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Sample records for high integrity containers

  1. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-06-19

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each.

  2. Disposal demonstration of a high integrity container (HIC) containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Tyacke, M.J.; Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    A high integrity container (HIC) was developed, tested, and certified for use in disposing of unusual low-level radioactive waste from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The work was coordinated by EG and G Idaho, Inc. and funded by the US Department of Energy. A disposal demonstration using an HIC containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from TMI-2 was completed at the commercial disposal facility in the State of Washington. A Certification of Compliance was issued by the Department of Social and Health Services of the State of Washington to use the HIC in disposing of up to 50 EPICOR-II prefilters. That Certification of Compliance was issued after rigorous review of the HIC design and test program by the State and by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and disposing of the demonstration HIC and briefly describes the design, testing, and approval effort leading up to the demonstration.

  3. Crevice corrosion {ampersand} pitting of high-level waste containers: integration of deterministic {ampersand} probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  4. Crevice corrosion and pitting of high-level waste containers: Integration of deterministic and probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Alloy 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  5. CREVICE CORROSION & PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC & PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  6. Effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of high density polyethylene. [Construction material for LLW high-integrity containers

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Arora, H.; Swyler, K.J.; Becker, W.; Sobel, E.

    1986-03-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the short-term tensile and creep properties of Marlex CL-100, a highly cross-linked high-density polyethylene. This material is being considered as a constructional material for a low-level radioactive waste high-integrity container. It was found that the chemical environments studied could be beneficial or detrimental to strength and ductility depending on the type of mechanical property test and the nature of the exposure of the polyethylene to the chemical environment. Gamma irradiation to a sufficiently high dose prior to tensile or creep testing increased the strength and decreased the ductility. In-test irradiation, however, could increase or decrease the creep rate depending on the dose rate and applied stress.

  7. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P; Estill, J; Farmer, J; Hopper, R; Horn, J; Huang, J S; McCright, D; Roy, A; Wang, F; Wilfinger, K

    1999-02-08

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 Gr 55, a carbon steel, or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 G4 55 are favored.

  8. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; McCright, R D; Estill, J C; Gordon, S R

    1998-11-02

    Alloy 22 [UNS NO60221] is now being considered for construction of high level waste containers to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain and elsewhere. In essence, this alloy is 21% Cr, 13% MO, 4% Fe, 3% W, 2% Co, with the balance being Ni. Variants without tungsten are also being considered. Detailed mechanistic models have been developed to account for the corrosion of Alloy 22 surfaces in crevices that will inevitably form. Such occluded areas experience substantial decreases in pH, with corresponding elevations in chloride concentration. Experimental work has been undertaken to validate the crevice corrosion model, including parallel studies with 304 stainless steel.

  9. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90{degrees}C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys.

  10. Detergent/Nanodisc Screening for High-Resolution NMR Studies of an Integral Membrane Protein Containing a Cytoplasmic Domain

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Choe, Senyon; Riek, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Because membrane proteins need to be extracted from their natural environment and reconstituted in artificial milieus for the 3D structure determination by X-ray crystallography or NMR, the search for membrane mimetic that conserve the native structure and functional activities remains challenging. We demonstrate here a detergent/nanodisc screening study by NMR of the bacterial α-helical membrane protein YgaP containing a cytoplasmic rhodanese domain. The analysis of 2D [15N,1H]-TROSY spectra shows that only a careful usage of low amounts of mixed detergents did not perturb the cytoplasmic domain while solubilizing in parallel the transmembrane segments with good spectral quality. In contrast, the incorporation of YgaP into nanodiscs appeared to be straightforward and yielded a surprisingly high quality [15N,1H]-TROSY spectrum opening an avenue for the structural studies of a helical membrane protein in a bilayer system by solution state NMR. PMID:23349867

  11. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J C; Farmer, J C; Gordon, S R; McCright, R D

    1998-12-21

    Alloy 22 [UNS NO60221] is now being considered for construction of high level waste containers to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain and elsewhere. In essence, this alloy is 20.0-22.5% Cr, 12.5-14.5% MO, 2.0-6.0% Fe, 2.5-3.5% W, with the balance being Ni. Other impurity elements include P, Si, S, Mn, Co and V. Cobalt may be present at a maximum concentration of 2.5%. Detailed mechanistic models have been developed to account for the corrosion of Alloy 22 surfaces in crevices that will inevitably form. Such occluded areas experience substantial decreases in pH, with corresponding elevations in chloride concentration. Experimental work has been undertaken to validate the crevice corrosion model, including parallel studies with 304 stainless steel.

