented by 0.18 μm CMOS technology, which is used in the FM/cw imaging ladar with a 64×64 metal-semiconductor-metal(MSM) self-mixing detector array. The input stage of the operational amplifier (op amp) in TIA is realized with folded cascade structure to achieve large open loop gain and low offset. The simulation and test results of TIA with MSM detectors indicate that the single-end trans-impedance gain is beyond 100 kΩ, and the -3 dB bandwidth of Op Amp is beyond 60 MHz. The input common mode voltage ranges from 0.2 V to 1.5 V, and the power dissipation is reduced to 1.8 mW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The performance test results show that the TIA is a candidate for preamplifier of the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) in the FM/cw scannerless ladar imaging system.

  3. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  4. Design and characterization of a high-power ultrasound driver with ultralow-output impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, George K.; Olbricht, William L.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a pocket-sized ultrasound driver with an ultralow-output impedance amplifier circuit (less than 0.05 Ω) that can transfer more than 99% of the voltage from a power supply to the ultrasound transducer with minimal reflections. The device produces high-power acoustical energy waves while operating at lower voltages than conventional ultrasound driving systems because energy losses owing to mismatched impedance are minimized. The peak performance of the driver is measured experimentally with a PZT-4, 1.54 MHz, piezoelectric ceramic, and modeled using an adjusted Mason model over a range of transducer resonant frequencies. The ultrasound driver can deliver a 100 Vpp (peak to peak) square-wave signal across 0-8 MHz ultrasound transducers in 5 ms bursts through continuous wave operation, producing acoustic powers exceeding 130 W. Effects of frequency, output impedance of the driver, and input impedance of the transducer on the maximum acoustic output power of piezoelectric transducers are examined. The small size, high power, and efficiency of the ultrasound driver make this technology useful for research, medical, and industrial ultrasonic applications.

  5. Design and characterization of a high-power ultrasound driver with ultralow-output impedance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Olbricht, William L

    2009-11-01

    We describe a pocket-sized ultrasound driver with an ultralow-output impedance amplifier circuit (less than 0.05 ohms) that can transfer more than 99% of the voltage from a power supply to the ultrasound transducer with minimal reflections. The device produces high-power acoustical energy waves while operating at lower voltages than conventional ultrasound driving systems because energy losses owing to mismatched impedance are minimized. The peak performance of the driver is measured experimentally with a PZT-4, 1.54 MHz, piezoelectric ceramic, and modeled using an adjusted Mason model over a range of transducer resonant frequencies. The ultrasound driver can deliver a 100 V(pp) (peak to peak) square-wave signal across 0-8 MHz ultrasound transducers in 5 ms bursts through continuous wave operation, producing acoustic powers exceeding 130 W. Effects of frequency, output impedance of the driver, and input impedance of the transducer on the maximum acoustic output power of piezoelectric transducers are examined. The small size, high power, and efficiency of the ultrasound driver make this technology useful for research, medical, and industrial ultrasonic applications.

  6. High-acoustic-impedance tantalum oxide layers for insulating acoustic reflectors.

    PubMed

    Capilla, Jose; Olivares, Jimena; Clement, Marta; Sangrador, Jesús; Iborra, Enrique; Devos, Arnaud

    2012-03-01

    This work describes the assessment of the acoustic properties of sputtered tantalum oxide films intended for use as high-impedance films of acoustic reflectors for solidly mounted resonators operating in the gigahertz frequency range. The films are grown by sputtering a metallic tantalum target under different oxygen and argon gas mixtures, total pressures, pulsed dc powers, and substrate biases. The structural properties of the films are assessed through infrared absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their acoustic impedance is assessed by deriving the mass density from X-ray reflectometry measurements and the acoustic velocity from picosecond acoustic spectroscopy and the analysis of the frequency response of the test resonators.

  7. An eight-channel T/R head coil for parallel transmit MRI at 3T using ultra-low output impedance amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Katherine Lynn; Hollingsworth, Neal A.; Zhao, Feng; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Noll, Douglas C.; Wright, Steven M.; McDougall, Mary Preston

    2014-09-01

    Parallel transmit is an emerging technology to address the technical challenges associated with MR imaging at high field strengths. When developing arrays for parallel transmit systems, one of the primary factors to be considered is the mechanism to manage coupling and create independently operating channels. Recent work has demonstrated the use of amplifiers to provide some or all of the channel-to-channel isolation, reducing the need for on-coil decoupling networks in a manner analogous to the use of isolation preamplifiers with receive coils. This paper discusses an eight-channel transmit/receive head array for use with an ultra-low output impedance (ULOI) parallel transmit system. The ULOI amplifiers eliminated the need for a complex lumped element network to decouple the eight-rung array. The design and construction details of the array are discussed in addition to the measurement considerations required for appropriately characterizing an array when using ULOI amplifiers. B1 maps and coupling matrices are used to verify the performance of the system.

  8. A Charge Sensitive Pre-Amplifier for Smart Point-of-Care Devices Employing Polymer Based Lab-on-a-Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanfeng; Britton, Charles; Quaiyum, Farhan

    With increasing emphasis on implantable and portable medical devices, low-power, small-chip-area sensor readout system realized in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform is gaining more and more importance these days. The main building blocks of the LOC system include a front-end transducer that generates an electrical signal in response to the presence of an analyte of interest, signal processing electronics to process the signal to comply with a specific transmission protocol and a low-power transmitter, all realized in a single integrated circuit platform. Low power consumption and compactness of the components are essential requirements of the LOC system. This paper presents a novelmore » charge sensitive pre-amplifier developed in a standard 180-nm CMOS process suitable for implementing in an LOC platform. The pre-amplifier converts the charge generated by a pyroelectric transducer into a voltage signal, which provides a measurement of the temperature variation in biological fluids. The proposed design is capable of providing 0.8-mV/pC gain while consuming only 2.1 μW of power. Finally, the pre-amplifier composed of integrated components occupies an area of 0.038 mm 2.« less

  9. A Charge Sensitive Pre-Amplifier for Smart Point-of-Care Devices Employing Polymer Based Lab-on-a-Chip

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hanfeng; Britton, Charles; Quaiyum, Farhan; ...

    2018-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on implantable and portable medical devices, low-power, small-chip-area sensor readout system realized in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform is gaining more and more importance these days. The main building blocks of the LOC system include a front-end transducer that generates an electrical signal in response to the presence of an analyte of interest, signal processing electronics to process the signal to comply with a specific transmission protocol and a low-power transmitter, all realized in a single integrated circuit platform. Low power consumption and compactness of the components are essential requirements of the LOC system. This paper presents a novelmore » charge sensitive pre-amplifier developed in a standard 180-nm CMOS process suitable for implementing in an LOC platform. The pre-amplifier converts the charge generated by a pyroelectric transducer into a voltage signal, which provides a measurement of the temperature variation in biological fluids. The proposed design is capable of providing 0.8-mV/pC gain while consuming only 2.1 μW of power. Finally, the pre-amplifier composed of integrated components occupies an area of 0.038 mm 2.« less

  10. Coupling two spin qubits with a high-impedance resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, S. P.; Bøttcher, C. G. L.; Orona, L. A.; Bartlett, S. D.; Doherty, A. C.; Yacoby, A.

    2018-06-01

    Fast, high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates are essential to building a viable quantum information processor, but achieving both in the same system has proved challenging for spin qubits. We propose and analyze an approach to perform a long-distance two-qubit controlled phase (CPHASE) gate between two singlet-triplet qubits using an electromagnetic resonator to mediate their interaction. The qubits couple longitudinally to the resonator, and by driving the qubits near the resonator's frequency, they can be made to acquire a state-dependent geometric phase that leads to a CPHASE gate independent of the initial state of the resonator. Using high impedance resonators enables gate times of order 10 ns while maintaining long coherence times. Simulations show average gate fidelities of over 96% using currently achievable experimental parameters and over 99% using state-of-the-art resonator technology. After optimizing the gate fidelity in terms of parameters tuneable in situ, we find it takes a simple power-law form in terms of the resonator's impedance and quality and the qubits' noise bath.

  11. Constant current loop impedance measuring system that is immune to the effects of parasitic impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system is provided for measuring a characteristic of an environment. The system comprises a first impedance positionable in the environment, a second impedance coupled in series with said first impedance and a parasitic impedance electrically coupled to the first and second impedances. A current generating device, electrically coupled in series with the first and second impedances, provides a constant current through the first and second impedances to produce first and second voltages across the first and second impedances, respectively, and a parasitic voltage across the parasitic impedance. A high impedance voltage measuring device measures a voltage difference between the first and second voltages independent of the parasitic voltage to produce a characteristic voltage representative of the characteristic of the environment.

  12. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.

  13. Servo-controlled pneumatic pressure oscillator for respiratory impedance measurements and high-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kaczka, David W; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2004-04-01

    The ability to provide forced oscillatory excitation of the respiratory system can be useful in mechanical impedance measurements as well as high frequency ventilation (HFV). Experimental systems currently used for generating forced oscillations are limited in their ability to provide high amplitude flows or maintain the respiratory system at a constant mean pressure during excitation. This paper presents the design and implementation of a pneumatic pressure oscillator based on a proportional solenoid valve. The device is capable of providing forced oscillatory excitations to the respiratory system over a bandwidth suitable for mechanical impedance measurements and HVF. It delivers high amplitude flows (> 1.4 l/s) and utilizes a servo-control mechanism to maintain a load at a fixed mean pressure during simultaneous oscillation. Under open-loop conditions, the device exhibited a static hysteresis of approximately 7%, while its dynamic magnitude and phase responses were flat out to 10 Hz. Broad-band measurement of total harmonic distortion was approximately 19%. Under closed-loop conditions, the oscillator was able to maintain a mechanical test load at both positive and negative mean pressures during oscillatory excitations from 0.1 to 10.0 Hz. Impedance of the test load agreed closely with theoretical predictions. We conclude that this servo-controlled oscillator can be a useful tool for respiratory impedance measurements as well as HFV.

  14. Energy absorption as a predictor of leg impedance in highly trained females.

    PubMed

    Kulas, Anthony S; Schmitz, Randy J; Schultz, Sandra J; Watson, Mary Allen; Perrin, David H

    2006-08-01

    Although leg spring stiffness represents active muscular recruitment of the lower extremity during dynamic tasks such as hopping and running, the joint-specific characteristics comprising the damping portion of this measure, leg impedance, are uncertain. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the relationship between leg impedance and energy absorption at the ankle, knee, and hip during early (impact) and late (stabilization) phases of landing. Twenty highly trained female dancers (age = 20.3 +/- 1.4 years, height = 163.7 +/- 6.0 cm, mass = 62.1 +/- 8.1 kg) were instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Subjects performed three sets of double-leg landings from under preferred, stiff, and soft landing conditions. A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ankle and knee energy absorption at impact, and knee and hip energy absorption during the stabilization phases of landing explained 75.5% of the variance in leg impedance. The primary predictor of leg impedance was knee energy absorption during the stabilization phase, independently accounting for 55% of the variance. Future validation studies applying this regression model to other groups of individuals are warranted.

  15. Note: Characterization and test of a high input impedance RF amplifier for series nanowire detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chao; Pei, Yufeng; Jiang, Zhou; Kang, Lin; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-09-01

    We designed a high input impedance RF amplifier based on Tower Jazz's 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS process for series nanowire detector. The characterization of its gain and input impedance with a vector network analyzer is described in detail for its specificity. The actual 15 dB gain should be the measured value subtracts 6 dB, which is easy to be ignored. Its input impedance can be equivalent to 6.7 kΩ ∥ 3.4 pF though fitting the measurement, whose accuracy is verified. The process of measurement provides a good reference to characterize the similar special amplifier with unmatched impedance.

  16. The 150 ns detector project: Prototype preamplifier results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the 150 ns detector project is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1×256 1D and 8×8 2D detectors, 256×256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front-end preamplifiers are integrated first, since their design and performance are the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is concentrated on devising and perfecting detector structures. In this paper we demonstrate the performance of prototypes of our integrated preamplifiers. While the final design will have 64 preamps to a chip, including a switchable gain stage, the prototypes were integrated 8 channels to a "Tiny Chip" and tested in 4 configurations (feedback capacitor Cf equal 2.5 or 4.0 pF, output directly or through a source follower). These devices have been tested thoroughly for reset settling times, gain, linearity, and electronic noise. They generally work as designed, being fast enough to easily integrate detector charge, settle, and reset in 150 ns. Gain and linearity appear to be acceptable. Current values of electronic noise, in double-sampling mode, are about twice the design goal of {2}/{3} of a single photon at 6 keV. We expect this figure to improve with the addition of the onboard amplifier stage and improved packaging. Our next test chip will include these improvements and allow testing with our first detector samples, which will be 1×256 (50 μm wide pixels) and 8×8 (1 mm 2 pixels) element detector on 1 mm thick silicon.

  17. High-temperature superconductor coating for coupling impedance reduction in the FCC-hh beam screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krkotić, Patrick; Niedermayer, Uwe; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    2018-07-01

    The international Future Circular Collider study develops a conceptual design for a post Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator using 16 T superconducting dipoles for achieving p-p center-of-mass collision energies up to 100 TeV. One concern for this project is the beam coupling impedance especially at injection energy. A copper coated beam screen as in the LHC is planned, but preliminary studies indicate that copper at the high operating temperature of 50 K might not provide a sufficiently low impedance for a stable beam. In order to reduce the coupling impedance, we investigate high-temperature superconductors as a possible coating material in combination with copper as a hybrid system. The effect of different coating combinations are estimated through numerical calculations to identify the best hybrid beam screen coating system.

  18. Highly sensitive three-dimensional interdigitated microelectrode for microparticle detection using electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Wang, Min-Haw; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Cell impedance analysis is widely used for monitoring biological and medical reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated microelectrode (IME) with a high aspect ratio on a polyimide (PI) flexible substrate was fabricated for microparticle detection (e.g. cell quantity detection) using electroforming and lithography technology. 3D finite element simulations were performed to compare the performance of the 3D IME (in terms of sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio) to that of a planar IME for particles in the sensing area. Various quantities of particles were captured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium and their impedances were measured. With the 3D IME, the particles were arranged in the gap, not on the electrode, avoiding the noise due to particle position. For the maximum particle quantities, the results show that the 3D IME has at least 5-fold higher sensitivity than that of the planar IME. The trends of impedance magnitude and phase due to particle quantity were verified using the equivalent circuit model. The impedance (1269 Ω) of 69 particles was used to estimate the particle quantity (68 particles) with 98.6% accuracy using a parabolic regression curve at 500 kHz.

  19. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Framgos, William

    1999-06-01

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can bemore » mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach. Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.« less

  20. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring, and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2000-06-01

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can bemore » mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach (Song et al., 1997). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.« less

  1. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    2001-06-10

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data canmore » be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.« less

  2. Measurements of high impedance two-terminal device with SMU NI PXIe-4139

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Lelekov, E. T.; Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Lelekov, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    To measure high-frequency and low-frequency impedance of betavoltaic power sources (it can be represented as two-terminal device), measurement stand was created. To measure high-frequency part need to inject external test signal through the current transformer with waveform generator and need to use external high-frequency current sensor, because of SMU PXIe-4139 current channel limitations.

  3. An eight-channel T/R head coil for parallel transmit MRI at 3T using ultra-low output impedance amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Katherine Lynn; Hollingsworth, Neal A.; Zhao, Feng; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Noll, Douglas C.; Wright, Steven M.; McDougall, Mary Preston

    2014-01-01

    Parallel transmit is an emerging technology to address the technical challenges associated with MR imaging at high field strengths. When developing arrays for parallel transmit systems, one of the primary factors to be considered is the mechanism to manage coupling and create independently operating channels. Recent work has demonstrated the use of amplifiers to provide some or all of the channel-to-channel isolation, reducing the need for on-coil decoupling networks in a manner analogous to the use of isolation preamplifiers with receive coils. This paper discusses an eight-channel transmit/receive head array for use with an ultra-low output impedance (ULOI) parallel transmit system. The ULOI amplifiers eliminated the need for a complex lumped element network to decouple the eight rung array. The design and construction details of the array are discussed in addition to the measurement considerations required for appropriately characterizing an array when using ULOI amplifiers. B1 maps and coupling matrices are used to verify the performance of the system. PMID:25072190

  4. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    2004-06-16

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data canmore » be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001; Song et al., 2002, Tseng et al., 2003). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested and calibrated on sea water and in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.« less

  5. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    2002-11-20

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data canmore » be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001; Song et al., 2002). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.« less

  6. Comparison of three rf plasma impedance monitors on a high phase angle planar inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, H.; Watanabe, M.; Shaw, D. M.; Bahia, J. E.; Collins, G. J.

    1999-10-01

    Accurate measurement of plasma source impedance is important for verification of plasma circuit models, as well as for plasma process characterization and endpoint detection. Most impedance measurement techniques depend in some manner on the cosine of the phase angle to determine the impedance of the plasma load. Inductively coupled plasmas are generally highly inductive, with the phase angle between the applied rf voltage and the rf current in the range of 88 to near 90 degrees. A small measurement error in this phase angle range results in a large error in the calculated cosine of the angle, introducing large impedance measurement variations. In this work, we have compared the measured impedance of a planar inductively coupled plasma using three commercial plasma impedance monitors (ENI V/I probe, Advanced Energy RFZ60 and Advanced Energy Z-Scan). The plasma impedance is independently verified using a specially designed match network and a calibrated load, representing the plasma, to provide a measurement standard.

  7. Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 51-dB loss budget by using a single SOA as preamplifier, booster and format converter in ONU.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengxuan; Yi, Lilin; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-10-06

    In this paper, we propose to use a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in the optical network unit (ONU) to improve the loss budget in time and wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (TWDM-PON) systems. The SOA boosts the upstream signal to increase the output power of the electro-absorption modulated laser (EML) and simultaneously pre-amplifies the downstream signal for sensitivity improvement. The penalty caused by cross gain modulation (XGM) effect is negligible due to the low extinction ratio (ER) of upstream signal and the large wavelength difference between upstream and downstream links. In order to achieve a higher output power, the SOA is driven into its saturation region, where the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect converts the intensity into phase information and realizes on-off-keying (OOK) to phase-shifted-keying (PSK) format conversion. In this way, the pattern effect is eliminated, which releases the requirement of gain-clamping on SOA. To further improve the loss budget of upstream link, an Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is used in the optical line terminal (OLT) to pre-amplify the received signal. For the downstream direction, directly modulated laser (DML) is used as the laser source. Taking advantage of its carrier-less characteristic, directly modulated signal shows high tolerance to fiber nonlinearity, which could support a downstream launch power as high as + 16 dBm per channel. In addition, the signal is pre-amplified by the SOA in ONU before being detected, so the sensitivity limitation for downstream link is also removed. As a result, a truly passive symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON was demonstrated, achieving a link loss budget of 51 dB.

  8. Development of high impedance measurement system for water leakage detection in implantable neuroprosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Aziz; Kelly, Shawn K

    2016-08-01

    There has been a push for a greater number of channels in implantable neuroprosthetic devices; but, that number has largely been limited by current hermetic packaging technology. Microfabricated packaging is becoming reality, but a standard testing system is needed to prepare these devices for clinical trials. Impedance measurements of electrodes built into the packaging layers may give an early warning of device failure and predict device lifetime. Because the impedance magnitudes of such devices can be on the order of gigaohms, a versatile system was designed to accommodate ultra-high impedances and allow future integrated circuit implementation in current neural prosthetic technologies. Here we present the circuitry, control software, and preliminary testing results of our designed system.

  9. Beam measurement of the high frequency impedance sources with long bunches in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheen, A.; Argyropoulos, T.; Bohl, T.; Esteban Müller, J. F.; Timko, H.; Shaposhnikova, E.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave instability in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN is one of the main limitations to reach the requirements for the High Luminosity-LHC project (increased beam intensity by a factor 2). To identify the impedance source responsible of the instability, beam measurements were carried out to probe the SPS impedance. The method presented in this paper relies on measurements of the unstable spectra of single bunches, injected in the SPS with the rf voltage switched off. The modulation of the bunch profile gives information about the main impedance sources driving microwave instability, and is compared to particle simulations using the SPS impedance model to identify the most important contributions. This allowed us to identify the vacuum flanges as the main impedance source for microwave instability in the SPS, and to evaluate possible missing impedance sources.

  10. Impedance-estimation methods, modeling methods, articles of manufacture, impedance-modeling devices, and estimated-impedance monitoring systems

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.

  11. Signal Statistics and Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation in Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Links Containing a Single Optical Pre-amplifier.

    PubMed

    Alić, Nikola; Papen, George; Saperstein, Robert; Milstein, Laurence; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2005-06-13

    Exact signal statistics for fiber-optic links containing a single optical pre-amplifier are calculated and applied to sequence estimation for electronic dispersion compensation. The performance is evaluated and compared with results based on the approximate chi-square statistics. We show that detection in existing systems based on exact statistics can be improved relative to using a chi-square distribution for realistic filter shapes. In contrast, for high-spectral efficiency systems the difference between the two approaches diminishes, and performance tends to be less dependent on the exact shape of the filter used.

  12. Reduced impedance and superconductivity of SnAgCu solder alloy at high frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Basaran, Cemal

    2012-10-01

    Skin effect of lead-free solder joints is investigated over a wide frequency band. Contrary to common believe that `effective impedance of solder alloys increases with frequency', resistance tends to saturate when frequency reaches a critical value, 10 MHz for SAC solder alloys. Negative surface impedance growth rate is observed when employs square waveform AC current loading at high current density. Further increased frequency causes a dramatic reduction of effective resistance. At 11 MHz with current density of 106 A/cm2, effective resistance of solder alloy drops to near zero value.

  13. Photocurrent Measurement of PC and PV HgCdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Martin, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Novel preamplifiers for working standard photoconductive (PC) and photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detectors have been developed to maintain the spectral responsivity scale of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the wavelength range of 5 μm to 20 μm. The linear PC mode preamplifier does not need any compensating source to zero the effect of the detector bias current for the preamplifier output. The impedance multiplication concept with a positive feedback buffer amplifier was analyzed and utilized in a bootstrap PV transimpedance amplifier to measure photocurrent of a 200 Ω shunt resistance photodiode with a maximum signal gain of 108 V/A. In spite of the high performance lock-in used as a second-stage signal-amplifier, the signal-to-noise ratio had to be optimized for the output of the photocurrent preamplifiers. Noise and drift were equalized for the output of the PV mode preamplifier. The signal gain errors were calculated to determine the signal frequency range where photocurrent-to-voltage conversion can be performed with very low uncertainties. For the design of both PC and PV detector preamplifiers, the most important gain equations are described. Measurement results on signal ranges and noise performance are discussed. PMID:27500036

  14. Photocurrent Measurement of PC and PV HgCdTe Detectors.

    PubMed

    Eppeldauer, G P; Martin, R J

    2001-01-01

    Novel preamplifiers for working standard photoconductive (PC) and photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detectors have been developed to maintain the spectral responsivity scale of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the wavelength range of 5 μm to 20 μm. The linear PC mode preamplifier does not need any compensating source to zero the effect of the detector bias current for the preamplifier output. The impedance multiplication concept with a positive feedback buffer amplifier was analyzed and utilized in a bootstrap PV transimpedance amplifier to measure photocurrent of a 200 Ω shunt resistance photodiode with a maximum signal gain of 10(8) V/A. In spite of the high performance lock-in used as a second-stage signal-amplifier, the signal-to-noise ratio had to be optimized for the output of the photocurrent preamplifiers. Noise and drift were equalized for the output of the PV mode preamplifier. The signal gain errors were calculated to determine the signal frequency range where photocurrent-to-voltage conversion can be performed with very low uncertainties. For the design of both PC and PV detector preamplifiers, the most important gain equations are described. Measurement results on signal ranges and noise performance are discussed.

  15. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  16. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-09-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  17. A Discrete Component Low-Noise Preamplifier Readout for a Linear (1x16) SiC Photodiode Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Frederico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-01-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1x16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analogue signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  18. Prototype of IGZO-TFT preamplifier and analog counter for pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Shindoh, T.; Miyoshi, H.

    2017-02-01

    IGZO-TFT (Indium Galium Zinc Oxide-Thin Film Transistor) is a promising technology for controlling large display areas and large area sensors because of its very low leakage current in the off state and relatively low cost. IGZO has been used as a switching gate for a large area flat-panel detector. The photon counting capability for X-ray medical imaging has been investigated and expected for low-dose exposure and material determination. Here the design and fabrication of a charge sensitive preamplifier and analog counter using IGZO-TFT processes and its performance are reported for the first time to be used for radiation photon counting applications.

  19. SABRE modification to a higher voltage high impedance inductive voltage adder (IVA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.

    The SABRE accelerator was originally designed to operate as low impedance voltage adder with 40-ohm maximum output impedance in negative polarity operation and approximately 20 ohm in positive polarity. Because of the low impedance and higher than expected energy losses in the pulse forming network, the operating input cavity voltage is of the order of 800 kV which limits the total output voltage to {approximately} 8 MV for negative polarity and 5 to 6 MV for positive polarity. The modifications presented here aim to increase the output voltage in both polarities. A new high impedance central electrode was designed capablemore » of operating both in negative and positive polarities, and the number of pulse forming lines feeding the inductively isolated cavities was reduced to half. These modifications were recently tested in positive polarity. An increase in the total accelerating voltage from 5.5 MV to 9 MV was observed while stressing all components to the level required to achieve 12 MV in negative polarity. In these experiments only 65% of the usual operating intermediate store capacitor voltage was necessary (1.7 MV instead of 2.6 MV). Currently, the device is reconfigured for negative polarity tests. The cavities are rotated by 180{degree} and a 17-inch spool is added at the base of the cantilevered center electrode (cathode electrode). Positive and negative polarity results are presented and compared with simulations.« less

  20. Transthoracic Electrical Impedance in Cases of High-altitude Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sujoy B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Khan, M. R.; Kaushik, V. S.; Manchanda, S. C.; Guha, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in transthoracic electrical impedance (T.E.I.) due to high-altitude hypoxia (3,658 m) have been measured in 20 young, healthy Indian soldiers. They were first studied at sea level (198 m) and then rapidly transported by air to 3,658 m, where they were studied daily from day 1 to day 5 and then on days 8 and 10. The mean (±S.D.) T.E.I. at sea level (34·6±0·6Ω) fell sharply to 29·6±0·8Ω, 30·3±0·9Ω, and 30·5±1·1Ω on days 1, 2, and 3 (P <0·001) and levelled off at 31·5±0·7Ω on day 10, which was comparable to the mean value obtained in 13 persons permanently resident at high altitude (32·2±0·7Ω). Five sea-level residents who had acute mountain sickness (A.M.S.) or high-altitude pulmonary oedema (H.A.P.O.) had a still lower mean value (22·5±1·1Ω). One normal healthy subject who at sea level had a T.E.I. of 34·7Ω developed H.A.P.O. when the T.E.I. fell to 21·1Ω. Ninety minutes after the administration of 80 mg of intravenous frusemide the value increased to 35·5Ω. In another subject with A.M.S. who received 40 mg of frusemide intravenously the T.E.I. rose from 21·9 to 33·2Ω. Since the study was non-invasive the changes in impedance could not be correlated objectively with alterations in either pulmonary blood volume or pulmonary extravascular water space. In the subject, however, with x-ray evidence of H.A.P.O. and a low T.E.I. intravenous frusemide produced a marked rise in T.E.I. together with clearing of the chest x-ray picture within 24 hours, indicating an inverse relationship between impedance and thoracic fluid volume. It is suggested that with further objective verification in man the measurement of T.E.I. may be a potentially promising technique for the early detection of increased pulmonary fluid volume. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4416705

  1. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  2. The design of preamplifier and ADC circuit base on weak e-optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fen, Leng; Ying-ping, Yang; Ya-nan, Yu; Xiao-ying, Xu

    2011-02-01

    Combined with the demand of the process of weak e-optical signal in QPD detection system, the article introduced the circuit principle of deigning preamplifier and ADC circuit with I/V conversion, instrumentation amplifier, low-pass filter and 16-bit A/D transformation. At the same time the article discussed the circuit's noise suppression and isolation according to the characteristics of the weak signal, and gave the method of software rectification. Finally, tested the weak signal with keithley2000, and got a good effect.

  3. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  4. Voltage Based Detection Method for High Impedance Fault in a Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mini Shaji; Bhaskar, Namrata; Prakash, Anupama

    2016-09-01

    High-impedance faults (HIFs) on distribution feeders cannot be detected by conventional protection schemes, as HIFs are characterized by their low fault current level and waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the ground return path. This paper proposes a method to identify the HIFs in distribution system and isolate the faulty section, to reduce downtime. This method is based on voltage measurements along the distribution feeder and utilizes the sequence components of the voltages. Three models of high impedance faults have been considered and source side and load side breaking of the conductor have been studied in this work to capture a wide range of scenarios. The effect of neutral grounding of the source side transformer is also accounted in this study. The results show that the algorithm detects the HIFs accurately and rapidly. Thus, the faulty section can be isolated and service can be restored to the rest of the consumers.

  5. Dedicated power supply subsystem for ultra-low noise preamplifiers and biophotonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SuraŻyński, Łukasz; Wierzba, Paweł; Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2013-11-01

    It is very common for noise to have an influence on analog circuits. In order to preserve the quality of measurements taken by specific sensors and any noise dependent amplifiers which are correlated to them, all of these devices must be powered by low-noise power supplies. Therefore a necessity exists to develop new ultra-low noise power supplies which can cooperate with specified amplifiers and preamplifiers. Many well-known power supplies are particularly expensive and yet still have their disadvantages. This paper proposes a simple and inexpensive solution, which fulfills a specific criteria and can be treated as a base for improvement.

  6. Integrated front-end electronics in a detector compatible process: source-follower and charge-sensitive preamplifier configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, Lodovico; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Speziali, Valeria

    2001-12-01

    This study is concerned with the simulation and design of low-noise front-end electronics monolithically integrated on the same high-resistivity substrate as multielectrode silicon detectors, in a process made available by the Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (ITC-IRST) of Trento, Italy. The integrated front-end solutions described in this paper use N-channel JFETs as basic elements. The first one is based upon an all-NJFET charge preamplifier designed to match detector capacitances of a few picofarads and available in both a resistive and a non resistive feedback configuration. In the second solution, a single NJFET in the source-follower configuration is connected to the detector, while its source is wired to an external readout channel through an integrated capacitor.

  7. Exponential current pulse generation for efficient very high-impedance multisite stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ethier, S; Sawan, M

    2011-02-01

    We describe in this paper an intracortical current-pulse generator for high-impedance microstimulation. This dual-chip system features a stimuli generator and a high-voltage electrode driver. The stimuli generator produces flexible rising exponential pulses in addition to standard rectangular stimuli. This novel stimulation waveform is expected to provide superior energy efficiency for action potential triggering while releasing less toxic reduced ions in the cortical tissues. The proposed fully integrated electrode driver is used as the output stage where high-voltage supplies are generated on-chip to significantly increase the voltage compliance for stimulation through high-impedance electrode-tissue interfaces. The stimuli generator has been implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS technology while a 0.8-μm CMOS/DMOS process has been used to integrate the high-voltage output stage. Experimental results show that the rectangular pulses cover a range of 1.6 to 167.2 μA with a DNL and an INL of 0.098 and 0.163 least-significant bit, respectively. The maximal dynamic range of the generated exponential reaches 34.36 dB at full scale within an error of ± 0.5 dB while all of its parameters (amplitude, duration, and time constant) are independently programmable over wide ranges. This chip consumes a maximum of 88.3 μ W in the exponential mode. High-voltage supplies of 8.95 and -8.46 V are generated by the output stage, boosting the voltage swing up to 13.6 V for a load as high as 100 kΩ.

  8. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  9. Impedance Matching Antenna-Integrated High-Efficiency Energy Harvesting Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Shinki, Yuharu; Shibata, Kyohei; Mansour, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-efficiency energy harvesting circuit with an integrated antenna. The circuit is composed of series resonance and boost rectifier circuits for converting radio frequency power into boosted direct current (DC) voltage. The measured output DC voltage is 5.67 V for an input of 100 mV at 900 MHz. Antenna input impedance matching is optimized for greater efficiency and miniaturization. The measured efficiency of this antenna-integrated energy harvester is 60% for −4.85 dBm input power and a load resistance equal to 20 kΩ at 905 MHz. PMID:28763043

  10. Impedance Matching Antenna-Integrated High-Efficiency Energy Harvesting Circuit.

    PubMed

    Shinki, Yuharu; Shibata, Kyohei; Mansour, Mohamed; Kanaya, Haruichi

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-efficiency energy harvesting circuit with an integrated antenna. The circuit is composed of series resonance and boost rectifier circuits for converting radio frequency power into boosted direct current (DC) voltage. The measured output DC voltage is 5.67 V for an input of 100 mV at 900 MHz. Antenna input impedance matching is optimized for greater efficiency and miniaturization. The measured efficiency of this antenna-integrated energy harvester is 60% for -4.85 dBm input power and a load resistance equal to 20 kΩ at 905 MHz.

  11. Low RF Reflectivity Spacecraft Thermal Blanket by Using High-Impedance Surface Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F.; Monorchio, A.; Carrubba, E.; Zolesi, V.

    2012-05-01

    A technique for designing a low-RF reflectivity thermal blanket is presented. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets are employed to stabilize the temperature on spacecraft unit but they can be responsible of passive intermodulation products and high-mutual coupling between antennas since they are realized with metallic materials. The possibility to replace the last inner layer of a MLI blanket with an ultra-thin absorbing layer made of high-impedance surface absorber is discussed.

  12. SNR Improvement of QEPAS System by Preamplifier Circuit Optimization and Frequency Locked Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Zongliang; Wang, Fupeng; Jiang, Fengting; Wang, Mengyao

    2018-06-01

    Preamplifier circuit noise is of great importance in quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) system. In this paper, several noise sources are evaluated and discussed in detail. Based on the noise characteristics, the corresponding noise reduction method is proposed. In addition, a frequency locked technique is introduced to further optimize the QEPAS system noise and improve signal, which achieves a better performance than the conventional frequency scan method. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) could be increased 14 times by utilizing frequency locked technique and numerical averaging technique in the QEPAS system for water vapor detection.

  13. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  14. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductor allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology.

  15. Home environmental consequences of commute travel impedance.

    PubMed

    Novaco, R W; Kliewer, W; Broquet, A

    1991-12-01

    The physical and perceptual dimensions of commuting travel impedance were again found to have stressful consequences in a study of 99 employees of two companies. This quasi-experimental replication study, which focuses here on home environment consequences, investigated the effects of physical impedance and subjective impedance on multivariate measures of residential satisfaction and personal affect in the home. Both sets of residential outcome measures were significantly related to the two impedance dimensions. As predicted, gender was a significant moderator of physical impedance effects. Women commuting on high physical impedance routes were most negatively affected. Previously found subjective impedance effects on negative home mood, regardless of gender, were strongly replicated with several methods and were buttressed by convergent results with objective indices. The theoretical conjecture that subjective impedance mediates the stress effects of physical impedance was supported by the personal affect cluster but only for one variable in the residential satisfaction cluster. Traffic congestion has increased in metropolitan areas nationwide, and commuters, families, and organizations are absorbing associated hidden costs. The results are reviewed in terms of our ecological model, and the moderating effects of gender are discussed in terms of choice and role constraints.

  16. Impedance matched, high-power, rf antenna for ion cyclotron resonance heating of a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Baity, Jr., Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Owens, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant double loop radio frequency (rf) antenna for radiating high-power rf energy into a magnetically confined plasma. An inductive element in the form of a large current strap, forming the radiating element, is connected between two variable capacitors to form a resonant circuit. A real input impedance results from tapping into the resonant circuit along the inductive element, generally near the midpoint thereof. The impedance can be matched to the source impedance by adjusting the separate capacitors for a given tap arrangement or by keeping the two capacitances fixed and adjustng the tap position. This results in a substantial reduction in the voltage and current in the transmission system to the antenna compared to unmatched antennas. Because the complete circuit loop consisting of the two capacitors and the inductive element is resonant, current flows in the same direction along the entire length of the radiating element and is approximately equal in each branch of the circuit. Unidirectional current flow permits excitation of low order poloidal modes which penetrate more deeply into the plasma.

  17. FFT-impedance spectroscopy analysis of the growth of magnetic metal nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerngross, M.-D.; Carstensen, J.; Föll, H.; Adelung, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of the electrochemical growth process of magnetic nanowires in ultra-high-aspect ratio InP membranes via in situ fast Fourier transform impedance spectroscopy in a typical frequency range from 75 Hz to 18.5 kHz. The measured impedance data from the Ni, Co, and FeCo can be very well fitted using the same electric equivalent circuit consisting of a series resistance in serial connection to an RC-element and a Maxwell element. The impedance data clearly indicate the similarities in the growth behavior of Ni, Co and FeCo nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes—the beneficial impact of boric acid on the metal deposition in ultra-high aspect ratio membranes and the diffusion limitation of boric acid, as well as differences such as passivation or side reactions.

  18. Extension of generator longevity by use of high impedance ventricular leads.

    PubMed

    Scherer, M; Ezziddin, K; Klesius, A; Skupin, M; Helms, S; Moritz, A; Olbrich, H G

    2001-02-01

    The resistance of a pacing lead negatively correlates to current consumption. A prospective, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a high impedance ventricular lead (CapSure Z) on generator longevity compared to a conventional lead (CapSure SP) eighty-nine patients were included in the study (51 male, 37 female, age 70.0+/-10.3 years). Forty-six patients received a CapSure SP lead (5024 bipolar), and 43 patients received a CapSure Z lead (5034 bipolar) in a randomized fashion. Follow-up data collected at 5 days, 3, 6, and 12 months postimplant included: lead impedance, pacing and sensing thresholds, impulse energy, and estimated time to replacement. All parameters were collected via pacemaker telemetry; the time to replacement was calculated automatically by a programmed algorithm of the pacemaker. There was no difference in the performance of the atrial lead when a dual chamber device was indicated. The CapSure Z leads displayed statistically significant higher impedance values than the CapSure SP lead in all follow-up periods. There was no significant difference in lead related complications. No significant differences were observed between pacing and sensing thresholds in both groups. The CapSure Z leads provided a significant reduction in current drain, resulting in a reduction of mean energy consumption at the 12-month follow-up from 10.4+/-5.0 microJ in the CapSure SP group to 6.6+/-1.4 microJ in the CapSure Z group (median from 9.9 microJ to 6.9 microJ, respectively), providing an estimated increase in mean longevity of more than 1 year from 81.1+/-23.5 months in the CapSure SP group to 94.5+/-13.4 months in the CapSure Z group (median: 76.5 months to 95.0 months, respectively). The use of a high resistance lead for ventricular pacing appears to result in a clinically relevant extension of generator longevity.

  19. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance: a comparison between the Cole-Cole modelling and Hanai equations with the classical impedance index approach.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Andreoli, A; de Lorenzo, A

    1996-01-01

    Total body water and extracellular water were measured by deuterium oxide and bromide dilution respectively in 23 healthy males and 25 healthy females. In addition, total body impedance was measured at 17 frequencies, ranging from 1 kHz to 1350 kHz. Modelling programs were used to extrapolate impedance values to frequency zero (extracellular resistance) and frequency infinity (total body water resistance). Impedance indexes (height2/Zf) were computed at all 17 frequencies. The estimation errors of extracellular resistance and total body water resistance were 1% and 3%, respectively. Impedance and impedance index at low frequency were correlated with extracellular water, independent of the amount of total body water. Total body water showed the greatest correlation with impedance and impedance index at high frequencies. Extrapolated impedance values did not show a higher correlation compared to measured values. Prediction formulas from the literature applied to fixed frequencies showed the best mean and individual predictions for both extracellular water and total body water. It is concluded that, at least in healthy individuals with normal body water distribution, modelling impedance data has no advantage over impedance values measured at fixed frequencies, probably due to estimation errors in the modelled data.

  20. Photodiode Preamplifier for Laser Ranging With Weak Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; Chapsky, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    An improved preamplifier circuit has been designed for processing the output of an avalanche photodiode (APD) that is used in a high-resolution laser ranging system to detect laser pulses returning from a target. The improved circuit stands in contrast to prior such circuits in which the APD output current pulses are made to pass, variously, through wide-band or narrow-band load networks before preamplification. A major disadvantage of the prior wide-band load networks is that they are highly susceptible to noise, which degrades timing resolution. A major disadvantage of the prior narrow-band load networks is that they make it difficult to sample the amplitudes of the narrow laser pulses ordinarily used in ranging. In the improved circuit, a load resistor is connected to the APD output and its value is chosen so that the time constant defined by this resistance and the APD capacitance is large, relative to the duration of a laser pulse. The APD capacitance becomes initially charged by the pulse of current generated by a return laser pulse, so that the rise time of the load-network output is comparable to the duration of the return pulse. Thus, the load-network output is characterized by a fast-rising leading edge, which is necessary for accurate pulse timing. On the other hand, the resistance-capacitance combination constitutes a lowpass filter, which helps to suppress noise. The long time constant causes the load network output pulse to have a long shallow-sloping trailing edge, which makes it easy to sample the amplitude of the return pulse. The output of the load network is fed to a low-noise, wide-band amplifier. The amplifier must be a wide-band one in order to preserve the sharp pulse rise for timing. The suppression of noise and the use of a low-noise amplifier enable the ranging system to detect relatively weak return pulses.

  1. A 1microW 85nV/ radicalHz pseudo open-loop preamplifier with programmable band-pass filter for neural interface system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun-Il; Yoon, Euisik

    2009-01-01

    We report an energy efficient pseudo open-loop amplifier with programmable band-pass filter developed for neural interface systems. The proposed amplifier consumes 400nA at 2.5V power supply. The measured thermal noise level is 85nV/ radicalHz and input-referred noise is 1.69microV(rms) from 0.3Hz to 1 kHz. The amplifier has a noise efficiency factor of 2.43, the lowest in the differential topologies reported up to date to our knowledge. By programming the switched-capacitor frequency and bias current, we could control the bandwidth of the preamplifier from 138 mHz to 2.2 kHz to meet various application requirements. The entire preamplifier including band-pass filters has been realized in a small area of 0.043mm(2) using a 0.25microm CMOS technology.

  2. Sensitivity analyses of acoustic impedance inversion with full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic impedance estimation has a significant importance to seismic exploration. In this paper, we use full-waveform inversion to recover the impedance from seismic data, and analyze the sensitivity of the acoustic impedance with respect to the source-receiver offset of seismic data and to the initial velocity model. We parameterize the acoustic wave equation with velocity and impedance, and demonstrate three key aspects of acoustic impedance inversion. First, short-offset data are most suitable for acoustic impedance inversion. Second, acoustic impedance inversion is more compatible with the data generated by density contrasts than velocity contrasts. Finally, acoustic impedance inversion requires the starting velocity model to be very accurate for achieving a high-quality inversion. Based upon these observations, we propose a workflow for acoustic impedance inversion as: (1) building a background velocity model with travel-time tomography or reflection waveform inversion; (2) recovering the intermediate wavelength components of the velocity model with full-waveform inversion constrained by Gardner’s relation; (3) inverting the high-resolution acoustic impedance model with short-offset data through full-waveform inversion. We verify this workflow by the synthetic tests based on the Marmousi model.

  3. A High Input Impedance Low Noise Integrated Front-End Amplifier for Neural Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhijun; Warr, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Within neural monitoring systems, the front-end amplifier forms the critical element for signal detection and pre-processing, which determines not only the fidelity of the biosignal, but also impacts power consumption and detector size. In this paper, a novel combined feedback loop-controlled approach is proposed to compensate for input leakage currents generated by low noise amplifiers when in integrated circuit form alongside signal leakage into the input bias network. This loop topology ensures the Front-End Amplifier (FEA) maintains a high input impedance across all manufacturing and operational variations. Measured results from a prototype manufactured on the AMS 0.35 [Formula: see text] CMOS technology is provided. This FEA consumes 3.1 [Formula: see text] in 0.042 [Formula: see text], achieves input impedance of 42 [Formula: see text], and 18.2 [Formula: see text] input-referred noise.

  4. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dean, D.A.; Ramanathan, T.; Machado, D.; Sundararajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrical impedance properties of rat lung and other tissues ex vivo using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Rat lungs (both electroporated and naïve (untreated)), and mesenteric vessels (naïve) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats; their electrical impedance were measured using a Solartron 1290 impedance analyzer. Mouse lung and heart samples (naïve) were also studied. The resistance (Real Z, ohm) and the reactance (Im Z, negative ohm)) magnitudes and hence the Cole-Cole (Real Z versus Im Z) plots are different for the electroporated lung and the naive lung. The results confirm the close relationship between the structure and the functional characteristic. These also vary for the different biological tissues studied. The impedance values were higher at low frequencies compared to those at high frequencies. This study is of practical interest for biological applications of electrical pulses, such as electroporation, whose efficacy depends on cell type and its electrical impedance characteristics. PMID:19255614

  5. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon; Morrison, Bill

    2018-02-14

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  6. Detailed noise statistics for an optically preamplified direct detection receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsen, Soeren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Joergensen, Carsten; Stubkjaer, Kristian E.

    We describe the exact statistics of an optically preamplified direct detection receiver by means of the moment generating function. The theory allows an arbitrary shaped electrical filter in the receiver circuit. The moment generating function (MGF) allows for a precise calculation of the error rate by using the inverse Fast Fourier transform (FFT). The exact results are compared with the usual Gaussian approximation (GA), the saddlepoint approximation (SAP) and the modified Chernoff bound (MCB). This comparison shows that the noise is not Gaussian distributed for all values of the optical amplifier gain. In the region from 20-30 dB gain, calculations shows that the GA underestimates the receiver sensitivity while the SAP is very close to the results of our exact model. Using the MGF derived in the article we then find the optimal bandwidth of the electrical filter in the receiver circuit and calculate the sensitivity degradation due to inter symbol interference (ISI).