  12. Crevice corrosion {ampersand} pitting of high-level waste containers: the integration of deterministic {ampersand} probabilistic models (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in crevices on the initiation and propagation of pits. A deterministic calculation is used to estimate the accumulation of hydrogen ions (pH suppression) in the crevice solution due to the hydrolysis of dissolved metals. Pit initiation and growth within the crevice is then dealt with by either a probabilistic model, or an equivalent deterministic model. Ultimately, the role of intergranular corrosion will have to be considered. While the strategy presented here is very promising, the integrated model is not yet ready for precise quantitative predictions. Empirical expressions for the rate of penetration based upon experimental crevice corrosion data can be used in the interim period, until the integrated model can be refined. Bounding calculations based upon such empirical expressions can provide important insight into worst-case scenarios.

  13. Proposed design requirements for high-integrity containers used to store, transport, and dispose of high-specific-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.; Allen, G.C.; Pope, R.B.

    1981-04-01

    This report develops proposed design requirements for high integrity containers used to store, transport and/or dispose of high-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II. The wastes considered are the dewatered resins produced by the EPICOR II waste treatment system used to clean-up the auxiliary building water. The radioactivity level of some of these EPICOR II liners is 1300 curies per container. These wastes may be disposed of in an intermediate depth burial (10 to 20 meter depth) facility. The proposed container design requirements are directed to ensure isolation of the waste and protection of the public health and safety.

  14. A pilot-scale study of cryolite precipitation from high fluoride-containing wastewater in a reaction-separation integrated reactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Zhou, Kanggen; Yang, Youcai; Du, Hu

    2013-07-01

    Fluoride removal by traditional precipitation generates huge amounts of a water-rich sludge with low quality, which has no commercial or industrial value. The present study evaluated the feasibility of recovering fluoride as low water content cryolite from industrial fluoride-containing wastewater. A novel pilot-scale reaction-separation integrated reactor was designed. The results showed that the seed retention time in the reactor was prolonged to strengthen the induced crystallization process. The particle size of cryolite increased with increasing seed retention time, which decreased the water content. The recovery rate of cryolite was above 75% under an influent fluoride concentration of 3500 mg/L, a reaction temperature of 500C, and an influent flow of 40 L/hr. The cryolite products that precipitated from the reactor were small in volume, large in particle size, low in water content, high in crystal purity, and recyclable.

  15. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  16. High Energy Flywheel Containment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Trase, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel testing facility is being constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility is to be used for life cycle testing of various flywheel rotors. The lifecycle testing consists of spinning a rotor from a low rpm (approx. 20,000 ) to a high rpm (approx. 60,000) and then back to the low rpm. This spin cycle will model that which the rotor will see during use. To simulate the lifetime of the rotor, the spin cycle will be performed tens of thousands of times. A typical life cycle spin test is expected to last six months. During this time the rotor will be spun through a cycle every five minutes. The test will run continuously for the six month period barring a flywheel failure. Since it is not reasonable to have the surrounding area evacuated of personnel for the duration of the testing, the flywheel facility has to be designed to withstand a flywheel rotor failure and insure that there is no danger to any personnel in the adjacent buildings or surrounding areas. In order to determine if the facility can safely contain a flywheel rotor failure an analysis of the facility in conjunction with possible flywheel failure modes was performed. This analysis is intended as a worst case evaluation of the burst liner and vacuum tank's ability to contain a failure. The test chamber consists of a cylindrical stainless steel vacuum tank, two outer steel containment rings, and a stainless steel burst liner. The stainless steel used is annealed 302, which has an ultimate strength of 620 MPa (90,000 psi). A diagram of the vacuum tank configuration is shown. The vacuum tank and air turbine will be located below ground in a pit. The tank is secured in the pit with 0.3 m (12 in.) of cement along the base and the remaining portion of the tank is surrounded by gravel up to the access ports. A 590 kg (1300 lb.) bulkhead is placed on top of the pit during operation and the complete facility is housed within a concrete structure which has 7.5 cm (3 in.) thick walls. A cutaway

  17. Failure assessment techniques to ensure shipping container integrity

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.

    1986-02-01

    This report discusses several methodologies which may be used to ensure the structural integrity of containment systems to be used for the transport and storage of high-level radioactive substances. For economic reasons, shipping containers constructed of ferritic materials are being considered for manufacture by vendors in the US and Europe. Ferritic show an inherent transition from a ductile, high energy failure mode to a brittle, low energy fracture mode with decreasing temperature. Therefore, formal consideration of means by which to avoid unstable brittle fracture is necessary prior to the licensing of ferritic casks. It is suggested that failure of a shipping container wall be defined as occurring when a flaw extends through the outer wall of the containment system. Crack initiation which may lead to unstable brittle crack growth should therefore be prevented. It is suggested that a fundamental linear elastic fracture mechanics (lefm) approach be adopted on a case-by-case basis, applied perhaps by means of appropriate modifications to ASMA Section III or Section XI. A lefm analysis requires information concerning service temperatures, loading rates, flaw sizes, and applied stresses. Tentative judgments regarding these parameters for typical shipping containers have been made.

  18. Flexible Skins Containing Integrated Sensors and Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sensor skins modeled partly in imitation of biological sensor skins are undergoing development. These sensor skins comprise flexible polymer substrates that contain and/or support dense one- and two-dimensional arrays of microscopic sensors and associated microelectronic circuits. They afford multiple tactile sensing modalities for measuring physical phenomena that can include contact forces; hardnesses, temperatures, and thermal conductivities of objects with which they are in contact; and pressures, shear stresses, and flow velocities in fluids. The sensor skins are mechanically robust, and, because of their flexibility, they can be readily attached to curved and possibly moving and flexing surfaces of robots, wind-tunnel models, and other objects that one might seek to equip for tactile sensing. Because of the diversity of actual and potential sensor-skin design criteria and designs and the complexity of the fabrication processes needed to realize the designs, it is not possible to describe the sensor-skin concept in detail within this article.

  19. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qiao; Corradini, Michael

    2016-05-02

    plate may have been underestimated and thus the heat flux had been underestimated. The MELCOR model predicts a film thickness on the order of 100 microns, which agrees very well with film flow model developed in this study for scaling analysis. However, the expected differences in film thicknesses for near vacuum and near atmospheric test conditions are not significant. Further study on the behavior of condensate film is expected to refine the simulation results. Possible refinements include but are not limited to, the followings: CFD simulation focusing on the liquid film behavior and benchmarking with experimental analyses for simpler geometries. 16 1 INTRODUCTION This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). The experimental results are employed to validate the containment condensation model in reactor containment system safety analysis code for integral SMRs. Such a containment condensation model is important to demonstrate the adequate cooling. In the three years of investigation, following the original proposal, the following planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental

  20. Crevice corrosion and pitting of high-level waste containers: a first step towards the integration of deterministic and probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1997-07-01

    An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in crevices on pit initiation and propagation. A deterministic calculation is used to estimate the accumulation of hydrogen ions in the crevice solution due to equilibrium hydrolysis reactions of dissolved metal. Pit initiation and growth within the crevice is dealt with by either a stochastic probability model, or an equivalent deterministic model. While the strategy presented here is very promising, the integrated model is not yet ready for accurate quantitative predictions. Empirical expressions for the rate of penetration based upon experimental crevice corrosion data should be used in the interim period, until the integrated model can be refined. Both approaches are discussed.

  1. Structural integrity and containment aspects of small gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. S.; Gomuc, R.

    1994-03-01

    Structural integrity of rotating components in gas turbine engines is very crucial since their failure implies high impact energy, which, if uncontained, could mean damage to aircraft structures, controls, and so forth, and, in the worst scenario, even loss of lives. This final consequence has led to very stringent airworthiness regulations for engine/aircraft certifications. This paper discusses the historical statistics of noncontainment events in turbofans, turboprops, and turboshafts and shows how the damage severity varies between different applications and how changes to regulations are continuing in order to improve the reliability of aircraft/rotorcraft. The paper also presents design challenges resulting from the analysis complexity of containment/noncontainment event and the way Pratt & Whitney Canada design/analysis/test system caters to all the requirements. The weight and cost impact of possible changes to current regulations are also presented.