  7. Noise performance of 0.35-(mu)m SOI CMOS devices and micropower preamplifier following 63-MeV, 1-Mrad (Si) proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binkley, D. M.; Hopper, C. E.; Cressler, J. D.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Blalock, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents measured noise for 0.35(mu)m, silicon-on-insulator devices and a micropower preamplifier following 63-MeV, 1-Mrad (Si) proton irradiation. Flicker noise voltage, important for gyros having low frequency output, increases less than 32% after irradiation.

  8. Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice LWIR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice (HIDS) InAs devices proposed for use as photoconductive or photovoltaic detectors of radiation in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range of 8 to 17 micrometers. Array of HIDS devices fabricated on substrates GaAs or Si. Radiation incident on black surface, metal contacts for picture elements serve as reactors, effectively doubling optical path and thereby increasing absorption of photons. Photoconductive detector offers advantages of high gain and high impedance; photovoltaic detector offers lower noise and better interface to multiplexer readouts.

  9. Cryogenic low noise and low dissipation multiplexing electronics, using HEMT+SiGe ASICs, for the readout of high impedance sensors: New version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Lugiez, Francis; Bounab, Ayoub; Le Coguie, Alain

    2015-07-01

    High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), optimized by CNRS/LPN laboratory for ultra-low noise at very low temperature, have demonstrated their capacity to be used in place of Si JFETs when working temperatures below 100 K are required. We associated them with specific SiGe ASICs that we developed, to implement a complete readout channel able to read highly segmented high impedance detectors within a framework of very low thermal dissipation. Our electronics is dimensioned to read 4096 detection channels, of typically 1 MΩ impedance, and performs 32:1 multiplexing and amplifying, dissipating only 6 mW at 2.5 K and 100 mW at 15 K thanks to high impedance commuting of input stage, with a typical noise of 1 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz.

  10. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 μl (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  11. A new spinner magnetometer using high sensitivity magneto-impedance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive spinner magnetometer was developed using a pair of high-resolution Magneto-Impedance sensors. The MI sensor generally utilizes the MI effect of amorphous wire whose impedance changes by the application of a small magnetic field. Various kinds of MI sensors are currently used in many electric devices, for example, a magnetic compass chip built-in smart phones and car navigations. The MI sensor employed in this study is a pico-Tesla MI sensor, an especially sensitive MI sensor originally manufactured for industrial use to detect contamination of small magnetic particles in industrial materials such as fabrics. To detect weak magnetic signals from natural samples and avoid DC drift, a gradiometer system was employed that consists of a pair of the MI sensors and the electronics with analog filter and pre-amplification circuit. This MI gradiometer system was equipped to a commercial spinner magnetometer (SMD-88, Natsuhara Giken, Osaka) with the spinning rate of 5 Hz. It is demonstrated that this new spinner magnetometer is capable of measuring weak magnetic samples of 10-6 mAm2, with the highest resolution being 10-8 mAm2, approximately two orders of magnitude better than the previous one using a ring-core flux-gate sensor. One of the advantages of the MI spinner magnetometer is that it can be easily modified to accommodate samples of any shape and size. Moreover the slow-rotating speed (5 Hz) allows to measure samples for archeomagnetic studies that are usually irregular and fragile. Because the irregularity of shape increases errors in measuring the dipole component of the total magnetization, it is necessary to increase the distance between the sample and sensor, resulting in poorer sensitivity. The high-sensitivity MI sensor enables to measure the NRM of such irregular-shaped samples from an appropriate distance to the sample, with no significant loss of sensitivity.

  12. A multichannel EEG telemetry system utilizing a PCM subcarrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    A multichannel personal-type telemetry system is described that utilizes PCM encoding for the most effective range with minimum RF bandwidth and noise interference. Recent IC developments (COS MOS) make it possible to implement a sophisticated encoding system (PCM) within the low power and size constraints necessary for a personal biotelemetry system. This system includes low-level high-impedance preamplifiers to make the system suitable for EEG recording.

  13. Frequency-Agile LIDAR Receiver for Chemical and Biological Agent Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    transimpedance preamplifier architecture was optimized around the selected IR detector diode – Input-referenced noise density of 0.8 nV/ Hz0.5  A portion of...objectives: • Reduce baseline (background) photon flux on detector : Tunable Fabry-Perot etalon in optical train • Reduce input-referenced amplifier noise ...custom amplifier • Reduce detector dark current: High impedance detector  Performance Metrics: – Noise equivalent power of receiver system (NEP

  14. Impedance computations and beam-based measurements: A problem of discrepancy

    DOE PAGES

    Smaluk, Victor

    2018-04-21

    High intensity of particle beams is crucial for high-performance operation of modern electron-positron storage rings, both colliders and light sources. The beam intensity is limited by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields (wake fields) proportional to the vacuum chamber impedance. For a new accelerator project, the total broadband impedance is computed by element-wise wake-field simulations using computer codes. For a machine in operation, the impedance can be measured experimentally using beam-based techniques. In this article, a comparative analysis of impedance computations and beam-based measurements is presented for 15 electron-positron storage rings. The measured data and the predictionsmore » based on the computed impedance budgets show a significant discrepancy. For this article, three possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed: interference of the wake fields excited by a beam in adjacent components of the vacuum chamber, effect of computation mesh size, and effect of insufficient bandwidth of the computed impedance.« less

  15. Impedance computations and beam-based measurements: A problem of discrepancy

    SciTech Connect

    Smaluk, Victor

    High intensity of particle beams is crucial for high-performance operation of modern electron-positron storage rings, both colliders and light sources. The beam intensity is limited by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields (wake fields) proportional to the vacuum chamber impedance. For a new accelerator project, the total broadband impedance is computed by element-wise wake-field simulations using computer codes. For a machine in operation, the impedance can be measured experimentally using beam-based techniques. In this article, a comparative analysis of impedance computations and beam-based measurements is presented for 15 electron-positron storage rings. The measured data and the predictionsmore » based on the computed impedance budgets show a significant discrepancy. For this article, three possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed: interference of the wake fields excited by a beam in adjacent components of the vacuum chamber, effect of computation mesh size, and effect of insufficient bandwidth of the computed impedance.« less

  16. Impedance computations and beam-based measurements: A problem of discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaluk, Victor

    2018-04-01

    High intensity of particle beams is crucial for high-performance operation of modern electron-positron storage rings, both colliders and light sources. The beam intensity is limited by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields (wake fields) proportional to the vacuum chamber impedance. For a new accelerator project, the total broadband impedance is computed by element-wise wake-field simulations using computer codes. For a machine in operation, the impedance can be measured experimentally using beam-based techniques. In this article, a comparative analysis of impedance computations and beam-based measurements is presented for 15 electron-positron storage rings. The measured data and the predictions based on the computed impedance budgets show a significant discrepancy. Three possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed: interference of the wake fields excited by a beam in adjacent components of the vacuum chamber, effect of computation mesh size, and effect of insufficient bandwidth of the computed impedance.

  17. Impedance spectroscopy of the oxide films formed during high temperature oxidation of a cobalt-plated ferritic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velraj, S.; Zhu, J. H.; Painter, A. S.; Du, S. W.; Li, Y. T.

    2014-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the oxide films formed on cobalt-coated Crofer 22 APU ferritic stainless steel after thermal oxidation at 800 °C in air for different times (i.e. 2, 50, 100 and 500 h). Impedance spectra of the oxide films exhibited two or three semicircles depending on the oxidation time, which correspond to the presence of two or three individual oxide layers. Coupled with scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the individual oxide layer corresponding to each semicircle was determined unambiguously. Impedance spectrum analysis of the oxide films formed on the sample after thermal exposure at 800 °C in air for 2 h led to the identification of the low-frequency and high-frequency semicircles as being from Cr2O3 and Co3O4, respectively. SEM/EDS and XRD analysis of the 500-h sample clearly revealed the presence of three oxide layers, analyzed to be Co3-xCrxO4, CoCr2O4, and Cr2O3. Although the SEM images of the 50-h and 100-h samples did not clearly show the CoCr2O4 layer, impedance plots implied their presence. The oxide scales were assigned to their respective semicircles and the electrical properties of Co3-xCrxO4, CoCr2O4 and Cr2O3 were determined from the impedance data.

  18. Positional dependence of particles in microfludic impedance cytometry.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Daniel; Morgan, Hywel

    2011-04-07

    Single cell impedance cytometry is a label-free electrical analysis method that requires minimal sample preparation and has been used to count and discriminate cells on the basis of their impedance properties. This paper shows experimental and numerically simulated impedance signals for test particles (6 μm diameter polystyrene) flowing through a microfluidic channel. The variation of impedance signal with particle position is mapped using numerical simulation and these results match closely with experimental data. We demonstrate that for a nominal 40 μm × 40 μm channel, the impedance signal is independent of position over the majority of the channel area, but shows large experimentally verifiable variation at extreme positions. The parabolic flow profile in the channel ensures that most of the sample flows through the area of uniform signal. At high flow rates inertial focusing is observed; the particles flow in equal numbers through two equilibrium positions reducing the coefficient of variance (CV) in the impedance signals to negligible values.

  19. Performance of a laser microsatellite network with an optical preamplifier.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2005-04-01

    Laser satellite communication (LSC) uses free space as a propagation medium for various applications, such as intersatellite communication or satellite networking. An LSC system includes a laser transmitter and an optical receiver. For communication to occur, the line of sight of the transmitter and the receiver must be aligned. However, mechanical vibration and electronic noise in the control system reduce alignment between the transmitter laser beam and the receiver field of view (FOV), which results in pointing errors. The outcome of pointing errors is fading of the received signal, which leads to impaired link performance. An LSC system is considered in which the optical preamplifier is incorporated into the receiver, and a bit error probability (BEP) model is derived that takes into account the statistics of the pointing error as well as the optical amplifier and communication system parameters. The model and the numerical calculation results indicate that random pointing errors of sigma(chi)2G > 0.05 penalize communication performance dramatically for all combinations of optical amplifier gains and noise figures that were calculated.

  20. Geometric beam coupling impedance of LHC secondary collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasciello, Oscar; Tomassini, Sandro; Zobov, Mikhail; Salvant, Benoit; Grudiev, Alexej; Mounet, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project is aimed at increasing the LHC luminosity by an order of magnitude. One of the key ingredients to achieve the luminosity goal is the beam intensity increase. In order to keep beam instabilities under control and to avoid excessive power losses a careful design of new vacuum chamber components and an improvement of the present LHC impedance model are required. Collimators are among the major impedance contributors. Measurements with beam have revealed that the betatron coherent tune shifts were higher by about a factor of 2 with respect to the theoretical predictions based on the LHC impedance model up to 2012. In that model the resistive wall impedance has been considered as the dominating impedance contribution for collimators. By carefully simulating also their geometric impedance we have contributed to the update of the LHC impedance model, reaching also a better agreement between the measured and simulated betatron tune shifts. During the just ended LHC Long Shutdown I (LSI), TCS/TCT collimators were replaced by new devices embedding BPMs and TT2-111R ferrite blocks. We present here preliminary estimations of their broad-band impedance, showing that an increase of about 20% is expected in the kick factors with respect to previous collimators without BPMs.

  1. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang

    2015-11-15

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% aremore » obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect.« less

  2. High-density CMOS Microelectrode Array System for Impedance Spectroscopy and Imaging of Biological Cells.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Viswam; Raziyeh, Bounik; Amir, Shadmani; Jelena, Dragas; Alicia, Boos Julia; Axel, Birchler; Jan, Müller; Yihui, Chen; Andreas, Hierlemann

    2017-01-26

    A monolithic measurement platform was implemented to enable label-free in-vitro electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements of cells on multi-functional CMOS microelectrode array. The array includes 59,760 platinum microelectrodes, densely packed within a 4.5 mm × 2.5 mm sensing region at a pitch of 13.5 μm. The 32 on-chip lock-in amplifiers can be used to measure the impedance of any arbitrarily chosen electrodes on the array by applying a sinusoidal voltage, generated by an on-chip waveform generator with a frequency range from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, and measuring the respective current. Proof-of-concept measurements of impedance sensing and imaging are shown in this paper. Correlations between cell detection through optical microscopy and electrochemical impedance scanning were established.

  3. Improved Estimation of Electron Temperature from Rocket-borne Impedance Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Wolfinger, K.; Stamm, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The impedance probe technique is a well known method for determining high accuracy measurements of electron number density in the Earth's ionosphere. We present analysis of impedance probe data from several sounding rockets at low, mid-, and auroral latitudes, including high cadence estimates of the electron temperature, derived from analytical fits to the antenna impedance curves. These estimates compare favorably with independent estimates from Langmuir Probes, but at much higher temporal and spatial resolution, providing a capability to resolve small-scale temperature fluctuations. We also present some considerations for the design of impedance probes, including assessment of the effects of resonance damping due to rocket motion, effects of wake and spin modulation, and aspect angle to the magnetic field.

  4. Overview Of Impedance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, John E.

    1989-08-01

    Electrical impedance has been one of the many "tools of great promise" that physicians have employed in their quest to measure and/or monitor body function or physiologic events. So far, the expectations for its success have always exceeded its performance. In simplistic terms, physiologic impedance is a measure of the resistance in the volume between electrodes which changes as a function of changes in that volume, the relative impedance of that volume, or a combination of these two. The history and principles of electrical impedance are very nicely reviewed by Geddes and Baker in their textbook "Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation". It is humbling, however, to note that Cremer recorded variations in electrical impedance in frog hearts as early as 1907. The list of potential applications includes the measurement of thyroid function, estrogen activity, galvanic skin reflex, respiration, blood flow by conductivity dilution, nervous activity and eye movement. Commercial devices employing impedance have been and are being used to measure respiration (pneumographs and apneamonitors), pulse volume (impedance phlebographs) and even noninvasive cardiac output.

  5. FPGA Based High Speed Data Acquisition System for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S; Borsic, A; Manwaring, Preston; Hartov, Alexander; Halter, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) systems are used to image tissue bio-impedance. EIT provides a number of features making it attractive for use as a medical imaging device including the ability to image fast physiological processes (>60 Hz), to meet a range of clinical imaging needs through varying electrode geometries and configurations, to impart only non-ionizing radiation to a patient, and to map the significant electrical property contrasts present between numerous benign and pathological tissues. To leverage these potential advantages for medical imaging, we developed a modular 32 channel data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments’ PXI chassis, along with FPGA, ADC, Signal Generator and Timing and Synchronization modules. To achieve high frame rates, signal demodulation and spectral characteristics of higher order harmonics were computed using dedicated FFT-hardware built into the FPGA module. By offloading the computing onto FPGA, we were able to achieve a reduction in throughput required between the FPGA and PC by a factor of 32:1. A custom designed analog front end (AFE) was used to interface electrodes with our system. Our system is wideband, and capable of acquiring data for input signal frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 12 MHz. The modular design of both the hardware and software will allow this system to be flexibly configured for the particular clinical application. PMID:24729790

  6. Neutron flux measurements using scintillator-photodiode-preamplifier system and new types of scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Burachas, S. F.; Volkov, V. G.; Danshin, Evgeniy A.; Lisetskaya, Elena K.; Piven, L. A.; Svishch, Vladimir M.; Chernikov, Vyacheslav V.; Filimonov, A. E.

    1997-02-01

    After the Chernobyl catastrophe among the problems of current concern a question arose of detection of 'hot' particles formed from plutonium alloys with carbon, nitrogen, silicon, etc. For this purpose, the instruments are needed, which would be able to detect not only alpha- particles and low energy gamma-radiation, but also neutrons and high energy gamma-quanta from ((alpha) , n(gamma) ) - reactions. At present for each kind of radiation detectors of different types are used. A general drawback of all these instruments is their narrow dynamic range of dose rates and energies, and especially impossibility to registrate n-flux in condition large background activity gamma-rays nuclei, which makes each of them applicable only under certain specific conditions. For detection of 'hot' particles, oxide and semiconductor scintillators were used, which contained elements with large capture cross section for thermal neutrons. In this paper we try to determine possibilities and limitations of solid-state neutron detectors based on CdS(Te), ZnSe(Te), CdWO4 (CWO), Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillators developed and produced by the Science and Technology Center for Radiation Instruments of the Institute for Single Crystals. The instruments developed by Center are based preferable on a very promising system 'scintillator- photodiode-preamplifier' matched with modern computer data processing techniques.

  7. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  8. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivnay, Jonathan, E-mail: rivnay@emse.fr, E-mail: owens@emse.fr; Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel

    2015-01-26

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain currentmore » measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.« less

  9. LONGITUDINAL IMPEDANCE OF THE SQUID GIANT AXON

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Baker, Richard F.

    1941-01-01

    Longitudinal alternating current impedance measurements have been made on the squid giant axon over the frequency range from 30 cycles per second to 200 kc. per second. Large sea water electrodes were used and the inter-electrode length was immersed in oil. The impedance at high frequency was approximately as predicted theoretically on the basis of the poorly conducting dielectric characteristics of the membrane previously determined. For the large majority of the axons, the impedance reached a maximum at a low frequency and the reactance then vanished at a frequency between 150 and 300 cycles per second. Below this frequency, the reactance was inductive, reaching a maximum and then approaching zero as the frequency was decreased. The inductive reactance is a property of the axon and requires that it contain an inductive structure. The variation of the impedance with interpolar distance indicates that the inductance is in the membrane. The impedance characteristics of the membrane as calculated from the measured longitudinal impedance of the axon may be expressed by an equivalent membrane circuit containing inductance, capacity, and resistance. For a square centimeter of membrane the capacity of 1 µf with dielectric loss is shunted by the series combination of a resistance of 400 ohms and an inductance of one-fifth henry. PMID:19873252

  10. Prediction of lamb carcass composition by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altmann, M; Pliquett, U; Suess, R; von Borell, E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare impedance spectroscopy with resistance measurements at a single frequency (50 kHz) for the prediction of lamb carcass composition. The impedance spectrum is usually recorded by measuring the complex impedance at various frequencies (frequency domain); however, in this study, we also applied the faster and simpler measurement in the time domain (application of a current step and measurement of the voltage response). The study was carried out on 24 male, German Black-headed Mutton lambs with an average BW of 45 kg. Frequency- and time domain-based impedance measurements were collected at 20 min and 24 h postmortem with different electrode placements. Real and imaginary parts at various frequencies were calculated from the locus diagram. Left sides were dissected into lean, fat, and bone, and right sides were ground to determine actual carcass composition. Crude fat, crude protein, and moisture were chemically analyzed on ground samples. Frequency- and time domain-based measurements did not provide the same absolute impedance values; however, the high correlations (P < 0.001) between these methods for the "real parts" showed that they ranked individuals in the same order. Most of the time domain data correlated higher to carcass composition than did the frequency domain data. The real parts of impedance showed correlations between -0.37 (P > 0.05) and -0.74 (P < 0.001) to water, crude fat, lean, and fatty tissue, whereas the relations to CP were much lower (from 0.00 to -0.47, P < 0.05). Electrode placements at different locations did not substantially improve the correlations with carcass composition. The "imaginary parts" of impedance were not suitable for the prediction of carcass composition. The highest accuracy (R2 = 0.66) was reached for the estimation of crude fat percentage by a regression equation with the time domain-based impedance measured at 24 h postmortem. Furthermore, there was not a clear superiority of

  11. Impedance Matched to Vacuum, Invisible Edge, Diffraction Suppressed Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor); Shiri, Sharham (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction suppressed mirrors having an invisible edge are disclosed for incident light at both targeted wavelengths and broadband incident light. The mirrors have a first having at least one discontiguous portion having a plurality of nanostructured apertures. The discontiguous mirror portion impedance matches a relatively high impedance portion of the mirror to a relatively low impedance portion of the mirror, thereby reducing the diffraction edge effect otherwise present in a conventional mirror.

  12. Design and development of line type modulators for high impedance electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Kavita P.; Tillu, Abhijit; Chavan, Ramchandra

    Conventional line type modulators are routinely used for powering pulsed power microwave devices such as magnetrons and klystrons used for radar, medical and scientific applications. The load impedance (operating point) is fairly well defined in these cases, and makes the design of the discharging circuit of the modulator straight forward. This paper describes the Line type modulators that have been developed and being routinely used for powering the Triode Electron Gun of industrial electron linacs. The beam parameters of such guns are user defined and the pulse current varies from few mA to 800mA (typ). The beam energies requirement variesmore » from 40 keV to 80 keV. Hence the impedance offered by the electron gun to the power source (modulator) is not well defined. The load capacitance which is inclusive of the various stray capacitances along with the intrinsic gun capacitance is ∼ 200-400 pF. This capacitance, which depends on the configuration, shunts the load and makes the effective load highly capacitive with the resistive part varying over a wide range. The paper describes the design and development of conventional line type modulators for powering Electron gun load of the type described above. (author)« less

  13. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  14. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  15. Bounded diffusion impedance characterization of battery electrodes using fractional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabano, Jean-Denis; Poinot, Thierry; Huard, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the ability of fractional modeling to describe the bounded diffusion behavior encountered in modern thin film and nanoparticles lithium battery electrodes. Indeed, the diffusion impedance of such batteries behaves as a half order integrator characterized by the Warburg impedance at high frequencies and becomes a classical integrator described by a capacitor at low frequencies. The transition between these two behaviors depends on the particles geometry. Three of them will be considered in this paper: planar, cylindrical and spherical ones. The fractional representation proposed is a gray box model able to perfectly fit the low and high frequency diffusive impedance behaviors while optimizing the frequency response transition. Identification results are provided using frequential simulation data considering the three electrochemical diffusion models based on the particles geometry. Furthermore, knowing this geometry allows to estimate the diffusion ionic resistance and time constant using the relationships linking these physical parameters to the structural fractional model parameters. Finally, other simulations using Randles impedance models including the charge transfer impedance and the external resistance demonstrate the interest of fractional modeling in order to identify properly not only the charge transfer impedance but also the diffusion physical parameters whatever the particles geometry.

  16. Effects of Age on Esophageal Motility: Use of High-resolution Esophageal Impedance Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Yo Han; Lee, Jong-Chan; Sung, Jihee; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Disturbances of esophageal motility have been reported to be more frequent the aged population. However, the physiology of disturbances in esophageal motility during aging is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of age on esophageal motility using high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HRIM). Methods Esophageal motor function of 268 subjects were measured using HRIM in 3 age groups, < 40 years (Group A, n = 32), 40–65 years (Group B, n = 185), and > 65 years (Group C, n = 62). Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures, integrated relaxation pressure, distal contractile integral, contractile front velocity, distal latency, and pressures and duration of contraction on 4 positions along the esophagus, and complete bolus transit were measured. Results Basal UES pressure was lower in Group C (P < 0.001) but there was no significant difference in the LES pressure among groups. Contractile duration on position 3 (10 cm from proximal LES high pressure zone) was longer in Group C (P = 0.001), and the contractile amplitude on position 4 (5 cm from proximal LES high pressure zone) was lower in Group C (P = 0.005). Distal contractile integral was lower in Group C (P = 0.037). Contractile front velocity (P = 0.015) and the onset velocity (P = 0.040) was lower in Group C. There was no significant difference in impedance values. Conclusions The decrease of UES pressure, distal esophageal motility, and peristaltic velocity might be related with esophageal symptoms in the aged population. PMID:28163259

  17. I/O impedance controller

    DOEpatents

    Ruesch, Rodney; Jenkins, Philip N.; Ma, Nan

    2004-03-09

    There is disclosed apparatus and apparatus for impedance control to provide for controlling the impedance of a communication circuit using an all-digital impedance control circuit wherein one or more control bits are used to tune the output impedance. In one example embodiment, the impedance control circuit is fabricated using circuit components found in a standard macro library of a computer aided design system. According to another example embodiment, there is provided a control for an output driver on an integrated circuit ("IC") device to provide for forming a resistor divider network with the output driver and a resistor off the IC device so that the divider network produces an output voltage, comparing the output voltage of the divider network with a reference voltage, and adjusting the output impedance of the output driver to attempt to match the output voltage of the divider network and the reference voltage. Also disclosed is over-sampling the divider network voltage, storing the results of the over sampling, repeating the over-sampling and storing, averaging the results of multiple over sampling operations, controlling the impedance with a plurality of bits forming a word, and updating the value of the word by only one least significant bit at a time.

  18. [Design of High Frequency Signal Detecting Circuit of Human Body Impedance Used for Ultrashort Wave Diathermy Apparatus].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xu; Wang, Yunguang; Cheng, Haiping; Chong, Xiaochen

    2016-02-01

    The present circuit was designed to apply to human tissue impedance tuning and matching device in ultra-short wave treatment equipment. In order to judge if the optimum status of circuit parameter between energy emitter circuit and accepter circuit is in well syntony, we designed a high frequency envelope detect circuit to coordinate with automatic adjust device of accepter circuit, which would achieve the function of human tissue impedance matching and tuning. Using the sampling coil to receive the signal of amplitude-modulated wave, we compared the voltage signal of envelope detect circuit with electric current of energy emitter circuit. The result of experimental study was that the signal, which was transformed by the envelope detect circuit, was stable and could be recognized by low speed Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and was proportional to the electric current signal of energy emitter circuit. It could be concluded that the voltage, transformed by envelope detect circuit can mirror the real circuit state of syntony and realize the function of human tissue impedance collecting.

  19. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  20. Electrochemical growth of Co nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes: FFT-impedance spectroscopy of the growth process and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Gerngross, Mark-Daniel; Carstensen, Jürgen; Föll, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical growth of Co nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes has been investigated by fast Fourier transform-impedance spectroscopy (FFT-IS) in the frequency range from 75 Hz to 18.5 kHz. The impedance data could be fitted very well using an electric circuit equivalent model with a series resistance connected in series to a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) element and a Maxwell element. Based on the impedance data, the Co deposition in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes can be divided into two different Co deposition processes. The corresponding share of each process on the overall Co deposition can be determined directly from the transfer resistances of the two processes. The impedance data clearly show the beneficial impact of boric acid on the Co deposition and also indicate a diffusion limitation of boric acid in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes. The grown Co nanowires are polycrystalline with a very small grain size. They show a narrow hysteresis loop with a preferential orientation of the easy magnetization direction along the long nanowire axis due to the arising shape anisotropy of the Co nanowires.

  1. PHEMT as a circuit element for high impedance nanopower amplifiers for ultra-low temperatures application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Gritsenko, I. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was studied as a circuit element for amplifiers operating at temperatures of the order of 10-100 mK. To characterize the HEMT, the relative parameters are proposed to be used. HEMT characteristics were measured at a temperature of 50 mK for the first time. It follows from the reported studies that the power consumption of high-impedance HEMT-based amplifiers can be reduced down to hundreds of nanowatt or even lower.

  2. Novel circuit design for high-impedance and non-local electrical measurements of two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, Adolfo; Mehew, Jake D.; Alkhalifa, Saad; Tate, Callum P.; White, Ashley; Woodgate, Adam R.; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional materials offer a novel platform for the development of future quantum technologies. However, the electrical characterisation of topological insulating states, non-local resistance, and bandgap tuning in atomically thin materials can be strongly affected by spurious signals arising from the measuring electronics. Common-mode voltages, dielectric leakage in the coaxial cables, and the limited input impedance of alternate-current amplifiers can mask the true nature of such high-impedance states. Here, we present an optical isolator circuit which grants access to such states by electrically decoupling the current-injection from the voltage-sensing circuitry. We benchmark our apparatus against two state-of-the-art measurements: the non-local resistance of a graphene Hall bar and the transfer characteristic of a WS2 field-effect transistor. Our system allows the quick characterisation of novel insulating states in two-dimensional materials with potential applications in future quantum technologies.

  3. Entrance and Exit CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Ying

    2017-05-01

    For a high-brightness electron beam being transported through beamlines involving bending systems, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and longitudinal space charge (LSC) interaction could often cause microbunching instability. The semi-analytical Vlasov solver for microbunching gain* depends on the impedances for the relevant collective effects. The existing results for CSR impedances are usually obtained for the ultrarelativistic limit. To extend the microbunching analysis to cases of low energies, such as the case of an ERL merger, or to density modulations at extremely small wavelength, it is necessary to extend the impedance analysis to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. In this study, we presentmore » the impedance analysis for the transient CSR interaction in the non-ultrarelativistic regime, for transients including both entrance to and exit from a magnetic dipole. These impedance results will be compared to their ultra-relativistic counterparts**, and the corresponding wakefield obtained from the impedance for low-energy beams will be compared with the existing results of transient CSR wakefield for general beam energies***.« less

  4. Method of Adjusting Acoustic Impedances for Impedance-Tunable Acoustic Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Lodding, Kenneth N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method is provided for making localized decisions and taking localized actions to achieve a global solution. In an embodiment of the present invention, acoustic impedances for impedance-tunable acoustic segments are adjusted. A first acoustic segment through an N-th acoustic segment are defined. To start the process, the first acoustic segment is designated as a leader and a noise-reducing impedance is determined therefor. This is accomplished using (i) one or more metrics associated with the acoustic wave at the leader, and (ii) the metric(s) associated with the acoustic wave at the N-th acoustic segment. The leader, the N-th acoustic segment, and each of the acoustic segments exclusive of the leader and the N-th acoustic segment, are tuned to the noise-reducing impedance. The current leader is then excluded from subsequent processing steps. The designation of leader is then given one of the remaining acoustic segments, and the process is repeated for each of the acoustic segments through an (N-1)-th one of the acoustic segments.

  5. A Numerical Theory for Impedance Education in Three-Dimensional Normal Incidence Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    A method for educing the locally-reacting acoustic impedance of a test sample mounted in a 3-D normal incidence impedance tube is presented and validated. The unique feature of the method is that the excitation frequency (or duct geometry) may be such that high-order duct modes may exist. The method educes the impedance, iteratively, by minimizing an objective function consisting of the difference between the measured and numerically computed acoustic pressure at preselected measurement points in the duct. The method is validated on planar and high-order mode sources with data synthesized from exact mode theory. These data are then subjected to random jitter to simulate the effects of measurement uncertainties on the educed impedance spectrum. The primary conclusions of the study are 1) Without random jitter the method is in excellent agreement with that for known impedance samples, and 2) Random jitter that is compatible to that found in a typical experiment has minimal impact on the accuracy of the educed impedance.

  6. Image Reconstruction Under Contact Impedance Effect in Micro Electrical Impedance Tomography Sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiayi; Yao, Jiafeng; Zhao, Tong; Obara, Hiromichi; Cui, Yahui; Takei, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Contact impedance has an important effect on micro electrical impedance tomography (EIT) sensors compared to conventional macro sensors. In the present work, a complex contact impedance effect ratio ξ is defined to quantitatively evaluate the effect of the contact impedance on the accuracy of the reconstructed images by micro EIT. Quality of the reconstructed image under various ξ is estimated by the phantom simulation to find the optimum algorithm. The generalized vector sampled pattern matching (GVSPM) method reveals the best image quality and the best tolerance to ξ. Moreover, the images of yeast cells sedimentary distribution in a multilayered microchannel are reconstructed by the GVSPM method under various mean magnitudes of contact impedance effect ratio |ξ|. The result shows that the best image quality that has the smallest voltage error U E = 0.581 is achieved with measurement frequency f = 1 MHz and mean magnitude |ξ| = 26. In addition, the reconstructed images of cells distribution become improper while f < 10 kHz and mean value of |ξ| > 2400.

  7. Development of a wearable multi-frequency impedance cardiography device.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Sören; Menden, Tobias; Leicht, Lennart; Leonhardt, Steffen; Wartzek, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases as well as pulmonary oedema can be early diagnosed using vital signs and thoracic bio-impedance. By recording the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the impedance cardiogram (ICG), vital parameters are captured continuously. The aim of this study is the continuous monitoring of ECG and multi-frequency ICG by a mobile system. A mobile measuring system, based on 'low-power' ECG, ICG and an included radio transmission is described. Due to the high component integration, a board size of only 6.5 cm×5 cm could be realized. The measured data can be transmitted via Bluetooth and visualized on a portable monitor. By using energy-efficient hardware, the system can operate for up to 18 hs with a 3 V battery, continuously sending data via Bluetooth. Longer operating times can be realized by decreased transfer rates. The relative error of the impedance measurement was less than 1%. The ECG and ICG measurements allow an approximate calculation of the heart stroke volume. The ECG and the measured impedance showed a high correlation to commercial devices (r=0.83, p<0.05). In addition to commercial devices, the developed system allows a multi-frequency measurement of the thoracic impedance between 5-150 kHz.

  8. Using impedance cardiography with postural change to stratify patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2011-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension could initiate appropriate treatment to control blood pressure and prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to show how impedance cardiography waveform analysis with postural change can be used to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had impedance cardiography data obtained in two positions, standing upright and supine. In 50 adults, impedance cardiography indicated that all patients had abnormal data, with 44 (88%) having multiple abnormalities. Impedance cardiography showed 32 (64%) had ventricular dysfunction, 48 (96%) had vascular load abnormalities, 34 (68%) had hemodynamic abnormalities, 2 (4%) had hypovolemia, and 3 (6%) had hypervolemia. Hypertensive patients have diverse cardiovascular abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment could be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms with the potential to rapidly control blood pressure, prevent progression of cardiovascular disease, and possibly reverse remodeling.

  9. Interdigitated electrodes as impedance and capacitance biosensors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, N. S.; Ramli, M. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Halin, D. S. C.; Isa, S. S. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Danial, N. S.; Murad, S. A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) are made of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures. IDEs are one of the most favored transducers, widely utilized in technological applications especially in the field of biological and chemical sensors due to their inexpensive, ease of fabrication process and high sensitivity. In order to detect and analyze a biochemical molecule or analyte, the impedance and capacitance signal need to be obtained. This paper investigates the working principle and influencer of the impedance and capacitance biosensors. The impedance biosensor depends on the resistance and capacitance while the capacitance biosensor influenced by the dielectric permittivity. However, the geometry and structures of the interdigitated electrodes affect both impedance and capacitance biosensor. The details have been discussed in this paper.

  10. [The functional assessment of the upper urinary tract by the methods of 2-frequency impedance measurement and multichannel impedance ureterography].

    PubMed

    Mudraia, I S; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes impedance methods of investigating upper urinary tracts (UUT) which may serve adjuvants in the diagnosis of the urinary tract wall disturbances due to diseases caused by impaired urine evacuation from the kidney and which may prove helpful in the choice of therapeutic policy, evaluation of the postoperative period and outcomes prognosis. UUT impedance tests can be performed during endoscopic manipulations or under open operative interventions. Two-frequency impedancemetry allows rapid detection of non-functioning UUT parts or sclerosal sites of the UUT wall, relevant criteria being the ratio of basic impedances of the site under low and high scanning current. This value is computed by an urological two-frequency impedancemeter IDU-M. To assess the UUT wall functionally, use should be made of 6-channel urological rheograph REUR-6 providing multichannel registration of immediate impedance ureterograms. In this manner one can obtain qualitative and quantitative assessment of the ureteral peristalsis through its all length, the criteria being the amplitude of impedance ureterographic complexes, their shape, duration, frequency, rhythm, sequence and rate of distribution. Loading tests increase the accuracy of UUT impedance measurements, are able to define compensatory reserves of the wall contractility. The introduction of rheological methods in urological practice makes broader the armory of diagnostic techniques in urology, upgrade pathogenetic validity of surgical and therapeutic measures.

  11. A Simultaneous and Continuous Excitation Method for High-Speed Electrical Impedance Tomography with Reduced Transients and Noise Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mylvaganam, Saba

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for soft field tomographic scan of all the projections of electromagnetic waves emanating from an array of electrodes. Instead of the sequential excitation of all pairs of electrodes in the list of all projections, the new method present here consists of a single and continuous excitation. This excitation signal is the linear combination of the excitation signals in the projection set at different AC frequencies. The response to a given projection is discriminated by selecting the corresponding AC frequency component in the signal spectra of the digitally demodulated signals. The main advantage of this method is the suppression of transients after each projection, which is particularly problematic in electrical impedance tomography due to contact impedance phenomena and skin effect. The second benefit over the sequential scan method is the increased number of samples for each measurement for reduced noise sensitivity with digital demodulation. The third benefit is the increased temporal resolution in high-speed applications. The main drawback is the increased number of signal sources required (one per electrode). This paper focuses on electrical impedance tomography, based on earlier work by the authors. An experimental proof-of-concept using a simple 4-electrodes electrical impedance tomographic system is presented using simulations and laboratory data. The method presented here may be extended to other modalities (ultrasonic, microwave, optical, etc.). PMID:29597327

  12. Ambulatory Monitoring of Congestive Heart Failure by Multiple Bioelectric Impedance Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Dirar S.; Naware, Mihir; Siou, Jeff; Blomqvist, Andreas; Mathuria, Nilesh S.; Wang, Jianwen; Shih, Hue-Teh; Nagueh, Sherif F.; Panescu, Dorin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate properties of multiple bioelectric impedance signals recorded during congestive heart failure (CHF) by utilizing various electrode configurations of an implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) system. Background Monitoring of CHF has relied mainly on right-heart sensors. Methods Fifteen normal dogs underwent implantation of CRT systems using standard leads. An additional left atrial (LA) pressure lead-sensor was implanted in 5 dogs. Continuous rapid right ventricular (RV) pacing was applied over several weeks. Left ventricular (LV) catheterization and echocardiography were performed biweekly. Six steady-state impedance signals, utilizing intrathorcaic and intracardiac vectors, were measured via ring (r), coil (c), and device Can electrodes. Results All animals developed CHF after 2–4 weeks of pacing. Impedance diminished gradually during CHF induction, but at varying rates for different vectors. Impedance during CHF decreased significantly in all measured vectors: LVr-Can, −17%; LVr-RVr, −15%; LVr-RAr, −11%; RVr-Can, −12%; RVc-Can, −7%; RAr-Can, −5%. The LVr-Can vector reflected both the fastest and largest change in impedance in comparison to vectors employing only right-heart electrodes, and was highly reflective of changes in LV end-diastolic volume and LA pressure. Conclusions Impedance, acquired via different lead-electrodes, have variable responses to CHF. Impedance vectors employing a LV lead are highly responsive to physiologic changes during CHF. Measuring multiple impedance signals could be useful for optimizing ambulatory monitoring in heart failure patients. PMID:19298923

  13. The direct field boundary impedance of two-dimensional periodic structures with application to high frequency vibration prediction.

    PubMed

    Langley, Robin S; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Large sections of many types of engineering construction can be considered to constitute a two-dimensional periodic structure, with examples ranging from an orthogonally stiffened shell to a honeycomb sandwich panel. In this paper, a method is presented for computing the boundary (or edge) impedance of a semi-infinite two-dimensional periodic structure, a quantity which is referred to as the direct field boundary impedance matrix. This terminology arises from the fact that none of the waves generated at the boundary (the direct field) are reflected back to the boundary in a semi-infinite system. The direct field impedance matrix can be used to calculate elastic wave transmission coefficients, and also to calculate the coupling loss factors (CLFs), which are required by the statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach to predicting high frequency vibration levels in built-up systems. The calculation of the relevant CLFs enables a two-dimensional periodic region of a structure to be modeled very efficiently as a single subsystem within SEA, and also within related methods, such as a recently developed hybrid approach, which couples the finite element method with SEA. The analysis is illustrated by various numerical examples involving stiffened plate structures.

  14. Impeded Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may evenmore » be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.« less

  15. Impeded Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; ...

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may evenmore » be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.« less

  16. Characteristics of Planar Monopole Antenna on High Impedance Electromagnetic Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jastram, Nathan; Ponchak, George E.; Franklin, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time measured characteristics of a planar monopole antenna placed directly on a high impedance electromagnetic surface or artificial magnetic conductor (AMC). The return loss and radiation patterns are compared between the antenna in free space, and when placed directly on a perfect electrical conductor (PEC), and on the AMC. The antenna measured in free space has a wide pass band from 3 to 10 GHz. The return loss for the antenna on the PEC is nearly all reflected back and the return loss for the antenna on the AMC has a 10 dB bandwidth from 7.5 to 9.5 GHz. The gain of the antenna in free space, on PEC and on AMC is 1, -12 and 10 dBi, respectively. This indicates that the AMC is working properly, sending all the radiation outward with little loss.

  17. Effect of Very-High-Flow Nasal Therapy on Airway Pressure and End-Expiratory Lung Impedance in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Parke, Rachael L; Bloch, Andreas; McGuinness, Shay P

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a positive linear correlation between flow delivered and airway pressure generated by high-flow nasal therapy. Current practice is to use flows over a range of 30-60 L/min; however, it is technically possible to apply higher flows. In this study, airway pressure measurements and electrical impedance tomography were used to assess the relationship between flows of up to 100 L/min and changes in lung physiology. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into this study. A high-flow nasal system capable of delivering a flow of 100 L/min was purpose-built using 2 Optiflow systems. Airway pressure was measured via the nasopharynx, and cumulative changes in end-expiratory lung impedance were recorded using the PulmoVista 500 system at gas flows of 30-100 L/min in increments of 10 L/min. The mean age of study participants was 31 (range 22-44) y, the mean ± SD height was 171.8 ± 7.5 cm, the mean ± SD weight was 69.7 ± 10 kg, and 47% were males. Flows ranged from 30 to 100 L/min with resulting mean ± SD airway pressures of 2.7 ± 0.7 to 11.9 ± 2.7 cm H2O. A cumulative and linear increase in end-expiratory lung impedance was observed with increasing flows, as well as a decrease in breathing frequency. Measured airway pressure and lung impedance increased linearly with increased gas flow. Observed airway pressures were in the range used clinically with face-mask noninvasive ventilation. Developments in delivery systems may result in this therapy being an acceptable alternative to face-mask noninvasive ventilation. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Transmitted cardiovascular pulsations on high resolution esophageal impedance manometry, and their significance in dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Naueen A; Zahid, Kamran; Keihanian, Sara; Dai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qing

    2017-11-28

    To investigate the behavior of pulsatile pressure zones (PPZ's) as noted on high resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HREIM), and determine their association with dysphagia. Retrospective, single center case control design screening HREIM studies for cases (dysphagia) and controls (no dysphagia). Thoracic radiology studies were reviewed further in cases for (thoracic cardiovascular) thoracic cardiovascular (TCV) structures in esophageal proximity to compare with HREIM findings. Manometric data was collected for number, location, axial length, PPZ pressure and esophageal clearance function (impedance). Among 317 screened patients, 56% cases and 64% controls had PPZ's. Fifty cases had an available thoracic radiology comparison. The distribution of PPZ's in these 50 cases and 59 controls was similar (average 1.4 PPZ/patient). Controls (mean 31.2 ± SD 12 years) were a significantly younger population than cases (mean 67.3 ± SD 14.9 years) with P < 0.0001. The upright posture PPZ pressure was higher in controls (15.7 ± 10.0 mmHg) than cases (10.8 ± 9.7 mmHg). Although statistically significant ( P = 0.005), it was a weak predictor using logistic regression and ROC model (AUC = 0.65). Three dysphagia patients had partial compression from external TCV on radiology (1 aberrant subclavian artery, 2 dilated left atrium). The posture (supine vs upright) with more prominent PPZ's impaired bolus clearance in 9 additional cases by > 20%. Transmitted TCV pulsations observed in HREIM bear no significant impact on swallowing. However, in older adults with dysphagia, evidence of impaired bolus clearance on impedance should be evaluated for external TCV compression. These associations have never been explored previously in literature, and are novel.

  19. Transmitted cardiovascular pulsations on high resolution esophageal impedance manometry, and their significance in dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Naueen A; Zahid, Kamran; Keihanian, Sara; Dai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the behavior of pulsatile pressure zones (PPZ’s) as noted on high resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HREIM), and determine their association with dysphagia. METHODS Retrospective, single center case control design screening HREIM studies for cases (dysphagia) and controls (no dysphagia). Thoracic radiology studies were reviewed further in cases for (thoracic cardiovascular) thoracic cardiovascular (TCV) structures in esophageal proximity to compare with HREIM findings. Manometric data was collected for number, location, axial length, PPZ pressure and esophageal clearance function (impedance). RESULTS Among 317 screened patients, 56% cases and 64% controls had PPZ’s. Fifty cases had an available thoracic radiology comparison. The distribution of PPZ’s in these 50 cases and 59 controls was similar (average 1.4 PPZ/patient). Controls (mean 31.2 ± SD 12 years) were a significantly younger population than cases (mean 67.3 ± SD 14.9 years) with P < 0.0001. The upright posture PPZ pressure was higher in controls (15.7 ± 10.0 mmHg) than cases (10.8 ± 9.7 mmHg). Although statistically significant (P = 0.005), it was a weak predictor using logistic regression and ROC model (AUC = 0.65). Three dysphagia patients had partial compression from external TCV on radiology (1 aberrant subclavian artery, 2 dilated left atrium). The posture (supine vs upright) with more prominent PPZ’s impaired bolus clearance in 9 additional cases by > 20%. CONCLUSION Transmitted TCV pulsations observed in HREIM bear no significant impact on swallowing. However, in older adults with dysphagia, evidence of impaired bolus clearance on impedance should be evaluated for external TCV compression. These associations have never been explored previously in literature, and are novel. PMID:29209125

  20. Circuit Methods for VLF Antenna Couplers. [for use in Loran or Omega receiver systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The limitations of different E-field antenna coupler or preamplifier circuits are presented. All circuits were evaluated using actual Loran or Omega signals. Electric field whip or wire antennas are the simplest types which can be used for reception of VLF signals in the 10 to 100 kHz range. JFET or MOSFET transistors provide impedance transformation and some voltage gain in simple circuits where the power for operating the preamplifier uses the same coaxial cable that feeds the signal back to the receiver. The circuit techniques provide useful alternative methods for Loran-Omega receiver system designers.

  1. Broadband spectroscopy of dynamic impedances with short chirp pulses.

    PubMed

    Min, M; Land, R; Paavle, T; Parve, T; Annus, P; Trebbels, D

    2011-07-01

    An impedance spectrum of dynamic systems is time dependent. Fast impedance changes take place, for example, in high throughput microfluidic devices and in operating cardiovascular systems. Measurements must be as short as possible to avoid significant impedance changes during the spectrum analysis, and as long as possible for enlarging the excitation energy and obtaining a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The authors propose to use specific short chirp pulses for excitation. Thanks to the specific properties of the chirp function, it is possible to meet the needs for a spectrum bandwidth, measurement time and SNR so that the most accurate impedance spectrogram can be obtained. The chirp wave excitation can include thousands of cycles when the impedance changes slowly, but in the case of very high speed changes it can be shorter than a single cycle, preserving the same excitation bandwidth. For example, a 100 kHz bandwidth can be covered by the chirp pulse with durations from 10 µs to 1 s; only its excitation energy differs also 10(5) times. After discussing theoretical short chirp properties in detail, the authors show how to generate short chirps in the microsecond range with a bandwidth up to a few MHz by using digital synthesis architectures developed inside a low-cost standard field programmable gate array.

  2. Design concepts for a high-impedance narrow-band 42 GHz power TWT using a fundamental/forward ladder-based circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, A.

    1980-01-01

    A low-cost, narrowband, millimeter wave space communications TWT design was studied. Cold test interaction structure scale models were investigated and analyses were undertaken to predict the electrical and thermal response of the hypothetical 200 W TWT at 42 GHz and 21 kV beam voltage. An intentionally narrow instantaneous bandwidth (1%, with the possibility of electronic tuning of the center frequency over several percent) was sought with a highly dispersive, high impedance "forward wave' interaction structure based on a ladder (for economy in fabrication) and nonspace harmonic interaction, for a high gain rate and a short, economically focused tube. The "TunneLadder' interaction structure devised combines ladder properties with accommodation for a pencil beam. Except for the impedance and bandwidth, there is much in common with the millimeter wave helix TWTs which provided the ideal of diamond support rods. The benefits of these are enhanced in the TunneLadder case because of spatial separation of beam interception and RF current heating.

  3. Optimization and Control of Acoustic Liner Impedance with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Houston; Follet, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Because communities are impacted by steady increases in aircraft traffic, aircraft noise continues to be a growing problem for the growth of commercial aviation. Research has focused on improving the design of specific high noise source areas of aircraft and on noise control measures to alleviate noise radiated from aircraft to the surrounding environment. Engine duct liners have long been a principal means of attenuating engine noise. The ability to control in-situ the acoustic impedance of a liner would provide a valuable tool to improve the performance of liners. The acoustic impedance of a liner is directly related to the sound absorption qualities of that liner. Increased attenuation rates, the ability to change liner acoustic impedance to match various operating conditions, or the ability to tune a liner to more precisely match design impedance represent some ways that in-situ impedance control could be useful. With this in mind, the research to be investigated will focus on improvements in the ability to control liner impedance using a mean flow through the liner which is referred to as bias flow.

  4. Large improvement of the electrical impedance of imaging and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) phased arrays using multilayer piezoelectric ceramics coupled in lateral mode.

    PubMed

    Song, Junho; Lucht, Benjamin; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-07-01

    With a change in phased-array configuration from one dimension to two, the electrical impedance of the array elements is substantially increased because of their decreased width (w)-to-thickness (t) ratio. The most common way to compensate for this impedance increase is to employ electrical matching circuits at a high cost of fabrication complexity and effort. In this paper, we introduce a multilayer lateral-mode coupling method for phased-array construction. The direct comparison showed that the electrical impedance of a single-layer transducer driven in thickness mode is 1/(n²(1/(w/t))²) times that of an n-layer lateral mode transducer. A large reduction of the electrical impedance showed the impact and benefit of the lateral-mode coupling method. A one-dimensional linear 32-element 770-kHz imaging array and a 42-element 1.45-MHz high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) phased array were fabricated. The averaged electrical impedances of each element were measured to be 58 Ω at the maximum phase angle of -1.2° for the imaging array and 105 Ω at 0° for the HIFU array. The imaging array had a center frequency of 770 kHz with an averaged -6-dB bandwidth of approximately 52%. For the HIFU array, the averaged maximum surface acoustic intensity was measured to be 32.8 W/cm² before failure.

  5. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  6. An ultra-high input impedance ECG amplifier for long-term monitoring of athletes.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Ruffo, Mariano; Romano, Maria; Calvo, Rafael A; Jin, Craig; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    We present a new, low-power electrocardiogram (ECG) recording system with an ultra-high input impedance that enables the use of long-lasting, dry electrodes. The system incorporates a low-power Bluetooth module for wireless connectivity and is designed to be suitable for long-term monitoring during daily activities. The new system using dry electrodes was compared with a clinically approved ECG reference system using gelled Ag/AgCl electrodes and performance was found to be equivalent. In addition, the system was used to monitor an athlete during several physical tasks, and a good quality ECG was obtained in all cases, including when the athlete was totally submerged in fresh water.

  7. BPM Design and Impedance Considerations for a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; /SLAC; Keller, Lewis

    2010-08-26

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the 30 high robust Phase I graphite secondary collimators with 30 high Z Phase II collimators. This paper reports on BPM and impedance considerations and measurements of the integrated BPMs in the prototype rotatable collimator to be installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. The BPMs are necessary to align the jaws with the beam. Without careful design the beam impedance can result in unacceptable heating of the chamber wall or beam instabilities. The impedance measurements involve utilizing both a single displaced wire and two wiresmore » excited in opposite phase to disentangle the driving and detuning transverse impedances. Trapped mode resonances and longitudinal impedance are to also be measured and compared with simulations. These measurements, when completed, will demonstrate the device is fully operational and has the impedance characteristics and BPM performance acceptable for installation in the SPS.« less

  8. Electromagnetic scattering by impedance structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from impedance structures is investigated, and current work on antenna pattern calculation is presented. A general algorithm for determining radiation patterns from antennas mounted near or on polygonal plates is presented. These plates are assumed to be of a material which satisfies the Leontovich (or surface impedance) boundary condition. Calculated patterns including reflection and diffraction terms are presented for numerious geometries, and refinements are included for antennas mounted directly on impedance surfaces. For the case of a monopole mounted on a surface impedance ground plane, computed patterns are compared with experimental measurements. This work in antenna pattern prediction forms the basis of understanding of the complex scattering mechanisms from impedance surfaces. It provides the foundation for the analysis of backscattering patterns which, in general, are more problematic than calculation of antenna patterns. Further proposed study of related topics, including surface waves, corner diffractions, and multiple diffractions, is outlined.

  9. Measurement of thin liquid film drainage using a novel high-speed impedance analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hool, Kevin O.; Saunders, Robert C.; Ploehn, Harry J.

    1998-09-01

    This work describes the design and implementation of a new instrument, called the thin film impedance analyzer, which measures the rate of drainage of thin oil films. The instrument forms an oil film by elevating a planar oil-water interface into a water drop hanging from a stainless steel capillary tube immersed in the oil. The instrument measures the magnitude of the impedance of the matter between the capillary tube and a screen electrode immersed in the lower water phase. Under appropriate conditions, the capacitance of the oil film dominates the impedance. The instrument records the increase in the magnitude of the admittance associated with the draining and thinning of the oil film. The features of the drainage curves vary considerably with the type, amount, and location of surfactants in the oil and water phases, as well as with user-specified values of drop volume, drop equilibration time, and extent of drop compression. For this reason, the instrument has utility as a screening tool for selecting surfactants for emulsion formulations. Potential future uses include accelerated prediction of emulsion stability and extraction of oil-water interfacial rheological parameters.

  10. Experimental impedance investigation of an ultracapacitor at different conditions for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhenpo; Sun, Fengchun; Dorrell, David G.

    2015-08-01

    Ultracapacitors (UCs) are being increasingly deployed as a short-term energy storage device in various energy systems including uninterruptable power supplies, electrified vehicles, renewable energy systems, and wireless communication. They exhibit excellent power density and energy efficiency. The dynamic behavior of a UC, however, strongly depends on its impedance characteristics. In this paper, the impedance characteristics of a commercial UC are experimentally investigated through the well-adopted Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The implications of the UC operating conditions (i.e., temperature and state of charge (SOC)) to the impedance are systematically examined. The results show that the impedance is highly sensitive to the temperature and SOC; and the temperature effect is more significant. In particular, the coupling effect between the temperature and SOC is illustrated, as well as the high-efficiency SOC window, which is highlighted. To further verify the reliability of the EIS-based investigation and to probe the sensitivity of UC parameters to the operating conditions, a dynamic model is characterized by fitting the collected impedance data. The interdependence of UC parameters (i.e., capacitance and resistance elements) on the temperature and SOC is quantitatively revealed. The impedance-based model is demonstrated to be accurate in two driving-cycle tests.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral blood...

  12. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOEpatents

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  13. Programmable high-output-impedance, large-voltage compliance, microstimulator for low-voltage biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Sina; Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of a programmable, high output impedance, large voltage compliance microstimulator for low-voltage biomedical applications. A 6-bit binary-weighted digital to analog converter (DAC) is used to generate biphasic stimulus current pulses. A compact current mirror with large output voltage compliance and high output resistance conveys the current pulses to the target tissue. Designed and simulated in a standard 0.18µm CMOS process, the microstimulator circuit is capable of delivering a maximum stimulation current of 160µA to a 10-kΩ resistive load. Operated at a 1.8-V supply voltage, the output stage exhibits a voltage compliance of 1.69V and output resistance of 160MΩ at full scale stimulus current. Layout of the core microelectrode circuit measures 25.5µm×31.5µm.

  14. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James; Moore, Wayne

    2006-05-01

    Concomitant with the growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), there has been a need for reliable, economical and reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. A number of approaches have been proposed and investigated, most notably by Kaczkowski et al [Proc. 2003 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 982-985]. We are developing a similar reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features which improve the hydrophone's bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility. For the scattering element, we have used a fused silica optical fiber with a polyamide protective coating. The receiver is designed as a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. Each segment has its own high impedance, wideband preamplifier, and the signals from multiple segments are summed coherently. As an additional feature, the system is designed to pulse the PVDF elements so that the pulse-echo response can be used to align the fiber at the center. Initial tests of the system have demonstrated a receiver array sensitivity of -279 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa (before preamplification), with a scattering loss at the fiber of approximately 39dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -318 dB re 1 micro Volt/Pa. The addition of the closely coupled wideband preamplifiers boosts the signal to a range which is sufficient for the measurement of HIFU transducers. The effective bandwidth of the system exceeds 15MHz, through careful design and the use of PVDF as a sensor material. In order to test the system, a HIFU transducer in the 4.0MHz frequency range was tested at low output settings using a conventional PVDF membrane hydrophone. The prototype system was then used to characterize the same HIFU transducer at full power. The results showed good correlation between waveforms and cross

  15. Highly sensitive LIDAR with a thumb-sized sensor-head built using an optical fiber preamplifier (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Kagami, Manabu

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a LIDAR system with a sensor head which, although it includes a scanning mechanism, is less than 20 cc in size. The system is not only small, but is also highly sensitive. Our LIDAR system is based on time-of-flight measurements, and incorporates an optical fiber. The main feature of our system is the utilization of optical amplifiers for both the transmitter and the receiver, and the optical amplifiers enable us to exceed the detection limit set by thermal noise. In conventional LIDAR systems the detection limit is determined by the thermal noise, because the avalanche photo-diodes (APD) and trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA) that they use detect the received signals directly. In the case of our LIDAR system, the received signal is amplified by an optical fiber amplifier before reaching the photo diode and the TIA. Therefore, our LIDAR system boosts the signal level before the weak incoming signal is depleted by thermal noise. There are conditions under which the noise figure for the combination of an optical fiber amplifier and a photo diode is superior to the noise figure for an avalanche photo diode. We optimized the gains of the optical fiber amplifier and the TIA in our LIDAR system such that it would be capable of detecting a single photon. As a result, the detection limit of our system is determined by shot noise. We have previously demonstrated scanning up to a range of 80 m with this LIDAR system with a 2 mm diameter of receiving lens. We improved the optical amplifier and the peak output power of LIDAR was over 10KW. We redesigned the sensor-head and improved coupling efficiency. As a result, we succeeded in scanning over a range of 100 m. This small and highly sensitive measurement technology shows great potential for use in LIDAR.

  16. Impedance of a nanoantenna

    SciTech Connect

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Laroche, Marine; Marquier, Francois

    2009-10-07

    We introduce a generalized definition of the impedance of a nanoantenna that can be applied to any system. We also introduce a definition of the impedance of a two level system. Using this framework, we establish a link between the electrical engineering and the quantum optics picture of light emission.

  17. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of the...

  18. Combined electromechanical impedance and fiber optic diagnosis of aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlavin, Jon; Zagrai, Andrei; Clemens, Rebecca; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joey; Moslehi, Behzad; Patel, Ronak; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Faridian, Fereydoun

    2014-03-01

    Electromechanical impedance is a popular diagnostic method for assessing structural conditions at high frequencies. It has been utilized, and shown utility, in aeronautic, space, naval, civil, mechanical, and other types of structures. By contrast, fiber optic sensing initially found its niche in static strain measurement and low frequency structural dynamic testing. Any low frequency limitations of the fiber optic sensing, however, are mainly governed by its hardware elements. As hardware improves, so does the bandwidth (frequency range * number of sensors) provided by the appropriate enabling fiber optic sensor interrogation system. In this contribution we demonstrate simultaneous high frequency measurements using fiber optic and electromechanical impedance structural health monitoring technologies. A laboratory specimen imitating an aircraft wing structure, incorporating surfaces with adjustable boundary conditions, was instrumented with piezoelectric and fiber optic sensors. Experiments were conducted at different structural boundary conditions associated with deterioration of structural health. High frequency dynamic responses were collected at multiple locations on a laboratory wing specimen and conclusions were drawn about correspondence between structural damage and dynamic signatures as well as correlation between electromechanical impedance and fiber optic sensors spectra. Theoretical investigation of the effect of boundary conditions on electromechanical impedance spectra is presented and connection to low frequency structural dynamics is suggested. It is envisioned that acquisition of high frequency structural dynamic responses with multiple fiber optic sensors may open new diagnostic capabilities for fiber optic sensing technologies.

  19. Simulations of a dense plasma focus on a high impedance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Giuliani, John; Jackson, Stuart; Richardson, Steve; Swanekamp, Steve; Schumer, Joe; Commisso, Robert; Mosher, Dave; Weber, Bruce; Velikovich, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We study the connection between plasma instabilities and fast ion acceleration for neutron production on a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The experiments will be performed on the HAWK generator (665 kA), which has fast rise time, 1.2 μs, and a high inductance, 607 nH. It is hypothesized that high impedance may enhance the neutron yield because the current will not be reduced during the collapse resulting in higher magnetization. To prevent upstream breakdown, we will inject plasma far from the insulator stack. We simulated rundown and collapse dynamics with Athena - Eulerian 3D, unsplit finite volume MHD code that includes shock capturing with Riemann solvers, resistive diffusion and the Hall term. The simulations are coupled to an equivalent circuit model for HAWK. We will report the dynamics and implosion time as a function of the initial injected plasma distribution and the implications of non-ideal effects. We also traced test particles in MHD fields and confirmed the presence of stochastic acceleration, which was limited by the size of the system and the strength of the magnetic field. Supported by DOE/NNSA and the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  20. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance.

  1. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  2. Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jon N.; Hall, Christopher S.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies by our group have demonstrated the efficacy of perfluorocarbon liquid nanoparticles for enhancing the reflectivity of tissuelike surfaces to which they are bound. The magnitude of this enhancement depends in large part on the difference in impedances of the perfluorocarbon, the bound substrate, and the propagating medium. The impedance varies directly with temperature because both the speed of sound and the mass density of perfluorocarbon liquids are highly temperature dependent. However, there are relatively little data in the literature pertaining to the temperature dependence of the acoustic impedance of these compounds. In this study, the speed of sound and density of seven different fluorocarbon liquids were measured at specific temperatures between 20 °C and 45 °C. All of the samples demonstrated negative, linear dependencies on temperature for both speed of sound and density and, consequently, for the acoustic impedance. The slope of sound speed was greatest for perfluorohexane (-278+/-1.5 cm/s-°C) and lowest for perfluorodichlorooctane (-222+/-0.9 cm/s-°C). Of the compounds measured, perfluorohexane exhibited the lowest acoustic impedance at all temperatures, and perfluorodecalin the highest at all temperatures. Computations from a simple transmission-line model used to predict reflectivity enhancement from surface-bound nanoparticles are discussed in light of these results.

  3. A systematic uncertainty analysis for liner impedance eduction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Bodén, Hans

    2015-11-01

    The so-called impedance eduction technology is widely used for obtaining acoustic properties of liners used in aircraft engines. The measurement uncertainties for this technology are still not well understood though it is essential for data quality assessment and model validation. A systematic framework based on multivariate analysis is presented in this paper to provide 95 percent confidence interval uncertainty estimates in the process of impedance eduction. The analysis is made using a single mode straightforward method based on transmission coefficients involving the classic Ingard-Myers boundary condition. The multivariate technique makes it possible to obtain an uncertainty analysis for the possibly correlated real and imaginary parts of the complex quantities. The results show that the errors in impedance results at low frequency mainly depend on the variability of transmission coefficients, while the mean Mach number accuracy is the most important source of error at high frequencies. The effect of Mach numbers used in the wave dispersion equation and in the Ingard-Myers boundary condition has been separated for comparison of the outcome of impedance eduction. A local Mach number based on friction velocity is suggested as a way to reduce the inconsistencies found when estimating impedance using upstream and downstream acoustic excitation.

  4. Admittance detector for high impedance systems: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-02

    We describe an admittance detector for high impedance systems (small capillary bore and/or low solution specific conductance). Operation in the low frequency range (≤1 kHz, much lower than most relevant publications) provides optimum response to conductance changes in capillaries ≤20 μm in bore. The detector design was based on studies described in a preceding companion paper ( Zhang, M.; Stamos, B. N.; Amornthammarong, N.; Dasgupta, P. K. Anal. Chem. 2014, 8 , DOI 10.1021/ac503245a.). The highest S/N for detecting 100 μM KCl (5.5 μM peak concentration, ∼0.8 μS/cm) injected into water flowing through a capillary of 7.5 μm inner radius (r) was observed at 500-750 Hz. A low bias current operational amplifier in the transimpedance configuration permitted high gain (1 V/nA) to measure pA-nA level currents in the detection cell. Aside from an oscillator, an offset-capable RMS-DC converter formed the complete detection circuitry. Limits of detection (LODs) of KCl scaled inversely with the capillary cross section and were 2.1 and 0.32 μM injected KCl for r = 1 and 2.5 μm capillaries, respectively. When used as a detector on an r = 8 μm bore poly(methyl methacrylate) capillary in a split effluent stream from a suppressed ion chromatograph, the LOD was 27 nM bromide (Vex 22 V p-p), compared to 14 nM observed with a commercial bipolar pulse macroscale conductivity detector with an actively thermostated cell. We also show applications of the detector in electrophoresis in capillaries with r = 1 and 2.5 μm. Efficient heat dissipation permits high concentrations of the background electrolyte and sensitive detection because of efficient electrostacking.

  5. Wave impedance selection for passivity-based bilateral teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, Nicholas John

    When a task must be executed in a remote or dangerous environment, teleoperation systems may be employed to extend the influence of the human operator. In the case of manipulation tasks, haptic feedback of the forces experienced by the remote (slave) system is often highly useful in improving an operator's ability to perform effectively. In many of these cases (especially teleoperation over the internet and ground-to-space teleoperation), substantial communication latency exists in the control loop and has the strong tendency to cause instability of the system. The first viable solution to this problem in the literature was based on a scattering/wave transformation from transmission line theory. This wave transformation requires the designer to select a wave impedance parameter appropriate to the teleoperation system. It is widely recognized that a small value of wave impedance is well suited to free motion and a large value is preferable for contact tasks. Beyond this basic observation, however, very little guidance exists in the literature regarding the selection of an appropriate value. Moreover, prior research on impedance selection generally fails to account for the fact that in any realistic contact task there will simultaneously exist contact considerations (perpendicular to the surface of contact) and quasi-free-motion considerations (parallel to the surface of contact). The primary contribution of the present work is to introduce an approximate linearized optimum for the choice of wave impedance and to apply this quasi-optimal choice to the Cartesian reality of such a contact task, in which it cannot be expected that a given joint will be either perfectly normal to or perfectly parallel to the motion constraint. The proposed scheme selects a wave impedance matrix that is appropriate to the conditions encountered by the manipulator. This choice may be implemented as a static wave impedance value or as a time-varying choice updated according to the

  6. Preliminary Results on Different Impedance Contrast Agents for Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging with Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Kosobrodov, R.; Barry, M. A.; Chik, W.; Pouliopoulos, J.; Oh, T. I.; Thiagalingam, A.; McEwan, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies in animal models suggest that the use of small volume boluses of NaCl as an impedance contrast agent can significantly improve pulmonary perfusion imaging by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). However, these studies used highly concentrated NaCl solution (20%) which may have adverse effects on the patients. In a pilot experiment, we address this problem by comparing a number of different Impedance Contrast Boluses (ICBs). Conductivity changes in the lungs of a sheep after the injection of four different ICBs were compared, including three NaCl-based ICBs and one glucose-based ICB. The following procedure was followed for each ICB. Firstly, ventilation was turned off to provide an apneic window of approximately 40s to image the conductivity changes due to the ICB. Each ICB was then injected through a pig-tail catheter directly into the right atrium. EIT images were acquired throughout the apnea to capture the conductivity change. For each ICB, the experiment was repeated three times. The three NaCl-based ICB exhibited similar behaviour in which following the injection of each of these ICBs, the conductivity of each lung predictably increased. The effect of the ICB of 5% glucose solution was inconclusive. A small decrease in conductivity in the left lung was observed in two out of three cases and none was discernible in the right lung.

  7. Standardized Testing Capabilities at U.S. Navy Transducer Repair Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-01

    The following acoustical and electrical tests can be performed at the TRFs by the use of an AN/FQM-lO(V) Sonar Test Set, a. Low level impedance...It fits into the sub- system as shown in Fig 2-2. A switch located at the preamplifier is used to select either high or low power operation. The...may also be selected. 2.6.2 Signal Amplification. A low noise differential premnplifier with selectable gains from -20 dB to +60 dB in 10 dB steps is

  8. High frequency scattering by a smooth coated cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hasnain H.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UGTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. In particular, ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly to those in the deep lit and shadow regions. These involve new transition functions in place of the usual Fock-type integrals, characteristic to the impedance cylinder. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder. As usual, the diffraction coefficients for the convex cylinder are obtained via a generalization of the corresponding ones for the circular cylinder.

  9. A new high dynamic range ROIC with smart light intensity control unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Melik; Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Galioglu, Arman; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-05-01

    This journal presents a new high dynamic range ROIC with smart pixel which consists of two pre-amplifiers that are controlled by a circuit inside the pixel. Each pixel automatically decides which pre-amplifier is used according to the incoming illumination level. Instead of using single pre-amplifier, two input pre-amplifiers, which are optimized for different signal levels, are placed inside each pixel. The smart circuit mechanism, which decides the best input circuit according to the incoming light level, is also designed for each pixel. In short, an individual pixel has the ability to select the best input amplifier circuit that performs the best/highest SNR for the incoming signal level. A 32 × 32 ROIC prototype chip is designed to demonstrate the concept in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The prototype is optimized for NIR and SWIR bands. Instead of a detector, process variation optimized current sources are placed inside the ROIC. The chip achieves minimum 8.6 e- input referred noise and 98.9 dB dynamic range. It has the highest dynamic range in the literature in terms of analog ROICs for SWIR band. It is operating in room temperature and power consumption is 2.8 μ W per pixel.

  10. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Kim, C

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  11. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  12. Complex Impedance of Fast Optical Transition Edge Sensors up to 30 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Kobayashi, R.; Numata, T.; Inoue, S.; Fukuda, D.

    2018-03-01

    Optical transition edge sensors (TESs) are characterized by a very fast response, of the order of μs, which is 10^3 times faster than TESs for X-ray and gamma-ray. To extract important parameters associated with the optical TES, complex impedances at high frequencies (> 1 MHz) need to be measured, where the parasitic impedance in the circuit and reflections of electrical signals due to discontinuities in the characteristic impedance of the readout circuits become significant. This prevents the measurements of the current sensitivity β , which can be extracted from the complex impedance. In usual setups, it is hard to build a circuit model taking into account the parasitic impedances and reflections. In this study, we present an alternative method to estimate a transfer function without investigating the details of the entire circuit. Based on this method, the complex impedance up to 30 MHz was measured. The parameters were extracted from the impedance and were compared with other measurements. Using these parameters, we calculated the theoretical limit on an energy resolution and compared it with the measured energy resolution. In this paper, the reasons for the deviation of the measured value from theoretically predicted values will be discussed.

  13. Design of current source for multi-frequency simultaneous electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Xu, Yanbin; Dong, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography has been evolving from the frequency-sweep approach to the multi-frequency simultaneous measurement technique which can reduce measuring time and will be increasingly attractive for time-varying biological applications. The accuracy and stability of the current source are the key factors determining the quality of the image reconstruction. This article presents a field programmable gate array-based current source for a multi-frequency simultaneous electrical impedance tomography system. A novel current source circuit was realized by combining the classic current mirror based on the feedback amplifier AD844 with a differential topology. The optimal phase offsets of harmonic sinusoids were obtained through the crest factor analysis. The output characteristics of this current source were evaluated by simulation and actual measurement. The results include the following: (1) the output impedance was compared with one of the Howland pump circuit in simulation, showing comparable performance at low frequencies. However, the proposed current source makes lower demands for resistor tolerance but performs even better at high frequencies. (2) The output impedance in actual measurement below 200 kHz is above 1.3 MΩ and can reach 250 KΩ up to 1 MHz. (3) An experiment based on a biological RC model has been implemented. The mean error for the demodulated impedance amplitude and phase are 0.192% and 0.139°, respectively. Therefore, the proposed current source is wideband, biocompatible, and high precision, which demonstrates great potential to work as a sub-system in the multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system.

  14. Thermal behaviors of Ni-MH batteries using a novel impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Pu; Gao, Wenying; Qiu, Xinping; Zhu, Wentao; Sun, Jie; Chen, Liquan

    In this paper, a novel impedance spectroscopy was used to describe the thermal behaviors of Ni-MH batteries. The impedance functions were derived similarly to electric impedance functions. The square of current was treated as a current equivalent and heat-flow as a voltage equivalent. The impedance spectra of batteries during charge showed that the combination of hydrogen and oxygen increased rapidly when charge rate was higher than 0.5 C. Thermal runaway might happen when battery was charged at temperature above 348 K even at a low charge rate. The cycling test showed that the charge efficiency of battery was the highest after cycling at high-rate for 10-100 cycles and decreased after more cycles. Different batteries showed different thermal behaviors which may be caused by the different structures of batteries.

  15. Reactanceless synthesized impedance bandpass amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An active R bandpass filter network is formed by four operational amplifier stages interconnected by discrete resistances. One pair of stages synthesize an equivalent input impedance of an inductance (L sub eq) in parallel with a discrete resistance (R sub o) while the second pair of stages synthesizes an equivalent input impedance of a capacitance (C sub eq) serially coupled to another discrete resistance (R sub i) coupled in parallel with the first two stages. The equivalent input impedances aggregately define a tuned resonant bandpass filter in the roll-off regions of the operational amplifiers.

  16. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years advanced measurement methods have facilitated outstanding achievements not only in medical instrumentation but also in biotechnology. Impedance measurement is a simple and innocuous way to characterize materials. For more than 40 years biological materials, most of them based on cells, have been characterized by means of electrical impedance for quality control of agricultural products, monitoring of biotechnological or food processes or in health care. Although the list of possible applications is long, very few applications successfully entered the market before the turn of the century. This was, on the one hand, due to the low specificity of electrical impedance with respect to other material properties because it is influenced by multiple factors. On the other hand, equipment and methods for many potential applications were not available. With the appearance of microcontrollers that could be easily integrated in applications at the beginning of the 1980s, impedance measurement advanced as a valuable tool in process optimization and lab automation. However, established methods and data processing were mostly used in a new environment. This has changed significantly during the last 10 years with a dramatic growth of the market for medical instrumentation and also for biotechnological applications. Today, advanced process monitoring and control require fast and highly parallel electrical characterization which in turn yields incredible data volumes that must be handled in real time. Many newer developments require miniaturized but precise sensing methods which is one of the main parts of Lab-on-Chip technology. Moreover, biosensors increasingly use impedometric transducers, which are not compatible with the large expensive measurement devices that are common in the laboratory environment. Following the achievements in the field of bioimpedance measurement, we will now witness a dramatic development of new electrode structures and electronics

  17. Feasibility of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurement before and after Thoracentesis

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Sören; Pauly, Karolin; Napp, Andreas; Dreher, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick; Mischke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure changes in tissue composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility in measuring the fluid shift after thoracentesis in patients with pleural effusion. Methods. 45 participants (21 with pleural effusion and 24 healthy subjects) were included. Bioelectrical impedance was analyzed for “Transthoracic,” “Foot to Foot,” “Foot to Hand,” and “Hand to Hand” vectors in low and high frequency domain before and after thoracentesis. Healthy subjects were measured at a single time point. Results. The mean volume of removed pleural effusion was 1169 ± 513 mL. The “Foot to Foot,” “Hand to Hand,” and “Foot to Hand” vector indicated a trend for increased bioelectrical impedance after thoracentesis. Values for the low frequency domain in the “Transthoracic” vector increased significantly (P < 0.001). A moderate correlation was observed between the amount of removed fluid and impedance change in the low frequency domain using the “Foot to Hand” vector (r = −0.7). Conclusion. Bioelectrical impedance changes in correlation with the thoracic fluid level. It was feasible to monitor significant fluid shifts and loss after thoracentesis in the “Transthoracic” vector by means of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The trial is registered with Registration Numbers IRB EK206/11 and NCT01778270. PMID:25861647

  18. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOEpatents

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted High Sensitivity RF Receiver to Detect Improvised Explosive Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    12 C. PREAMPLIFIER ......................................13 D. RECEIVER...discussed further in Chapter III. Figure 5. LPY41 log periodic antenna. (From Ramsey Elctronics) C. PREAMPLIFIER After the signal passes through...the Antenna, it enters the preamplifier . When dealing with unintentional signals which may be as low as -160dB, it is essential to have a low noise

  20. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukučka, Marek; Ondrejkovičová, Alena

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  1. Multivariable dynamic ankle mechanical impedance with relaxed muscles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2014-11-01

    Neurological or biomechanical disorders may distort ankle mechanical impedance and thereby impair locomotor function. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of multivariable ankle mechanical impedance of young healthy subjects when their muscles were relaxed, to serve as a baseline to compare with pathophysiological ankle properties of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. Measurements using a highly backdrivable wearable ankle robot combined with multi-input multi-output stochastic system identification methods enabled reliable characterization of ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) simultaneously, the sagittal and frontal planes. The characterization included important ankle properties unavailable from single DOF studies: coupling between DOFs and anisotropy as a function of frequency. Ankle impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness in both seated (knee flexed) and standing (knee straightened) postures. Stiffness in the sagittal plane was greater than in the frontal plane and furthermore, was greater when standing than when seated, most likely due to the stretch of bi-articular muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius). Very low off-diagonal partial coherences implied negligible coupling between dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion. The directions of principal axes were tilted slightly counterclockwise from the original joint coordinates. The directional variation (anisotropy) of ankle impedance in the 2-D space formed by rotations in the sagittal and frontal planes exhibited a characteristic "peanut" shape, weak in inversion-eversion over a wide range of frequencies from the stiffness dominated region up to the inertia dominated region. Implications for the assessment of neurological and biomechanical impairments are discussed.

  2. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  3. Model Parameterization and P-wave AVA Direct Inversion for Young's Impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao

    2017-05-01

    AVA inversion is an important tool for elastic parameters estimation to guide the lithology prediction and "sweet spot" identification of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The product of the Young's modulus and density (named as Young's impedance in this study) is known as an effective lithology and brittleness indicator of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Density is difficult to predict from seismic data, which renders the estimation of the Young's impedance inaccurate in conventional approaches. In this study, a pragmatic seismic AVA inversion approach with only P-wave pre-stack seismic data is proposed to estimate the Young's impedance to avoid the uncertainty brought by density. First, based on the linearized P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, the P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of the Young's impedance is derived according to the relationship between P-wave modulus, S-wave modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. This equation is further compared to the exact Zoeppritz equation and the linearized P-wave approximate reflectivity equation in terms of P- and S-wave velocities and density, which illustrates that this equation is accurate enough to be used for AVA inversion when the incident angle is within the critical angle. Parameter sensitivity analysis illustrates that the high correlation between the Young's impedance and density render the estimation of the Young's impedance difficult. Therefore, a de-correlation scheme is used in the pragmatic AVA inversion with Bayesian inference to estimate Young's impedance only with pre-stack P-wave seismic data. Synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to predict the Young's impedance stably even with moderate noise and the field data examples verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach in Young's impedance estimation and "sweet spots" evaluation.

  4. Oblique impacts into low impedance layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary impacts occur indiscriminately, in all locations and materials. Varied geologic settings can have significant effects on the impact process, including the coupling between the projectile and target, the final damage patterns and modes of deformation that occur. For example, marine impact craters are not identical to impacts directly into bedrock or into sedimentary materials, though many of the same fundamental processes occur. It is therefore important, especially when considering terrestrial impacts, to understand how a low impedance sedimentary layer over bedrock affects the deformation process during and after a hypervelocity impact. As a first step, detailed comparisons between impacts and hydrocode models were performed. Experiments performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range of oblique impacts into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) targets with low impedance layers were performed and compared to experiments of targets without low impedance layers, as well as to hydrocode models under identical conditions. Impact velocities ranged from 5 km/s to 5.6 km/s, with trajectories from 30 degrees to 90 degrees above the horizontal. High-speed imaging provided documentation of the sequence and location of failure due to impact, which was compared to theoretical models. Plasticine and ice were used to construct the low impedance layers. The combination of experiments and models reveals the modes of failure due to a hypervelocity impact. How such failure is manifested at large scales can present a challenge for hydrocodes. CTH models tend to overestimate the amount of damage occurring within the targets and have difficulties perfectly reproducing morphologies; nevertheless, they provide significant and useful information about the failure modes and style within the material. CTH models corresponding to the experiments allow interpretation of the underlying processes involved as well as provide a benchmark for the experimental analysis. The transparency of PMMA

  5. Impedance spectroscopy of the electrode-tissue interface of living heart with isoösmotic conductivity perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadia, Marc; Zavitz, Daniel H.

    2004-06-01

    Impedance spectroscopy was used to solve the Pt electrode interface with metabolically active perfused living heart. Three impedance spectra were observed: the Warburg impedance ( ZW∞), a single high angle constant-phase-element, and a thin-film impedance ( ZD). When characterized again after cyclic change of ionic strength (and hence conductivity κ) each interface had one of only two spectra, with exclusion of ZW∞. The in vivo interfacial impedance spectrum is thus neither single-valued nor stable in time. Because metal|living tissue interfaces are obligatory circuit elements in biosensors and electrodes in heart and brain, the multiple-valued and thin-film character of its impedance are significant.

  6. Factors confounding impedance catheter volume measurements in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bielefeld, M R; Cabreriza, S E; Spotnitz, H M

    1993-06-01

    The impedance catheter allows continuous measurement of ventricular volume. External influences have been described as causing parallel shifts in impedance-measured volumes; however, factors affecting impedance measurements in a nonparallel manner have not been fully characterized. Accordingly, an impedance catheter was placed inside a latex balloon into which known volumes of normal saline solution were injected. Conductive and nonconductive materials were individually placed within the balloon. Impedance was measured with materials touching (T) or not touching (NT) the catheter. Impedance-measured volumes were plotted versus actual volumes. Compared with the line of identity (LID), a statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found in the slopes in the presence of metallic objects only. These included a pacing lead (T, NT) (mT = 1.32m mNT = 1.29 versus mLID = 1.00), titanium (T) (mT = 1.68 versus mLID = 1.00), and aluminum (NT) (mNT = 0.72 versus mLID = 1.00). These changes in slope indicate nonparallel effects on impedance that confound the ability of the impedance catheter to determine volumes in vitro. These observations imply that serial calibration of both the slope constant (alpha) and the intercept (parallel conductance) of impedance may be necessary for in vivo measurements of ventricular volume based on impedance in the presence of metallic objects.

  7. Whole-body impedance--what does it measure?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Lukaski, H C

    1996-09-01

    Although the bioelectrical impedance technique is widely used in human nutrition and clinical research, an integrated summary of the biophysical and bioelectrical bases of this approach is lacking. We summarize the pertinent electrical phenomena relevant to the application of the impedance technique in vivo and discuss the relations between electrical measurements and biological conductor volumes. Key terms in the derivation of bioelectrical impedance analysis are described and the relation between the electrical properties of tissues and tissue structure is discussed. The relation between the impedance of an object and its geometry, scale, and intrinsic electrical properties is also discussed. Correlations between whole-body impedance measurements and various bioconductor volumes, such as total body water and fat-free mass, are experimentally well established; however, the reason for the success of the impedence technique is much less clear. The bioengineering basis for the technique is critically presented and considerations are proposed that might help to clarify the method and potentially improve its sensitivity.

  8. Impedance Eduction in Sound Fields With Peripherally Varying Liners and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional impedance eduction theory is extended to three-dimensional sound fields and peripherally varying duct liners. The approach is to first measure the acoustic pressure field at a series of flush-mounted wall microphones located around the periphery of the flow duct. The numerical solution for the acoustic pressure field at these microphones is also obtained by solving the three-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation using the finite element method. A quadratic objective function based on the difference between the measured and finite element solution is constructed and the unknown impedance function is obtained by minimizing this objective function. Impedance spectra educed for two uniform-structure liners (a wire-mesh and a conventional liner) and a hard-soft-hard peripherally varying liner (for which the soft segment is that of the conventional liner) are presented. Results are presented at three mean flow Mach numbers and fourteen sound source frequencies. The impedance spectra of the uniform-structure liners are also computed using a two-dimensional impedance eduction theory. The primary conclusions of the study are: 1) when measured data is used with the uniform-structure liners, the three-dimensional theory reproduces the same impedance spectra as the two-dimensional theory except for frequencies corresponding to very low or very high liner attenuation; and 2) good agreement between the educed impedance spectra of the uniform structure conventional liner and the soft segment of the peripherally varying liner is obtained.

  9. Discriminating movements of liquid and gas in the rabbit colon with impedance manometry.

    PubMed

    Mohd Rosli, R; Leibbrandt, R E; Wiklendt, L; Costa, M; Wattchow, D A; Spencer, N J; Brookes, S J; Omari, T I; Dinning, P G

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution impedance manometry is a technique that is well established in esophageal motility studies for relating motor patterns to bolus flow. The use of this technique in the colon has not been established. In isolated segments of rabbit proximal colon, we recorded motor patterns and the movement of liquid or gas boluses with a high-resolution impedance manometry catheter. These detected movements were compared to video recorded changes in gut diameter. Using the characteristic shapes of the admittance (inverse of impedance) and pressure signals associated with gas or liquid flow we developed a computational algorithm for the automated detection of these events. Propagating contractions detected by video were also recorded by manometry and impedance. Neither pressure nor admittance signals alone could distinguish between liquid and gas transit, however the precise relationship between admittance and pressure signals during bolus flow could. Training our computational algorithm upon these characteristic shapes yielded a detection accuracy of 87.7% when compared to gas or liquid bolus events detected by manual analysis. Characterizing the relationship between both admittance and pressure recorded with high-resolution impedance manometry can not only help in detecting luminal transit in real time, but also distinguishes between liquid and gaseous content. This technique holds promise for determining the propulsive nature of human colonic motor patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensorless battery temperature measurements based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raijmakers, L. H. J.; Danilov, D. L.; van Lammeren, J. P. M.; Lammers, M. J. G.; Notten, P. H. L.

    2014-02-01

    A new method is proposed to measure the internal temperature of (Li-ion) batteries. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, an intercept frequency (f0) can be determined which is exclusively related to the internal battery temperature. The intercept frequency is defined as the frequency at which the imaginary part of the impedance is zero (Zim = 0), i.e. where the phase shift between the battery current and voltage is absent. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: (i) no hardware temperature sensors are required anymore to monitor the battery temperature and (ii) the method does not suffer from heat transfer delays. Mathematical analysis of the equivalent electrical-circuit, representing the battery performance, confirms that the intercept frequency decreases with rising temperatures. Impedance measurements on rechargeable Li-ion cells of various chemistries were conducted to verify the proposed method. These experiments reveal that the intercept frequency is clearly dependent on the temperature and does not depend on State-of-Charge (SoC) and aging. These impedance-based sensorless temperature measurements are therefore simple and convenient for application in a wide range of stationary, mobile and high-power devices, such as hybrid- and full electric vehicles.

  11. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  12. An approach to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome by the multi-electrode impedance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Kanai, H.

    2010-04-01

    It is well known that metabolic syndrome can induce myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction. So, it is very important to measure the visceral fat volume. In the electric impedance method, information in the vicinity of the electrodes is strongly reflected. Therefore, we propose a new multi-electrode arrangement method based on the impedance sensitivity theorem to measure the visceral fat volume. This electrode arrangement is designed to enable high impedance sensitivity in the visceral and subcutaneous fat regions. Currents are simultaneously applied to several current electrodes on the body surface, and one voltage electrode pair is arranged on the body surface near the organ of interest to obtain the visceral fat information and another voltage electrode pair is arranged on the body surface near the current electrodes to obtain the subcutaneous fat information. A simulation study indicates that by weighting the impedance sensitivity distribution, as in our method, a high-sensitivity region in the visceral and the subcutaneous fat regions can be formed. In addition, it was confirmed that the visceral fat volume can be estimated by the measured impedance data.

  13. High frequency electromagnetic impedance measurements for characterization, monitoring and verification efforts. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Pellerin, L.; Becker, A.

    1998-06-01

    'Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small due, and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field datamore » can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. The authors are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach, known as the magnetotelluric (MT) method at low frequencies. Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques. The summary of the work to date is divided into three sections: equipment procurement, instrumentation, and theoretical developments. For most earth materials, the frequency range from 1 to 100 MHz encompasses a very difficult transition zone between the wave propagation of displacement currents and the diffusive behavior of conduction currents. Test equipment, such as signal generators and amplifiers, does not cover the entire range except at great expense. Hence the authors have divided the range of investigation into three sub-ranges: 1--10 MHz, 10--30 MHz, and 30--100 MHz. Results to date are in the lowest frequency range of 1--10 MHz. Even though conduction

  14. Mechanical Impedance Modeling of Human Arm: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzi, A. Ahmad; Sidek, S. N.; Sado, F.

    2017-03-01

    Human arm mechanical impedance plays a vital role in describing motion ability of the upper limb. One of the impedance parameters is stiffness which is defined as the ratio of an applied force to the measured deformation of the muscle. The arm mechanical impedance modeling is useful in order to develop a better controller for system that interacts with human as such an automated robot-assisted platform for automated rehabilitation training. The aim of the survey is to summarize the existing mechanical impedance models of human upper limb so to justify the need to have an improved version of the arm model in order to facilitate the development of better controller of such systems with ever increase in complexity. In particular, the paper will address the following issue: Human motor control and motor learning, constant and variable impedance models, methods for measuring mechanical impedance and mechanical impedance modeling techniques.

  15. Variational theory of the tapered impedance transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Robert P.

    2018-02-01

    Superconducting amplifiers are key components of modern quantum information circuits. To minimize information loss and reduce oscillations, a tapered impedance transformer of new design is needed at the input/output for compliance with other 50 Ω components. We show that an optimal tapered transformer of length ℓ, joining the amplifier to the input line, can be constructed using a variational principle applied to the linearized Riccati equation describing the voltage reflection coefficient of the taper. For an incident signal of frequency ωo, the variational solution results in an infinite set of equivalent optimal transformers, each with the same form for the reflection coefficient, each able to eliminate input-line reflections. For the special case of optimal lossless transformers, the group velocity vg is shown to be constant, with characteristic impedance dependent on frequency ωc = πvg/ℓ. While these solutions inhibit input-line reflections only for frequency ωo, a subset of optimal lossless transformers with ωo significantly detuned from ωc does exhibit a wide bandpass. Specifically, by choosing ωo → 0 (ωo → ∞), we obtain a subset of optimal low-pass (high-pass) lossless tapers with bandwidth (0, ˜ ωc) [(˜ωc, ∞)]. From the subset of solutions, we derive both the wide-band low-pass and high-pass transformers, and we discuss the extent to which they can be realized given fabrication constraints. In particular, we demonstrate the superior reflection response of our high-pass transformer when compared to other taper designs. Our results have application to amplifiers, transceivers, and other components sensitive to impedance mismatch.