  2. In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers.

  3. Highly integrated photonic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmulovich, J.; Frolov, S.; Paunescu, A.; Lee, D. C.; DeHazan, Y.; Hanjani, A.; Bruce, A.

    2006-02-01

    From its foundation Inplane Photonics focused on developing integrated solutions based on Planar Lightwave Circuit(PLC) technology. It is universally agreed that the path to lower cost-per-function in Photonics, as in Electronics, leads to integration. The timing of introduction of a new technological solution and the rate at which it will penetrate the market very much depends on the interplay between the size of the market, advantages the new technology offers, and the investment needed to achieve the level of performance that is envisioned. In telecom applications, where the main drivers for technology selection are cost and performance, such large-scale investment did not materialized yet for the PLC technology mostly due to a limited market size.

  4. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  5. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions that infringe one or...

  6. Impact of Vial Capping on Residual Seal Force and Container Closure Integrity.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Ovadia, Robert; Lam, Philippe; Stauch, Oliver; Vogt, Martin; Roehl, Holger; Huwyler, Joerg; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and computed tomography-to characterize different container closure system combinations that had been sealed using different capping process parameter settings. Additionally, container closure integrity of these samples was measured using helium leakage (physical container closure integrity) and compared to characterization data. The different capping equipment settings lead to residual seal force values from 7 to 115 N. High residual seal force values were achieved with high capping pre-compression force and a short distance between the capping plate and plunge. The choice of container closure system influenced the obtained residual seal force values. The residual seal force tester and piezoelectric measurements showed similar trends. All vials passed physical container closure integrity testing, and no stopper rupture was seen with any of the settings applied, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted for the studied container closure system with the chosen capping setting ranges. The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and

  7. High frequency integrated MOS filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques exist for implementing integrated MOS filters. These techniques fit into the general categories of sampled and tuned continuous-time filters. Advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed. This paper focuses primarily on the high frequency capabilities of MOS integrated filters.

  8. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS PLASMA CONTAINMENT DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.; Hammel, J.E.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presenied for producing neutrons as a result of collisions between ions in high temperature plasmas. The invention resides in the particular arrangement of ihe device whereby ihe magneiic and electric fields are made to cross at substantially right angles in several places along a torus shaped containment vessel. A plasma of deuterium gas is generated in the vessel under the electric fields and is "trapped" in any one of the "crossed field" regions to produce a release of energy.

  9. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  10. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-05-06

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  11. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  12. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  13. High Energy Failure Containment for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pektas, Pete; Baker, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper will be to investigate advancements and any commonality between spacecraft debris containment and the improvements being made in ballistic protection. Scope: This paper will focus on cross application of protection devices and methods, and how they relate to protecting humans from failures in spacecraft. The potential gain is to reduce the risk associated with hardware failure, while decreasing the weight and size of energy containment methods currently being used by the government and commercial industry. Method of Approach: This paper will examine testing that has already been accomplished in regards to the failure of high energy rotating hardware and compare it to advancements in ballistic protection. Examples are: DOT research and testing of turbine containment as documented in DOT/FAA/AR-96/110, DOT/FAA/AR-97/82, DOT/FAA/AR-98/22. It will also look at work accomplished by companies such as ApNano and IBD Deisenroth in the development of nano ceramics and nanometric steels. Other forms of energy absorbent materials and composites will also be considered and discussed. New Advances in State of the Art: There have been numerous advances in technology in regards to high energy debris containment and in the similar field of ballistic protection. This paper will discuss methods such as using impregnated or dry Kevlar, ceramic, and nano-technology which have been successfully tested but are yet to be utilized in spacecraft. Reports on tungsten disulfide nanotubes claim that they are 4-5 times stronger than steel and reports vary about the magnitude increase over Kevlar, but it appears to be somewhere in the range of 2-6 times stronger. This technology could also have applications in the protection of pressure vessels, motor housings, and hydraulic component failures.