  16. The Influence of Segmental Impedance Analysis in Predicting Validity of Consumer Grade Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Andy; Heath, Jennifer; Peterson, Janet

    2008-05-01

    Consumer grade bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) instruments measure the body's impedance at 50 kHz, and yield a quick estimate of percent body fat. The frequency dependence of the impedance gives more information about the current pathway and the response of different tissues. This study explores the impedance response of human tissue at a range of frequencies from 0.2 - 102 kHz using a four probe method and probe locations standard for segmental BIA research of the arm. The data at 50 kHz, for a 21 year old healthy Caucasian male (resistance of 180φ±10 and reactance of 33φ±2) is in agreement with previously reported values [1]. The frequency dependence is not consistent with simple circuit models commonly used in evaluating BIA data, and repeatability of measurements is problematic. This research will contribute to a better understanding of the inherent difficulties in estimating body fat using consumer grade BIA devices. [1] Chumlea, William C., Richard N. Baumgartner, and Alex F. Roche. ``Specific resistivity used to estimate fat-free mass from segmental body measures of bioelectrical impedance.'' Am J Clin Nutr 48 (1998): 7-15.

  17. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the...

  18. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the...

  19. Multivariable Dynamic Ankle Mechanical Impedance With Relaxed Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Neurological or biomechanical disorders may distort ankle mechanical impedance and thereby impair locomotor function. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of multivariable ankle mechanical impedance of young healthy subjects when their muscles were relaxed, to serve as a baseline to compare with pathophysiological ankle properties of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. Measurements using a highly backdrivable wearable ankle robot combined with multi-input multi-output stochastic system identification methods enabled reliable characterization of ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) simultaneously, the sagittal and frontal planes. The characterization included important ankle properties unavailable from single DOF studies: coupling between DOFs and anisotropy as a function of frequency. Ankle impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness in both seated (knee flexed) and standing (knee straightened) postures. Stiffness in the sagittal plane was greater than in the frontal plane and furthermore, was greater when standing than when seated, most likely due to the stretch of bi-articular muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius). Very low off-diagonal partial coherences implied negligible coupling between dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion. The directions of principal axes were tilted slightly counterclockwise from the original joint coordinates. The directional variation (anisotropy) of ankle impedance in the 2-D space formed by rotations in the sagittal and frontal planes exhibited a characteristic “peanut” shape, weak in inversion-eversion over a wide range of frequencies from the stiffness dominated region up to the inertia dominated region. Implications for the assessment of neurological and biomechanical impairments are discussed. PMID:24686292

  20. A Comparative Study of Four Impedance Eduction Methodologies Using Several Test Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of four commonly used impedance eduction methods is presented for a range of liner structures and test conditions. Two of the methods are restricted to uniform flow while the other two accommodate both uniform and boundary layer flows. Measurements on five liner structures (a rigid-wall insert, a ceramic tubular liner, a wire mesh liner, a low porosity conventional liner, and a high porosity conventional liner) are obtained using the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The educed impedance of each liner is presented for forty-two test conditions (three Mach numbers and fourteen frequencies). In addition, the effects of moving the acoustic source from upstream to downstream and the refractive effects of the mean boundary layer on the wire mesh liner are investigated. The primary conclusions of the study are that: (1) more accurate results are obtained for the upstream source, (2) the uniform flow methods produce nearly identical impedance spectra at and below Mach 0.3 but significant scatter in the educed impedance occurs at the higher Mach number, (3) there is better agreement in educed impedance among the methods for the conventional liners than for the rigid-wall insert, ceramic, or wire mesh liner, and (4) the refractive effects of the mean boundary layer on the educed impedance of the wire mesh liner are generally small except at Mach 0.5.

  1. Adaptive Filtering to Enhance Noise Immunity of Impedance and Admittance Spectroscopy: Comparison with Fourier Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupin, Daniil D.; Koniakhin, Sergei V.; Verlov, Nikolay A.; Dubina, Michael V.

    2017-05-01

    The time-domain technique for impedance spectroscopy consists of computing the excitation voltage and current response Fourier images by fast or discrete Fourier transformation and calculating their relation. Here we propose an alternative method for excitation voltage and current response processing for deriving a system impedance spectrum based on a fast and flexible adaptive filtering method. We show the equivalence between the problem of adaptive filter learning and deriving the system impedance spectrum. To be specific, we express the impedance via the adaptive filter weight coefficients. The noise-canceling property of adaptive filtering is also justified. Using the RLC circuit as a model system, we experimentally show that adaptive filtering yields correct admittance spectra and elements ratings in the high-noise conditions when the Fourier-transform technique fails. Providing the additional sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy, adaptive filtering can be applied to otherwise impossible-to-interpret time-domain impedance data. The advantages of adaptive filtering are justified with practical living-cell impedance measurements.

  2. Impedance in School Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarts, John T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over use of impedance screening in public schools to identify students with hearing problems, including otitis media, a common ear condition in infants and young children. It cites research that questions the value of pure tone screening as a single test and raises critics' objections to the use of impedance,…

  3. Toxicity of graphene nanoflakes evaluated by cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ok Ja; Kim, Insu; Sohn, Il Yung; Kieu, Truong Thuy; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-07-01

    Graphene nanoflake toxicity was analyzed using cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing with interdigitated indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes installed in a custom-built mini-incubator positioned on an inverted optical microscope. Sensing with electrochemical measurements from interdigitated ITO electrodes was highly linear (R(2) = 0.93 and 0.96 for anodic peak current (Ipa) and cathodic peak current (Ipc), respectively). Size-dependent analysis of Graphene nanoflake toxicity was carried out in a mini-incubator system with cultured HeLa cells treated with Graphene nanoflakes having an average size of 80 or 30 nm for one day. Biological assays of cell proliferation and viability complemented electrochemical impedance measurements. The increased toxicity of smaller Graphene nanoflakes (30 nm) as measured by electrochemical impedance sensing and optical monitoring of treated cells was consistent with the biological assay results. Cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing can be used to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials with different biomedical and environmental applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Printed circuit board impedance matching step for microwave (millimeter wave) devices

    DOEpatents

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Aguirre, Jerardo; Sargis, Paul

    2013-10-01

    An impedance matching ground plane step, in conjunction with a quarter wave transformer section, in a printed circuit board provides a broadband microwave matching transition from board connectors or other elements that require thin substrates to thick substrate (>quarter wavelength) broadband microwave (millimeter wave) devices. A method of constructing microwave and other high frequency electrical circuits on a substrate of uniform thickness, where the circuit is formed of a plurality of interconnected elements of different impedances that individually require substrates of different thicknesses, by providing a substrate of uniform thickness that is a composite or multilayered substrate; and forming a pattern of intermediate ground planes or impedance matching steps interconnected by vias located under various parts of the circuit where components of different impedances are located so that each part of the circuit has a ground plane substrate thickness that is optimum while the entire circuit is formed on a substrate of uniform thickness.

  5. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented.

  6. Giant magneto-impedance and magneto-inductive effects in amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panina, L. V.; Mohri, K.; Bushida, K.; Noda, M.

    1994-11-01

    Recent experiments have discovered giant and sensitive magneto-impedance and magneto-inductive effects in FeCoSiB amorphous wires. These effects include a sensitive change in an ac wire voltage with the application of a small dc longitudinal magnetic field. At low frequencies (1-10 kHz) the inductive voltage drops by 50% for a field of 2 Oe (25%/Oe) reflecting a strong field dependence of the circumferential permeability. At higher frequencies (0.1-10 MHz) when the skin effect is essential, the amplitude of the total wire voltage decreases by 40%-60% for fields of 3-10 Oe (about 10%/Oe). These effects exhibit no hysteresis for the variation of an applied field and can be obtained even in wires of 1 mm length and a few micrometer diameter. These characteristics are very useful to constitute a highly sensitive microsensor head to detect local fields of the order of 10(exp -5) Oe. In this paper, we review recently obtained experimental results on magneto-inductive and magneto-impedance effects and present a detailed discussion for their mechanism, developing a general approach in terms of ac complex impedance in a magnetic conductor. In the case of a strong skin effect the total wire impedance depends on the circumferential permeability through the penetration depth, resulting in the giant magneto-impedance effect.

  7. Mobile patient monitoring based on impedance-loaded SAW-sensors.

    PubMed

    Karilainen, Anna; Finnberg, Thomas; Uelzen, Thorsten; Dembowski, Klaus; Müller, Jörg

    2004-11-01

    A remotely requestable, passive, short-range sensor network for measuring small voltages is presented. The sensor system is able to simultaneously monitor six small voltages in millivolt-range, and it can be used for Holter-electrocardiogram (ECG) and other biopotential monitoring, or in industrial applications. The sensors are based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line with voltage-dependent, impedance loading on a reflector interdigital transducer (IDT). The load circuit impedance is varied by the capacitance of the voltage-controlled varactor. High resolution is achieved by developing a MOS-capacitor with a thin oxide, low flat-band voltage, and zero-voltage capacitance in the space-charge region, as well as a high-Q-microcoil by thick metal electroplating. Simultaneous monitoring of multiple potentials is realized by time-division-multiplexing of different sensor signals.

  8. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  9. Impedance cardiography: What is the source of the signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. P.

    2010-04-01

    Impedance cardiography continues to be investigated for various applications. Instruments for its use are available commercially. Almost all of the recent presentations and articles along with commercial advertisements have assumed that aortic volume pulsation is the source of the signal. A review of the literature will reveal that there is no clear evidence for this assumption. Starting with the first paper on impedance cardiography in 1964, which assumed the lung was the source of the signal, the presentation will review many studies in the 60's, 70's and 80's, which suggest the aorta and other vessels as well as atria and again the lung as possible sources. Current studies based on high resolution thoracic models will be presented that show the aorta as contributing only approximately 1% of the total impedance measurement, making it an unlikely candidate for the major contributor to the signal. Combining the results of past studies along with recent work based on models, suggest other vessels and regions as possible sources.

  10. Broadband electrical impedance matching for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiying; Paramo, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for designing broadband electrical impedance matching networks for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers. The design process involves three steps: 1) determine the equivalent circuit of the unmatched piezoelectric transducer based on its measured admittance; 2) design a set of impedance matching networks using a computerized Smith chart; and 3) establish the simulation model of the matched transducer to evaluate the gain and bandwidth of the impedance matching networks. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and characterization of impedance matching networks for a broadband acoustic emission sensor. The impedance matching network improved the power of the acquired signal by 9 times.

  11. A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tao; Wang, Ronghui; Sotero, America; Li, Yanbin

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S. Typhimurium in poultry. The developed portable impedance immunosensing system consisted of a gold interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM), a signal acquisitive interface and a laptop computer with LabVIEW software. The IDAM was first functionalized with 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and streptavidin was immobilized onto the electrode surface through covalent bonding. Then, biotin-labelled S. Typhimurium-antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S. Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. This resulted in impedance changes that were measured and displayed with the LabVIEW software. An equivalent circuit of the immunosensor demonstrated that the largest change in impedance was due to the electron-transfer resistance. The equivalent circuit showed an increase of 35% for the electron-transfer resistance value compared to the negative control. The calibration result indicated that the portable impedance immunosensing system could be used to measure the standard impedance elements, and it had a maximum error of measurement of approximately 13%. For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S. Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 106 CFU (colony-forming unit) (50 μL)−1. The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S. Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD) of 102 CFU (50 μL)−1. The detection time from the moment a sample was introduced to the display of the results was 1 h. To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S. Typhimurium achieved an LOD

  12. A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tao; Wang, Ronghui; Sotero, America; Li, Yanbin

    2017-08-28

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S . Typhimurium in poultry. The developed portable impedance immunosensing system consisted of a gold interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM), a signal acquisitive interface and a laptop computer with LabVIEW software. The IDAM was first functionalized with 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and streptavidin was immobilized onto the electrode surface through covalent bonding. Then, biotin-labelled S . Typhimurium -antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S . Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. This resulted in impedance changes that were measured and displayed with the LabVIEW software. An equivalent circuit of the immunosensor demonstrated that the largest change in impedance was due to the electron-transfer resistance. The equivalent circuit showed an increase of 35% for the electron-transfer resistance value compared to the negative control. The calibration result indicated that the portable impedance immunosensing system could be used to measure the standard impedance elements, and it had a maximum error of measurement of approximately 13%. For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S . Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 10⁶ CFU (colony-forming unit) (50 μL) -1 . The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S . Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10² CFU (50 μL) -1 . The detection time from the moment a sample was introduced to the display of the results was 1 h. To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S . Typhimurium achieved

  13. Matching technique yields optimum LNA performance. [Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a case in which an optimum noise figure and unconditional stability have been designed into a 2.385-GHz low-noise preamplifier via an unusual method for matching the input with a suspended line. The results obtained with several conventional line-matching techniques were not satisfactory. Attention is given to the minimization of thermal noise, the design procedure, requirements for a high-impedance line, a sampling of four matching networks, the noise figure of the single-line matching network as a function of frequency, and the approaches used to achieve unconditional stability.

  14. Impedance changes during setting of amorphous calcium phosphate composites.

    PubMed

    Par, Matej; Šantić, Ana; Gamulin, Ozren; Marovic, Danijela; Moguš-Milanković, Andrea; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the electrical properties of experimental light-curable composite materials based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with the admixture of silanized barium glass and silica fillers. Short-term setting was investigated by impedance measurements at a frequency of 1kHz, while for the long-term setting the impedance spectra were measured consecutively over a frequency range of 0.05Hz to 1MHz for 24h. The analysis of electrical resistivity changes during curing allowed the extraction of relevant kinetic parameters. The impedance results were correlated to the degree of conversion assessed by Raman spectroscopy, water content determined by gravimetry, light transmittance measured by CCD spectrometer and microstructural features observed by scanning electron microscopy. ACP-based composites have shown higher immediate degree of conversion and less post-cure polymerization than the control composites, but lower polymerization rate. The polymerization rate assessed by impedance measurements correlated well with the light transmittance. The differences in the electrical conductivity values observed among the materials were correlated to the amount of water introduced into composites by the ACP filler. High correlation was found between the degree of conversion and electrical resistivity. Equivalent circuit modeling revealed two electrical contributions for the ACP-based composites and a single contribution for the control composites. The impedance spectroscopy has proven a valuable method for gaining insight into various features of ACP-based composites. Better understanding of the properties of ACP-based composites should further the development of these promising bioactive materials. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [In vivo measurement of rabbits brain impedance frequency response and the elementary imaging of EIT].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiuzhen; Qin, Mingxin; Fu, Feng; Wang, Yuemin; You, Fusheng; Xiang, Haiyan; Liu, Ruigang; Shi, Xuetao

    2003-03-01

    The in vivo measurements of rabbit brain tissue impedance were taken under both normal and ischemic conditions by using two-electrode measurement method in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz. The dynamic images about the resistivity of cerebral ischemia were reconstructed based on a 16-electrode system. The results of in vivo measurement showed that the ratio of impedance increased can be as high as 75% at frequencies lower than 10 Hz. In the range from 1 KHz to 1 MHz, the ratio showed a constant value of 15%. The electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images obtained suggested that the regions of impedance changes highly correspond to the position of ischemia. It is confirmed that the brain function changes caused by local deficiency of blood can be detected and imaged by EIT method.

  16. Leveraging Disturbance Observer Based Torque Control for Improved Impedance Rendering with Series Elastic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Holley, James; O'Malley, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    The fidelity with which series elastic actuators (SEAs) render desired impedances is important. Numerous approaches to SEA impedance control have been developed under the premise that high-precision actuator torque control is a prerequisite. Indeed, the design of an inner torque compensator has a significant impact on actuator impedance rendering. The disturbance observer (DOB) based torque control implemented in NASA's Valkyrie robot is considered here and a mathematical model of this torque control, cascaded with an outer impedance compensator, is constructed. While previous work has examined the impact a disturbance observer has on torque control performance, little has been done regarding DOBs and impedance rendering accuracy. Both simulation and a series of experiments are used to demonstrate the significant improvements possible in an SEA's ability to render desired dynamic behaviors when utilizing a DOB. Actuator transparency at low impedances is improved, closed loop hysteresis is reduced, and the actuator's dynamic response to both commands and interaction torques more faithfully matches that of the desired model. All of this is achieved by leveraging DOB based control rather than increasing compensator gains, thus making improved SEA impedance control easier to achieve in practice.

  17. Measuring the multi-frequency electrical impedance of the mouse gastrocnemius muscle using a tetrapolar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Fogerson, P. M.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance methods can be used to evaluate and monitor neuromuscular disease states. Recently, we have applied tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods to the gastrocnemius muscle of the rat for this purpose and substantial changes in the impedance parameters after sciatic nerve crush can be identified. In order to be able to study additional animal models of nerve and muscle disease, however, it would highly desirable to be able to perform such impedance measurements in the mouse. Yet the small size of the mouse presents a substantial technical challenge. In this study, we evaluate a basic approach for performing such measurements. A series of thin, stainless steel strip electrodes affixed to the gastrocnemius and interfaced via a separate connector to the Imp SFB7® (Impedimed, Inc), provided an effective means for obtaining impedance data in the 20-500 kHz range. After two weeks, test-retest reproducibility was good, with intra-class correlation coefficients as high 0.84 and variability as low as 12.86 ± 6.18% in the 15 mice studied. Using this approach, it may now be possible to study impedance changes in a variety of mouse models of neuromuscular disease, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  18. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  19. Short wavelength HgCdTe staring focal plane for low background astronomy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Stobie, J.; Hartle, N.; Lacroix, D.; Maschhoff, K.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a 128x128 staring short wave infrared (SWIR) HgCdTe focal plane incorporating charge integrating transimpedance input preamplifiers is presented. The preamplifiers improve device linearity and uniformity, and provide signal gain ahead of the miltiplexer and readout circuitry. Detector's with cutoff wavelength of 2.5 microns and operated at 80 K have demonstrated impedances in excess of 10(exp 16) ohms with 60 percent quantum efficiency. Focal plane performance using a smaller format device is presented which demonstrates the potential of this approach. Although the design is capable of achieving less than 30 rms electrons with todays technology, initial small format devices demonstrated a read noise of 100 rms electrons and were limited by the atypical high noise performance of the silicon process run. Luminescence from the active silicon circuitry in the multiplexer limits the minimum detector current to a few hundred electrons per second. Approaches to eliminate this excessive source of current is presented which should allow the focal plane to achieve detector background limited performance.

  20. Inductance analyzer based on auto-balanced circuit for precision measurement of fluxgate impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiadi, Rahmondia N.; Schilling, Meinhard

    2018-05-01

    An instrument for fluxgate sensor impedance measurement based on an auto-balanced circuit has been designed and characterized. The circuit design is adjusted to comply with the fluxgate sensor characteristics which are low impedance and highly saturable core with very high permeability. The system utilizes a NI-DAQ card and LabVIEW to process the signal acquisition and evaluation. Some fixed reference resistances are employed for system calibration using linear regression. A multimeter HP 34401A and impedance analyzer Agilent 4294A are used as calibrator and validator for the resistance and inductance measurements. Here, we realized a fluxgate analyzer instrument based on auto-balanced circuit, which measures the resistance and inductance of the device under test with a small error and much lower excitation current to avoid core saturation compared to the used calibrator.

  1. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870.2770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance...

  3. An improved water-filled impedance tube.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Preston S; Roy, Ronald A; Carey, William M

    2003-06-01

    A water-filled impedance tube capable of improved measurement accuracy and precision is reported. The measurement instrument employs a variation of the standardized two-sensor transfer function technique. Performance improvements were achieved through minimization of elastic waveguide effects and through the use of sound-hard wall-mounted acoustic pressure sensors. Acoustic propagation inside the water-filled impedance tube was found to be well described by a plane wave model, which is a necessary condition for the technique. Measurements of the impedance of a pressure-release terminated transmission line, and the reflection coefficient from a water/air interface, were used to verify the system.

  4. A surface impedance-based three-channel acoustic metasurface retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Li, Junfei; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-04-01

    We propose the design and measurement of an acoustic metasurface retroreflector that works at three discrete incident angles. An impedance model is developed such that for acoustic waves impinging at -60°, the reflected wave is defined by the surface impedance of the metasurface, which is realized by a periodic grating. At 0° and 60°, the retroreflection condition can be fulfilled by the diffraction of the surface. The thickness of the metasurface is about half of the operating wavelength and the retroreflector functions without parasitic diffraction associated with conventional gradient-index metasurfaces. Such highly efficient and compact retroreflectors open up possibilities in metamaterial-based acoustic sensing and communications.

  5. Acoustic Impedance Analysis with High-Frequency Ultrasound for Identification of Fatty Acid Species in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuyo; Yoshida, Kenji; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Mamou, Jonathan; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic properties of free fatty acids present in the liver were studied as a possible basis for non-invasive ultrasonic diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Acoustic impedance was measured for the following types of tissue samples: Four pathologic types of mouse liver, five kinds of FFAs in solvent and five kinds of FFAs in cultured Huh-7 cells. A transducer with an 80-MHz center frequency was incorporated into a scanning acoustic microscopy system. Acoustic impedance was calculated from the amplitude of the signal reflected from the specimen surface. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in acoustic impedance not only among pathologic types, but also among the FFAs in solvent and in cultured Huh-7 cells. These results suggest that each of the FFAs, especially palmitate, oleate and palmitoleate acid, can be distinguished from each other, regardless of whether they were in solution or absorbed by cells. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  7. Impedance analysis of a disk-type SOFC using doped lanthanum gallate under power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tohru; Nozaki, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Monma, Akihiko; Kaga, Yasuo; Nagata, Susumu; Takano, Kiyonami; Inagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hosoi, Kei; Hoshino, Koji; Akbay, Taner; Akikusa, Jun

    Impedance measurements were carried out under practical power generation conditions in a disk-type SOFC, which may be utilized as a small-scale power generator. The tested cell was composed of doped lanthanum gallate (La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.15Co 0.05O 3- δ) as the electrolyte, Sm 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 as the cathode electrode and Ni/Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 2 cermet as the anode electrode. The cell impedance was measured between 10 mHz and 10 kHz by varying the fuel utilization and gas flow rate and plotted in complex impedance diagrams. The observed impedance shows a large semi-circular pattern on the low frequency side. The semi-circular impedance, having a noticeably low characteristic frequency between 0.13 and 0.4 Hz, comes from the change in gas composition, originally caused by the cell reaction. The change in impedance with the fuel utilization (load current) and the gas flow rate agreed qualitatively well with the theoretical predictions from a simulation. This impedance was dominant under high fuel-utilization power-generation conditions. The impedance, which described the activation polarizations in the electrode reactions, was comparatively small and scarcely changed with the change in fuel utilization (load current) and gas flow rate.

  8. Issues in impedance selection and input devices for multijoint powered orthotics.

    PubMed

    Lemay, M A; Hogan, N; van Dorsten, J W

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the applicability of impedance controllers to robotic orthoses for arm movements. We had tetraplegics turn a crank using their paralyzed arm propelled by a planar robot manipulandum. The robot was under impedance control, and chin motion served as command source. Stiffness varied between 50, 100, or 200 N/m and damping varied between 5 or 15 N/m/s. Results indicated that a low stiffness and high viscosity provided better directional control of the tangential force exerted on the crank.

  9. Active Control of Liner Impedance by Varying Perforate Orifice Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuji, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The present work explored the feasibility of controlling the acoustic impedance of a resonant type acoustic liner. This was accomplished by translating one perforate over another of the same porosity creating a totally new perforate that had an intermediate porosity. This type of adjustable perforate created a variable orifice perforate whose orifices were non-circular. The key objective of the present study was to quantify, the degree of attenuation control that can be achieved by applying such a concept to the buried septum in a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) acoustic liner. An additional objective was to examine the adequacy of the existing impedance models to explain the behavior of the unique orifice shapes that result from the proposed silding perforate concept. Different orifice shapes with equivalent area were also examined to determine if highly non-circular orifices had a significant impact on the impedance.

  10. Acoustic metamaterials with broadband and wide-angle impedance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenkai; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a general approach to design broadband and wide-angle impedance-matched acoustic metamaterials. Such an unusual acoustic impedance matching characteristic can be well explained by using a spatially dispersive effective medium theory. For demonstrations, we used silicone rubber, which has a huge impedance contrast with water, to design one- and two-dimensional acoustic structures which are almost perfectly impedance matched to water for a wide range of incident angles and in a broad frequency band. Our work opens up an approach to realize extraordinary acoustic impedance matching properties via metamaterial-design techniques.

  11. Effect of electrolyte composition on initial cycling and impedance characteristics of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Furczon, M. M.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.

    Hybrid-electric vehicles require lithium-battery electrolytes that form stable, low impedance passivation layers to protect the electrodes, while allowing rapid lithium-ion transport under high current charge/discharge pulses. In this article, we describe data acquired on cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2-based positive electrodes, graphite-based negative electrodes, and electrolytes with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF 4), lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) and lithium difluoro(oxalato) borate (LiF 2OB) salts. The impedance data were collected in cells containing a Li-Sn reference electrode to determine effect of electrolyte composition and testing temperature on individual electrode impedance. The full cell impedance data showed the following trend: LiBOB > LiBF 4 > LiF 2OB > LiPF 6. The negative electrode impedance showed a trend similar to that of the full cell; this electrode was the main contributor to impedance in the LiBOB and LiBF 4 cells. The positive electrode impedance values for the LiBF 4, LiF 2OB, and LiPF 6 cells were comparable; the values were somewhat higher for the LiBOB cell. Cycling and impedance data were also obtained for cells containing additions of LiBF 4, LiBOB, LiF 2OB, and vinylene carbonate (VC) to the EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) + 1.2 M LiPF 6 electrolyte. Our data indicate that the composition and morphology of the graphite SEI formed during the first lithiation cycle is an important determinant of the negative electrode impedance, and hence full cell impedance.

  12. Bioelectrical Impedance and The Frequency Dependent Current Conduction Through Biological Tissues: A Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar

    2018-03-01

    Biological tissues are developed with biological cells which exhibit complex electrical impedance called electrical bioimpedance. Under an alternating electrical excitation the bioimpedance varies with the tissue anatomy, composition and the signal frequency. The current penetration and conduction paths vary with frequency of the applied signal. Bioimpedance spectroscopy is used to study the frequency response of the electrical impedance of biological materials noninvasively. In bioimpedance spectroscopy, a low amplitude electrical signal is injected to the tissue sample or body parts to characterization the sample in terms of its bioimpedance. The electrical current conduction phenomena, which is highly influenced by the tissue impedance and the signal frequency, is an important phenomena which should be studied to understand the bioimpedance techniques like bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), EIS, or else. In this paper the origin of bioelectrical impedance and current conduction phenomena has been reviewed to present a brief summary of bioelectrical impedance and the frequency dependent current conduction through biological tissues. Simulation studies are conducted with alternation current injection through a two dimensional model of biological tissues containing finite number of biological cells suspended in extracellular fluid. The paper demonstrates the simulation of alternating current conduction through biological tissues conducted by COMSOL Multiphysics. Simulation studies also show the frequency response of the tissue impedance for different tissue compositions.

  13. A multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument for eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Dickinson, S. J.; Peyton, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a high-performance multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument (MFIA) for eddy current testing which has been developed primarily for monitoring a steel production process using an inductive sensor. The system consists of a flexible multi-frequency waveform generator and a voltage/current measurement unit. The impedance of the sensor is obtained by cross-spectral analysis of the current and voltage signals. The system contains high-speed digital-to-analogue, analogue-to-digital converters and dual DSPs with one for control and interface and one dedicated to frequency-spectra analysis using fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The frequency span of the signal that can be analysed ranges from 1 kHz to 8 MHz. The system also employs a high-speed serial port interface (USB) to communicate with a personal computer (PC) and to allow for fast transmission of data and control commands. Overall, the system is capable of delivering over 250 impedance spectra per second. Although the instrument has been developed mainly for use with an inductive sensor, the system is not restricted to inductive measurement. The flexibility of the design architecture is demonstrated with capacitive and resistive measurements by using appropriate input circuitry. Issues relating to optimizing the phase of the spectra components in the excitation waveform are also discussed.

  14. Improving Impedance of Implantable Microwire Multi-Electrode Arrays by Ultrasonic Electroplating of Durable Platinum Black

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sharanya Arcot; Rolston, John D.; Guo, Liang; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been a boon for neural stimulation and recording experiments. Commercially available MEAs have high impedances, due to their low surface area and small tip diameters, which are suitable for recording single unit activity. Lowering the electrode impedance, but preserving the small diameter, would provide a number of advantages, including reduced stimulation voltages, reduced stimulation artifacts and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Impedance reductions can be achieved by electroplating the MEAs with platinum (Pt) black, which increases the surface area but has little effect on the physical extent of the electrodes. However, because of the low durability of Pt black plating, this method has not been popular for chronic use. Sonicoplating (i.e. electroplating under ultrasonic agitation) has been shown to improve the durability of Pt black on the base metals of macro-electrodes used for cyclic voltammetry. This method has not previously been characterized for MEAs used in chronic neural implants. We show here that sonicoplating can lower the impedances of microwire multi-electrode arrays (MMEA) by an order of magnitude or more (depending on the time and voltage of electroplating), with better durability compared to pulsed plating or traditional DC methods. We also show the improved stimulation and recording performance that can be achieved in an in vivo implantation study with the sonicoplated low-impedance MMEAs, compared to high-impedance unplated electrodes. PMID:20485478

  15. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  16. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel E.; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level. PMID:21730138

  17. Impaired bolus clearance in combined high-resolution esophageal manometry and impedance measurement helps to differentiate between esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction and achalasia.

    PubMed

    Zizer, Eugen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Hänle, Mark Martin

    2017-02-01

    Introduction and aims  High-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has improved the diagnostic work-up of esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous evaluation of bolus clearance delivers useful information about the function of tubular esophagus. We assessed bolus clearance in a combined HRM-impedance examination for esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) in comparison to achalasia patients. The collected data were assessed in a retrospective analysis. Patients and methods  After gastroscopy excluded a mechanical esophageal or gastric obstruction, 142 consecutive patients underwent combined HRM-impedance examination. The assessment and interpretation of the manometry results were done according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders v3.0. After classifying the motility disorder, the evaluation of bolus clearance was done according to published studies. Results  All patients with achalasia (n = 24) showed a significantly impaired bolus clearance (< 80 %). Patients with unaffected peristalsis (n = 56) or patients with EGJOO (n = 14) each showed impaired clearance in 7 %, respectively. The evidence of axial hernia was not associated with impaired clearance. Conclusion  Our results demonstrate a significant difference in impedance measurements between EGJOO and achalasia cases. This might be helpful as an additional tool to differentiate between achalasia and EGJOO patients. Furthermore, the role of the combined impedance-HRM investigation for early diagnosis of achalasia in "pre-achalasia" condition or in evaluation of potential progress of EGJOO to achalasia should be evaluated in a prospective study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Impedance measurements for detecting pathogens attached to antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.

    2004-12-28

    The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.

  19. Impedance of Barrier-Type Oxide Layer on Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Han-Jun; Kim, Jung-Gu; Jeong, Yong-Soo; Chi, Choong-Soo

    2000-12-01

    The impedance characteristics of barrier-type oxide layers on aluminum was studied using impedance spectroscopy. Since anodic films on Al have a variable stoichiometry with a gradual reduction of oxygen deficiency towards the oxide-electrolyte interface, the interpretation of impedance spectra for oxide layers is complex and the impedance of surface layers differs from those of ideal capacitors. This frequency response of the layer with conductance gradients cannot be described by a single resistance-capacitance (RC) element. The oxide layers of Al are properly described by the Young model of dielectric constant with a vertical decay of conductivity.

  20. Experimental Impedance of Single Liner Elements with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follet, J. I.; Betts, J. F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to generate a high quality database, from which the effects of a mean bias flow on the acoustic impedance of lumped-element single-degree-of-freedom liners was determined. Acoustic impedance measurements were made using the standard two-microphone method in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube. Each liner consisted of a perforated sheet with a constant-area cavity. Liner resistance was shown to increase and to become less frequency and sound pressure level dependent as the bias flow was increased. The resistance was also consistently lower for a negative bias flow (suction) than for a positive bias flow (blowing) of equal magnitude. The slope of the liner reactance decreased with increased flow.

  1. Transverse impedances and collective instabilities in a heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Yin, D. Y.; Shen, G. D.; Li, P.; Wu, B.; Ruan, S.; Zhao, H.; Wang, G.; Dong, Z. Q.; Wang, K. D.; Yao, L. P.

    2018-06-01

    Evaluation of transverse impedances and collective instabilities is important for determining whether a transverse feedback system or damping schemes should be prepared in the BRing (Booster Ring) at the HIAF (High Intensity Heavy-ion Accelerator Facility). In this paper, some dominant transverse impedances are estimated to build a transverse impedance model of the BRing. With this model, all potential transverse instabilities and their growth times or rates are analyzed by analytical methods or simulations, and the results agree with each other. The growth times of some instabilities are shorter than the duration times of corresponding manipulations, which shows transverse instabilities may have many detrimental impacts on the BRing. To cure the transverse instabilities, a transverse feedback system will be proposed in the design of the BRing. Besides, this paper not only shows the transverse instabilities in the BRing, but also provides the whole method for estimating them in the design of a new accelerator facility.

  2. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  3. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  4. Development of high resolution linear-cut beam position monitor for heavy-ion synchrotron of KHIMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter; Noh, Seon Yeong; Hahn, Garam; Choi, Minkyoo

    2017-04-01

    A beam position monitor with high precision and resolution is required to control the beam trajectory for matching to the injection orbit and acceleration in a heavy-ion synchrotron. It will be also used for measuring the beta function, tune, and chromaticity. Since the bunch length at heavy ion synchrotron is relatively long, a few meters, a boxlike device with plates of typically 20 cm length is used to enhance the signal strength and to get a precise linear dependence with respect to the beam displacement. Especially, the linear-cut beam position monitor is adopted to satisfy the position resolution of 100 μm and accuracy of 200 μm for a nominal beam intensity in the KHIMA synchrotron of ∼ 7 ×108 particles for the carbon beams and ∼ 2 ×1010 for the proton beams. In this paper, we show the electromagnetic design of the electrode and surroundings to satisfy the resolution of 100 μm, the criteria for mechanical aspect to satisfy the position accuracy of 200 μm, the measurement results by using wire test-bench, design and measurement of a high input impedance pre-amplifier, and the beam-test results with long (∼1.6 μs) electron beam in Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL).

  5. Portable bioimpedance monitor evaluation for continuous impedance measurements. Towards wearable plethysmography applications.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K

    2013-01-01

    Personalised Health Systems (PHS) that could benefit the life quality of the patients as well as decreasing the health care costs for society among other factors are arisen. The purpose of this paper is to study the capabilities of the System-on-Chip Impedance Network Analyser AD5933 performing high speed single frequency continuous bioimpedance measurements. From a theoretical analysis, the minimum continuous impedance estimation time was determined, and the AD5933 with a custom 4-Electrode Analog Front-End (AFE) was used to experimentally determine the maximum continuous impedance estimation frequency as well as the system impedance estimation error when measuring a 2R1C electrical circuit model. Transthoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB) measurements in a healthy subject were obtained using 3M gel electrodes in a tetrapolar lateral spot electrode configuration. The obtained TEB raw signal was filtered in MATLAB to obtain the respiration and cardiogenic signals, and from the cardiogenic signal the impedance derivative signal (dZ/dt) was also calculated. The results have shown that the maximum continuous impedance estimation rate was approximately 550 measurements per second with a magnitude estimation error below 1% on 2R1C-parallel bridge measurements. The displayed respiration and cardiac signals exhibited good performance, and they could be used to obtain valuable information in some plethysmography monitoring applications. The obtained results suggest that the AD5933-based monitor could be used for the implementation of a portable and wearable Bioimpedance plethysmograph that could be used in applications such as Impedance Cardiography. These results combined with the research done in functional garments and textile electrodes might enable the implementation of PHS applications in a relatively short time from now.

  6. Implementation and Validation of an Impedance Eduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Gerhold, Carl H.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a pressure gradient method of impedance eduction in two NASA Langley flow ducts is described. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube only supports plane-wave sources, while the Curved Duct Test Rig supports sources that contain higher-order modes. Multiple exercises are used to validate this new impedance eduction method. First, synthesized data for a hard wall insert and a conventional liner mounted in the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube are used as input to the two impedance eduction methods, the pressure gradient method and a previously validated wall pressure method. Comparisons between the two results are excellent. Next, data measured in the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube are used as input to both methods. Results from the two methods compare quite favorably for sufficiently low Mach numbers but this comparison degrades at Mach 0.5, especially when the hard wall insert is used. Finally, data measured with a hard wall insert mounted in the Curved Duct Test Rig are used as input to the pressure gradient method. Significant deviation from the known solution is observed, which is believed to be largely due to 3-D effects in this flow duct. Potential solutions to this issue are currently being explored.

  7. Development on electromagnetic impedance function modeling and its estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, D.

    2015-09-01

    Today the Electromagnetic methods such as magnetotellurics (MT) and controlled sources audio MT (CSAMT) is used in a broad variety of applications. Its usefulness in poor seismic areas and its negligible environmental impact are integral parts of effective exploration at minimum cost. As exploration was forced into more difficult areas, the importance of MT and CSAMT, in conjunction with other techniques, has tended to grow continuously. However, there are obviously important and difficult problems remaining to be solved concerning our ability to collect process and interpret MT as well as CSAMT in complex 3D structural environments. This talk aim at reviewing and discussing the recent development on MT as well as CSAMT impedance functions modeling, and also some improvements on estimation procedures for the corresponding impedance functions. In MT impedance modeling, research efforts focus on developing numerical method for computing the impedance functions of three dimensionally (3-D) earth resistivity models. On that reason, 3-D finite elements numerical modeling for the impedances is developed based on edge element method. Whereas, in the CSAMT case, the efforts were focused to accomplish the non-plane wave problem in the corresponding impedance functions. Concerning estimation of MT and CSAMT impedance functions, researches were focused on improving quality of the estimates. On that objective, non-linear regression approach based on the robust M-estimators and the Hilbert transform operating on the causal transfer functions, were used to dealing with outliers (abnormal data) which are frequently superimposed on a normal ambient MT as well as CSAMT noise fields. As validated, the proposed MT impedance modeling method gives acceptable results for standard three dimensional resistivity models. Whilst, the full solution based modeling that accommodate the non-plane wave effect for CSAMT impedances is applied for all measurement zones, including near-, transition

  8. Development on electromagnetic impedance function modeling and its estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutarno, D., E-mail: Sutarno@fi.itb.ac.id

    2015-09-30

    Today the Electromagnetic methods such as magnetotellurics (MT) and controlled sources audio MT (CSAMT) is used in a broad variety of applications. Its usefulness in poor seismic areas and its negligible environmental impact are integral parts of effective exploration at minimum cost. As exploration was forced into more difficult areas, the importance of MT and CSAMT, in conjunction with other techniques, has tended to grow continuously. However, there are obviously important and difficult problems remaining to be solved concerning our ability to collect process and interpret MT as well as CSAMT in complex 3D structural environments. This talk aim atmore » reviewing and discussing the recent development on MT as well as CSAMT impedance functions modeling, and also some improvements on estimation procedures for the corresponding impedance functions. In MT impedance modeling, research efforts focus on developing numerical method for computing the impedance functions of three dimensionally (3-D) earth resistivity models. On that reason, 3-D finite elements numerical modeling for the impedances is developed based on edge element method. Whereas, in the CSAMT case, the efforts were focused to accomplish the non-plane wave problem in the corresponding impedance functions. Concerning estimation of MT and CSAMT impedance functions, researches were focused on improving quality of the estimates. On that objective, non-linear regression approach based on the robust M-estimators and the Hilbert transform operating on the causal transfer functions, were used to dealing with outliers (abnormal data) which are frequently superimposed on a normal ambient MT as well as CSAMT noise fields. As validated, the proposed MT impedance modeling method gives acceptable results for standard three dimensional resistivity models. Whilst, the full solution based modeling that accommodate the non-plane wave effect for CSAMT impedances is applied for all measurement zones, including near

  9. A novel method for real-time skin impedance measurement during radiofrequency skin tightening treatments.

    PubMed

    Harth, Yoram; Lischinsky, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The thermal effects of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) have been proven to be beneficial in skin tightening. Nevertheless, these effects were frequently partial or unpredictable because of the uncontrolled nature of monopolar or unipolar RF and the superficial nature of energy flow for bipolar or tripolar configurations. One of the hypotheses for lack or predictability of efficacy of the first-generation RF therapy skin tightening systems is lack of adaptation of delivered power to differences in individual skin impedance. A novel multisource phase-controlled system was used (1 MHz, power range 0-65 W) for treatment and real-time skin impedance measurements in 24 patients (EndyMed PRO™; EndyMed, Cesarea, Israel). This system allows continuous real-time measurement of skin impedance delivering constant energy to the patient skin independent of changes in its impedance. More than 6000 unique skin impedance measurements on 22 patients showed an average session impedance range was 215-584 Ohm with an average of 369 Ohm (standard deviation of 49 Ohm). Analyzing individual pulses (total of 600 readings) showed a significant decrease in impedance during the pulse. These findings validate the expected differences in skin impedance between individual patients and in the same patients during the treatment pulse. Clinical study on 30 patients with facial skin aging using the device has shown high predictability of efficacy (86.7% of patients had good results or better at 3 months' follow-up [decrease of 2 or more grades in Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale]). The real-time customization of energy according to skin impedance allows a significantly more accurate and safe method of nonablative skin tightening with more consistent and predictable results. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Time-Domain Impedance Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Auriault, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    It is an accepted practice in aeroacoustics to characterize the properties of an acoustically treated surface by a quantity known as impedance. Impedance is a complex quantity. As such, it is designed primarily for frequency-domain analysis. Time-domain boundary conditions that are the equivalent of the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition are proposed. Both single frequency and model broadband time-domain impedance boundary conditions are provided. It is shown that the proposed boundary conditions, together with the linearized Euler equations, form well-posed initial boundary value problems. Unlike ill-posed problems, they are free from spurious instabilities that would render time-marching computational solutions impossible.

  11. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  12. Impedance-based structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchford, Corey; Grisso, Benjamin L.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2007-04-01

    Wind power is a fast-growing source of non-polluting, renewable energy with vast potential. However, current wind turbine technology must be improved before the potential of wind power can be fully realized. Wind turbine blades are one of the key components in improving this technology. Blade failure is very costly because it can damage other blades, the wind turbine itself, and possibly other wind turbines. A successful damage detection system incorporated into wind turbines could extend blade life and allow for less conservative designs. A damage detection method which has shown promise on a wide variety of structures is impedance-based structural health monitoring. The technique utilizes small piezoceramic (PZT) patches attached to a structure as self-sensing actuators to both excite the structure with high-frequency excitations, and monitor any changes in structural mechanical impedance. By monitoring the electrical impedance of the PZT, assessments can be made about the integrity of the mechanical structure. Recently, advances in hardware systems with onboard computing, including actuation and sensing, computational algorithms, and wireless telemetry, have improved the accessibility of the impedance method for in-field measurements. This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing such an onboard system inside of turbine blades as an in-field method of damage detection. Viability of onboard detection is accomplished by running a series of tests to verify the capability of the method on an actual wind turbine blade section from an experimental carbon/glass/balsa composite blade developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. High-resolution impedance manometry parameters enhance the esophageal motility evaluation in non-obstructive dysphagia patients without a major Chicago Classification motility disorder.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D A; Omari, T; Lin, Z; Rommel, N; Starkey, K; Kahrilas, P J; Tack, J; Pandolfino, J E

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) allows evaluation of esophageal bolus retention, flow, and pressurization. We aimed to perform a collaborative analysis of HRIM metrics to evaluate patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Fourteen asymptomatic controls (58% female; ages 20-50) and 41 patients (63% female; ages 24-82), 18 evaluated for dysphagia and 23 for reflux (non-dysphagia patients), with esophageal motility diagnoses of normal motility or ineffective esophageal motility, were evaluated with HRIM and a global dysphagia symptom score (Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire). HRIM was analyzed to assess Chicago Classification metrics, automated pressure-flow metrics, the esophageal impedance integral (EII) ratio, and the bolus flow time (BFT). Significant symptom-metric correlations were detected only with basal EGJ pressure, EII ratio, and BFT. The EII ratio, BFT, and impedance ratio differed between controls and dysphagia patients, while the EII ratio in the upright position was the only measure that differentiated dysphagia from non-dysphagia patients. The EII ratio and BFT appear to offer an improved diagnostic evaluation in patients with non-obstructive dysphagia without a major esophageal motility disorder. Bolus retention as measured with the EII ratio appears to carry the strongest association with dysphagia, and thus may aid in the characterization of symptomatic patients with otherwise normal manometry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Impedance measurement using a two-microphone, random-excitation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Parrott, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a two-microphone, random-excitation technique for the measurement of acoustic impedance was studied. Equations were developed, including the effect of mean flow, which show that acoustic impedance is related to the pressure ratio and phase difference between two points in a duct carrying plane waves only. The impedances of a honeycomb ceramic specimen and a Helmholtz resonator were measured and compared with impedances obtained using the conventional standing-wave method. Agreement between the two methods was generally good. A sensitivity analysis was performed to pinpoint possible error sources and recommendations were made for future study. The two-microphone approach evaluated in this study appears to have some advantages over other impedance measuring techniques.

  15. Plasma Diagnostics by Antenna Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, C. M.; Baker, K. D.; Pound, E.; Jensen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The impedance of an electrically short antenna immersed in a plasma provides an excellent in situ diagnostic tool for electron density and other plasma parameters. By electrically short we mean that the wavelength of the free-space electromagnetic wave that would be excited at the driving frequency is much longer than the physical size of the antenna. Probes using this impedance technique have had a long history with sounding rockets and satellites, stretching back to the early 1960s. This active technique could provide information on composition and temperature of plasmas for comet or planetary missions. Advantages of the impedance probe technique are discussed and two classes of instruments built and flown by SDL-USU for determining electron density (the capacitance and plasma frequency probes) are described.

  16. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  17. Electrical impedance map (EIM) for margin assessment during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) using a microendoscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Aditya; Khan, Shadab; Schned, Alan R.; Hyams, Elias S.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2015-03-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSMs) found following prostate cancer surgery are a significant risk factor for post-operative disease recurrence. Noxious adjuvant radiation and chemical-based therapies are typically offered to men with PSMs. Unfortunately, no real-time intraoperative technology is currently available to guide surgeons to regions of suspicion during the initial prostatectomy where immediate surgical excisions could be used to reduce the chance of PSMs. A microendoscopic electrical impedance sensing probe was developed with the intention of providing real-time feedback regarding margin status to surgeons during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) procedures. A radially configured 17-electrode microendoscopic probe was designed, constructed, and initially evaluated through use of gelatin-based phantoms and an ex vivo human prostate specimen. Impedance measurements are recorded at 10 frequencies (10 kHz - 100 kHz) using a high-speed FPGA-based electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. Tetrapolar impedances are recorded from a number of different electrode configurations strategically chosen to sense tissue in a pre-defined sector underlying the probe face. A circular electrical impedance map (EIM) with several color-coded pie-shaped sectors is created to represent the impedance values of the probed tissue. Gelatin phantom experiments show an obvious distinction in the impedance maps between high and low impedance regions. Similarly, the EIM generated from the ex vivo prostate case shows distinguishing features between cancerous and benign regions. Based on successful development of this probe and these promising initial results, EIMs of additional prostate specimens are being collected to further evaluate this approach for intraoperative surgical margin assessment during RALP procedures.

  18. Some Nonlinear Reconstruction Algorithms for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2001-03-09

    An impedance camera [Henderson and Webster, 1978; Dines and Lytle, 1981]--or what is now more commonly called electrical impedance tomography--attempts to image the electrical impedance (or just the conductivity) distribution inside a body using electrical measurements on its boundary. The method has been used successfully in both biomedical [Brown, 1983; Barber and Brown, 1986; J. C. Newell, D. G. Gisser, and D. Isaacson, 1988; Webster, 1990] and geophysical applications [Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Daily, Lin, and Buscheck, 1987], but the analysis of optimal reconstruction algorithms is still progressing [Murai and Kagawa, 1985; Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Kohn andmore » Vogelius, 1987; Yorkey and Webster, 1987; Yorkey, Webster, and Tompkins, 1987; Berryman and Kohn, 1990; Kohn and McKenney, 1990; Santosa and Vogelius, 1990; Yorkey, 1990]. The most common application is monitoring the influx or efflux of a highly conducting fluid (such as brine in a porous rock or blood in the human body) through the volume being imaged. For biomedical applications, this met hod does not have the resolution of radiological methods, but it is comparatively safe and inexpensive and therefore provides a valuable alternative when continuous monitoring of a patient or process is desired. The following discussion is intended first t o summarize the physics of electrical impedance tomography, then to provide a few details of the data analysis and forward modeling requirements, and finally to outline some of the reconstruction algorithms that have proven to be most useful in practice. Pointers to the literature are provided throughout this brief narrative and the reader is encouraged to explore the references for more complete discussions of the various issues raised here.« less

  19. Calculation of the coherent synchrotron radiation impedance from a wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Stupakov, Gennady V.

    2003-04-01

    Most studies of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) have considered only the radiation from independent dipole magnets. However, in the damping rings of future linear colliders, a large fraction of the radiation power will be emitted in damping wigglers. In this paper, the longitudinal wakefield and impedance due to CSR in a wiggler are derived in the limit of a large wiggler parameter K. After an appropriate scaling, the results can be expressed in terms of universal functions, which are independent of K. Analytical asymptotic results are obtained for the wakefield in the limit of large and small distances, and for the impedance in the limit of small and high frequencies.

  20. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  1. Possibilities of electrical impedance tomography in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Trokhanova O.; A, Chijova Y.; B, Okhapkin M.; V, Korjenevsky A.; S, Tuykin T.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes results of comprehensive EIT diagnostics of mammary glands and cervix. The data were obtained from examinations of 170 patients by EIT system MEM (multi-frequency electrical impedance mammograph) and EIT system GIT (gynecological impedance tomograph). Mutual dependence is discussed.

  2. Comparison of a Convected Helmholtz and Euler Model for Impedance Eduction in Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    Impedances educed from a well-tested convected Helmholtz model are compared to that of a recently developed linearized Euler model using two ceramic test liners under the assumed conditions or uniform flow and a plane wave source. The convected Helmholtz model is restricted to uniform mean flow whereas the linearized Euler model can account for the effect or the shear layer. Test data to educe the impedance is acquired from measurements obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center Grazing Incidence Tube for mean flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 and source frequencies ranging from 0.5 kHz to 3.0 kHz. The unknown impedance of the liner b educed by judiciously chooingth e impedance via an optimization method to match the measured acoustic pressure on the wall opposite the test liner. Results are presented on four spatial grids using three different optimization methods (contour deformation, Davidon-Fletcher Powell, and the Genetic Algorithm). All three optimization methods converge to the same impedance when used with the same model and to nearly identical impedances when used on different models. h anomaly was observed only at 0.5 kHz for high mean flow speeds. The anomaly is likely due to the use of measured data in a flow regime where shear layer effects are important but are neglected in the math models. Consistency between the impedances educed using the two models provides confidence that the linearized Euler model is ready For application to more realistic flows, such as those containing shear layers.

  3. Effect of Resonator Axis Skew on Normal Incidence Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Homeijer, Brian

    2003-01-01

    High by-pass turbofan engines have fewer fan blades and lower rotation speeds than their predecessors. Consequently, the noise suppression at the low frequency end of the noise spectra has become an increasing concern. This has led to a renewed emphasis on improving noise suppression efficiency of passive, duct liner treatments at the lower frequencies. For a variety of reasons, passive liners are comprised of locally-reacting, resonant absorbers. One reason for this design choice is to satisfy operational and economic requirements. The simplest liner design consists of a single layer of honeycomb core sandwiched between a porous facesheet and an impervious backing plate. These resonant absorbing structures are integrated into the nacelle wall and are very ef- ficient over a limited bandwidth centered on their resonance frequency. Increased noise suppression bandwidth and greater suppression at lower frequencies is typically achieved for conventional liners by increasing the liner depth and incorporating thin porous septa into the honeycomb core. However, constraints on liner depth in modern high by-pass engine nacelles severely limit the suppression bandwidth extension to lower frequencies. Also, current honeycomb core liners may not be suitable for irregular geometric volumes heretofore not considered. It is of interest, therefore, to find ways to circumvent liner depth restrictions and resonator cavity shape constraints. One way to increase effective liner depth is to skew the honeycomb core axis relative to the porous facesheet surface. Other possibilities are to alter resonator cavity shape, e.g. high aspect ratio, narrow channels that possibly include right angle bends, 180. channel fold-backs, and splayed channel walls to conform to irregular geometric constraints. These possibilities constitute the practical motivation for expanding impedance modeling capability to include unconventional resonator orientations and shapes. The work reported in this paper is

  4. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yangkyu; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Yun, Joho; Seo, Seungwan; Park, Chang-Ju; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1) and cancerous (TCCSUP) human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS). Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF) was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT) was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p < 0.001), was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF. PMID:26998490

  5. Analysis of the Impedance Resonance of Piezoelectric Multi-Fiber Composite Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Djrbashian, A.; Bradford, S C

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Fiber CompositesTM (MFC's) produced by Smart Materials Corp behave essentially like thin planar stacks where each piezoelectric layer is composed of a multitude of fibers. We investigate the suitability of using previously published inversion techniques for the impedance resonances of monolithic co-fired piezoelectric stacks to the MFCTM to determine the complex material constants from the impedance data. The impedance equations examined in this paper are those based on the derivation. The utility of resonance techniques to invert the impedance data to determine the small signal complex material constants are presented for a series of MFC's. The technique was applied to actuators with different geometries and the real coefficients were determined to be similar within changes of the boundary conditions due to change of geometry. The scatter in the imaginary coefficient was found to be larger. The technique was also applied to the same actuator type but manufactured in different batches with some design changes in the non active portion of the actuator and differences in the dielectric and the electromechanical coupling between the two batches were easily measureable. It is interesting to note that strain predicted by small signal impedance analysis is much lower than high field stains. Since the model is based on material properties rather than circuit constants, it could be used for the direct evaluation of specific aging or degradation mechanisms in the actuator as well as batch sorting and adjustment of manufacturing processes.

  6. Clinical implementation of electrical impedance tomography with hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, M J; Ryan, T P; Paulsen, K D; Mitchell, S E

    1995-01-01

    We describe the use of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for non-invasive thermal imaging in conjunction with a clinical treatment of a superficial scalp lesion utilizing a spiral microstrip antenna. This is our first reported use of EIT with a clinical hyperthermia treatment and perhaps the first world-wide. The thermal measurements recorded during treatment compare favourably with the images reconstructed from impedance data gathered during heating. A linear relation, measured in phantom material, between the change in temperature with the change in reconstructed impedance was assumed. The average discrepancy between the measured temperature changes with the temperatures reconstructed from the impedance changes was 1.4 degrees C, with the maximum being 8.9 degrees C. These preliminary data suggest that impedance changes can be measured during hyperthermia delivery and temperature estimates based on these observed changes are possible in the clinical setting. These findings also point to the complex, yet critical nature of the impedance versus temperature relationship for tissue in vivo. The reconstructed thermal images may provide complementary information about the overall thermal damage imposed during heating. Based on this initial clinical experience we feel that EIT has great potential as a viable clinical aid in imaging the temperature changes imposed during hyperthermia.

  7. Impedance dispersion analysis of drug-membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacheva, Bilyana; Paarvanova, Boyana; Ivanov, Ivan T.; Karabaliev, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    Thin lipid films modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were used in this work as model system for studying the interactions between two antipsychotic phenothiazine drugs, chlorpromazine and thioridazine, and the lipid fraction of the biomembranes. The lipid films on the electrode surface were obtained through the thinning of film-forming lipid solution deposited between an electrolyte phase and the working GC electrode. The effects of the drugs on the lipid film structure were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). To characterize the electric properties of the lipid film the impedance of the working GCE is modeled with an equivalent circuit consisting of parallel capacitance Cp and resistance Rp. These capacitance and resistance are not frequency independent but could be calculated as equivalent Cp and Rp for each measured frequency of the impedance spectrum and presented as functions of the frequency f, Cp = Cp(f) and Rp= Rp(f). For the lipid films used in this work, it is demonstrated that both Cp(f) and Rp(f) are well approximated with power-law functions. This behavior implies that the impedance Z of the films could be analysed in terms of the well-known constant-phase angle element (CPE), which is often used to describe the interfacial impedance of solid working electrodes.

  8. Acoustic Impedance Inversion of Seismic Data Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eladj, Said; Djarfour, Noureddine; Ferahtia, Djalal; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali

    2013-04-01

    The inversion of seismic data can be used to constrain estimates of the Earth's acoustic impedance structure. This kind of problem is usually known to be non-linear, high-dimensional, with a complex search space which may be riddled with many local minima, and results in irregular objective functions. We investigate here the performance and the application of a genetic algorithm, in the inversion of seismic data. The proposed algorithm has the advantage of being easily implemented without getting stuck in local minima. The effects of population size, Elitism strategy, uniform cross-over and lower mutation are examined. The optimum solution parameters and performance were decided as a function of the testing error convergence with respect to the generation number. To calculate the fitness function, we used L2 norm of the sample-to-sample difference between the reference and the inverted trace. The cross-over probability is of 0.9-0.95 and mutation has been tested at 0.01 probability. The application of such a genetic algorithm to synthetic data shows that the inverted acoustic impedance section was efficient. Keywords: Seismic, Inversion, acoustic impedance, genetic algorithm, fitness functions, cross-over, mutation.

  9. Microprobe array with low impedance electrodes and highly flexible polyimide cables for acute neural recording.

    PubMed

    Kisban, S; Herwik, S; Seidl, K; Rubehn, B; Jezzini, A; Umiltà, M A; Fogassi, L; Stieglitz, T; Paul, O; Ruther, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a novel type of silicon-based microprobes with linear, two and three dimensional (3D) distribution of their recording sites. The microprobes comprise either single shafts, combs with multiple shafts or 3D arrays combining two combs with 9, 36 or 72 recording sites, respectively. The electrical interconnection of the probes is achieved through highly flexible polyimide ribbon cables attached using the MicroFlex Technology which allows a connection part of small lateral dimensions. For an improved handling, probes can be secured by a protecting canula. Low-impedance electrodes are achieved by the deposition of platinum black. First in vivo experiments proved the capability to record single action potentials in the motor cortex from electrodes close to the tip as well as body electrodes along the shaft.

  10. In vitro analysis of various cell lines responses to electroporative electric pulses by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramon; Mir, Lluis M

    2018-06-07

    This paper reports the comparative analysis, by means of electric impedance spectroscopy measurements, of three different cell lines subjected to electroporative pulses. The multifrequency information is recorded simultaneously at 21 frequency values in the range between 5 kHz and 1.3 MHz using a multisine based measuring approach. The analysis of the pre-electroporation impedance spectra shows how the system is able to detect differences and similarities between the cell lines under analysis. Particularly, a good agreement is found between the average cell diameter and the characteristic frequency (the frequency corresponding to a maximum in the imaginary part of the impedance). The measurements performed during electroporation at three different electric field intensities show how the impedance spectra changes dynamically between the consecutive pulses of a train of 8,100 µs pulses delivered at 1 Hz repetition rate. There are clear differences between the changes in the impedance measured at low and high frequency. The multifrequency information has been fitted to an electrical equivalent model in order to understand the different contributions in the observed impedance changes (mainly separate between membrane permeabilization and the conductivity changes in the extracellular medium). Finally, a ratio of the low and high frequency impedance information is used to estimate the accumulated impedance decay and to compare it to the internalization of a fluorescent permeabilization reporter. The comparison between both techniques at the three electroporation electric field intensities assayed confirms the ability of impedance measurements to detect in a precise way the level of membrane permeabilization. Additionally, this study demonstrates how the real time information obtained thanks to impedance measurements can provide a more precise quantification of the membrane permeabilization extent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. AC impedance investigations of proton conduction in Nafion(sup TM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahan, B. D.; Wainright, J. S.

    1993-12-01

    AC impedance spectroscopy has been employed to study the conduction of protons in Nafion 117 polymer electrolyte membrane. Both two- and four-electrode geometries have been used to uniquely distinguish between the membrane impedance and the interfacial impedances. The results show that the impedance of Nafion for frequencies up to 100 kHz is characterized by a pure resistance, similar to conventional liquid electrolytes. The frequency dependent features observed using a two-electrode geometry are shown to be consistent will well-characterized interfacial impedances and do not arise from ionic conduction in the membrane. These results show that previous two-electrode studies reported in the literature have misinterpreted the impedance of the electrode interfaces as belonging to the conduction process in the electrolyte.

  12. Electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eduardo L V; Lima, Raul Gonzalez; Amato, Marcelo B P

    2009-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive, radiation-free monitoring tool that allows real-time imaging of ventilation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the fundamentals of EIT and to review the use of EIT in critical care patients. In addition to its established role in describing the distribution of alveolar ventilation, EIT has been shown to be a useful tool to detect lung collapse and monitor lung recruitment, both regionally and on a global basis. EIT has also been used to diagnose with high sensitivity incident pneumothoraces during mechanical ventilation. Additionally, with injection of hypertonic saline as a contrast agent, it is possible to estimate ventilation/perfusion distributions. EIT is cheap, noninvasive and allows continuous monitoring of ventilation. It is gaining acceptance as a valuable monitoring tool for the care of critical patients.

  13. Electrical impedance tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Beatriz; Hermosa, Cecilia; Abella, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Continuous assessment of respiratory status is one of the cornerstones of modern intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring systems. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), although with some constraints, may play the lead as a new diagnostic and guiding tool for an adequate optimization of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. EIT may assist in defining mechanical ventilation settings, assess distribution of tidal volume and of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and contribute to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal volume combinations. It may also quantify gains (recruitment) and losses (overdistention or derecruitment), granting a more realistic evaluation of different ventilator modes or recruitment maneuvers, and helping in the identification of responders and non-responders to such maneuvers. Moreover, EIT also contributes to the management of life-threatening lung diseases such as pneumothorax, and aids in guiding fluid management in the critical care setting. Lastly, assessment of cardiac function and lung perfusion through electrical impedance is on the way. PMID:29430443

  14. Using surface impedance for calculating wakefields in flat geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2015-03-18

    Beginning with Maxwell's equations and assuming only that the wall interaction can be approximated by a surface impedance, we derive formulas for the generalized longitudinal and transverse impedance in flat geometry, from which the wakefields can also be obtained. From the generalized impedances, by taking the proper limits, we obtain the normal longitudinal, dipole, and quad impedances in flat geometry. These equations can be applied to any surface impedance, such as the known dc, ac, and anomalous skin models of wall resistance, a model of wall roughness, or one for a pipe with small, periodic corrugations. We show that, formore » the particular case of dc wall resistance, the longitudinal impedance obtained here agrees with a known result in the literature, a result that was derived from a very general formula by Henke and Napoly. As an example, we apply our results to representative beam and machine parameters in the undulator region of LCLS-II and estimate the impact of the transverse wakes on the machine performance.« less

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to identify the measurement uncertainty of NASA Langley s Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) over its operating range, and to identify the parameters that most significantly contribute to the acoustic impedance prediction. Two acoustic liners are used for this study. The first is a single-layer, perforate-over-honeycomb liner that is nonlinear with respect to sound pressure level. The second consists of a wire-mesh facesheet and a honeycomb core, and is linear with respect to sound pressure level. These liners allow for evaluation of the effects of measurement uncertainty on impedances educed with linear and nonlinear liners. In general, the measurement uncertainty is observed to be larger for the nonlinear liners, with the largest uncertainty occurring near anti-resonance. A sensitivity analysis of the aerodynamic parameters (Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure) used in the impedance eduction process is also conducted using a Monte-Carlo approach. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the impedance eduction process is virtually insensitive to each of these parameters.

  16. Predicting burst pressure of radiofrequency-induced colorectal anastomosis by bio-impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingxi; Zhou, Yu; Song, Chengli; Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between bio-impedance and burst pressure of colorectal anastomosis created by radiofrequency (RF)-induced tissue fusion. Colorectal anastomosis were created with ex vivo porcine colorectal segments, during which 5 levels of compression pressure were applied by a custom-made bipolar prototype, with 5 replicate experiments at each compression pressure. Instant anastomotic tensile strength was assessed by burst pressure. Bio-impedance of fused tissue was measured by Impedance Analyzer across frequency that 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Statistical analysis shows only a weak correlation between bio-impedance modulus and burst pressures at frequency of 445 kHz ([Formula: see text]  =  -0.426, P  =  0.099  >  0.05). In contrast, results demonstrated a highly significant negative correlation between reactance modulus and burst pressures ([Formula: see text]  =  -0.812, P  =  0.000  <  0.05). The decrease in mean reactance modulus with increasing burst pressures was highly significant (P  =  0.019  <  0.05). The observed strong negative correlation between reactance modulus and burst pressures at frequency of 445 kHz indicates that reactance is likely to be a good index for tensile strength of RF-induced colorectal anastomosis, and should be considered for inclusion in a feedback loops in devices design.

  17. Investigation of voltage source design's for Electrical Impedance Mammography (EIM) Systems.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Tabassum R; Chatwin, Chris R; Zhou, Zhou; Li, Nan; Wang, W

    2012-01-01

    According to Jossient, interesting characteristics of breast tissues mostly lie above 1MHz; therefore a wideband excitation source covering higher frequencies (i.e. above 1MHz) is required. The main objective of this research is to establish a feasible bandwidth envelope that can be used to design a constant EIM voltage source over a wide bandwidth with low output impedance for practical implementation. An excitation source is one of the major components in bio-impedance measurement systems. In any bio-impedance measurement system the excitation source can be achieved either by injecting current and measuring the resulting voltages, or by applying voltages and measuring the current developed. This paper describes three voltage source architectures and based on their bandwidth comparison; a differential voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS) is proposed, which can be used over a wide bandwidth (>15MHz). This paper describes the performance of the designed EIM voltage source for different load conditions and load capacitances reporting signal-to-noise ratio of approx 90dB at 10MHz frequency, signal phase and maximum of 4.75kΩ source output impedance at 10MHz. Optimum data obtained using Pspice® is used to demonstrate the high-bandwidth performance of the source.

  18. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF NITELLA DURING ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Curtis, Howard J.

    1938-01-01

    The changes in the alternating current impedance which occur during activity of cells of the fresh water plant Nitella have been measured with the current flow normal to the cell axis, at eight frequencies from 0.05 to 20 kilocycles per second, and with simultaneous records of the action potential under the impedance electrodes. At each frequency the resting cell was balanced in a Wheatstone bridge with a cathode ray oscillograph, and after electrical stimulation at one end of the cell, the changes in the complex impedance were determined from the bridge unbalance recorded by motion pictures of the oscillograph figure. An extension of the previous technique of interpretation of the transverse impedance shows that the normal membrane capacity of 0.9 µf./cm.2 decreases about 15 per cent without change of phase angle, while the membrane resistance decreases from 105 ohm cm.2 to about 500 ohm cm.2 during the passage of the excitation wave. This membrane change occurs during the latter part of the rising phase of the action potential, and it is shown that the membrane electromotive force remains unchanged until nearly the same time. The part of the action potential preceding these membrane changes is probably a passive fall of potential ahead of a partial short circuit. PMID:19873091

  19. High-resolution impedance manometry parameters enhance the esophageal motility evaluation in non-obstructive dysphagia patients without a major Chicago Classification motility disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, DA; Omari, T; Lin, Z; Rommel, N; Starkey, K; Kahrilas, PJ; Tack, J; Pandolfino, JE

    2016-01-01

    Background High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) allows evaluation of esophageal bolus retention, flow, and pressurization. We aimed to perform a collaborative analysis of HRIM metrics to evaluate patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Methods 14 asymptomatic controls (58% female; ages 20 – 50) and 41 patients (63% female; ages 24 – 82), 18 evaluated for dysphagia, 23 for reflux (‘non-dysphagia patients’), with esophageal motility diagnoses of normal motility or ineffective esophageal motility were evaluated with HRIM and a global dysphagia symptom score (Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire). HRIM were analyzed to assess Chicago Classification metrics, automated pressure-flow metrics, the esophageal impedance integral (EII) ratio, and the bolus flow time (BFT). Key Results Significant symptom-metric correlations were detected only with basal EGJ pressure, EII ratio, and BFT. The EII ratio, BFT, and impedance ratio differed between controls and dysphagia patients, while the EII ratio in the upright position was the only measure that differentiated dysphagia from non-dysphagia patients. Conclusions & Inferences The EII ratio and BFT appear to offer an improved diagnostic evaluation in patients with non-obstructive dysphagia without a major esophageal motility disorder. Bolus retention as measured with the EII ratio appears to carry the strongest association with dysphagia, and thus may aid in the characterization of symptomatic patients with otherwise normal manometry. PMID:27647522

  20. Time-domain representation of frequency-dependent foundation impedance functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2006-01-01

    Foundation impedance functions provide a simple means to account for soil-structure interaction (SSI) when studying seismic response of structures. Impedance functions represent the dynamic stiffness of the soil media surrounding the foundation. The fact that impedance functions are frequency dependent makes it difficult to incorporate SSI in standard time-history analysis software. This paper introduces a simple method to convert frequency-dependent impedance functions into time-domain filters. The method is based on the least-squares approximation of impedance functions by ratios of two complex polynomials. Such ratios are equivalent, in the time-domain, to discrete-time recursive filters, which are simple finite-difference equations giving the relationship between foundation forces and displacements. These filters can easily be incorporated into standard time-history analysis programs. Three examples are presented to show the applications of the method.

  1. Mechanical Impedance of the Human Body in the Horizontal Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, P.; Lundström, R.

    1998-08-01

    The mechanical impedance of the seated human body in horizontal directions (fore-and-aft and lateral) was measured during different experimental conditions, such as vibration level (0·25-1·4 m/s2r.m.s.), frequency (1·13-80 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg), upper body posture (relaxed and erect) and gender. The outcome showed that impedance, normalized by the sitting weight, varies with direction, level, posture and gender. Generally the impedance spectra show one peak for the fore-and-aft (X) direction while two peaks are found in the lateral (Y) direction. Males showed a lower normalized impedance than females. Increasing fore-and-aft vibration decreases the frequency at which maximum impedance occurs but also reduces the overall magnitude. For the lateral direction a more complex pattern was found. The frequency of impedance peaks are constant with increasing vibration level. The magnitude of the second peak decreases when changing posture from erect to relaxed. Males showed a higher impedance magnitude than females and a greater dip between the two peaks. The impedance spectra for the two horizontal directions have different shapes. This supports the idea of treating them differently; such as with respect to risk assessments and development of preventative measures.

  2. Analyses of radiation impedances of finite cylindrical ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, W.; Mechefske, C. K.

    2005-08-01

    To aid in understanding the characteristics of acoustic radiation from finite cylindrical ducts with infinite flanges, mathematical expressions of generalized radiation impedances at the open ends have been developed. Newton's method is used to find the complex wavenumbers of radial modes for the absorption boundary condition. The self-radiation impedances and mutual impedances for some acoustic modes are calculated for the ducts with rigid and absorption walls. The results show that the acoustical conditions of the duct walls have a significant influence on the radiation impedance. The acoustical interaction between the two open ends of the ducts cannot be neglected, especially for plane waves. To increase the wall admittance will reduce this interference effect. This study creates the possibility for simulating the sound field inside finite ducts in future work.

  3. Quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanosheets: Impeder of microbial growth and biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rajendra; Gholap, Haribhau; Warule, Sambhaji; Banpurkar, Arun; Kulkarni, Gauri; Gade, Wasudeo

    2015-01-01

    The grieving problem of the 21st century has been the antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, developments of novel antibacterial materials which effectively inhibit or kill such resistant microorganisms have become the need of the hour. In the present study, we communicate the synthesis of quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO/CdTe) as an impeder of microbial growth and biofilm. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The growth impedance property of ZnO and ZnO/CdTe on Gram positive organism, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram negative, Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 and biofilm impedance activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1 was found to occur due to photocatalytical action on the cell biofilm surfaces. The impedance in microbial growth and biofilm formation was further supported by ruptured appearances of cells and dettrered biofilm under field emission scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscope. The ZnO/CdTe nanostructures array synthesized by hydrothermal method has an advantage of low growth temperature, and opportunity to fabricate inexpensive material for nano-biotechnological applications.

  4. Design of High Impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Patch Antenna Array.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Alam, Md Shahidul

    2013-01-07

    A compact planar meander-bridge high impedance electromagnetic structure (MBHIES) was designed and its bandgap characteristics, mutual coupling reduction abilities were studied and compared in detail. Several parametric analyses were performed to obtain optimized design values and the transmission responses were calculated through the suspended microstrip line and waveguide simulation methods. The achieved bandgap is 2.3 GHz (2.55-4.85 GHz) with -61 dB minimum transmission coefficient level at the center frequency of 3.6 GHz. To see the effectiveness, the proposed design was inserted between a microstrip patch antenna array which operates at 3.8 GHz and whose operating bandwidth falls within the MBHIES bandgap. The surface wave suppression phenomenon was analyzed and simulated results are verified by measuring the fabricated prototypes, both are in good agreement. The configuration reduced the mutual coupling by 20.69 dB in simulation and 19.18 dB in measurement, without affecting the radiation characteristics of the array but increasing the gain slightly.

  5. Hardware Specific Integration Strategy for Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ha, Dong S.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project, sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is conducting research to advance the state of highly integrated and complex flight-critical health management technologies and systems. An effective IVHM system requires Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The impedance method is one such SHM technique for detection and monitoring complex structures for damage. This position paper on the impedance method presents the current state of the art, future directions, applications and possible flight test demonstrations.

  6. Method to tune electrical impedance of LSMO/PMN-PT by nanocontact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Wang, Yaobing; Lei, Hongshuai

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic composites have wide application in the functional devices. For the best performance of devices, the regulation of the electrical impedance has been being desired for the impedance matching in service. However, the keeping of impedance matching in service is quite challenging. In the present work, a mechanical method for tuning the electrical impedance of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (LSMO/PMN-PT) based on the nanocontact technique is proposed. It is found that the electrical impedance reduces with the increase of the nanocontact load. A linear relationship is found between the square of impedance magnitude and the inverse of nanocontact depth. Furthermore, a method for predicting the contact-depth-dependent impedance magnitude of LSMO/PMN-PT is proposed.

  7. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without externalmore » resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.« less

  8. Broadband impedance boundary conditions for the simulation of sound propagation in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Bin, Jonghoon; Yousuff Hussaini, M; Lee, Soogab

    2009-02-01

    An accurate and practical surface impedance boundary condition in the time domain has been developed for application to broadband-frequency simulation in aeroacoustic problems. To show the capability of this method, two kinds of numerical simulations are performed and compared with the analytical/experimental results: one is acoustic wave reflection by a monopole source over an impedance surface and the other is acoustic wave propagation in a duct with a finite impedance wall. Both single-frequency and broadband-frequency simulations are performed within the framework of linearized Euler equations. A high-order dispersion-relation-preserving finite-difference method and a low-dissipation, low-dispersion Runge-Kutta method are used for spatial discretization and time integration, respectively. The results show excellent agreement with the analytical/experimental results at various frequencies. The method accurately predicts both the amplitude and the phase of acoustic pressure and ensures the well-posedness of the broadband time-domain impedance boundary condition.

  9. Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction for imaging electrical impedance of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Xu, Yuan; He, Bin

    2006-03-01

    An experimental feasibility study was conducted on magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). It is demonstrated that the two-dimensional MAT-MI system can detect and image the boundaries between regions of different electrical conductivities with high spatial resolution. Utilizing a magnetic stimulation coil, MAT-MI evokes magnetically induced eddy current in an object which is placed in a static magnetic field. Because of the existence of Lorenz forces, the eddy current in turn causes acoustic vibrations, which are measured around the object in order to reconstruct the electrical impedance distribution of the object. The present experimental results from the saline and gel phantoms are promising and suggest the merits of MAT-MI in imaging electrical impedance of biological tissue with high spatial resolution.

  10. A portable battery powered microfluidic impedance cytometer with smartphone readout: towards personal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Niloy; Furniturewalla, Abbas; Le, Tuan; Chan, Matthew; Hirday, Shreyas; Cao, Xinnan; Xie, Pengfei; Lin, Zhongtian; Gholizadeh, Azam; Orbine, Steve; Javanmard, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    We present a portable system for personalized blood cell counting consisting of a microfluidic impedance cytometer and portable analog readout electronics, feeding into an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and being transmitted via Bluetooth to a user-accessible mobile application. We fabricated a microfluidic impedance cytometer with a novel portable analog readout. The novel design of the analog readout, which consists of a lock-in-amplifier followed by a high-pass filter stage for subtraction of drift and DC offset, and a post-subtraction high gain stage, enables detection of particles and cells as small as 1 μm in diameter, despite using a low-end 8-bit ADC. The lock-in-amplifier and the ADC were set up to receive and transmit data from a Bluetooth module. In order to initiate the system, as well as to transmit all of the data, a user friendly mobile application was developed, and a proof-of-concept trial was run on a blood sample. Applications such as personalized health monitoring require robust device operation and resilience to clogging. It is desirable to avoid using channels comparable in size to the particles being detected thus requiring high levels of sensitivity. Despite using low-end off-the-shelf hardware, our sensing platform was capable of detecting changes in impedance as small as 0.032%, allowing detection of 3 μm diameter particles in a 300 μm wide channel. The sensitivity of our system is comparable to that of a high-end bench-top impedance spectrometer when tested using the same sensors. The novel analog design allowed for an instrument with a footprint of less than 80 cm 2 . The aim of this work is to demonstrate the potential of using microfluidic impedance spectroscopy for low cost health monitoring. We demonstrated the utility of the platform technology towards cell counting, however, our platform is broadly applicable to assaying wide panels of biomarkers including proteins, nucleic acids, and various cell types.

  11. Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Stefan; van Dam, Herman T.; Huizenga, Jan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Lohner, Herbert; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2009-12-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The discharge of a single microcell is relatively well understood and electronic models exist to simulate this process. In this paper we introduce an extended model that is able to simulate the simultaneous discharge of multiple cells. This model is used to predict the SiPM signal in response to fast light pulses as a function of the number of fired cells, taking into account the influence of the input impedance of the SiPM preamplifier. The model predicts that the electronic signal is not proportional to the number of fired cells if the preamplifier input impedance is not zero. This effect becomes more important for SiPMs with lower parasitic capacitance (which otherwise is a favorable property). The model is validated by comparing its predictions to experimental data obtained with two different SiPMs (Hamamatsu S10362-11-25u and Hamamatsu S10362-33-25c) illuminated with ps laser pulses. The experimental results are in good agreement with the model predictions.

  12. Dependence of Impedance of Embedded Single Cells on Cellular Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungbo; Castellarnau, Marc; Samitier, Josep; Thielecke, Hagen

    2008-02-21

    Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medicaldiagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single celllevel. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy whichprovides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently,microfludic systems have been investigated to manipulate the single cells and tocharacterise the electrical properties of embedded cells. In this article, the impedance ofpartially embedded single cells dependent on the cellular behaviour was investigated byusing the microcapillary. An analytical equation was derived to relate the impedance ofembedded cells with respect to the morphological and physiological change ofextracellular interface. The capillary system with impedance measurement showed afeasibility to monitor the impedance change of embedded single cells caused bymorphological and physiological change of cell during the addition of DMSO. By fittingthe derived equation to the measured impedance of cell embedded at different negativepressure levels, it was able to extrapolate the equivalent gap and gap conductivity betweenthe cell and capillary wall representing the cellular behaviour.

  13. Reactive power optimization strategy considering analytical impedance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongchao; Shen, Weibing; Liu, Jinming; Guo, Maoran; Zhang, Shoulin; Xu, Keqiang; Wang, Wanjun; Sui, Jinlong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, considering the traditional reactive power optimization cannot realize the continuous voltage adjustment and voltage stability, a dynamic reactive power optimization strategy is proposed in order to achieve both the minimization of network loss and high voltage stability with wind power. Due to the fact that wind power generation is fluctuant and uncertain, electrical equipments such as transformers and shunt capacitors may be operated frequently in order to achieve minimization of network loss, which affect the lives of these devices. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces the derivation process of analytical impedance ratio based on Thevenin equivalent. Thus, the multiple objective function is proposed to minimize the network loss and analytical impedance ratio. Finally, taking the improved IEEE 33-bus distribution system as example, the result shows that the movement of voltage control equipment has been reduced and network loss increment is controlled at the same time, which proves the applicable value of this strategy.

  14. Comparison of bolus transit patterns identified by esophageal impedance to barium esophagram in patients with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y K; Choi, M-G; Oh, S N; Baik, C N; Park, J M; Lee, I S; Kim, S W; Choi, K Y; Chung, I-S

    2012-01-01

    Bolus transit through the esophagus has not been validated by videoesophagram in patients with dysphagia and changes in impedance with abnormal barium transit have not been described in those patients. The aim of this study was to compare esophageal impedance findings with barium esophagram measurements in patients with dysphagia. The consecutive patients with dysphagia underwent conventional multichannel esophageal impedance manometry, after which a barium videoesophagram was performed simultaneously with multichannel esophageal impedance manometry using a mean of three swallows of barium. Esophageal emptying patterns shown in the esophagogram were classified by the degree of intraesophageal stasis and presence of intraesophageal reflux. Bolus transit patterns in impedance were classified as complete and incomplete transit. Sixteen patients (M : F = 8 : 8, mean age, 47 years) were enrolled. Their manometric diagnosis were normal (n= 6), ineffective esophageal motility (n= 1), diffuse esophageal spasm (DES; n= 2), and achalasia (n= 7). Sixty-three swallows were analyzed. According to impedance analysis, 21/22 swallows with normal barium emptying showed complete transit (96%) and 31/32 swallows with severe stasis showed incomplete transit (97%). Nine swallows with mild stasis showed either complete or incomplete transit patterns in impedance. Swallows with mild barium stasis and complete transit in impedance were observed in patients who had received treatment (two patients with achalasia with history of esophageal balloonplasty and a patient with DES after nifedipine administration). Impedance reflected severe stasis with retrograde barium movement and described typical bolus transit patterns in patients with achalasia and DES. In conclusion, impedance-barium esophagram concordance is high for swallows with normal esophageal emptying and for severe barium stasis in patients with dysphagia. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley

  15. Method of estimating pulse response using an impedance spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Christophersen, Jon P; Motloch, Chester G

    2014-10-21

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum data are used to predict pulse performance of an energy storage device. The impedance spectrum may be obtained in-situ. A simulation waveform includes a pulse wave with a period greater than or equal to the lowest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Fourier series coefficients of the pulse train can be obtained. The number of harmonic constituents in the Fourier series are selected so as to appropriately resolve the response, but the maximum frequency should be less than or equal to the highest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Using a current pulse as an example, the Fourier coefficients of the pulse are multiplied by the impedance spectrum at corresponding frequencies to obtain Fourier coefficients of the voltage response to the desired pulse. The Fourier coefficients of the response are then summed and reassembled to obtain the overall time domain estimate of the voltage using the Fourier series analysis.

  16. Esophageal Baseline Impedance Reflects Mucosal Integrity and Predicts Symptomatic Outcome With Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chenxi; Sifrim, Daniel; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Yinglian

    2018-01-30

    sensitive to esophageal acid exposure. Patients with high impedance might not benefit from the PPI treatment.

  17. Investigation of piezoelectric impedance-based health monitoring of structure interface debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li; Chen, Guofeng; Chen, Xiaoming; Qu, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    Various damages might occur during the solid rocket motor (SRM) manufacturing/operational phase, and the debonding of propellant/insulator/composite case interfaces is one of damage types which determine the life of a motor. The detection of such interface debonding damage will be beneficial for developing techniques for reliable nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). Piezoelectric sensors are widely used for structural health monitoring technique. In particular, electromechanical impedance (EMI) techniques give simple and low-cost solutions for detecting damage in various structures. In this work, piezoelectric EMI structural health monitoring technique is applied to identify the debonding condition of propellant/insulator interface structure using finite element method and experimental investigation. A three-dimensional coupled field finite element model is developed using the software ANSYS and the harmonic analysis is conducted for high-frequency impedance analysis procedure. In the experimental study, the impedance signals were measured from PZT and MFC sensors outside attached to composite case monitoring the different debonding conditions between the propellant and insulator. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) based damage index is conducted to quantify the changes i n impedance for different de bonding conditions and frequency range. Simulation and experimental results confirmed that the EMI technique can be used effectively for detecting the debonding damage in SRM and is expected to be useful for future application of real SRM's SHM.

  18. Digital synthetic impedance for application in vibration damping.

    PubMed

    Nečásek, J; Václavík, J; Marton, P

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present construction details of a precision, standalone, and compact digital synthetic impedance for application in the field of vibration damping. The presented device is based on an embedded ARM microcontroller with external AD and DA converters and a special analog front-end. The performance of the device is tested by comparing the actually synthesized impedance with several prescribed impedances and shows very good match. Fine-tuning ability of the device, which is crucial for the considered application, is also demonstrated and reaches as small step as 0.1% for the most complicated impedance structure and drops below the level of direct measurability with less complex structures. The real application in vibration damping is demonstrated on a simple and well understood case of a one-dimensional vibrating spring-mass system with piezoelectric actuator embedded as the interface between source of vibrations and vibrating mass.

  19. Smart mug to measure hand's geometrical mechanical impedance.

    PubMed

    Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Tech, Ang Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel device, which looks like a mug, has been proposed for measuring the impedance of human hand. The device is designed to have convenient size and light weight similar to an ordinary coffee mug. It contains a 2-axis inertia sensor to monitor vibration and a small motor to carry an eccentric mass (m=100 gr, r=2 cm, rpm=600). The centrifugal force due to the rotating mass applies a dynamic force to the hand that holds the mug. Correlation of the acceleration signals with the perturbing force gives the geometrical mechanical impedance. Experimental results on a healthy subject shows that impedance is posture dependant while it changes with the direction of the applied perturbing force. For nine postures the geometrical impedance is obtained all of which have elliptical shapes. The method can be used for assessment of spasticity and monitoring stability in patients with stroke or similar problems.

  20. Digital synthetic impedance for application in vibration damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečásek, J.; Václavík, J.; Marton, P.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present construction details of a precision, standalone, and compact digital synthetic impedance for application in the field of vibration damping. The presented device is based on an embedded ARM microcontroller with external AD and DA converters and a special analog front-end. The performance of the device is tested by comparing the actually synthesized impedance with several prescribed impedances and shows very good match. Fine-tuning ability of the device, which is crucial for the considered application, is also demonstrated and reaches as small step as 0.1% for the most complicated impedance structure and drops below the level of direct measurability with less complex structures. The real application in vibration damping is demonstrated on a simple and well understood case of a one-dimensional vibrating spring-mass system with piezoelectric actuator embedded as the interface between source of vibrations and vibrating mass.

  1. Ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes in children undergoing corrective open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Andreas; Pham, Trang M T; Moray, Amol A; Stocker, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can determine ventilation and perfusion relationship. Most of the data obtained so far originates from experimental settings and in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that EIT measures the perioperative changes in pulmonary blood flow after repair of a ventricular septum defect in children with haemodynamic relevant septal defects undergoing open heart surgery. In a 19 bed intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes were measured using EIT before and after surgery in 18 spontaneously breathing patients. The EIT signals were either filtered for ventilation (ΔZV) or for cardiac (ΔZQ) related impedance changes. Impedance signals were then normalized (normΔZV, normΔZQ) for calculation of the global and regional impedance related ventilation perfusion relationship (normΔZV/normΔZQ). We observed a trend towards increased normΔZV in all lung regions, a significantly decreased normΔZQ in the global and anterior, but not the posterior lung region. The normΔZV/normΔZQ was significantly increased in the global and anterior lung region. Our study qualitatively validates our previously published modified EIT filtration technique in the clinical setting of young children with significant left-to-right shunt undergoing corrective open heart surgery, where perioperative assessment of the ventilation perfusion relation is of high clinical relevance.

  2. Ultra-low output impedance RF power amplifier for parallel excitation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xu; Yang, Xing; Liu, Yunfeng; Sabate, Juan; Zhu, Yudong

    2009-04-01

    Inductive coupling between coil elements of a transmit array is one of the key challenges faced by parallel RF transmission. An ultra-low output impedance RF power amplifier (PA) concept was introduced to address this challenge. In an example implementation, an output-matching network was designed to transform the drain-source impedance of the metallic oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) into a very low value for suppressing interelement coupling effect, and meanwhile, to match the input impedance of the coil to the optimum load of the MOSFET for maximizing the available output power. Two prototype amplifiers with 500-W output rating were developed accordingly, and were further evaluated with a transmit array in phantom experiments. Compared to the conventional 50-Omega sources, the new approach exhibited considerable effectiveness suppressing the effects of interelement coupling. The experiments further indicated that the isolation performance was comparable to that achieved by optimized overlap decoupling. The new approach, benefiting from a distinctive current-source characteristic, also exhibited a superior robustness against load variation. Feasibility of the new approach in high-field MR was demonstrated on a 3T clinical scanner.

  3. Monitoring state-of-charge of Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries using impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouche, Abderrezak; Karden, Eckhard; De Doncker, Rik W.

    This paper reports on laboratory studies into the ac impedance spectra of nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium batteries, aiming at finding out possible correlation between electrical parameters, extracted directly from the high frequency region, and the battery state-of-charge (SoC). Impedance diagrams were recorded immediately after interrupting the dc charge, or discharge, current. The study revealed that the series resonance frequency, at which the dynamic cell behavior switches from an inductive character ( Z″>0) to a capacitive one ( Z″<0), varied monotonously as a function of state-of-charge. This behavior was reproducible after intermittent charge and discharge. Half-cell measurements were also conducted to associate the cell impedance with either processes occurring at the positive or negative plates.

  4. High-sensitivity multifunctional spinner magnetometer using a magneto-impedance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    A novel spinner magnetometer was developed with a wide dynamic range from 10-10 to 10-4 Am2 and a resolution of 10-11 Am2. High sensitivity was achieved with the use of a magneto-impedance (MI) sensor, which is a compact, sensitive magnetic sensor used industrially. Its slow-spinning rate (5 Hz) and the incorporation of a unique mechanism for adjusting the spacing between the sensing unit and the spinning axis allows the measurement of fragile samples sized 10-50 mm. The sensor configuration, in which a pair of MI sensors is connected in opposite serial, along with an amplification circuit with a programmable low-pass filter, reduces the problems of external noise and sensor drift. The signal, with reference to the spinning frequency, is detected with a lock-in amplifier. The MI spinner has two selectable measurement modes: the fundamental mode (F mode) and the harmonic mode (H mode). Measurements in the F mode detect signals of the fundamental frequency (5 Hz), in the same way as conventional spinner magnetometers. In the H mode, the second (10 Hz) and the third (15 Hz) harmonic components are measured, in addition to the fundamental component. Tests in the H mode were performed using a small coil and a natural sample to simulate dipoles with various degrees of offset. The results revealed that the magnitude of the fundamental component of the offset dipole was systematically larger (by several percent) than that of the nonoffset dipole. These findings suggest that this novel MI spinner will be useful in estimating the inhomogeneity of the magnetization of a sample that can equivalently be described by an offset dipole.

  5. Robust Magnetotelluric Impedance Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, D.

    2010-12-01

    Robust magnetotelluric (MT) response function estimators are now in standard use by the induction community. Properly devised and applied, these have ability to reduce the influence of unusual data (outliers). The estimators always yield impedance estimates which are better than the conventional least square (LS) estimation because the `real' MT data almost never satisfy the statistical assumptions of Gaussian distribution and stationary upon which normal spectral analysis is based. This paper discuses the development and application of robust estimation procedures which can be classified as M-estimators to MT data. Starting with the description of the estimators, special attention is addressed to the recent development of a bounded-influence robust estimation, including utilization of the Hilbert Transform (HT) operation on causal MT impedance functions. The resulting robust performances are illustrated using synthetic as well as real MT data.

  6. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, ofmore » the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.« less

  7. Lateral mode coupling to reduce the electrical impedance of small elements required for high power ultrasound therapy phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Yin, Jianhua

    2009-03-01

    A method that uses lateral coupling to reduce the electrical impedance of small transducer elements in generating ultrasound waves was tested. Cylindrical, radially polled transducer elements were driven at their length resonance frequency. Computer simulation and experimental studies showed that the electrical impedance of the transducer element could be controlled by the cylinder wall thickness, while the operation frequency was determined by the cylinder length. Acoustic intensity (averaged over the cylinder diameter) over 10 W / cm(2) (a therapeutically relevant intensity) was measured from these elements.

  8. A CMOS Self-Contained Quadrature Signal Generator for SoC Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Alejandro; Pérez-Bailón, Jorge; Calvo, Belén; Medrano, Nicolás; Martínez, Pedro A

    2018-04-30

    This paper presents a low-power fully integrated quadrature signal generator for system-on-chip (SoC) impedance spectroscopy applications. It has been designed in a 0.18 μm-1.8 V CMOS technology as a self-contained oscillator, without the need for an external reference clock. The frequency can be digitally tuned from 10 to 345 kHz with 12-bit accuracy and a relative mean error below 1.7%, thus supporting a wide range of impedance sensing applications. The proposal is experimentally validated in two impedance spectrometry examples, achieving good magnitude and phase recovery results compared to the results obtained using a commercial LCR-meter. Besides the wide frequency tuning range, the proposed programmable oscillator features a total power consumption lower than 0.77 mW and an active area of 0.129 mm², thus constituting a highly suitable choice as stimulation module for instrument-on-a-chip devices.

  9. [Impedance between modiolus and different walls of scala tympani].

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Wang, Zhengmin

    2008-10-01

    To compare the impedance between the modiolus and the inner wall of scala tympani with that between the modiolus and the outer wall of scala tympani. The impedances between the modiolus and the inner wall of scala tympani and the impedance between the modiolus and the outer wall of scala tympani were measured, calculated and compared under different stimulating rates 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 kHz. The impedance between the modiolus and the inner wall of scala tympani is less than that between the modiolus and the outer wall of scala tympani (P < 0.05). To effectively stimulate the residual neurons in the spiral ganglion, the electrodes should be kept close to the inner wall of scale tympani.

  10. Dependence of Impedance of Embedded Single Cells on Cellular Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungbo; Castellarnau, Marc; Samitier, Josep; Thielecke, Hagen

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medical diagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single cell level. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy which provides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently, microfludic systems have been investigated to manipulate the single cells and to characterise the electrical properties of embedded cells. In this article, the impedance of partially embedded single cells dependent on the cellular behaviour was investigated by using the microcapillary. An analytical equation was derived to relate the impedance of embedded cells with respect to the morphological and physiological change of extracellular interface. The capillary system with impedance measurement showed a feasibility to monitor the impedance change of embedded single cells caused by morphological and physiological change of cell during the addition of DMSO. By fitting the derived equation to the measured impedance of cell embedded at different negative pressure levels, it was able to extrapolate the equivalent gap and gap conductivity between the cell and capillary wall representing the cellular behaviour. PMID:27879760

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  12. The use of impedance matching capillaries for reducing resonance in rosette infrasonic spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Alcoverro, Benoit

    2005-04-01

    Rosette spatial filters are used at International Monitoring System infrasound array sites to reduce noise due to atmospheric turbulence. A rosette filter consists of several clusters, or rosettes, of low-impedance inlets. Acoustic energy entering each rosette of inlets is summed, acoustically, at a secondary summing manifold. Acoustic energy from the secondary manifolds are summed acoustically at a primary summing manifold before entering the microbarometer. Although rosette filters have been found to be effective at reducing infrasonic noise across a broad frequency band, resonance inside the filters reduces the effectiveness of the filters at high frequencies. This paper presents theoretical and observational evidence that the resonance inside these filters that is seen below 10 Hz is due to reflections occuring at impedance discontinuities at the primary and secondary summing manifolds. Resonance involving reflections at the inlets amplifies noise levels at frequencies above 10 Hz. This paper further reports results from theoretical and observational tests of impedance matching capillaries for removing the resonance problem. Almost total removal of resonant energy below 5 Hz was found by placing impedance matching capillaries adjacent to the secondary summing manifolds in the pipes leading to the primary summing manifold and the microbarometer. Theory and recorded data indicate that capillaries with resistance equal to the characteristic impedance of the pipe connecting the secondary and primary summing manifolds suppresses resonance but does not degrade the reception of acoustic signals. Capillaries at the inlets can be used to remove resonant energy at higher frequencies but are found to be less effective due to the high frequency of this energy outside the frequency band of interest.

  13. RTEMIS: Real-time Tumoroid and Environment Monitoring Using Impedance Spectroscopy and pH Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Frank A., Jr.

    This research utilizes Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, a technique classically used for electrochemical analysis and material characterization, as the basis for a non-destructive, label-free assay platform for three dimensional (3D) cellular spheroids. In this work, a linear array of microelectrodes is optimized to rapidly respond to changes located within a 3D multicellular model. In addition, this technique is coupled with an on chip micro-pH sensor for monitoring the environment around the cells. Finally, the responses of both impedance and pH are correlated with physical changes within the cellular model. The impedance analysis system realized through this work provides a foundation for the development of high-throughput drug screening systems that utilize multiple parallel sensing modalities including pH and impedance sensing in order to quickly assess the efficacy of specific drug candidates. The slow development of new drugs is mainly attributed to poor predictability of current chemosensitivity and resistivity assays, as well as genetic differences between the animal models used for tests and humans. In addition, monolayer cultures used in early experimentation are fundamentally different from the complex structure of organs in vivo. This requires the study of smaller 3D models (spheroids) that more efficiently replicate the conditions within the body. The main objective of this research was to develop a microfluidic system on a chip that is capable of deducing viability and morphology of 3D tumor spheroids by monitoring both the impedance of the cellular model and the pH of their local environment. This would provide a fast and reliable method for screening pharmaceutical compounds in a high-throughput system.

  14. A new hybrid active/passive sound absorber with variable surface impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betgen, Benjamin; Galland, Marie-Annick

    2011-07-01

    The context of the present paper is the wall treatment of flow ducts, notably aero-engine nacelle intakes and outlets. For this purpose, hybrid active/passive absorbers have been developed at the LMFA for about 15 years. A hybrid cell combines passive absorbent properties of a porous layer and active control at its rear face. Active control is mainly used to increase absorption at low frequencies by cancelling the imaginary part of the surface impedance presented by the absorber. However, the optimal impedance (i.e. the one that produces the highest noise reduction) of an absorber for flow duct applications is generally complex and frequency dependent. A new hybrid absorber intended to realise any of impedance has therefore been developed. The new cell uses one microphone on each side of a resistive cloth. Normal velocity can then be deduced by a simple pressure difference, which allows an estimation of the surface impedance of the absorber. In order to obtain an error signal related to a target impedance, the target impedance has to be reproduced in time domain. The design of a stable and causal filter is a difficult task, considering the kind of frequency response we seek. An alternative way of representing the impedance in time domain is therefore given. The new error signal is integrated into a feedback control structure. Fast convergence and good stability are observed for a wide range of target impedances. Typical optimal impedances with a positive increasing real part and a negative decreasing imaginary part have been successfully realised. Measurements in a grazing-incidence tube show that the new complex impedance absorber clearly outperforms the former active absorber.

  15. Smart Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Spectrometer for BIA and BIVA Applications.

    PubMed

    Harder, Rene; Diedrich, Andre; Whitfield, Jonathan S; Buchowski, Macie S; Pietsch, John B; Baudenbacher, Franz J

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and commonly used method for the assessment of body composition including body water. We designed a small, portable and wireless multi-frequency impedance spectrometer based on the 12 bit impedance network analyzer AD5933 and a precision wide-band constant current source for tetrapolar whole body impedance measurements. The impedance spectrometer communicates via Bluetooth with mobile devices (smart phone or tablet computer) that provide user interface for patient management and data visualization. The export of patient measurement results into a clinical research database facilitates the aggregation of bioelectrical impedance analysis and biolectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) data across multiple subjects and/or studies. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated using a passive tissue equivalent circuit model as well as a comparison of body composition changes assessed with bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Our results show an absolute error of 1% for resistance and 5% for reactance measurements in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 150 kHz. A linear regression of BIA and DXA fat mass estimations showed a strong correlation (r(2)=0.985) between measures with a maximum absolute error of 6.5%. The simplicity of BIA measurements, a cost effective design and the simple visual representation of impedance data enables patients to compare and determine body composition during the time course of a specific treatment plan in a clinical or home environment.

  16. Damage Assessment of Aerospace Structural Components by Impedance Based Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Martin, Richard E.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field relating to the set-up and assessment of electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance based structural health monitoring. The overall aim is the application of the impedance based technique to aeronautic and space based structural components. As initial steps, a laboratory was created, software written, and experiments conducted on aluminum plates in undamaged and damaged states. A simulated crack, in the form of a narrow notch at various locations, was analyzed using piezoelectric-ceramic (PZT: lead, zirconate, titarate) patches as impedance measuring transducers. Descriptions of the impedance quantifying hardware and software are provided as well as experimental results. In summary, an impedance based health monitoring system was assembled and tested. The preliminary data showed that the impedance based technique was successful in recognizing the damage state of notched aluminum plates.

  17. Operation of a high impedance applied-B extraction ion diode on the SABRE positive polarity linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.L.; Cuneo, M.E.; McKay, P.F.

    We present results from initial experiments with a high impedance applied-B extraction diode on the SABRE ten stage linear induction accelerator (6.7 MV, 300 kA). We have demonstrated efficient coupling of power from the accelerator through an extended MITL (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line) into a high intensity ion beam. Both MITL electron flow in the diode region and ion diode behavior, including ion source turn-on, virtual cathode formation and evolution, enhancement delay, and ion coupling efficiency, are strongly influenced by the geometry of the diode insulating magnetic field. For our present diode electrode geometry, electrons from the diode feed stronglymore » influence the evolution of the virtual cathode. Both experimental data and particle-in-cell numerical simulations show that uniform insulation of these feed electrons is required for uniform ion emission and efficient diode operation.« less

  18. Simulation and performance analysis of a novel high-accuracy sheathless microfluidic impedance cytometer with coplanar electrode layout.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Federica; Bisegna, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The performance of a novel microfluidic impedance cytometer (MIC) with coplanar configuration is investigated in silico. The main feature of the device is the ability to provide accurate particle-sizing despite the well-known measurement sensitivity to particle trajectory. The working principle of the device is presented and validated by means of an original virtual laboratory providing close-to-experimental synthetic data streams. It is shown that a metric correlating with particle trajectory can be extracted from the signal traces and used to compensate the trajectory-induced error in the estimated particle size, thus reaching high-accuracy. An analysis of relevant parameters of the experimental setup is also presented. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Giant magnetic impedance of wires with a thin magnetic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Vas'kovsky, V. O.

    2011-02-01

    In this review, we analyzed and generalized the results of experimental investigations of physical processes that occur in composite wires with a thin magnetic coating under the conditions of the appearance in them of a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect. Principles of the measurements of high-frequency impedance are described in short; basic definitions are given, and the differences in the linear and nonlinear GMI regimes are described. Data are systemized on the giant magnetic impedance of wires with a thin magnetic coating (composite materials) under the conditions of a strong nonlinearity of the GMI effect, which is accompanied by the appearance of higher harmonics in the output signal. The extremely high susceptibility of the harmonic parameters to external actions can be used in the technical applications for creating ultrasensitive detectors of low magnetic fields. Special attention is paid to model calculations, which confirm the fact that the experimentally observed features of a nonlinear GMI effect are connected with the high sensitivity of the magnetic system to a circular magnetic field near the spin-reorientation phase transitions. Fine features of the effective magnetic anisotropy can play the key role and therefore cannot be ignored in the general case.

  20. Impedance hand controllers for increasing efficiency in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, C.; Tarrant, J.

    1989-01-01

    An impedance hand controller with direct force feedback is examined as an alternative to bilateral force reflection in teleoperations involving force contact. Experimentation revealed an operator preference for direct force feedback which provided a better feel of contact with the environment. The advantages of variable arm impedance were also made clear in tracking tests where subjects preferred the larger hand controller inertias made possible by the acceleration feedback loop in the master arm. The ability to decouple the hand controller impedance from the slave arm dynamics is expected to be even more significant when the inertial properties of various payloads in the slave arm are considered.

  1. Bayesian identification of acoustic impedance in treated ducts.

    PubMed

    Buot de l'Épine, Y; Chazot, J-D; Ville, J-M

    2015-07-01

    The noise reduction of a liner placed in the nacelle of a turbofan engine is still difficult to predict due to the lack of knowledge of its acoustic impedance that depends on grazing flow profile, mode order, and sound pressure level. An eduction method, based on a Bayesian approach, is presented here to adjust an impedance model of the liner from sound pressures measured in a rectangular treated duct under multimodal propagation and flow. The cost function is regularized with prior information provided by Guess's [J. Sound Vib. 40, 119-137 (1975)] impedance of a perforated plate. The multi-parameter optimization is achieved with an Evolutionary-Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo algorithm.

  2. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  3. Multi-stage pulse tube cryocooler with acoustic impedance constructed to reduce transient cool down time and thermal loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor); Wilson, Kyle B. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The cool down time for a multi-stage, pulse tube cryocooler is reduced by configuring at least a portion of the acoustic impedance of a selected stage, higher than the first stage, so that it surrounds the cold head of the selected stage. The surrounding acoustic impedance of the selected stage is mounted in thermally conductive connection to the warm region of the selected stage for cooling the acoustic impedance and is fabricated of a high thermal diffusivity, low thermal radiation emissivity material, preferably aluminum.

  4. A transcutaneous energy transmission system for artificial heart adapting to changing impedance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yang; Hu, Liang; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a coil-coupling-based transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) for wirelessly powering an implanted artificial heart. Keeping high efficiency is especially important for TETS, which is usually difficult due to transmission impedance changes in practice, which are commonly caused by power requirement variation for different body movements and coil-couple malposition accompanying skin peristalsis. The TETS introduced in this article is designed based on a class-E power amplifier (E-PA), of which efficiency is over 95% when its load is kept in a certain range. A resonance matching and impedance compressing functions coupled network based on parallel-series capacitors is proposed in the design, to enhance the energy transmission efficiency and capacity of the coil-couple through resonating, and meanwhile compress the changing range of the transmission impedance to meet the load requirements of the E-PA and thus keep the high efficiency of TETS. An analytical model of the designed TETS is built to analyze the effect of the network and also provide bases for following parameters determination. Then, according algorithms are provided to determine the optimal parameters required in the TETS for good performance both in resonance matching and impedance compressing. The design is tested by a series of experiments, which validate that the TETS can transmit a wide range of power with a total efficiency of at least 70% and commonly beyond 80%, even when the coil-couple is seriously malpositioned. The design methodology proposed in this article can be applied to any existing TETS based on E-PA to improve their performance in actual applications. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Design of High Impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Patch Antenna Array

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Alam, Md. Shahidul

    2013-01-01

    A compact planar meander-bridge high impedance electromagnetic structure (MBHIES) was designed and its bandgap characteristics, mutual coupling reduction abilities were studied and compared in detail. Several parametric analyses were performed to obtain optimized design values and the transmission responses were calculated through the suspended microstrip line and waveguide simulation methods. The achieved bandgap is 2.3 GHz (2.55–4.85 GHz) with −61 dB minimum transmission coefficient level at the center frequency of 3.6 GHz. To see the effectiveness, the proposed design was inserted between a microstrip patch antenna array which operates at 3.8 GHz and whose operating bandwidth falls within the MBHIES bandgap. The surface wave suppression phenomenon was analyzed and simulated results are verified by measuring the fabricated prototypes, both are in good agreement. The configuration reduced the mutual coupling by 20.69 dB in simulation and 19.18 dB in measurement, without affecting the radiation characteristics of the array but increasing the gain slightly. PMID:28809299

  6. Impedance simulation for LEReC booster cavity transformed from ERL gun cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chuyu

    2015-11-24

    Wake impedance induced energy spread is a concern for the low energy cooling electron beam. The impedance simulation of the booster cavity for the LEReC projection is presented in this report. The simulation is done for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic cases. The space charge impedance in the first case is discussed. For impedance budget consideration of the electron machine, only simulation of the geometrical impedance in the latter case is necessary since space charge is considered separately.

  7. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Characteristic pattern of pleural effusion in electrical impedance tomography images of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Becher, T; Bußmeyer, M; Lautenschläger, I; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I

    2018-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is increasingly used for continuous monitoring of ventilation in intensive care patients. Clinical observations in patients with pleural effusion show an increase in out-of-phase impedance changes. We hypothesised that out-of-phase impedance changes are a typical EIT finding in patients with pleural effusion and could be useful in its detection. We conducted a prospective observational study in intensive care unit patients with and without pleural effusion. In patients with pleural effusion, EIT data were recorded before, during, and after unilateral drainage of pleural effusion. In patients with no pleural effusion, EIT data were recorded without any intervention. EIT images were separated into four quadrants of equal size. We analysed the sum of out-of-phase impedance changes in the affected quadrant in patients with pleural effusion before, during, and after drainage and compared it with the sum of out-of-phase impedance changes in the dorsal quadrants of patients without pleural effusion. We included 20 patients with pleural effusion and 10 patients without pleural effusion. The median sum of out-of-phase impedance changes was 70 (interquartile range 49-119) arbitrary units (a.u.) in patients with pleural effusion before drainage, 25 (12-46) a.u. after drainage (P<0.0001) and 11 (6-17) a.u. in patients without pleural effusion (P<0.0001 vs pleural effusion before drainage). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.96 (95% limits of agreement 0.91-1.01) between patients with pleural effusion before drainage and those without pleural effusion. In patients monitored with EIT, the presence of out-of-phase impedance changes is highly suspicious of pleural effusion and should trigger further examination. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Finger impedance evaluation by means of hand exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Fiorilla, Angelo Emanuele; Nori, Francesco; Masia, Lorenzo; Sandini, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Modulation of arm mechanical impedance is a fundamental aspect for interaction with the external environment and its regulation is essential for stability preservation during manipulation. Even though past research on human arm movements has suggested that models of human finger impedance would benefit the study of neural control mechanisms and the design of novel hand prostheses, relatively few studies have focused on finger and hand impedance. This article touches on the two main aspects of this research topic: first it introduces a mechanical refinement of a device that can be used to effectively measure finger impedance during manipulation tasks; then, it describes a pilot study aimed at identifying the inertia of the finger and the viscous and elastic properties of finger muscles. The proposed wearable exoskeleton, which has been designed to measure finger posture and impedance modulation while leaving the palm free, is capable of applying fast displacements while monitoring the interaction forces between the human finger and the robotic links. Moreover, due to the relatively small inertia of the fingers, it allows us to meet some stringent specifications, performing relatively large displacements (~45°) before the stretch reflex intervenes (~25 ms). The results of measurements on five subjects show that inertia, damping, and stiffness can be effectively identified and that the parameters obtained are comparable with values from previous studies.

  10. Experimental investigation for an isolation technique on conducting the electromechanical impedance method in high-temperature pipeline facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Wongi S.; Lee, Hyeonseok

    2016-11-01

    In general, the pipelines within a nuclear power plant facility may experience high temperatures up to several hundred degrees. Thus it is absolutely vital to monitor these pipes to prevent leakage of radioactive substances which may lead to a catastrophic outcome of the surrounding environment. Over the years, one of the structural health monitoring technique known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been of great interests in various fields including civil infrastructures, mechanical and aerospace structures. Although it has one of the best advantages to be able for a single piezoelectric transducer to act as a sensor and an actuator, simultaneously, its low curie temperature makes it difficult for the EMI technique to be conducted at high temperature environment. To overcome this problem, this study shows a method to avoid attaching the piezoelectric transducer directly onto the target structure using a metal wire for damage detection at high temperature. By shifting the frequency to compensate the signature changes subjected to the variations in temperature, the experimental results indicate that damage identification is more successful above 200 oC, making the metal wire method suitable for the EMI technique at high temperature environment.

  11. Impedance measurements of the human cochlear partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raufer, Stefan; Nakajima, Hideko H.

    2018-05-01

    The cochlea is a mechanical frequency analyzer, owing its characteristics to the impedance of the cochlear partition. In humans, the impedance of the partition has not been measured directly, and estimates of the stiffness (a principal component of the impedance) are based on loose assumptions. In this study, we examine not only the stiffness of the basilar membrane (BM), but also the osseous spiral lamina (OSL), which, in human, vibrates substantially. We hypothesize that the OSL contributes significantly to the volume stiffness of the cochlear partition (CP). We measured velocities of the BM and OSL at different radial locations 1 mm from the base of the cochlea in a fresh human cadaveric specimen. Simultaneously, we measured intracochlear pressures on the other side of the partition, in scala vestibuli. With the velocity and pressure measurements we can estimate the specific acoustic impedance of the BM and OSL (Z = p/v). At frequencies well below the resonant frequency, the stiffness of these structures can be extracted by multiplying the impedance by the radian frequency. The specific acoustic stiffness was found to be 1.2 GPa/m on the BM, 6 GPa/m at the juncture where the BM attaches to the OSL, and 10 GPa/m at the midpoint of the OSL. A beam model, appropriate to model the radial motion of the BM in guinea pig or gerbil, cannot describe the displacement of the human CP in the base. Instead, we find that the OSL is hinged near the modiolus and vibrates significantly near the connection to the more compliant BM, contributing greatly the volume compliance of the CP.

  12. Efficient Simultaneous Reconstruction of Time-Varying Images and Electrode Contact Impedances in Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Boverman, Gregory; Isaacson, David; Newell, Jonathan C; Saulnier, Gary J; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Amm, Bruce C; Wang, Xin; Davenport, David M; Chong, David H; Sahni, Rakesh; Ashe, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT), we apply patterns of currents on a set of electrodes at the external boundary of an object, measure the resulting potentials at the electrodes, and, given the aggregate dataset, reconstruct the complex conductivity and permittivity within the object. It is possible to maximize sensitivity to internal conductivity changes by simultaneously applying currents and measuring potentials on all electrodes but this approach also maximizes sensitivity to changes in impedance at the interface. We have, therefore, developed algorithms to assess contact impedance changes at the interface as well as to efficiently and simultaneously reconstruct internal conductivity/permittivity changes within the body. We use simple linear algebraic manipulations, the generalized singular value decomposition, and a dual-mesh finite-element-based framework to reconstruct images in real time. We are also able to efficiently compute the linearized reconstruction for a wide range of regularization parameters and to compute both the generalized cross-validation parameter as well as the L-curve, objective approaches to determining the optimal regularization parameter, in a similarly efficient manner. Results are shown using data from a normal subject and from a clinical intensive care unit patient, both acquired with the GE GENESIS prototype EIT system, demonstrating significantly reduced boundary artifacts due to electrode drift and motion artifact.

  13. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1992-01-01

    During this research period, we have effectively transferred existing computer codes from CRAY supercomputer to work station based systems. The work station based version of our code preserved the accuracy of the numerical computations while giving a much better turn-around time than the CRAY supercomputer. Such a task relieved us of the heavy dependence of the supercomputer account budget and made codes developed in this research project more feasible for applications. The analysis of pyramidal horns with impedance surfaces was our major focus during this research period. Three different modeling algorithms in analyzing lossy impedance surfaces were investigated and compared with measured data. Through this investigation, we discovered that a hybrid Fourier transform technique, which uses the eigen mode in the stepped waveguide section and the Fourier transformed field distributions across the stepped discontinuities for lossy impedances coating, gives a better accuracy in analyzing lossy coatings. After a further refinement of the present technique, we will perform an accurate radiation pattern synthesis in the coming reporting period.

  14. Nuclear spin noise in NMR revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrand, Guillaume; Luong, Michel; Huber, Gaspard

    2015-09-07

    The theoretical shapes of nuclear spin-noise spectra in NMR are derived by considering a receiver circuit with finite preamplifier input impedance and a transmission line between the preamplifier and the probe. Using this model, it becomes possible to reproduce all observed experimental features: variation of the NMR resonance linewidth as a function of the transmission line phase, nuclear spin-noise signals appearing as a “bump” or as a “dip” superimposed on the average electronic noise level even for a spin system and probe at the same temperature, pure in-phase Lorentzian spin-noise signals exhibiting non-vanishing frequency shifts. Extensive comparisons to experimental measurementsmore » validate the model predictions, and define the conditions for obtaining pure in-phase Lorentzian-shape nuclear spin noise with a vanishing frequency shift, in other words, the conditions for simultaneously obtaining the spin-noise and frequency-shift tuning optima.« less

  15. High Resistivity Lipid Bilayers Assembled on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Cushions: An Impedance Study.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Eleftheria; Gregurec, Danijela; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio A; Azzaroni, Omar; Moya, Sergio E

    2016-06-28

    Supported membranes on top of polymer cushions are interesting models of biomembranes as cell membranes are supported on a polymer network of proteins and sugars. In this work lipid vesicles formed by a mixture of 30% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 70% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) are assembled on top of a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) cushion of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sodium sulfonate) (PSS). The assembly results in the formation of a bilayer on top of the PEM as proven by means of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) and by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The electrical properties of the bilayer are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer supported on the PEMs shows a high resistance, on the order of 10(7) Ω cm(2), which is indicative of a continuous, dense bilayer. Such resistance is comparable with the resistance of black lipid membranes. This is the first time that such values are obtained for lipid bilayers supported on PEMs. The assembly of polyelectrolytes on top of a lipid bilayer decreases the resistance of the bilayer up to 2 orders of magnitude. The assembly of the polyelectrolytes on the lipids induces defects or pores in the bilayer which in turn prompts a decrease in the measured resistance.

  16. Implementation of a preamplifier-amplifier system for radiation detectors used in Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, A. A.; Arroyave, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the assembly and testing of a preamplification and amplification system for pulses produced by gaseous radiation detectors commonly used in Mössbauer spectroscopy. The system is composed by a pair of commercial integrated circuits A203 and A206, which operate as charge sensitive preamplifier-shaping amplifier and linear amplifier-low level discriminator, respectively. The integrated circuits were interconnected in the unipolar output mode and placed inside a metallic shielding, which prevents noise amplification for a suitable signal-noise ratio. The system was tested by irradiating a proportional counter LND-45431 with characteristic X rays of 6.3 keV and gamma rays of 14.4 keV emitted by a Mössbauer radioactive source of 57Co (Rh). Unipolar pulses with Gaussian profile were obtained at the output of the linear amplifier, whose amplitudes were close to 0.4 V for 6.3 keV X rays and 1.4 V for 14.4 keV gamma rays. Pulse height spectra showed that the system allows a satisfactory identification of the X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the 57Co source, giving the possibility to make a good selection of the 14.4 keV peak for having a suitable signal-noise ratio in the Mössbauer spectra. Absorption percentages of 14 % were found by taking the Mössbauer spectra of a natural iron absorber. The assembly and tests of the system are presented through this paper.

  17. Effects of Liner Length and Attenuation on NASA Langley Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of liner length and attenuation on the CHE (convected Helmholtz equation) impedance eduction method, in which the surface impedance of an acoustic liner is inferred through an iterative process based on repeated solutions to the convected Helmholtz equation. Wire mesh-over-honeycomb and perforate-over-honeycomb acoustic liners are tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, and the resultant data are processed using two impedance eduction methods. The first is the CHE method, and the second is a direct method (labeled the KT method) that uses the Kumaresan and Tufts algorithm to compute the impedance directly. The CHE method has been extensively used for acoustic liner evaluation, but experiences anomalous behavior under some test conditions. It is postulated that the anomalies are related to the liner length and/or attenuation. Since the KT method only employs data measured over the length of the liner, it is expected to be unaffected by liner length. A comparison of results achieved with the two impedance eduction methods is used to explore the interactive effects of liner length and attenuation on the CHE impedance eduction method.

  18. Impedance Based Detection of Delamination in Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemana, M.; Hrairi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays commercial and military aircrafts are increasingly using composite materials to take advantage of their excellent specific strength and stiffness properties but impacts on composites due to bird-strike, hail-storm cause barely visible impact damage (BVID) that underscores the need for robust structural health monitoring methods. Hence, damage identification in composite materials is a widely researched area that has to deal with problems coming from the anisotropic nature of composites and the fact that much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate. This paper focuses on understanding self-sensing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to conduct electromechanical impedance (EMI) in glass fibre reinforced polymer composite to perform structural health monitoring. With the aid of a 3D ANSYS finite element model, an analysis of different techniques for the detection of position and size of a delamination in a composite structure using piezoelectric patches had been performed. The real part of the impedance is used because it is known to be more reactive to damage or changes in the structure’s integrity and less sensitive to ambient temperature changes compared to the imaginary part. Comparison with experimental results is presented to validate the FE results. The experimental setup utilizes as its main apparatus an impedance analyser HP4194 that reads the in-situ EMI of PWAS bonded to the monitored composite structure. A good match between experimental and numerical results has been observed for low and high frequencies. The analysis in this paper provides necessary basis for delamination detection in composite structures using EMI technique

  19. Quantitative impedance measurements for eddy current model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T. A.; Nakagawa, N.

    2000-05-01

    This paper reports on a series of laboratory-based impedance measurement data, collected by the use of a quantitatively accurate, mechanically controlled measurement station. The purpose of the measurement is to validate a BEM-based eddy current model against experiment. We have therefore selected two "validation probes," which are both split-D differential probes. Their internal structures and dimensions are extracted from x-ray CT scan data, and thus known within the measurement tolerance. A series of measurements was carried out, using the validation probes and two Ti-6Al-4V block specimens, one containing two 1-mm long fatigue cracks, and the other containing six EDM notches of a range of sizes. Motor-controlled XY scanner performed raster scans over the cracks, with the probe riding on the surface with a spring-loaded mechanism to maintain the lift off. Both an impedance analyzer and a commercial EC instrument were used in the measurement. The probes were driven in both differential and single-coil modes for the specific purpose of model validation. The differential measurements were done exclusively by the eddyscope, while the single-coil data were taken with both the impedance analyzer and the eddyscope. From the single-coil measurements, we obtained the transfer function to translate the voltage output of the eddyscope into impedance values, and then used it to translate the differential measurement data into impedance results. The presentation will highlight the schematics of the measurement procedure, a representative of raw data, explanation of the post data-processing procedure, and then a series of resulting 2D flaw impedance results. A noise estimation will be given also, in order to quantify the accuracy of these measurements, and to be used in probability-of-detection estimation.—This work was supported by the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program.

  20. Current source enhancements in Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to cancel unwanted capacitive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Ali; Bach, Thomas; Chatwin, Chris; Xiang, Liangzhong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has emerged as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect and quantify functional or electrical properties related to the suspicious tumors in cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis assessment. A constraint on EIS systems is that the current excitation system suffers from the effects of stray capacitance having a major impact on the hardware subsystem as the EIS is an ill-posed inverse problem which depends on the noise level in EIS measured data and regularization parameter in the reconstruction algorithm. There is high complexity in the design of stable current sources, with stray capacitance reducing the output impedance and bandwidth of the system. To confront this, we have designed an EIS current source which eliminates the effect of stray capacitance and other impacts of the capacitance via a variable inductance. In this paper, we present a combination of operational CCII based on a generalized impedance converter (OCCII-GIC) with a current source. The aim of this study is to use the EIS system as a biomedical imaging technique, which is effective in the early detection of breast cancer. This article begins with the theoretical description of the EIS structure, current source topologies and proposes a current conveyor in application of a Gyrator to eliminate the current source limitations and its development followed by simulation and experimental results. We demonstrated that the new design could achieve a high output impedance over a 3MHz frequency bandwidth when compared to other types of GIC circuits combined with an improved Howland topology.

  1. Enhancing phonon flow through one-dimensional interfaces by impedance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos A.; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2014-08-01

    We extend concepts from microwave engineering to thermal interfaces and explore the principles of impedance matching in 1D. The extension is based on the generalization of acoustic impedance to nonlinear dispersions using the contact broadening matrix Γ(ω), extracted from the phonon self energy. For a single junction, we find that for coherent and incoherent phonons, the optimal thermal conductance occurs when the matching Γ(ω) equals the Geometric Mean of the contact broadenings. This criterion favors the transmission of both low and high frequency phonons by requiring that (1) the low frequency acoustic impedance of the junction matches that of the two contacts by minimizing the sum of interfacial resistances and (2) the cut-off frequency is near the minimum of the two contacts, thereby reducing the spillage of the states into the tunneling regime. For an ultimately scaled single atom/spring junction, the matching criterion transforms to the arithmetic mean for mass and the harmonic mean for spring constant. The matching can be further improved using a composite graded junction with an exponential varying broadening that functions like a broadband antireflection coating. There is, however, a trade off as the increased length of the interface brings in additional intrinsic sources of scattering.

  2. Consideration of impedance matching techniques for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank; Stephanou, Harry; Uchino, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 x 10(-3) V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit approximately 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation.

  3. High ventricular lead impedance of a DDD pacemaker after cranial magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Baser, Kazim; Guray, Umit; Durukan, Mine; Demirkan, Burcu

    2012-09-01

    Management of electromagnetic interference in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with pacemakers (PMs) may be challenging. Serious consequences, especially in PM-dependent patients, may be encountered. Changes in device programming, asynchronous pacing, heating of the lead tip(s), and increased thresholds or even device dislocation may be experienced. We report of a patient with a DDD PM who underwent an emergent MRI, after which there was an increase in ventricular impedance as well as increased cardiac biomarkers. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tunable Impedance Spectroscopy Sensors via Selective Nanoporous Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Small, Leo J

    Impedance spectroscopy was leveraged to directly detect the sorption of I 2 by selective adsorption into nanoporous metal organic frameworks (MOF). Films of three different types of MOF frameworks, respectively, were drop cast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 C. The MOF frameworks varied in topology from small pores (equivalent to I 2 diameter) to large pore frameworks. The combination of the chemistry of the framework and pore size dictated quantity and kinetics of I 2 adsorption. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8more » impedance. Independent of MOF framework characteristics, all resultant sensors showed high response to I 2 in air. As an example of sensor output, I 2 was readily detected at 25 C in air within 720 s of exposure, using an un-optimized sensor geometry with a small pored MOF. Further optimization of sensor geometry, decreasing MOF film thicknesses and maximizing sensor capacitance, will enable faster detection of trace I 2 .« less

  5. Vertical electrical impedance evaluation of asphalt overlays on concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Jared S.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Waters, Tenli; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Mazzeo, Brian A.

    2018-04-01

    Vertical electrical impedance scanning of concrete bridge decks is a non-destructive method for quantifying the degree of protection provided to steel reinforcement against the ingress of corrosive agents. Four concrete bridge decks with asphalt overlays in northern Utah were evaluated using scanning vertical electrical impedance measurements in this study. At the time of testing, the bridges ranged in age from 21 to 34 years, and asphalt overlays had been in place for 7 to 22 years, depending on the bridge. Electrical impedance measurements were collected using a previously constructed apparatus that consisted of six probes spanning a transverse distance of 12 ft. The impedance measurements were compared to surface cracking observations and cores obtained from the same four bridge decks. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the utility of scanning vertical electrical impedance measurements for detecting cracks in asphalt overlays and quantifying their severity. In addition, the results demonstrate the sensitivity of impedance measurements to the presence of an intact membrane beneath the asphalt overlay.

  6. Ventilation mapping of chest using Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, M. Abdul; Ferdous, Humayra; Baig, Tanvir Noor; Siddique-e-Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Focused Impedance Method (FIM) provides an opportunity for localized impedance measurement down to reasonable depths within the body using surface electrodes, and has a potential application in localized lung ventilation study. This however needs assessment of normal values for healthy individuals. In this study, localized ventilation maps in terms of electrical impedance in a matrix formation around the thorax, both from the front and the back, were obtained from two normal male subjects using a modified configuration of FIM. For this the focused impedance values at full inspiration and full expiration were measured and the percentage difference with respect to the latter was used. Some of the measured values would have artefacts due to movements of the heart and the diaphragm in the relevant anatomical positions which needs to be considered with due care in any interpretation.

  7. Multichannel intraluminal impedance: general principles and technical issues.

    PubMed

    Tutuian, Radu; Castell, Donald O

    2005-04-01

    Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) is a new technology that allows detection of bolus movement without the use of external radiation or radiolabeled substances. The principles of MII are based on changes in resistance to alternating electrical current (impedance) induced by the presence of various boluses within the esophagus. The timing of changes in multiple impedance-measuring segments in the esophagus allows determination of the direction of bolus movement. Combined MII and manometry (MII-EM) provides simultaneous information on intraesophageal pressures and bolus transit, offers the ability to monitor all types of reflux, and allows the detection of the physical (liquid, gas, or mixed) and chemical (acid, nonacid) characteristics of the gastroesophageal refluxate.

  8. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    DOE PAGES

    Blednykh, A.; Bassi, G.; Hidaka, Y.; ...

    2016-10-25

    An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ r. Here, in the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ r → ∞), and the case in which the magnets are fullymore » saturated (μ r = 1).« less

  9. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  10. (abstract) Scaling Nominal Solar Cell Impedances for Array Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L; Wallace, Matthew T.; Iles, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a task the objective of which is to characterize solar cell array AC impedance and develop scaling rules for impedance characterization of large arrays by testing single solar cells and small arrays. This effort is aimed at formulating a methodology for estimating the AC impedance of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) cruise and lander solar arrays based upon testing single cells and small solar cell arrays and to create a basis for design of a single shunt limiter for MPF power control of flight solar arrays having very different inpedances.

  11. Twelve years evolution of skin as seen by electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicander, Ingrid; Emtestam, Lennart; Åberg, Peter; Ollmar, Stig

    2010-04-01

    Twelve years ago we reported an electrical impedance baseline study related to age, sex and body locations. The results showed significant differences between different anatomical locations and ages. In this study, the same participants were recalled to explore how the skin had evolved at the individual level over time. A total of 50 subjects, divided into an older and a younger group, were recalled for measurements of electrical impedance at eight anatomical locations. Readings were taken with an electrical impedance spectrometer. Information was extracted from the impedance spectra using indices based on magnitude and phase at two frequencies as in the earlier study. All included body sites had undergone alterations over time, and the size of the changes varied at different locations. The results also showed that changes in the younger group were different over time compared with the older group. In conclusion: Electrical impedance can be used to monitor skin evolution over time and baseline characteristics differ between various locations.

  12. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  13. Finite difference time domain implementation of surface impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Yee, Kane S.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Surface impedance boundary conditions are employed to reduce the solution volume during the analysis of scattering from lossy dielectric objects. In the finite difference solution, they also can be utilized to avoid using small cells, made necessary by shorter wavelengths in conducting media throughout the solution volume. The standard approach is to approximate the surface impedance over a very small bandwidth by its value at the center frequency, and then use that result in the boundary condition. Here, two implementations of the surface impedance boundary condition are presented. One implementation is a constant surface impedance boundary condition and the other is a dispersive surface impedance boundary condition that is applicable over a very large frequency bandwidth and over a large range of conductivities. Frequency domain results are presented in one dimension for two conductivity values and are compared with exact results. Scattering width results from an infinite square cylinder are presented as a two dimensional demonstration. Extensions to three dimensions should be straightforward.

  14. Finite difference time domain implementation of surface impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Yee, Kane S.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Surface impedance boundary conditions are employed to reduce the solution volume during the analysis of scattering from lossy dielectric objects. In a finite difference solution, they also can be utilized to avoid using small cells, made necessary by shorter wavelengths in conducting media throughout the solution volume. The standard approach is to approximate the surface impedance over a very small bandwidth by its value at the center frequency, and then use that result in the boundary condition. Two implementations of the surface impedance boundary condition are presented. One implementation is a constant surface impedance boundary condition and the other is a dispersive surface impedance boundary condition that is applicable over a very large frequency bandwidth and over a large range of conductivities. Frequency domain results are presented in one dimension for two conductivity values and are compared with exact results. Scattering width results from an infinite square cylinder are presented as a 2-D demonstration. Extensions to 3-D should be straightforward.

  15. Utilization of bone impedance for age estimation in postmortem cases.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Noboru; Suganami, Hideki; Nishida, Atsushi; Miyamori, Daisuke; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Naotake; Wook-Cheol, Kim; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    In the field of Forensic Medicine the number of unidentified cadavers has increased due to natural disasters and international terrorism. The age estimation is very important for identification of the victims. The degree of sagittal closure is one of such age estimation methods. However it is not widely accepted as a reliable method for age estimation. In this study, we have examined whether measuring impedance value (z-values) of the sagittal suture of the skull is related to the age in men and women and discussed the possibility to use bone impedance for age estimation. Bone impedance values increased with aging and decreased after the age of 64.5. Then we compared age estimation through the conventional visual method and the proposed bone impedance measurement technique. It is suggested that the bone impedance measuring technique may be of value to forensic science as a method of age estimation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Two Acoustic Waveguide Methods for Determining Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2001-01-01

    Acoustic measurements taken in a flow impedance tube are used to assess the relative accuracy of two waveguide methods for impedance eduction in the presence of grazing flow. The aeroacoustic environment is assumed to contain forward and backward-traveling acoustic waves, consisting of multiple modes, and uniform mean flow. Both methods require a measurement of the complex acoustic pressure profile over the length of the test liner. The Single Mode Method assumes that the sound pressure level and phase decay-rates of a single progressive mode can be extracted from this measured complex acoustic pressure profile. No a priori assumptions are made in the Finite Element. Method regarding the modal or reflection content in the measured acoustic pressure profile. The integrity of each method is initially demonstrated by how well their no-flow impedances match those acquired in a normal incidence impedance tube. These tests were conducted using ceramic tubular and conventional perforate liners. Ceramic tubular liners were included because of their impedance insensitivity to mean flow effects. Conversely, the conventional perforate liner was included because its impedance is known to be sensitive to mean flow velocity effects. Excellent comparisons between impedance values educed with the two waveguide methods in the absence of mean flow and the corresponding values educed with the normal incident impedance tube were observed. The two methods are then compared for mean flow Mach numbers up to 0.5, and are shown to give consistent results for both types of test liners. The quality of the results indicates that the Single Mode Method should be used when the measured acoustic pressure profile is clearly dominated by a single progressive mode, and the Finite Element Method should be used for all other cases.

  17. Detection of microbial concentration in ice-cream using the impedance technique.

    PubMed

    Grossi, M; Lanzoni, M; Pompei, A; Lazzarini, R; Matteuzzi, D; Riccò, B

    2008-06-15

    The detection of microbial concentration, essential for safe and high quality food products, is traditionally made with the plate count technique, that is reliable, but also slow and not easily realized in the automatic form, as required for direct use in industrial machines. To this purpose, the method based on impedance measurements represents an attractive alternative since it can produce results in about 10h, instead of the 24-48h needed by standard plate counts and can be easily realized in automatic form. In this paper such a method has been experimentally studied in the case of ice-cream products. In particular, all main ice-cream compositions of real interest have been considered and no nutrient media has been used to dilute the samples. A measurement set-up has been realized using benchtop instruments for impedance measurements on samples whose bacteria concentration was independently measured by means of standard plate counts. The obtained results clearly indicate that impedance measurement represents a feasible and reliable technique to detect total microbial concentration in ice-cream, suitable to be implemented as an embedded system for industrial machines.

  18. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  19. Characterisation of CFRP adhesive bonds by electromechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel H.; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw M.

    2014-03-01

    In aircraft industry the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) elements are joint using rivets and adhesive bonding. The reliability of the bonding limits the use of adhesive bonding for primary aircraft structures, therefore it is important to assess the bond quality. The performance of adhesive bonds depends on the physico-chemical properties of the adhered surfaces. The contamination leading to weak bonds may have various origin and be caused by moisture, release agent, hydraulic fluid, fuel, poor curing of adhesive and so on. In this research three different causes of possible weak bonds were selected for the investigation: 1. Weak bond due to release agent contamination, 2. Weak bond due to moisture contamination, 3. Weak bond due to poor curing of the adhesive. In order to assess the bond quality electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique was selected and investigation was focused on the influence of bond quality on electrical impedance of piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric transducer was mounted at the middle of each sample surface. Measurements were conducted using HIOKI Impedance Analyzer IM3570. Using the impedance analyzer the electrical parameters were measured for wide frequency band. Due to piezoelectric effect the electrical response of a piezoelectric transducer is related to mechanical response of the sample to which the transducers is attached. The impedance spectra were investigated in order to find indication of the weak bonds. These spectra were compared with measurements for reference sample using indexes proposed in order to assess the bond quality.

  20. Online tuning of impedance matching circuit for long pulse inductively coupled plasma source operation—An alternate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@ter-india.org; Chakraborty, A.

    2014-01-15

    Impedance matching circuit between radio frequency (RF) generator and the plasma load, placed between them, determines the RF power transfer from RF generator to the plasma load. The impedance of plasma load depends on the plasma parameters through skin depth and plasma conductivity or resistivity. Therefore, for long pulse operation of inductively coupled plasmas, particularly for high power (∼100 kW or more) where plasma load condition may vary due to different reasons (e.g., pressure, power, and thermal), online tuning of impedance matching circuit is necessary through feedback. In fusion grade ion source operation, such online methodology through feedback is notmore » present but offline remote tuning by adjusting the matching circuit capacitors and tuning the driving frequency of the RF generator between the ion source operation pulses is envisaged. The present model is an approach for remote impedance tuning methodology for long pulse operation and corresponding online impedance matching algorithm based on RF coil antenna current measurement or coil antenna calorimetric measurement may be useful in this regard.« less

  1. Development of a Multifidelity Approach to Acoustic Liner Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The use of acoustic liners has proven to be extremely effective in reducing aircraft engine fan noise transmission/radiation. However, the introduction of advanced fan designs and shorter engine nacelles has highlighted a need for novel acoustic liner designs that provide increased fan noise reduction over a broader frequency range. To achieve aggressive noise reduction goals, advanced broadband liner designs, such as zone liners and variable impedance liners, will likely depart from conventional uniform impedance configurations. Therefore, educing the impedance of these axial- and/or spanwise-variable impedance liners will require models that account for three-dimensional effects, thereby increasing computational expense. Thus, it would seem advantageous to investigate the use of multifidelity modeling approaches to impedance eduction for these advanced designs. This paper describes an extension of the use of the CDUCT-LaRC code to acoustic liner impedance eduction. The proposed approach is applied to a hardwall insert and conventional liner using simulated data. Educed values compare well with those educed using two extensively tested and validated approaches. The results are very promising and provide justification to further pursue the complementary use of CDUCT-LaRC with the currently used finite element codes to increase the efficiency of the eduction process for configurations involving three-dimensional effects.

  2. Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Choy, Young Bin; Tsai, Jang-Zern; Vorperian, Vicken R; Webster, John G

    2002-03-01

    During radio-frequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation, there is little information to estimate the contact between the catheter tip electrode and endocardium because only the metal electrode shows up under fluoroscopy. We present a method that utilizes the electrical impedance between the catheter electrode and the dispersive electrode to predict the catheter tip electrode insertion depth into the endocardium. Since the resistivity of blood differs from the resistivity of the endocardium, the impedance increases as the catheter tip lodges deeper in the endocardium. In vitro measurements yielded the impedance-depth relations at 1, 10, 100, and 500 kHz. We predict the depth by spline curve interpolation using the obtained calibration curve. This impedance method gives reasonably accurate predicted depth. We also evaluated alternative methods, such as impedance difference and impedance ratio.

  3. Analysis of a disk-type piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using impedance matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young H; Ha, Sung K

    2003-12-01

    The dynamic behavior and the performance characteristics of the disk-type traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (USM) are analyzed using impedance matrices. The stator is divided into three coupled subsystems: an inner metal disk, a piezoelectric annular actuator with segmented electrodes, and an outer metal disk with teeth. The effects of both shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in deriving an impedance matrix for the piezoelectric actuator. The impedance matrices for each subsystem then are combined into a global impedance matrix using continuity conditions at the interfaces. A comparison is made between the impedance matrix model and the three-dimensional finite element model of the piezoelectric stator, obtaining the resonance and antiresonance frequencies and the effective electromechanical coupling factors versus circumferential mode numbers. Using the calculated resonance frequency and the vibration modes for the stator and a brush model with the Coulomb friction for the stator and rotor contact, stall torque, and no-load speed versus excitation frequencies are calculated at different preloads. Performance characteristics such as speed-torque curve and the output efficiency of the USM also are estimated using the current impedance matrix and the contact model. The present impedance model can be shown to be very effective in the design of the USM.

  4. Analysis of different device-based intrathoracic impedance vectors for detection of heart failure events (from the Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring study).

    PubMed

    Heist, E Kevin; Herre, John M; Binkley, Philip F; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Porterfield, James G; Porterfield, Linda M; Qu, Fujian; Turkel, Melanie; Pavri, Behzad B

    2014-10-15

    Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring (DEFEAT-PE) is a prospective, multicenter study of multiple intrathoracic impedance vectors to detect pulmonary congestion (PC) events. Changes in intrathoracic impedance between the right ventricular (RV) coil and device can (RVcoil→Can) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICDs (CRT-Ds) are used clinically for the detection of PC events, but other impedance vectors and algorithms have not been studied prospectively. An initial 75-patient study was used to derive optimal impedance vectors to detect PC events, with 2 vector combinations selected for prospective analysis in DEFEAT-PE (ICD vectors: RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 13 days; CRT-D vectors: left ventricular ring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days). Impedance changes were considered true positive if detected <30 days before an adjudicated PC event. One hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled (80 with ICDs and 82 with CRT-Ds), all with ≥1 previous PC event. One hundred forty-four patients provided study data, with 214 patient-years of follow-up and 139 PC events. Sensitivity for PC events of the prespecified algorithms was as follows: ICD: sensitivity 32.3%, false-positive rate 1.28 per patient-year; CRT-D: sensitivity 32.4%, false-positive rate 1.66 per patient-year. An alternative algorithm, ultimately approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days), resulted in (for all patients) sensitivity of 21.6% and a false-positive rate of 0.9 per patient-year. The CRT-D thoracic impedance vector algorithm selected in the derivation study was not superior to the ICD algorithm RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can when studied prospectively. In conclusion, to achieve an acceptably low false-positive rate, the intrathoracic impedance algorithms studied in DEFEAT-PE resulted in low sensitivity for the prediction of heart

  5. Use of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Monitor Regional Cerebral Edema during Clinical Dehydration Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shi-Jie; Li, Xia; Xu, Can-Hua; Wang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen; Fei, Zhou; Shi, Xue-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Variations of conductive fluid content in brain tissue (e.g. cerebral edema) change tissue impedance and can potentially be measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), an emerging medical imaging technique. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of using EIT as an imaging tool for monitoring brain fluid content. Design a prospective study. Setting In this study EIT was used, for the first time, to monitor variations in cerebral fluid content in a clinical model with patients undergoing clinical dehydration treatment. The EIT system was developed in house and its imaging sensitivity and spatial resolution were evaluated on a saline-filled tank. Patients 23 patients with brain edema. Interventions The patients were continuously imaged by EIT for two hours after initiation of dehydration treatment using 0.5 g/kg intravenous infusion of mannitol for 20 minutes. Measurement and Main Results Overall impedance across the brain increased significantly before and after mannitol dehydration treatment (p = 0.0027). Of the all 23 patients, 14 showed high-level impedance increase and maintained this around 4 hours after the dehydration treatment whereas the other 9 also showed great impedance gain during the treatment but it gradually decreased after the treatment. Further analysis of the regions of interest in the EIT images revealed that diseased regions, identified on corresponding CT images, showed significantly less impedance changes than normal regions during the monitoring period, indicating variations in different patients' responses to such treatment. Conclusions EIT shows potential promise as an imaging tool for real-time and non-invasive monitoring of brain edema patients. PMID:25474474

  6. Retrospective evaluation of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bihua; Yin, Changlin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Tan, Qing; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2013-05-01

    Transthoracic impedance (TTI) is a principal parameter that influences the intracardiac current flow and defibrillation outcome. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. ECG recordings, along with TTI measurements were collected from multiple emergency medical services (EMSs) in the USA. All the EMSs in this study used automated external defibrillators (AEDs) which employing rectilinear biphasic (RLB) waveform. The distribution and change of TTI between successive shocks, the influence of preceding shock results on the subsequent shock outcome, and the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation was evaluated. A total of 1166 shocks from 594 OHCA victims were examined in this study. The average TTI for the 1st shock was 134.8 Ω and a significant decrease in TTI was observed for the 2nd (p<0.001) and 3rd (p=0.033) sequential escalating shock. But TTI did not change after the 3rd shock. A higher success rate was observed for shocks with preceding defibrillation success. The success rate remained unchanged over the whole spectrum of TTI. The average TTI was relatively higher in this OHCA population treated with RLB defibrillation as compared with previously reported data. TTI was significantly decreased after 1st and 2nd successive escalating shock but kept constant after the 3rd shock. Preceding shock success was a better predictor of subsequent defibrillation outcome other than TTI. Current-based impedance compensation defibrillation resulted in equivalent success rate for high impedance patients when compared with those of low impedance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Note: Rapid offset reduction of impedance bridges taking into account instrumental damping and phase shifting.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, C M; Kortschot, R J; Bakelaar, I A; Erné, B H; Kuipers, B W M

    2013-03-01

    The sensitivity of an imperfectly balanced impedance bridge is limited by the remaining offset voltage. Here, we present a procedure for offset reduction in impedance measurements using a lock-in amplifier, by applying a complex compensating voltage external to the bridge. This procedure takes into account instrumental damping and phase shifting, which generally occur at the high end of the operational frequency range. Measurements demonstrate that the output of the circuit rapidly converges to the instrumentally limited noise at any frequency.

  8. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  9. Acoustic impedance matched buffers enable separation of bacteria from blood cells at high cell concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Pelle; Petersson, Klara; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas

    2018-06-14

    Sepsis is a common and often deadly systemic response to an infection, usually caused by bacteria. The gold standard for finding the causing pathogen in a blood sample is blood culture, which may take hours to days. Shortening the time to diagnosis would significantly reduce mortality. To replace the time-consuming blood culture we are developing a method to directly separate bacteria from red and white blood cells to enable faster bacteria identification. The blood cells are moved from the sample flow into a parallel stream using acoustophoresis. Due to their smaller size, the bacteria are not affected by the acoustic field and therefore remain in the blood plasma flow and can be directed to a separate outlet. When optimizing for sample throughput, 1 ml of undiluted whole blood equivalent can be processed within 12.5 min, while maintaining the bacteria recovery at 90% and the blood cell removal above 99%. That makes this the fastest label-free microfluidic continuous flow method per channel to separate bacteria from blood with high bacteria recovery (>80%). The high throughput was achieved by matching the acoustic impedance of the parallel stream to that of the blood sample, to avoid that acoustic forces relocate the fluid streams.

  10. Electromechanical impedance-based health diagnosis for tendon and anchorage zone in a nuclear containment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jiyoung; Shim, Hyojin; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2012-04-01

    For a nuclear containment structure, the structural health monitoring is essential because of its high potential risk and grave social impact. In particular, the tendon and anchorage zone are to be monitored because they are under high tensile or compressive stress. In this paper, a method to monitor the tendon force and the condition of the anchorage zone is presented by using the impedance-based health diagnosis system. First, numerical simulations were conducted for cases with various loose tensile forces on the tendon as well as damages on the bearing plate and concrete structure. Then, experimental studies were carried out on a scaled model of the anchorage system. The relationship between the loose tensile force and the impedance-based damage index was analyzed by a regression analysis. When a structure gets damaged, the damage index increases so that the status of damage can be identified. The results of the numerical and experimental studies indicate a big potential of the proposed impedance-based method for monitoring the tendon and anchorage system.

  11. Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) impedance sensor for the detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liju; Li, Yanbin; Griffis, Carl L; Johnson, Michael G

    2004-05-15

    Interdigitated microelectrodes (IMEs) were used as impedance sensors for rapid detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium in a selective medium and milk samples. The impedance growth curves, impedance against bacterial growth time, were recorded at four frequencies (10Hz, 100Hz, 1kHz, and 10kHz) during the growth of S. typhimurium. The impedance did not change until the cell number reached 10(5)-10(6) CFUml(-1). The greatest change in impedance was observed at 10Hz. To better understand the mechanism of the IME impedance sensor, an equivalent electrical circuit, consisting of double layer capacitors, a dielectric capacitor, and a medium resistor, was introduced and used for interpreting the change in impedance during bacterial growth. Bacterial attachment to the electrode surface was observed with scanning electron microscopy, and it had effect on the impedance measurement. The detection time, t(D), defined as the time for the impedance to start change, was obtained from the impedance growth curve at 10Hz and had a linear relationship with the logarithmic value of the initial cell number of S. typhimurium in the medium and milk samples. The regression equations for the cell numbers between 4.8 and 5.4 x 10(5) CFUml(-1) were t(D) = -1.38 log N + 10.18 with R(2) = 0.99 in the pure medium and t(D) = -1.54 log N + 11.33 with R(2) = 0.98 in milk samples, respectively. The detection times for 4.8 and 5.4 x 10(5) CFUml(-1) initial cell numbers were 9.3 and 2.2 h, respectively, and the detection limit could be as low as 1 cell in a sample.

  12. Electrical stimulation causes rapid changes in electrode impedance of cell-covered electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Millard, Rodney; Seligman, Peter; Cowan, Robert; Shepherd, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Animal and clinical observations of a reduction in electrode impedance following electrical stimulation encouraged the development of an in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface. This model was used previously to show an increase in impedance with cell and protein cover over electrodes. In this paper, the model was used to assess the changes in electrode impedance and cell cover following application of a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse train. Following stimulation, a large and rapid drop in total impedance (Zt) and access resistance (Ra) occurred. The magnitude of this impedance change was dependent on the current amplitude used, with a linear relationship determined between Ra and the resulting cell cover over the electrodes. The changes in impedance due to stimulation were shown to be transitory, with impedance returning to pre-stimulation levels several hours after cessation of stimulation. A loss of cells over the electrode surface was observed immediately after stimulation, suggesting that the level of stimulation applied was creating localized changes to cell adhesion. Similar changes in electrode impedance were observed for in vivo and in vitro work, thus helping to verify the in vitro model, although the underlying mechanisms may differ. A change in the porosity of the cellular layer was proposed to explain the alterations in electrode impedance in vitro. These in vitro studies provide insight into the possible mechanisms occurring at the electrode-tissue interface in association with electrical stimulation.

  13. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF THE FROG EGG

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Guttman, Rita M.

    1942-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements were made upon unfertilized and fertilized eggs of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, over a frequency range of 0.05 to 10 kc. Average values of 170 ohm cm.2 were obtained for the plasma membrane resistance of the egg, 2.0 µf/cm.2 for the plasma membrane capacity, 86° for the phase angle of the membrane, and 570 ohm cm. for the specific resistance of the interior. These values did not change upon fertilization. No spontaneous rhythmical impedance changes such as have been found by Hubbard and Rothschild in the trout egg were found in frog eggs. PMID:19873312

  14. Manipulating Acoustic Wavefront by Inhomogeneous Impedance and Steerable Extraordinary Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators. PMID:23985717

  15. The radiation impedance of an electrodynamic tether with end connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Wang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrodynamic tethers are wires deployed across the earth's geomagnetic field through which a current is flowing. The radiation impedance of a tether with end connectors carrying an ac current is computed from classical antenna theory. This simulates the use of a tether on a space structure. It is shown that the current flow pattern at the tether connector is critical to determining the overall radiation impedance. If the tether makes direct electrical contact with the ionosphere then radiation impedances of the order of several thousand Ohms can be expected. If the only electrical contact is through the end connectors then the impedance is only a few Ohms for a dc current rising to several tens of Ohms for an ac current with frequencies in the whistler range.

  16. In situ measurement of tissue impedance using an inductive coupling interface circuit.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Wei; Chuang, Jia-min; Lu, Chien-Chi; Lin, Wei-Tso; Lin, Chii-Wann; Lin, Mu-Lien

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method of an inductive coupling impedance measurement (ICIM) is proposed for measuring the nerve impedance of a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) under PRF stimulation. ICIM provides a contactless interface for measuring the reflected impedance by an impedance analyzer with a low excitation voltage of 7 mV. The paper develops a calibration procedure involving a 50-Ω reference resistor to calibrate the reflected resistance for measuring resistance of the nerve in the test. A de-embedding technique to build the equivalent transformer circuit model for the ICIM circuit is also presented. A batteryless PRF stimulator with ICIM circuit demonstrated good accuracy for the acute measurement of DRG impedance both in situ and in vivo. Besides, an in vivo animal experiment was conducted to show that the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation in relieving pain gradually declined as the impedance of the stimulated nerve increased. The experiment also revealed that the excitation voltage for measuring impedance below 25 mV can prevent the excitation of a nonlinear response of DRG.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  18. Low-Cutoff, High-Pass Digital Filtering of Neural Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi,Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; Ortiz, Monico; Cunningham, Thomas; Andersen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts the major functional blocks of a system, now undergoing development, for conditioning neural signals acquired by electrodes implanted in a brain. The overall functions to be performed by this system can be summarized as preamplification, multiplexing, digitization, and high-pass filtering. Other systems under development for recording neural signals typically contain resistor-capacitor analog low-pass filters characterized by cutoff frequencies in the vicinity of 100 Hz. In the application for which this system is being developed, there is a requirement for a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz. Because the resistors needed to obtain such a low cutoff frequency would be impractically large, it was decided to perform low-pass filtering by use of digital rather than analog circuitry. In addition, it was decided to timemultiplex the digitized signals from the multiple input channels into a single stream of data in a single output channel. The signal in each input channel is first processed by a preamplifier having a voltage gain of approximately 50. Embedded in each preamplifier is a low-pass anti-aliasing filter having a cutoff frequency of approximately 10 kHz. The anti-aliasing filters make it possible to couple the outputs of the preamplifiers to the input ports of a multiplexer. The output of the multiplexer is a single stream of time-multiplexed samples of analog signals. This stream is processed by a main differential amplifier, the output of which is sent to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The output of the ADC is sent to a digital signal processor (DSP).

  19. The Impedance Response of Semiconductors: An Electrochemical Engineering Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orazem, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Shows that the principles learned in the study of mass transport, thermodynamics, and kinetics associated with electrochemical systems can be applied to the transport and reaction processes taking place within a semiconductor. Describes impedance techniques and provides several graphs illustrating impedance data for diverse circuit systems. (YP)

  20. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  1. Impedance testing on cochlear implants after electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    McRackan, Theodore R; Rivas, Alejandro; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Raj, Vidya; Dietrich, Mary S; Clark, Nathaniel K; Labadie, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) are neural prostheses that restore hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss. The surgically implanted component consists of an electrode array, which is threaded into the cochlea, and an electronic processor, which is buried under the skin behind the ear. The Food and Drug Administration and CI manufacturers contend that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is contraindicated in CI recipients owing to risk of damage to the implant and/or the patient. We hypothesized that ECT does no electrical damage to CIs. Ten functional CIs were implanted in 5 fresh cadaveric human heads. Each head then received a consecutive series of 12 unilateral ECT sessions applying maximum full pulse-width energy settings. Electroconvulsive therapy was delivered contralaterally to 5 CIs and ipsilaterally to 5 CIs. Electrical integrity testing (impedance testing) of the electrode array was performed before and after CI insertion, and after the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and 12th ECT sessions. Electroconvulsive therapy was performed by a staff psychiatrist experienced with the technique. Explanted CIs were sent back to the manufacturer for further integrity testing. No electrical damage was identified during impedance testing. Overall, there were statistically significant decreases in impedances (consistent with no electrical damage) when comparing pre-ECT impedance values to those after 12 sessions. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in impedance values comparing ipsilateral to contralateral ECT. Manufacturer testing revealed no other electrical damage to the CIs. Electroconvulsive therapy does not seem to cause any detectable electrical injury to CIs.

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Of Inorganic-Zinc-Coated Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes preliminary experiments to evaluate both direct-current and alternating-current electrochemical impedance measurements as candidate techniques for use in accelerated corrosion testing of mild-steel panels coated with inorganic zinc-rich primers and exposed to seaside air. Basic idea behind experiments to compare electrochemical impedance measurements with anticorrosion performances of coating materials to determine whether measurements can be used to predict performances. Part of continuing program to identify anticorrosion coating materials protecting steel panels adequately for as long as 5 years and beyond.

  3. Electrochemical impedance analysis of perovskite–electrolyte interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Mercado, Candy C.; Yang, Mengjin; ...

    2017-01-31

    Here, the flat band potentials and carrier densities of spin coated and sprayed MAPbI 3, FA 0.85Cs 0.15PbI 3, and MAPbBr 3 perovskite films were determined using the Mott-Schottky relation. The films developed a space charge layer and exhibited p-type conduction with carrier concentration ~ 10 16 cm -3 for spin coated films. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed typical space charge impedance at frequencies > 1 kHz with increasing capacitance < 1 kHz owing to an ion diffusion component.

  4. A vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based impedance sensing biosensor for rapid and high sensitive detection of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdolahad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2012-03-21

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube based electrical cell impedance sensing biosensor (CNT-ECIS) was demonstrated for the first time as a more rapid, sensitive and specific device for the detection of cancer cells. This biosensor is based on the fast entrapment of cancer cells on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and leads to mechanical and electrical interactions between CNT tips and entrapped cell membranes, changing the impedance of the biosensor. CNT-ECIS was fabricated through a photolithography process on Ni/SiO(2)/Si layers. Carbon nanotube arrays have been grown on 9 nm thick patterned Ni microelectrodes by DC-PECVD. SW48 colon cancer cells were passed over the surface of CNT covered electrodes to be specifically entrapped on elastic nanotube beams. CNT arrays act as both adhesive and conductive agents and impedance changes occurred as fast as 30 s (for whole entrapment and signaling processes). CNT-ECIS detected the cancer cells with the concentration as low as 4000 cells cm(-2) on its surface and a sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(-3)Ω cm(2). Time and cell efficiency factor (TEF and CEF) parameters were defined which describe the sensor's rapidness and resolution, respectively. TEF and CEF of CNT-ECIS were much higher than other cell based electrical biosensors which are compared in this paper.

  5. An impedance bridge measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee Kim, Dan; Kew Lee, Hyung; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a 2-terminal-pair impedance bridge, measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz. The bridge was configured with two voltage sources and a phase control unit which enabled the bridge balance by synchronizing the voltage sources with an enhanced phase resolution. Without employing the transformers such as inductive voltage divider, injection and detection transformers, etc, the bridge system is quite simple to set up, and the balance procedure is quick and easy. Using this dual-source coaxial bridge, the 1:1 and 10:1 capacitance ratios were measured with 1 pF-1 nF capacitors in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The measurement values obtained by the dual-source bridge were then compared with reference values measured using a commercial precision capacitance bridge of AH2700A, the Z-matrix method developed by ourselves, and the 4-terminal-pair coaxial bridge by the Czech Metrological Institute. All the measurements agreed within the reference uncertainty range of an order of 10-6-10-5, proving the bridge ability as a trustworthy tool for measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range.

  6. Quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via PZT interface for prestressed tendon anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via a PZT interface for prestressed tendon-anchorage is presented. Firstly, a PZT interface-based impedance monitoring technique is selected to monitor impedance signatures by predetermining sensitive frequency bands. An analytical model is designed to represent coupled dynamic responses of the PZT interface-tendon anchorage system. Secondly, experiments on a lab-scaled tendon anchorage are described. Impedance signatures are measured via the PZT interface for a series of temperature and prestress-force changes. Thirdly, temperature effects on measured impedance responses of the tendon anchorage are estimated by quantifying relative changes in impedance features (such as RMSD and CCD indices) induced by temperature variation and prestress-force change. Finally, finite element analyses are conducted to investigate the mechanism of temperature variation and prestress-loss effects on the impedance responses of prestressed tendon anchorage. Temperature effects on impedance monitoring are filtered by effective frequency shift-based algorithm for distinguishing prestress-loss effects on impedance signatures.

  7. Capacitance-digital and impedance converter as electrical tomography measurement system for biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanti, Mila Izzatul; Bouzida, Rana; Wijaya, Sastra Kusuma; Rohmadi, Muttakin, Imamul; Taruno, Warsito P.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to explore the feasibility of capacitance-digital converter and impedance converter for measurement module in electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. ECT sensor used was a cylindrical sensor having 8 electrodes. Absolute capacitance measurement system based on Sigma Delta Capacitance-to-Digital-Converter AD7746 has been shown to produce measurement with high resolution. Whereas, capacitance measurement with wide range of frequency is possible using Impedance Converter AD5933. Comparison of measurement accuracy by both AD7746 and AD5933 with reference of LCR meter was evaluated. Biological matters represented in water and oil were treated as object reconstructed into image using linear back projection (LBP) algorithm.

  8. Impedance of an intense plasma-cathode electron source for tokamak startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, E. T.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    An impedance model is formulated and tested for the ˜1 kV , 1 kA/cm2 , arc-plasma cathode electron source used for local helicity injection tokamak startup. A double layer sheath is established between the high-density arc plasma ( narc≈1021 m-3 ) within the electron source, and the less dense external tokamak edge plasma ( nedge≈1018 m-3 ) into which current is injected at the applied injector voltage, Vinj . Experiments on the Pegasus spherical tokamak show that the injected current, Iinj , increases with Vinj according to the standard double layer scaling Iinj˜Vinj3 /2 at low current and transitions to Iinj˜Vinj1 /2 at high currents. In this high current regime, sheath expansion and/or space charge neutralization impose limits on the beam density nb˜Iinj/Vinj1 /2 . For low tokamak edge density nedge and high Iinj , the inferred beam density nb is consistent with the requirement nb≤nedge imposed by space-charge neutralization of the beam in the tokamak edge plasma. At sufficient edge density, nb˜narc is observed, consistent with a limit to nb imposed by expansion of the double layer sheath. These results suggest that narc is a viable control actuator for the source impedance.

  9. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Mi; Yao, Jun

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases systemmore » involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal

  10. Highly Sensitive and Practical Detection of Plant Viruses via Electrical Impedance of Droplets on Textured Silicon-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ambrico, Marianna; Ambrico, Paolo Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; De Stradis, Angelo; Vona, Danilo; Cicco, Stefania R.; Palumbo, Fabio; Favia, Pietro; Ligonzo, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction is evaluated via impedance spectroscopy techniques. The device consists of a droplet suspension embedding two representative purified plant viruses i.e., Tomato mosaic virus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus, put in contact with a highly hydrophobic plasma textured silicon surface. Results show a high sensitivity of the system towards the virus particles with an interestingly low detection limit, from tens to hundreds of attomolar corresponding to pg/mL of sap, which refers, in the infection time-scale, to a concentration of virus particles in still-symptomless plants. Such a threshold limit, together with an envisaged engineering of an easily manageable device, compared to more sophisticated apparatuses, may contribute in simplifying the in-field plant virus diagnostics. PMID:27869726

  11. Creating low-impedance tetrodes by electroplating with additives

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, John E.; Boldt, Chris; Redish, A. David

    2011-01-01

    A tetrode is a bundle of four microwires that can record from multiple neurons simultaneously in the brain of a freely moving animal. Tetrodes are usually electroplated to reduce impedances from 2-3 MΩ to 200-500 kΩ (measured at 1 kHz), which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and allows for the recording of small amplitude signals. Tetrodes with even lower impedances could improve neural recordings but cannot be made using standard electroplating methods without shorting. We were able to electroplate tetrodes to 30-70 kΩ by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) solutions to a commercial gold-plating solution. The MWCNTs and PEG acted as inhibitors in the electroplating process and created large-surface-area, low-impedance coatings on the tetrode tips. PMID:21379404

  12. Modified coaxial wire method for measurement of transfer impedance of beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Babbar, L. K.; Deo, R. K.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2018-05-01

    The transfer impedance is a very important parameter of a beam position monitor (BPM) which relates its output signal with the beam current. The coaxial wire method is a standard technique to measure transfer impedance of the BPM. The conventional coaxial wire method requires impedance matching between coaxial wire and external circuits (vector network analyzer and associated cables). This paper presents a modified coaxial wire method for bench measurement of the transfer impedance of capacitive pickups like button electrodes and shoe box BPMs. Unlike the conventional coaxial wire method, in the modified coaxial wire method no impedance matching elements have been used between the device under test and the external circuit. The effect of impedance mismatch has been solved mathematically and a new expression of transfer impedance has been derived. The proposed method is verified through simulation of a button electrode BPM using cst studio suite. The new method is also applied to measure transfer impedance of a button electrode BPM developed for insertion devices of Indus-2 and the results are also compared with its simulations. Close agreement between measured and simulation results suggests that the modified coaxial wire setup can be exploited for the measurement of transfer impedance of capacitive BPMs like button electrodes and shoe box BPM.

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy system and methods for determining spatial locations of defects

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Propp, W. Alan; Glenn, Anne W.; Shaw, Peter G.

    2006-08-08

    A method and apparatus for determining spatial locations of defects in a material are described. The method includes providing a plurality of electrodes in contact with a material, applying a sinusoidal voltage to a select number of the electrodes at a predetermined frequency, determining gain and phase angle measurements at other of the electrodes in response to applying the sinusoidal voltage to the select number of electrodes, determining impedance values from the gain and phase angle measurements, computing an impedance spectrum for an area of the material from the determined impedance values, and comparing the computed impedance spectrum with a known impedance spectrum to identify spatial locations of defects in the material.

  14. Effects of tissue impedance on heat generation during RF delivery with the Thermage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkoria, Sara; Pope, Karl

    2005-04-01

    The Thermage ThermaCool TC system is a non-ablative RF device designed to promote tissue tightening and contouring. The system delivers RF energy to a target area under the skin, with volumetric tissue heating in that area. While the amount of energy delivered to a patient can be controlled by ThermaCool system settings, the distribution of energy to the treatment area and underlying layers is variable from individual to individual due to differences in body composition. The present study investigated how local tissue impedance affects the amount of discomfort experienced by patients during RF energy delivery. Discomfort results from heat generation in the treatment area. By using features of the ThermaCool TC System, local impedance (impedance of the treatment area), bulk impedance (impedance of the underlying tissue layers), and total impedance (the sum of local and bulk impedance) were measured for 35 patients. For each patient, impedance measurements were compared to discomfort levels expressed during treatment. Analysis of whole body, local, and bulk impedance values indicate that the percent of total body impedance in the local treatment area contributes to discomfort levels expressed by patients during treatment.

  15. Structural damage identification using piezoelectric impedance measurement with sparse inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Pei; Qi, Shuai; Tang, J.

    2018-03-01

    The impedance/admittance measurements of a piezoelectric transducer bonded to or embedded in a host structure can be used as damage indicator. When a credible model of the healthy structure, such as the finite element model, is available, using the impedance/admittance change information as input, it is possible to identify both the location and severity of damage. The inverse analysis, however, may be under-determined as the number of unknowns in high-frequency analysis is usually large while available input information is limited. The fundamental challenge thus is how to find a small set of solutions that cover the true damage scenario. In this research we cast the damage identification problem into a multi-objective optimization framework to tackle this challenge. With damage locations and severities as unknown variables, one of the objective functions is the difference between impedance-based model prediction in the parametric space and the actual measurements. Considering that damage occurrence generally affects only a small number of elements, we choose the sparsity of the unknown variables as another objective function, deliberately, the l 0 norm. Subsequently, a multi-objective Dividing RECTangles (DIRECT) algorithm is developed to facilitate the inverse analysis where the sparsity is further emphasized by sigmoid transformation. As a deterministic technique, this approach yields results that are repeatable and conclusive. In addition, only one algorithmic parameter, the number of function evaluations, is needed. Numerical and experimental case studies demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of obtaining high-quality damage identification solutions with limited measurement information.

  16. Noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo tissue discrimination at radio frequencies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Du, Jun; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-09-01

    Compared to traditional open surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) allows for a more rapid and less painful recovery. However, the lack of significant haptic feedback in MIS can make tissue discrimination difficult. This paper tests a noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo discrimination of tissue types in MIS. The sensor consists of two stainless steel spherical electrodes used to measure the impedance spectra over the frequency range of 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The sensor helps ensure free movement on an organ surface and prevents soft tissues from being injured during impedance measurement. Since the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the force pressed on the electrode and the mechanical property of the tissue, the electrode-tissue contact impedance is calculated theoretically. We show that the standard deviation of the impedance ratio at each frequency point is sufficient to distinguish different tissue types. Both in vitro experiment in a pig kidney and in vivo experiment in rabbit organs were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the electrical impedance sensor. The experimental results indicated that the sensor, used with the proposed data-processing method, provides accurate and reliable biological tissue discrimination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 μl reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

  18. S-band microwave radiation by a high-impedance diode with an A6 anode block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayapin, A.; Dai, U.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2017-12-01

    The results of experimental research of the intensity distribution of microwave fields in the resonant cavities of an A6 anode block with a high-impedance (≥120 Ω) magnetically insulated electron diode powered by a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) (˜350 kV, ˜2.5 kA, 150 ns) are presented. The power and duration of the microwave pulses obtained from one cavity varied in the range of 200-300 MW and 120-50 ns, respectively, depending on the charging voltage of the LIA and the value of the axial magnetic field. It was found that the field intensity in cavities adjacent to the extraction cavity differs by ˜3 times and that the field intensity gradually increases along the series of cavities. The direction of this increase coincides with the direction of the electrons' E ×B drift, i.e., the change in the magnetic field direction results in the change in the direction of the increase in the intensity of the field in the cavities.

  19. Measuring impedance in congestive heart failure: Current options and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tong, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of impedance is becoming increasingly available in the clinical setting as a tool for assessing hemodynamics and volume status in patients with heart failure. The 2 major categories of impedance assessment are the band electrode method and the implanted device lead method. The exact sources of the impedance signal are complex and can be influenced by physiologic effects such as blood volume, fluid, and positioning. This article provides a critical review of our current understanding and promises of impedance measurements, the techniques that have evolved, as well as the evidence and limitations regarding their clinical applications in the setting of heart failure management. PMID:19249408

  20. Skin-electrode impedance measurement during ECG acquisition: method’s validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Leonardo; La Mura, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Skm-electrode impedance measurement can provide valuable information prior. dunng and post electrocardiographic (ECG) or electroencephalographs (EEG) acquisitions. In this work we validate a method for skm-electrode impedance measurement using test circuits with known resistance and capacitor values, at different frequencies for injected excitation current. Finally the method is successfully used for impedance measurement during ECG acquisition on a subject usmg 125 Hz and 6 nA square wave excitation signal at instrumentation amplifier mput. The method can be used for many electrodes configuration.

  1. Measuring the shock impedance mismatch between high-density carbon and deuterium at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Millot, M.; Celliers, P. M.; Sterne, P. A.; ...

    2018-04-18

    Fine-grained diamond, or high-density carbon (HDC), is being used as an ablator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate equation of state (EOS) knowledge over a wide range of phase space is critical in the design and analysis of integrated ICF experiments. Here in this paper, we report shock and release measurements of the shock impedance mismatch between HDC and liquid deuterium conducted during shock-timing experiments having a first shock in the ablator ranging between 8 and 14 Mbar. Using ultrafast Doppler imaging velocimetry to track the leading shock front, we characterize the shockmore » velocity discontinuity upon the arrival of the shock at the HDC/liquid deuterium interface. Comparing the experimental data with tabular EOS models used to simulate integrated ICF experiments indicates the need for an improved multiphase EOS model for HDC in order to achieve a significant increase in neutron yield in indirect-driven ICF implosions with HDC ablators.« less

  2. Measuring the shock impedance mismatch between high-density carbon and deuterium at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, M.; Celliers, P. M.; Sterne, P. A.; Benedict, L. X.; Correa, A. A.; Hamel, S.; Ali, S. J.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Biener, J.; Collins, G. W.; Coppari, F.; Divol, L.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Haan, S. W.; Le Pape, S.; Meezan, N. B.; Moore, A. S.; Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Thomas, C.; Turnbull, D. P.; Wild, C.; Eggert, J. H.

    2018-04-01

    Fine-grained diamond, or high-density carbon (HDC), is being used as an ablator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate equation of state (EOS) knowledge over a wide range of phase space is critical in the design and analysis of integrated ICF experiments. Here, we report shock and release measurements of the shock impedance mismatch between HDC and liquid deuterium conducted during shock-timing experiments having a first shock in the ablator ranging between 8 and 14 Mbar. Using ultrafast Doppler imaging velocimetry to track the leading shock front, we characterize the shock velocity discontinuity upon the arrival of the shock at the HDC/liquid deuterium interface. Comparing the experimental data with tabular EOS models used to simulate integrated ICF experiments indicates the need for an improved multiphase EOS model for HDC in order to achieve a significant increase in neutron yield in indirect-driven ICF implosions with HDC ablators.

  3. Measuring the shock impedance mismatch between high-density carbon and deuterium at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, M.; Celliers, P. M.; Sterne, P. A.

    Fine-grained diamond, or high-density carbon (HDC), is being used as an ablator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate equation of state (EOS) knowledge over a wide range of phase space is critical in the design and analysis of integrated ICF experiments. Here in this paper, we report shock and release measurements of the shock impedance mismatch between HDC and liquid deuterium conducted during shock-timing experiments having a first shock in the ablator ranging between 8 and 14 Mbar. Using ultrafast Doppler imaging velocimetry to track the leading shock front, we characterize the shockmore » velocity discontinuity upon the arrival of the shock at the HDC/liquid deuterium interface. Comparing the experimental data with tabular EOS models used to simulate integrated ICF experiments indicates the need for an improved multiphase EOS model for HDC in order to achieve a significant increase in neutron yield in indirect-driven ICF implosions with HDC ablators.« less

  4. Giant magneto-impedance and stress-impedance effects of microwire composites for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, F. X.; Peng, H. X.; Popov, V. V.; Phan, M. H.

    2011-02-01

    Composites consisting of glass-coated amorphous microwire Co 68.59Fe 4.84Si 12.41B 14.16 and 913 E-glass prepregs were designed and fabricated. The influences of tensile stress, annealing and number of composite layers on the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) and giant stress-impedance (GSI) effects in these composites were investigated systematically. It was found that the application of tensile stress along the microwire axis or an increase in the number of composite layers reduced the GMI effect and increased the circular anisotropy field, while the annealing treatment had a reverse effect. The value of matrix-wire interfacial stress calculated via the GMI profiles coincided with the value of the applied effective tensile stress to yield similar GMI profiles. Enhancement of the GSI effect was achieved in the composites relative to their single microwire inclusion. These findings are important for the development of functional microwire-based composites for magnetic- and stress-sensing applications. They also open up a new route for probing the interfacial stress in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites.

  5. Determination of Complex Microcalorimeter Parameters with Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saab, T.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lindeman, M. A.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter s response requires the accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, alpha, . . . . While a few of these, such 8s the normal state resistance and the total thermal conductance to the heat bath (G) are directly determined from the DC IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and alpha, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The case of a complex microcalorimeter, i.e. one in which the absorber s heat capacity is connected by a finite thermal impedance to the sensor, and subsequently by another thermal impedance to the heat bath, results in an added ambiguity in the determination of the individual C's and G's. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter s complex impedance on these parameters varies with frequency. This variation allows us to determine the individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to the impedance data. We describe in this paper our efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. Using the parameters determined with this method we them compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predicted by the microcalorimeter model to data taken with the same devices.

  6. Multivariable Dynamic Ankle Mechanical Impedance With Active Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Multivariable dynamic ankle mechanical impedance in two coupled degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) was quantified when muscles were active. Measurements were performed at five different target activation levels of tibialis anterior and soleus, from 10% to 30% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with increments of 5% MVC. Interestingly, several ankle behaviors characterized in our previous study of the relaxed ankle were observed with muscles active: ankle mechanical impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness; stiffness was greater in the sagittal plane than in the frontal plane at all activation conditions for all subjects; and the coupling between dorsiflexion–plantarflexion and inversion–eversion was small—the two DOF measurements were well explained by a strictly diagonal impedance matrix. In general, ankle stiffness increased linearly with muscle activation in all directions in the 2-D space formed by the sagittal and frontal planes, but more in the sagittal than in the frontal plane, resulting in an accentuated “peanut shape.” This characterization of young healthy subjects’ ankle mechanical impedance with active muscles will serve as a baseline to investigate pathophysiological ankle behaviors of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. PMID:25203497

  7. Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Laminates at Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    One of the important ways of increasing the payload in a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is to replace heavy metallic materials by lightweight composite laminates. Among various parts and systems of the RLV, this project focuses on tanks containing cryogenic fuel. Historically, aluminum alloys have been used as the materials to construct fuel tanks for launch vehicles. To replace aluminum alloys with composite laminates or honeycomb materials, engineers have to make sure that the composites are free of defects before, during, and after launch. In addition to robust design and manufacturing procedures, the performance of the composite structures needs to be monitored constantly.In recent years, the impedance-based health monitoring technique has shown its promise in many applications. This technique makes use of the special properties of smart piezoelectric materials to identify the change of material properties due to the nucleation and progression of damage. The piezoceramic patch serves as a sensor and an actuator simultaneously. The piezoelectric patch is bonded onto an existing structure or embedded into a new structure and electrically excited at high frequencies. The signature (impedance or admittance) is extracted as a function of the exciting frequency and is compared with the baseline signature of the healthy state. The damage is quantified using root mean square deviation (RMSD) in the impedance signatures with respect to the baseline signature. A major advantage of this technique is that the procedure is nondestructive in nature and does not perturb the properties and performance of the materials and structures. This project aims at applying the impedance-based nondestructive testing technique to the damage identification of composite laminates at cryogenic temperature.

  8. Evaluation of a multi-point method for determining acoustic impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore potential improvements provided by a Multi-Point Method (MPM) over the Standing Wave Method (SWM) and Two-Microphone Method (TMM) for determining acoustic impedance. A wave propagation model was developed to model the standing wave pattern in an impedance tube. The acoustic impedance of a test specimen was calculated from a best fit of this standing wave pattern to pressure measurements obtained along the impedance tube centerline. Three measurement spacing distributions were examined: uniform, random, and selective. Calculated standing wave patterns match the point pressure measurement distributions with good agreement for a reflection factor magnitude range of 0.004 to 0.999. Comparisons of results using 2, 3, 6, and 18 measurement points showed that the most consistent results are obtained when using at least 6 evenly spaced pressure measurements per half-wavelength. Also, data were acquired with broadband noise added to the discrete frequency noise and impedances were calculated using the MPM and TMM algorithms. The results indicate that the MPM will be superior to the TMM in the presence of significant broadband noise levels associated with mean flow.

  9. TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF THE SQUID GIANT AXON

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Howard J.; Cole, Kenneth S.

    1938-01-01

    The impedance of the excised giant axon from hindmost stellar nerve of Loligo pealii has been measured over the frequency range from 1 to 2500 kilocycles per second. The measurements have been made with the current flow perpendicular to the axis of the axon to permit a relatively simple analysis of the data. It has been found that the axon membrane has a polarization impedance with an average phase angle of 76° and an average capacity of 1.1µf./cm2 at 1 kilocycle. The direct current resistance of the membrane could not be measured, but was greater than 3 ohm cm.2 and the average internal specific resistance was four times that of sea water. There was no detectable change in the membrane impedance when the axon lost excitability, but some time later it decreased to zero. PMID:19873081

  10. Pathogen identification using peptide nanotube biosensors and impedance AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccuspie, Robert I.

    Pathogen identification at highly sensitive levels is crucial to meet urgent needs in fighting the spread of disease or detecting bioterrorism events. Toward that end, a new method for biosensing utilizing fluorescent antibody nanotubes is proposed. Fundamental studies on the self-assembly of these peptide nanotubes are performed, as are applications of aligning these nanotubes on surfaces. As biosensors, these nanotubes incorporate recognition units with antibodies at their ends and fluorescent signaling units at their sidewalls. When viral pathogens were mixed with these antibody nanotubes in solution, the nanotubes rapidly aggregated around the viruses. The size of the aggregates increased as the concentration of viruses increased, as detected by flow cytometry on the order of attomolar concentrations by changes in fluorescence and light scattering intensities. This enabled determination of the concentrations of viruses at trace levels (102 to 106 pfu/mL) within 30 minutes from the receipt of samples to the final quantitative data analysis, as demonstrated on Adenovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Influenza, and Vaccinia virus. As another separate approach, impedance AFM is used to study the electrical properties of individual viruses and nanoparticles used as model systems. The design, development, and implementation of the impedance AFM for an Asylum Research platform is described, as well as its application towards studying the impedance of individual nanoparticles as a model system for understanding the fundamental science of how the life cycle of a virus affects its electrical properties. In combination, these approaches fill a pressing need to quantify viruses both rapidly and sensitively.

  11. A Quasi-3-D Theory for Impedance Eduction in Uniform Grazing Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-D impedance eduction methodology is extended to quasi-3-D sound fields in uniform or shearing mean flow. We introduce a nonlocal, nonreflecting boundary condition to terminate the duct and then educe the impedance by minimizing an objective function. The introduction of a parallel, sparse, equation solver significantly reduces the wall clock time for educing the impedance when compared to that of the sequential band solver used in the 2-D methodology. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the methodology is demonstrated using two examples. In the first example, we show that the method reproduces the known impedance of a ceramic tubular test liner. In the second example, we illustrate that the approach educes the impedance of a four-segment liner where the first, second, and fourth segments consist of a perforated face sheet bonded to honeycomb, and the third segment is a cut from the ceramic tubular test liner. The ability of the method to educe the impedances of multisegmented liners has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of time and cost required to determine the impedance of several uniform liners by allowing them to be placed in series in the test section and to educe the impedance of each segment using a single numerical experiment. Finally, we probe the objective function in great detail and show that it contains a single minimum. Thus, our objective function is ideal for use with local, inexpensive, gradient-based optimizers.

  12. Aerophagia: excessive air swallowing demonstrated by esophageal impedance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hemmink, Gerrit J M; Weusten, Bas L A M; Bredenoord, Albert J; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J P M

    2009-10-01

    Patients with aerophagia suffer from the presence of an excessive volume of intestinal gas, which is thought to result from excessive air ingestion. However, this has not been shown thus far. The aim of this study was therefore to assess swallowing and air swallowing frequencies in patients with suspected aerophagia. Ambulatory 24-hour pH-impedance monitoring was performed in patients in whom excessive amounts of intestinal gas were visualized on plain abdominal radiograms. All patients had symptoms of bloating, abdominal distention, flatulence, or excessive belching. Reflux parameters and the number of swallows and air swallows were assessed. The most common symptoms were bloating, abdominal distention, and constipation. Only 3 patients reported excessive belching and 1 patient reported flatulence as their predominant symptom. During the 24-hour measurement, patients showed high incidences of air swallows (521 +/- 63) and gastric belches (126 +/- 37). Patients had normal swallowing frequency (741 +/- 71). This study presents objective parameters that confirm the existence of excessive air swallowing or aerophagia using esophageal impedance monitoring.

  13. Monitoring of cell and tissue responses to photodynamic therapy by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molckovsky, A.; Wilson, B. C.

    2001-04-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) monitoring of photodynamic therapy (PDT) was investigated in vivo in rat liver and in vitro in multicellular spheroids. Liver impedance was continuously measured with two needle electrodes before, during and up to 3 hours following Photofrin-PDT. EIS spectra were altered immediately after PDT, with significant changes in conductivity at ~10 kHz, and in permittivity at ~30 kHz and 1 MHz. The change in permittivity at high frequencies was related to oedema, while low-frequency effects were attributed to cell necrosis and vascular changes. Photofrin-PDT-treated spheroids showed dose-dependent decreases in permittivity and conductivity at frequencies above 10 and 100 kHz, respectively. Histology showed concomitant development of a damaged rim containing sparsely distributed cells with compromised membranes and lightly staining cytoplasm. Different EIS responses to apoptotic versus necrotic modes of cell death further verified the sensitivity of impedance to purely cellular changes in the spheroid model. In conclusion, EIS sensitivity to PDT-induced damage, at both the cell and tissue level, varies with dose and time, and can be correlated qualitatively to biological changes.

  14. Acute evaluation of transthoracic impedance vectors using ICD leads.

    PubMed

    Gottfridsson, Christer; Daum, Douglas; Kennergren, Charles; Ramuzat, Agnès; Willems, Roger; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-06-01

    Minute ventilation (MV) has been proven to be very useful in rate responsive pacing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads as part of the MV detection system. At implant in 10 patients, the transthoracic impedance was measured from tripolar ICD, tetrapolar ICD, and atrial lead vectors during normal, deep, and shallow voluntary respiration. MV and respiration rate (RespR) were simultaneously measured through a facemask with a pneumotachometer (Korr), and the correlations with impedance-based measurements were calculated. Air sensitivity was the change in impedance per change in respiratory tidal volume, ohms (Omega)/liter (L), and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was the ratio of the respiratory and cardiac contraction components. The air sensitivity and SNR in tripolar ICD vector were 2.70 +/- 2.73 ohm/L and 2.19 +/- 1.31, respectively, and were not different from tetrapolar. The difference in RespR between tripolar ICD and Korr was 0.2 +/- 1.91 breaths/minute. The regressed correlation coefficient between impedance MV and Korr MV was 0.86 +/- 0.07 in tripolar ICD. The air sensitivity and SNR in tripolar and tetrapolar ICD lead vectors did not differ significantly and were in the range of the values in pacemaker leads currently used as MV sensors. The good correlations between impedance-based and Korr-based RespR and MV measurements imply that ICD leads may be used in MV sensor systems.

  15. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  16. Evaluation of Wall Boundary Conditions for Impedance Eduction Using a Dual-Source Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of the Ingard-Myers boundary condition and a recently proposed modified Ingard-Myers boundary condition is evaluated for use in impedance eduction under the assumption of uniform mean flow. The evaluation is performed at three centerline Mach numbers, using data acquired in a grazing flow impedance tube, using both upstream and downstream propagating sound sources, and on a database of test liners for which the expected behavior of the impedance spectra is known. The test liners are a hard-wall insert consisting of 12.6 mm thick aluminum, a linear liner without a facesheet consisting of a number of small diameter but long cylindrical channels embedded in a ceramic material, and two conventional nonlinear liners consisting of a perforated facesheet bonded to a honeycomb core. The study is restricted to a frequency range for which only plane waves are cut on in the hard-wall sections of the flow impedance tube. The metrics used to evaluate each boundary condition are 1) how well it educes the same impedance for upstream and downstream propagating sources, and 2) how well it predicts the expected behavior of the impedance spectra over the Mach number range. The primary conclusions of the study are that the same impedance is educed for upstream and downstream propagating sources except at the highest Mach number, that an effective impedance based on both the upstream and downstream measurements is more accurate than an impedance based on the upstream or downstream data alone, and that the Ingard-Myers boundary condition with an effective impedance produces results similar to that achieved with the modified Ingard-Myers boundary condition.

  17. Reduction of turbulent boundary layer induced interior noise through active impedance control.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Curtis, Alan R D; Coleman, Ronald B; Knight, J Scott

    2008-03-01

    The use of a single actuator tuned to an optimum impedance to control the sound power radiated from a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excited aircraft panel into the aircraft interior is examined. An approach to calculating the optimum impedance is defined and the limitations on the reduction in radiated power by a single actuator tuned to that impedance are examined. It is shown that there are too many degrees of freedom in the TBL and in the radiation modes of the panel to allow a single actuator to control the radiated power. However, if the panel modes are lightly damped and well separated in frequency, significant reductions are possible. The implementation of a controller that presents a desired impedance to a structure is demonstrated in a laboratory experiment, in which the structure is a mass. The performance of such a controller on an aircraft panel is shown to be effective, if the actuator impedance is similar to but not the same as the desired impedance, provided the panel resonances are well separated in frequency and lightly damped.

  18. Cable Overheating Risk Warning Method Based on Impedance Parameter Estimation in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Song; Jianfang, Li; Fei, Gao

    2017-05-01

    Cable overheating will lead to the cable insulation level reducing, speed up the cable insulation aging, even easy to cause short circuit faults. Cable overheating risk identification and warning is nessesary for distribution network operators. Cable overheating risk warning method based on impedance parameter estimation is proposed in the paper to improve the safty and reliability operation of distribution network. Firstly, cable impedance estimation model is established by using least square method based on the data from distribiton SCADA system to improve the impedance parameter estimation accuracy. Secondly, calculate the threshold value of cable impedance based on the historical data and the forecast value of cable impedance based on the forecasting data in future from distribiton SCADA system. Thirdly, establish risks warning rules library of cable overheating, calculate the cable impedance forecast value and analysis the change rate of impedance, and then warn the overheating risk of cable line based on the overheating risk warning rules library according to the variation relationship between impedance and line temperature rise. Overheating risk warning method is simulated in the paper. The simulation results shows that the method can identify the imedance and forecast the temperature rise of cable line in distribution network accurately. The result of overheating risk warning can provide decision basis for operation maintenance and repair.

  19. Characterization of Molybdate Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion inhibiting properties of newly developed proprietary molybdate conversion coatings on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under immersion in aerated 5% (w/w) NaCl. Corrosion potential and EIS measurements were gathered for six formulations of the coating at several immersion times for two weeks. Nyquist as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained. The conversion-coated alloy panels showed an increase in the corrosion potential during the first 24 hours of immersion that later subsided and approached a steady value. Corrosion potential measurements indicated that formulations A, D, and F exhibit a protective effect on aluminum 2024-T3. The EIS spectra of the conversion-coated alloy were characterized by an impedance that is higher than the impedance of the bare alloy at all the immersion times. The low frequency impedance, Z(sub lf) (determined from the value at 0.05 Hz) for the conversion-coated alloy was higher at all the immersion times than that of the bare panel. This indicates improvement of corrosion resistance with addition of the molybdate conversion coating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of cracks in the coating and the presence of cubic crystals believed to be calcium carbonate. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the test panels revealed the presence of high levels of aluminum, oxygen, and calcium but did not detect the presence of molybdenum on the test panels. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the presence of less than 0.01 atomic percent molybdenum on the surface of the coating.

  20. A Wireless Multi-Sensor Dielectric Impedance Spectroscopy Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O.; Loubier, Mathilde; Rioux, Maxime; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost, miniaturized, multiplexed, and connected platform for dielectric impedance spectroscopy (DIS), designed for in situ measurements and adapted to wireless network architectures. The platform has been tested and used as a DIS sensor node on ZigBee mesh and was able to interface up to three DIS sensors at the same time and relay the information through the network for data analysis and storage. The system is built from low-cost commercial microelectronics components, performs dielectric spectroscopy ranging from 5 kHz to 100 kHz, and benefits from an on-the-fly calibration system that makes sensor calibration easy. The paper describes the microelectronics design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the testing of the platform for in situ dielectric impedance spectroscopy applications pertaining to fertilizer sensing, water quality sensing, and touch sensing. PMID:26393587

  1. Gastrointestinal Impedance Spectroscopy to Detect Hypoperfusion During Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Andreas; Kohler, Andreas; Posthaus, Horst; Berger, David; Santos, Laura; Jakob, Stephan; Takala, Jukka; Haenggi, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Changes in tissue impedance (Ω) have been proposed as early signs of impaired tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that hemorrhage may induce early changes in alimentary tract tissue impedance and that these can be detected by impedance spectroscopy. We evaluated impedance spectroscopy in an acute hemorrhage model in pigs. Twenty anesthetized pigs were randomized to stepwise hemorrhage to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets of 60 mm Hg, 50 mm Hg, 45 mm Hg, and 40 mm Hg, followed by retransfusion in two steps, or control (n = 10 each). In the end, 500 mL of enteral nutrition was administered in both groups. Ω in four sites (sublingually, esophagus, stomach, proximal jejunum) and cardiac output (Qtot thermodilution), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (QSMA; Doppler ultrasound), and jejunal mucosal blood flow (LDF; laser Doppler) were measured. The bleeding (total volume 838 ± 185 mL; mean ± SD) resulted in progressive hypotension (actual MAP 65 ± 3 mm Hg, 59 ± 4 mm Hg, 55 ± 5 mm Hg, and 46 ± 6 mm Hg) and decrease in Qtot, QSMA, and mucosal LDF. Bleeding did not change Ω in any of the monitoring sites. Retransfusion restored the blood flows to at least baseline levels, again without change in Ω. Enteral nutrition did not alter Ω or any of the blood flows.Five animals (three in the hemorrhage group, two in the control group) had histologically proven acute gastric focal necrosis at the site of It transducer. Gastrointestinal impedance spectroscopy does not detect early changes in tissue perfusion during progressive hemorrhage or retransfusion. Ω spectroscopy is unlikely to provide any additional information of hypovolemia-induced early changes in gastrointestinal perfusion.

  2. Impedance matching for repetitive high voltage all-solid-state Marx generator and excimer DBD UV sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Tong, Liqing; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of impedance matching for a Marx generator and DBD lamp is to limit the output current of the Marx generator, provide a large discharge current at ignition, and obtain fast voltage rising/falling edges and large overshoot. In this paper, different impedance matching circuits (series inductor, parallel capacitor, and series inductor combined with parallel capacitor) are analyzed. It demonstrates that a series inductor could limit the Marx current. However, the discharge current is also limited. A parallel capacitor could provide a large discharge current, but the Marx current is also enlarged. A series inductor combined with a parallel capacitor takes full advantage of the inductor and capacitor, and avoids their shortcomings. Therefore, it is a good solution. Experimental results match the theoretical analysis well and show that both the series inductor and parallel capacitor improve the performance of the system. However, the series inductor combined with the parallel capacitor has the best performance. Compared with driving the DBD lamp with a Marx generator directly, an increase of 97.3% in radiant power and an increase of 59.3% in system efficiency are achieved using this matching circuit.

  3. Impedance study of undoped, polycrystalline diamond layers obtained by HF CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paprocki, Kazimierz; Fabisiak, Kazimerz; Dychalska, Anna; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Dudkowiak, Alina; Iskaliyeva, Aizhan

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report results of impedance measurements in polycrystalline diamond films deposited on n-Si using HF CVD method. The temperature was changed from 170 K up to RT and the scan frequency from 42 Hz to 5 MHz. The results of impedance measurement of the real and imaginary parts were presented in the form of a Cole-Cole plot in the complex plane. In the temperatures below RT, the observed impedance response of polycrystalline diamond was in the form of a single semicircular form. In order to interpret the observed response, a double resistor-capacitor parallel circuit model was used which allow for interpretation physical mechanisms responsible for such behavior. The impedance results were correlated with Raman spectroscopy measurements.

  4. Earth impedance model for through-the-earth communication applications with electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, Vanessa; MuñOz, Antonio; Gaudó, Pilar Molina; Mediano, Arturo; Cuchí, José A.; Villarroel, José L.

    2010-12-01

    Through-the-earth (TTE) communications are relevant in applications such as caving, tunnel and cave rescue, mining, and subsurface radiolocation. The majority of the TTE communication systems use ground electrodes as load antenna. Wires, electrode contact, and earth impedances are the major contributors to the impedance observed by the transmitter. In this paper, state-of-art models found in the literature are reviewed, and an improved method to measure the earth impedance is presented. The paper also proposes an optimal circuit model for earth impedance between electrodes as a function of frequency, as a consequence of the particular conditions of the application. The model is validated with measurements for different soil conditions, showing a good agreement between empirical data and the simulation results.

  5. Influence of torso and arm positions on chest examinations by electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Vogt, B; Mendes, L; Chouvarda, I; Perantoni, E; Kaimakamis, E; Becher, T; Weiler, N; Tsara, V; Paiva, R P; Maglaveras, N; Frerichs, I

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is increasingly used in patients suffering from respiratory disorders during pulmonary function testing (PFT). The EIT chest examinations often take place simultaneously to conventional PFT during which the patients involuntarily move in order to facilitate their breathing. Since the influence of torso and arm movements on EIT chest examinations is unknown, we studied this effect in 13 healthy subjects (37  ±  4 years, mean age  ±  SD) and 15 patients with obstructive lung diseases (72  ±  8 years) during stable tidal breathing. We carried out the examinations in an upright sitting position with both arms adducted, in a leaning forward position and in an upright sitting position with consecutive right and left arm elevations. We analysed the differences in EIT-derived regional end-expiratory impedance values, tidal impedance variations and their spatial distributions during all successive study phases. Both the torso and the arm movements had a highly significant influence on the end-expiratory impedance values in the healthy subjects (p  =  0.0054 and p  <  0.0001, respectively) and the patients (p  <  0.0001 in both cases). The global tidal impedance variation was affected by the torso, but not the arm movements in both study groups (p  =  0.0447 and p  =  0.0418, respectively). The spatial heterogeneity of the tidal ventilation distribution was slightly influenced by the alteration of the torso position only in the patients (p  =  0.0391). The arm movements did not impact the ventilation distribution in either study group. In summary, the forward torso movement and the arms' abduction exert significant effects on the EIT waveforms during tidal breathing. We recommend strict adherence to the upright sitting position during PFT when EIT is used.

  6. Implementation of In-Situ Impedance Techniques on a Full Scale Aero-Engine System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, R. J.; Mendoza, J. M.; Jones, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of acoustic liner impedance for jet engine applications remains a challenge for the designer. Although suitable models have been developed that take account of source amplitude and the local flow environment experienced by the liner, experimental validation of these models has been difficult. This is primarily due to the inability of researchers to faithfully mimic the environment in jet engine nacelles in the laboratory. An in-situ measurement technique, one that can be implemented in an actual engine, is desirable so an accurate impedance can be determined for future modeling and quality control. This paper documents the implementation of such a local acoustic impedance measurement technique that is used under controlled laboratory conditions as well as on full scale turbine engine liner test article. The objective for these series of in-situ measurements is to substantiate treatment design, provide understanding of flow effects on installed liner performance, and provide modeling input for fan noise propagation computations. A series of acoustic liner evaluation tests are performed that includes normal incidence tube, grazing incidence tube, and finally testing on a full scale engine on a static test stand. Lab tests were intended to provide insight and guidance for accurately measuring the impedance of the liner housed in the inlet of a Honeywell Tech7000 turbofan. Results have shown that one can acquire very reasonable liner impedance data for a full scale engine under realistic test conditions. Furthermore, higher fidelity results can be obtained by using a three-microphone coherence technique that can enhance signal-to-noise ratio at high engine power settings. This research has also confirmed the limitations of this particular type of in-situ measurement. This is most evident in the installation of instrumentation and its effect on what is being measured.

  7. Impedance Biosensing to detect food allergens, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and food pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran

    Electrochemical impedance biosensors can be viewed as an AC electroanalytical method for the analyte detection in the fields of biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and food and agriculture, amongst others. The most common format for AC impedance biosensing involves surface immobilization of an antibody, receptor protein, DNA strand, or other species capable of bio-recognition, and AC impedance detection of the binding event. Technological application of AC impedance biosensors has been hindered by several obstacles, including the more complex circuitry required for AC relative to DC electrochemistry, chemical and physical interference arising from non-specific adsorption, and the stability and reproducibility of protein immobilization. One focus of these PhD studies is on methods to reduce or compensate for non-specific adsorption, including sample dilution, site blocking with BSA, and the use of control electrodes onto which reference antibodies are immobilized. Examples that will be presented include impedance detection of food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, using a mouse monoclonal antibody immobilized onto an Au electrode. This yields detection limits of 5 CFU/ml and 4 CFU/ml for ideal solutions and filtered tomato extract, respectively. Control experiments with an Au electrode onto which a mouse monoclonal antibody to GAPDH is immobilized demonstrate that non-specific adsorption is insignificant for the system and methodology studied here. Control experiments with Salmonella enterica demonstrate no cross-reactivity to this food pathogen. In addition, Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/ml for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Additional research has focused on alternative substrates and linker chemistries for protein immobilization, including the use of degenerate (highly doped) Si and bidendate thiol monolayer

  8. Using impedance measurements for detecting pathogens trapped in an electric field

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-07-20

    Impedance measurements between the electrodes in an electric field is utilized to detect the presence of pathogens trapped in the electric field. Since particles trapped in a field using the dielectiphoretic force changes the impedance between the electrodes by changing the dielectric material between the electrodes, the degree of particle trapping can be determined by measuring the impedance. This measurement is used to determine if sufficient pathogen have been collected to analyze further or potentially to identify the pathogen.

  9. Feasibility Study to Adapt the Microflown Vector Sensor for Underwater Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    properties were of less importance for this experiment. A calibrated ACO Pacific pressure microphone in combination with an ACO pacific 1/2” preamplifier ... preamplifier was used for amplification and filtering. Pre-amplification was set to 10x and a 1 kHz High pass and 100 kHz Low pass filter was used to reduce...Kjær Turntable system type 9640 Stanford RS preamplifier model SR560 Pre-amplification: 10x High pass filter: 1 kHz Low pass filter: 100 kHz

  10. Monitoring of pipelines in nuclear power plants by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon; Yang, Suyoung; Yang, Jinyeol

    2014-06-01

    Using laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement, this study proposes a damage detection technique that enables structural health monitoring of pipelines under the high temperature and radioactive environments of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The applications of conventional electromechanical impedance (EMI) based techniques to NPPs have been limited, mainly due to the contact nature of piezoelectric transducers, which cannot survive under the high temperature and high radiation environments of NPPs. The proposed LMI measurement technique aims to tackle the limitations of the EMI techniques by utilizing noncontact laser beams for both ultrasound generation and sensing. An Nd:Yag pulse laser is used for ultrasound generation, and a laser Doppler vibrometer is employed for the measurement of the corresponding ultrasound responses. For the monitoring of pipes covered by insulation layers, this study utilizes optical fibers to guide the laser beams to specific target locations. Then, an outlier analysis is adopted for autonomous damage diagnosis. Validation of the proposed LMI technique is carried out on a carbon steel pipe elbow under varying temperatures. A corrosion defect chemically engraved in the specimen is successfully detected.

  11. Total body composition estimated by standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis in male wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M-F; Chen, Y-Y; Jang, T-R; Lin, W-L; Chen, J; Hsieh, K-C

    2016-12-01

    Standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis is a fast and practical method for evaluating body composition in clinical settings, which can be used to estimate percentage body fat (BF%) and skeletal muscle mass in a subject's total body and body segments. In this study, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as a reference method for validating the standing 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis device BC-418 (BIA 8 , Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Forty-eight Taiwanese male wrestlers aged from 17.9 to 22.3 years volunteered to participate in this study. The lean soft tissue (LST) and BF% in the total body and body segments were measured in each subject by the BIA 8 and DXA. The correlation coefficients between total body, arm, leg segments impedance index (BI, ht 2 /Z) and lean soft tissue mass measured from DXA were r = 0.902, 0.453, 0.885, respectively (p < 0.01). In addition, the total body and segmental LST estimated by the BIA 8 were highly correlated with the DXA data (r = 0.936, 0.466, 0.886, p < 0.01). The estimation of total body and segmental BF% measured by BIA 8 and DXA also showed a significant correlation (r > 0.820, p < 0.01). The estimated LST and BF% from BIA 8 in the total body and body segments were highly correlated with the DXA results, which indicated that the standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis may be used to derive reference measures of LST and BF% in Taiwanese male wrestlers.

  12. Total body composition estimated by standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis in male wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, M-F; Chen, Y-Y; Jang, T-R; Lin, W-L; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    Standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis is a fast and practical method for evaluating body composition in clinical settings, which can be used to estimate percentage body fat (BF%) and skeletal muscle mass in a subject’s total body and body segments. In this study, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as a reference method for validating the standing 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis device BC-418 (BIA8, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Forty-eight Taiwanese male wrestlers aged from 17.9 to 22.3 years volunteered to participate in this study. The lean soft tissue (LST) and BF% in the total body and body segments were measured in each subject by the BIA8 and DXA. The correlation coefficients between total body, arm, leg segments impedance index (BI, ht2/Z) and lean soft tissue mass measured from DXA were r = 0.902, 0.453, 0.885, respectively (p < 0.01). In addition, the total body and segmental LST estimated by the BIA8 were highly correlated with the DXA data (r = 0.936, 0.466, 0.886, p < 0.01). The estimation of total body and segmental BF% measured by BIA8 and DXA also showed a significant correlation (r > 0.820, p < 0.01). The estimated LST and BF% from BIA8 in the total body and body segments were highly correlated with the DXA results, which indicated that the standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis may be used to derive reference measures of LST and BF% in Taiwanese male wrestlers. PMID:28090145

  13. Evaluation of electrical impedance ratio measurements in accuracy of electronic apex locators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper was evaluating the ratios of electrical impedance measurements reported in previous studies through a correlation analysis in order to explicit it as the contributing factor to the accuracy of electronic apex locator (EAL). The literature regarding electrical property measurements of EALs was screened using Medline and Embase. All data acquired were plotted to identify correlations between impedance and log-scaled frequency. The accuracy of the impedance ratio method used to detect the apical constriction (APC) in most EALs was evaluated using linear ramp function fitting. Changes of impedance ratios for various frequencies were evaluated for a variety of file positions. Among the ten papers selected in the search process, the first-order equations between log-scaled frequency and impedance were in the negative direction. When the model for the ratios was assumed to be a linear ramp function, the ratio values decreased if the file went deeper and the average ratio values of the left and right horizontal zones were significantly different in 8 out of 9 studies. The APC was located within the interval of linear relation between the left and right horizontal zones of the linear ramp model. Using the ratio method, the APC was located within a linear interval. Therefore, using the impedance ratio between electrical impedance measurements at different frequencies was a robust method for detection of the APC.

  14. Drilling electrode for real-time measurement of electrical impedance in bone tissues.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Xue, Yuan; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In order to prevent possible damages to soft tissues, reliable monitoring methods are required to provide valuable information on the condition of the bone being cut. This paper describes the design of an electrical impedance sensing drill developed to estimate the relative position between the drill and the bone being drilled. The two-electrode method is applied to continuously measure the electrical impedance during a drill feeding movement: two copper wire brushes are used to conduct electricity in the rotating drill and then the drill is one electrode; a needle is inserted into the soft tissues adjacent to the bone being drilled and acts as another electrode. Considering that the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the insertion depth of the drill, we theoretically calculate the electrode-tissue contact impedance and prove that the rate of impedance change varies considerably when the drill bit crosses the boundary between two different bone tissues. Therefore, the rate of impedance change is used to determine whether the tip of the drill is located in one of cortical bone, cancellous bone, and cortical bone near a boundary with soft tissue. In vitro experiments in porcine thoracic spines were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the impedance sensing drill. The experimental results indicate that the drill, used with the proposed data-processing method, can provide accurate and reliable breakthrough detection in the bone-drilling process.

  15. Impedance Matching of Tapered Slot Antenna using a Dielectric Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.

    1998-01-01

    A new impedance matching technique for tapered slot antennas using a dielectric transformer is presented. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the input impedance, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and the gain of a Vivaldi antenna (VA). Measured results at Ka-Band frequencies are presented and discussed.

  16. Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography: a topology optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Mello, Luís Augusto Motta; de Lima, Cícero Ribeiro; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Lima, Raul Gonzalez; Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli

    2008-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a technique to estimate the impedance distribution within a domain, based on measurements on its boundary. In other words, given the mathematical model of the domain, its geometry and boundary conditions, a nonlinear inverse problem of estimating the electric impedance distribution can be solved. Several impedance estimation algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional algorithm, based on the topology optimization method, as an alternative. A sequence of linear programming problems, allowing for constraints, is solved utilizing this method. In each iteration, the finite element method provides the electric potential field within the model of the domain. An electrode model is also proposed (thus, increasing the accuracy of the finite element results). The algorithm is tested using numerically simulated data and also experimental data, and absolute resistivity values are obtained. These results, corresponding to phantoms with two different conductive materials, exhibit relatively well-defined boundaries between them, and show that this is a practical and potentially useful technique to be applied to monitor lung aeration, including the possibility of imaging a pneumothorax.

  17. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of neutron-irradiated nanocrystalline silicon carbide (3C-SiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, Elchin M.

    2018-01-01

    It the present work, impedance spectra of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles have been comparatively analyzed before and after neutron irradiation. Resonance states and shifts were observed at the impedance spectra of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles after neutron irradiation. Relaxation time has been calculated from interdependence of real and imaginary parts of impedance of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles. Calculated relaxation times have been investigated as a function of neutron irradiation period. Neutron transmutation (31P isotopes production) effects on the impedance spectra and relaxation times have been studied. Moreover, influence of agglomeration and amorphous transformation to the impedance spectra and relaxation times of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles have been investigated.

  18. Multi-channel electrical impedance tomography for regional tissue hydration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Ashe, Jeffrey M; Boverman, Gregory; Sabatini, James E; Davenport, David M

    2014-06-01

    Poor assessment of hydration status during hemodialysis can lead to under- or over-hydration in patients with consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. In current practice, fluid management is largely based on clinical assessments to estimate dry weight (normal hydration body weight). However, hemodialysis patients usually have co-morbidities that can make the signs of fluid status ambiguous. Therefore, achieving normal hydration status remains a major challenge for hemodialysis therapy. Electrical impedance technology has emerged as a promising method for hydration monitoring due to its non-invasive nature, low cost and ease-of-use. Conventional electrical impedance-based hydration monitoring systems employ single-channel current excitation (either 2-electrode or 4-electrode methods) to perturb and extract averaged impedance from bulk tissue and use generalized models from large populations to derive hydration estimates. In the present study, a prototype, single-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system with simultaneous multi-channel current excitation was used to enable regional hydration change detection. We demonstrated the capability to detect a difference in daily impedance change between left leg and right leg in healthy human subjects, who wore a compression sock only on one leg to reduce daily gravitational fluid accumulation. The impedance difference corresponded well with the difference of lower leg volume change between left leg and right leg measured by volumetry, which on average is ~35 ml, accounting for 0.7% of the lower leg volume. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using multi-channel EIT to extract hydration information in different tissue layers with minimal skin interference. Our simultaneous, multi-channel current excitation approach provides an effective method to separate electrode contact impedance and skin condition artifacts from hydration signals. The prototype system has the potential to be used in clinical

  19. Body Fat Measurement: Weighing the Pros and Cons of Electrical Impedance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1985-01-01

    Research technologists have developed electrical impedance units in response to demand for a convenient and reliable method of measuring body fat. Accuracy of impedance measures versus calipers and underwater weighing are discussed. (MT)

  20. Equivalent circuit models for interpreting impedance perturbation spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Lowell

    2004-07-01

    As in-situ structural integrity monitoring disciplines mature, there is a growing need to process sensor/actuator data efficiently in real time. Although smaller, faster embedded processors will contribute to this, it is also important to develop straightforward, robust methods to reduce the overall computational burden for practical applications of interest. This paper addresses the use of equivalent circuit modeling techniques for inferring structure attributes monitored using impedance perturbation spectroscopy. In pioneering work about ten years ago significant progress was associated with the development of simple impedance models derived from the piezoelectric equations. Using mathematical modeling tools currently available from research in ultrasonics and impedance spectroscopy is expected to provide additional synergistic benefits. For purposes of structural health monitoring the objective is to use impedance spectroscopy data to infer the physical condition of structures to which small piezoelectric actuators are bonded. Features of interest include stiffness changes, mass loading, and damping or mechanical losses. Equivalent circuit models are typically simple enough to facilitate the development of practical analytical models of the actuator-structure interaction. This type of parametric structure model allows raw impedance/admittance data to be interpreted optimally using standard multiple, nonlinear regression analysis. One potential long-term outcome is the possibility of cataloging measured viscoelastic properties of the mechanical subsystems of interest as simple lists of attributes and their statistical uncertainties, whose evolution can be followed in time. Equivalent circuit models are well suited for addressing calibration and self-consistency issues such as temperature corrections, Poisson mode coupling, and distributed relaxation processes.

  1. Numerical analysis of acoustic impedance microscope utilizing acoustic lens transducer to examine cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Kenta; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    A new technique is proposed for non-contact quantitative cell observation using focused ultrasonic waves. This technique interprets acoustic reflection intensity into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the biological cell. The cells are cultured on a plastic film substrate. A focused acoustic beam is transmitted through the substrate to its interface with the cell. A two-dimensional (2-D) reflection intensity profile is obtained by scanning the focal point along the interface. A reference substance is observed under the same conditions. These two reflections are compared and interpreted into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the cell based on a calibration curve that was created prior to the observation. To create the calibration curve, a numerical analysis of the sound field is performed using Fourier Transforms and is verified using several saline solutions. Because the cells are suspended by two plastic films, no contamination is introduced during the observation. In a practical observation, a sapphire lens transducer with a center frequency of 300 MHz was employed using ZnO thin film. The objects studied were co-cultured rat-derived glial (astrocyte) cells and glioma cells. The result was the clear observation of the internal structure of the cells. The acoustic impedance of the cells was spreading between 1.62 and 1.72 MNs/m(3). Cytoskeleton was indicated by high acoustic impedance. The introduction of cytochalasin-B led to a significant reduction in the acoustic impedance of the glioma cells; its effect on the glial cells was less significant. It is believed that this non-contact observation method will be useful for continuous cell inspections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Validation of an Interactive Liner Design and Impedance Modeling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.; Buckley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Liner Impedance Analysis and Design (ILIAD) tool is a LabVIEW-based software package used to design the composite surface impedance of a series of small-diameter quarter-wavelength resonators incorporating variable depth and sharp bends. Such structures are useful for packaging broadband acoustic liners into constrained spaces for turbofan engine noise control applications. ILIAD s graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in the liner volume while the surface impedance and absorption coefficient calculations are updated in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model serves as the basis for the impedance calculation and can be applied to many liner configurations. Experimentally, tonal and broadband acoustic data were acquired in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube over the frequency range of 500 to 3000 Hz at 120 and 140 dB SPL. Normalized impedance spectra were measured using the Two-Microphone Method for the various combinations of channel configurations. Comparisons between the computed and measured impedances show excellent agreement for broadband liners comprised of multiple, variable-depth channels. The software can be used to design arrays of resonators that can be packaged into complex geometries heretofore unsuitable for effective acoustic treatment.

  3. Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake by bioelectrical impedance analysis in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M D; Drinkard, B; Ranzenhofer, L M; Salaita, C G; Sebring, N G; Brady, S M; Pinchbeck, C; Hoehl, J; Yanoff, L B; Savastano, D M; Han, J C; Yanovski, J A

    2009-09-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), the gold standard for measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness, is frequently difficult to assess in overweight individuals due to physical limitations. Reactance and resistance measures obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have been suggested as easily obtainable predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness, but the accuracy with which ht(2)/Z can predict VO(2max) has not previously been examined in overweight adolescents. The impedance index was used as a predictor of VO(2max) in 87 overweight girls and 47 overweight boys ages 12 to 17 with mean BMI of 38.6 + or - 7.3 and 42.5 + or - 8.2 in girls and boys respectively. The Bland Altman procedure assessed agreement between predicted and actual VO(2max). Predicted VO(2max) was significantly correlated with measured VO(2max) (r(2)=0.48, P<0.0001). Using the Bland Altman procedure, there was significant magnitude bias (r(2)=0.10; P<0.002). The limits of agreement for predicted relative to actual VO(2max) were -589 to 574 mL O(2)/min. The impedance index was highly correlated with VO(2max) in overweight adolescents. However, using BIA data to predict maximal oxygen uptake over-predicted VO(2max) at low levels of oxygen consumption and under-predicted VO(2max) at high levels of oxygen consumption. This magnitude bias, along with the large limits of agreement of BIA-derived predicted VO(2max), limit its usefulness in the clinical setting for overweight adolescents.

  4. Mathematical simulation of sound propagation in a flow channel with impedance walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, A. A.; Reent, K. S.

    2012-07-01

    The paper considers the specifics of calculating tonal sound propagating in a flow channel with an installed sound-absorbing device. The calculation is performed on the basis of numerical integrating on linearized nonstationary Euler equations using a code developed by the authors based on the so-called discontinuous Galerkin method. Using the linear theory of small perturbations, the effect of the sound-absorbing lining of the channel walls is described with the modified value of acoustic impedance proposed by the authors, for which, under flow channel conditions, the traditional classification of the active and reactive types of lining in terms of the real and imaginary impedance values, respectively, remains valid. To stabilize the computation process, a generalized impedance boundary condition is proposed in which, in addition to the impedance value itself, some additional parameters are introduced characterizing certain fictitious properties of inertia and elasticity of the impedance surface.

  5. Protein Aggregation Measurement through Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affanni, A.; Corazza, A.; Esposito, G.; Fogolari, F.; Polano, M.

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology to measure the fibril formation in protein solutions. We designed a bench consisting of a sensor having interdigitated electrodes, a PDMS hermetic reservoir and an impedance meter automatically driven by calculator. The impedance data are interpolated with a lumped elements model and their change over time can provide information on the aggregation process. Encouraging results have been obtained by testing the methodology on K-casein, a protein of milk, with and without the addition of a drug inhibiting the aggregation. The amount of sample needed to perform this measurement is by far lower than the amount needed by fluorescence analysis.

  6. Electromechanical Impedance Response of a Cracked Timoshenko Beam

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Xu, Fuhou; Chen, Jiazhao; Wu, Cuiqin; Wen, Dongdong

    2011-01-01

    Typically, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique does not use an analytical model for basic damage identification. However, an accurate model is necessary for getting more information about any damage. In this paper, an EMI model is presented for predicting the electromechanical impedance of a cracked beam structure quantitatively. A coupled system of a cracked Timoshenko beam with a pair of PZT patches bonded on the top and bottom surfaces has been considered, where the bonding layers are assumed as a Kelvin-Voigt material. The shear lag model is introduced to describe the load transfer between the PZT patches and the beam structure. The beam crack is simulated as a massless torsional spring; the dynamic equations of the coupled system are derived, which include the crack information and the inertial forces of both PZT patches and adhesive layers. According to the boundary conditions and continuity conditions, the analytical expression of the admittance of PZT patch is obtained. In the case study, the influences of crack and the inertial forces of PZT patches are analyzed. The results show that: (1) the inertial forces affects significantly in high frequency band; and (2) the use of appropriate frequency range can improve the accuracy of damage identification. PMID:22164017

  7. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to define an excess of body fat: evaluation in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzo, M; Talamonti, M; Perino, F; Servoli, S; Giordano, D; Chimenti, S; De Simone, C; Peris, K

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that obesity is closely associated with psoriasis. However, data on body composition are lacking in psoriasis. The purpose of this study were to investigate the body composition in psoriasis patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis and to correlate the bioelectrical impedance data with disease severity and laboratory parameters. Anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed on patients with psoriasis, naïve to any systemic treatment, who attended the outpatient clinics of two University centers. Data of 164 adult patients were analyzed. Compared to men, women had several significantly higher bioelectrical impedance parameters including reactance, fat mass% and adipose tissue%. The values of adipose tissue were positively correlated only with patients age (p = .021) and age at disease onset (p = .0006), but not with disease severity. In addition, we observed that the use of BMI cutoffs allowed to categorize 36.7% of women and 19.2% of men as obese, while fat mass% showed that 53.3% of women and 48.1% of men were obese. In our study, psoriasis is been associated with a high fat mass%. We suggest that screening for body fat distribution in psoriatic patients might be useful to identify early obesity-related disease.

  9. Primary Multi-frequency Data Analyze in Electrical Impedance Scanning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruigang; Dong, Xiuzhen; Fu, Feng; Shi, Xuetao; You, Fusheng; Ji, Zhenyu

    2005-01-01

    This paper deduced the Cole-Cole arc equation in form of admittance by the traditional Cole-Cole equation in form of impedance. Comparing to the latter, the former is more adaptive to the electrical impedance scanning which using lower frequency region. When using our own electrical impedance scanning device at 50-5000Hz, the measurement data separated on the arc of the former, while collected near the direct current resistor on the arc of the latter. The four parameters of the former can be evaluated by the least square method. The frequency of the imaginary part of admittance reaching maximum can be calculated by the Cole-Cole parameters. In conclusion, the Cole-Cole arc in form of admittance is more effective to multi-frequency data analyze at lower frequency region, like EIS.

  10. Impedance-matching system for a flexible surface-coil-type resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ono, Mitsuhiro

    1997-09-01

    This article describes an impedance-matching system for a flexible surface-coil-type resonator (FSCR) used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. To design the matching system, the input impedance of the FSCR was formulated using transmission line theory, and then the parameters of a matching circuit using varicap diodes were calculated. Experimental measurements of input impedance showed the validity of the formulation and the usefulness of the matching system. The matching circuit made by the varicap diodes 1SV186 offered the tunable bandwidth of 50 MHz for the prototype FSCR. Such a matching system also offers the possibility of remotely tuning EPR resonators electronically.

  11. [Research on Detection Method with Wearable Respiration Device Based on the Theory of Bio-impedance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangda; Wang, Xianzhong; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wei; Zha, Yutong

    2016-12-01

    Considering the importance of the human respiratory signal detection and based on the Cole-Cole bio-impedance model,we developed a wearable device for detecting human respiratory signal.The device can be used to analyze the impedance characteristics of human body at different frequencies based on the bio-impedance theory.The device is also based on the method of proportion measurement to design a high signal to noise ratio(SNR)circuit to get human respiratory signal.In order to obtain the waveform of the respiratory signal and the value of the respiration rate,we used the techniques of discrete Fourier transform(DFT)and dynamic difference threshold peak detection.Experiments showed that this system was valid,and we could see that it could accurately detect the waveform of respiration and the detection accuracy rate of respiratory wave peak point detection results was over 98%.So it can meet the needs of the actual breath test.

  12. System-on-chip integration of a new electromechanical impedance calculation method for aircraft structure health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-10-11

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  13. System-on-Chip Integration of a New Electromechanical Impedance Calculation Method for Aircraft Structure Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-01-01

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline. PMID:23202013

  14. Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.

    PubMed

    Vikneswaran, Namasivayam; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-06-08

    Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting acid reflux off therapy as a result of discounting duration of exposure. Baseline characteristics and reflux parameters of MII studies performed off-anti-secretory medications were analyzed. Studies on acid suppressive medication and those with recording times less than 20 h or low baseline impedance were excluded. A total of 73 consecutive MII studies were analyzed of which 31 MII studies had elevated acid exposure while 16 were abnormal by impedance criteria. MII testing off-therapy was more likely to be abnormal by pH criteria (percent time pH < 4) than impedance criteria (total reflux):[42 vs 22 % (p =0.02)]. Acid exposure (percent time pH < 4) identified more studies as abnormal than MII-detected acid reflux episodes [42 vs 34 % (p < 0.01)]. Mean acid clearance time (pH-detected) was significantly longer than median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) in the total [98.7 s vs 12.6 s (p < 0.01)], upright [58.6 s vs 13.1 s (p < 0.01)], and recumbent positions [136.7 s vs 14.2 s (p < 0.01)] with the greatest difference seen in the recumbent position. The mean ratio of mean acid clearance time (pH-detected) and the median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) was significantly higher in the recumbent position compared to the upright position [11. vs 5.3 (p = 0.01)]. Ambulatory impedance testing underestimates acid reflux compared to esophageal acid exposure by discounting the prolonged period of mucosal contact with each acid reflux episode, particularly in the recumbent position.

  15. ac Modeling and impedance spectrum tests of the superconducting magnetic field coils for the Wendelstein 7-X fusion experiment.

    PubMed

    Ehmler, Hartmut; Köppen, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The impedance spectrum test was employed for detection of short circuits within Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) superconducting magnetic field coils. This test is based on measuring the complex impedance over several decades of frequency. The results are compared to predictions of appropriate electrical equivalent circuits of coils in different production states or during cold test. When the equivalent circuit is not too complicated the impedance can be represented by an analytic function. A more detailed analysis is performed with a network simulation code. The overall agreement of measured and calculated or simulated spectra is good. Two types of short circuits which appeared are presented and analyzed. The detection limit of the method is discussed. It is concluded that combined high-voltage ac and low-voltage impedance spectrum tests are ideal means to rule out short circuits in the W7-X coils.

  16. Impedance Eduction in Ducts with Higher-Order Modes and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    An impedance eduction technique, previously validated for ducts with plane waves at the source and duct termination planes, has been extended to support higher-order modes at these locations. Inputs for this method are the acoustic pressures along the source and duct termination planes, and along a microphone array located in a wall either adjacent or opposite to the test liner. A second impedance eduction technique is then presented that eliminates the need for the microphone array. The integrity of both methods is tested using three sound sources, six Mach numbers, and six selected frequencies. Results are presented for both a hardwall and a test liner (with known impedance) consisting of a perforated plate bonded to a honeycomb core. The primary conclusion of the study is that the second method performs well in the presence of higher-order modes and flow. However, the first method performs poorly when most of the microphones are located near acoustic pressure nulls. The negative effects of the acoustic pressure nulls can be mitigated by a judicious choice of the mode structure in the sound source. The paper closes by using the first impedance eduction method to design a rectangular array of 32 microphones for accurate impedance eduction in the NASA LaRC Curved Duct Test Rig in the presence of expected measurement uncertainties, higher order modes, and mean flow.

  17. Broadband Impedance Microscopy for Research on Complex Quantum Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-08

    function in various materials. Figure 2. Sensitivity limit of the broadband impedance microscope (BIM). Figure 3. Preliminary BIM data on YMnO3...2 Statement of the Problem The objective of this DURIP award is to construct a broadband impedance microscope (BIM) for frequency-dependent...platforms and specialized cantilever probes [1] in the PI’s lab, the BIM can now simultaneously obtain microscopic (10 – 100 nm) and quasi- spectroscopic

  18. Changes in biphasic electrode impedance with protein adsorption and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Millard, Rodney; Huang, Christie; Milojevic, Dusan; Shepherd, Robert; Cowan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of protein adsorption and cell growth to increases in electrode impedance that occur immediately following implantation of cochlear implant electrodes and other neural stimulation devices. An in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface was used. Radiolabelled albumin in phosphate buffered saline was added to planar gold electrodes and electrode impedance measured using a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse. The polarisation impedance component increased with protein adsorption, while no change to access resistance was observed. The maximum level of protein adsorbed was measured at 0.5 μg/cm2, indicating a tightly packed monolayer of albumin molecules on the gold electrode and resin substrate. Three cell types were grown over the electrodes, macrophage cell line J774, dissociated fibroblasts and epithelial cell line MDCK, all of which created a significant increase in electrode impedance. As cell cover over electrodes increased, there was a corresponding increase in the initial rise in voltage, suggesting cell cover mainly contributes to the access resistance of the electrodes. Only a small increase in the polarisation component of impedance was seen with cell cover. PMID:20841637

  19. Impedance-matched drilling telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Normann, Randy A [Edgewood, NM; Mansure, Arthur J [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A downhole telemetry system that uses inductance or capacitance as a mode through which signal is communicated across joints between assembled lengths of pipe wherein efficiency of signal propagation through a drill string, for example, over multiple successive pipe segments is enhanced through matching impedances associated with the various telemetry system components.

  20. Imposed Power of Breathing Associated With Use of an Impedance Threshold Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    threshold device and a sham impedance threshold device. DESIGN: Prospective randomized blinded protocol. SETTING: University medical center. PATIENTS...for males). METHODS: The volunteers completed 2 trials of breathing through a face mask fitted with an active impedance threshold device set to open...at -7cmH 2 O pressure, or with a sham impedance threshold device, which was identical to the active device except that it did not contain an