  14. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and... certain integrated circuits, chipsets, or products containing same including televisions, media...

  15. 77 FR 35426 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Institution of... within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices... after importation of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices containing same...

  16. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions....

  17. Integrated high power VCSEL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    High power VCSEL systems are a novel laser source used for thermal treatment in industrial manufacturing. These systems will be applied in many applications, which have not used a laser source before. This is enabled by the unique combination of efficiency, compactness and robustness. High power VCSEL system technology encompasses elements far beyond the VCSEL chip itself: i.e. heat sinks, bonding technology and integrated optics. This paper discusses the optimization of these components and processes specifically for building high-power laser systems with VCSEL arrays. New approaches help to eliminate components and process steps and make the system more robust and easier to manufacture. New cooler concepts with integrated electrical and mechanical interfaces have been investigated and offer advantages for high power system design. The bonding process of chips on sub-mounts and coolers has been studied extensively and for a variety of solder materials. High quality of the interfaces as well as good reliability under normal operation and thermal cycling have been realized. A viable alternative to soldering is silver sintering. The very positive results which have been achieved with a variety of technologies indicate the robustness of the VCSEL chips and their suitability for high power systems. Beam shaping micro-optics can be integrated on the VCSEL chip in a wafer scale process by replication of lenses in a polymer layer. The performance of VCSEL arrays with integrated collimation lenses has been positively evaluated and the integrated chips are fully compatible with all further assembly steps. The integrated high power systems make the application even easier and more robust. New examples in laser material processing and pumping of solid state lasers are presented.

  18. PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.

    2010-02-01

    A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

  19. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  20. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  16. CTXφ contains a hybrid genome derived from tandemly integrated elements

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2000-01-01

    CTXφ is a filamentous, temperate bacteriophage whose genome includes ctxAB, the genes that encode cholera toxin. In toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae, tandem arrays of prophage DNA, usually interspersed with the related genetic element RS1, are integrated site-specifically within the chromosome. We have discovered that these arrays routinely yield hybrid virions, composed of DNA from two adjacent prophages or from a prophage and a downstream RS1. Coding sequences are always derived from the 5′ prophage whereas most of an intergenic sequence, intergenic region 1, is always derived from the 3′ element. The presence of tandem elements is required for production of virions: V. cholerae strains that contain a solitary prophage rarely yield CTX virions, and the few virions detected result from imprecise excision of prophage DNA. Thus, generation of the replicative form of CTXφ, pCTX, a step that precedes production of virions, does not depend on reversal of the process for site-specific integration of CTXφ DNA into the V. cholerae chromosome. Production of pCTX also does not depend on RecA-mediated homologous recombination between adjacent prophages. We hypothesize that the CTXφ-specific proteins required for replication of pCTX can also function on a chromosomal substrate, and that, unlike the processes used by other integrating phages, production of pCTX and CTXφ does not require excision of the prophage from the chromosome. Use of this replication strategy maximizes vertical transmission of prophage DNA while still enabling dissemination of CTXφ to new hosts. PMID:10880564

  17. Contained high explosive firing facility (CHEFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, H.L.; Seitz, W.L.; Wackerle, J.; Polcyn, M.; Esparza, E.

    1993-08-01

    A cylindrical vessel capable of totally containing the products and shrapnel resulting from the detonation of 10 kg of TNT (or equivalent) has been designed and built by Southwest Research Institute for and according to the requirements of the Detonation Systems Group (M-7) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The vessel is 6.0-m long by 3.6-m diameter and is manufactured of 50-mm (elliptical end caps) and 38-mm (cylindrical walls) thick high-strength steel (HY-100). The cylindrical walls of the vessel are lined with 13-mm thick replaceable steel plates for shrapnel protection. The floor is made of steel-covered concrete. Ten large-aperture (254 mm) optical ports are available for instrumentation and four ports are provided for cabling and plumbing. Two qualifying detonation tests of 8.8 kg of C-4 explosive (equivalent to 10 kg TNT) have shown that the maximum strain produced is less than 78% of the elastic limit. The vessel is installed in a converted outdoor firing facility that has been modified to include an insulated and heated metal building to house the vessel and additional instrumentation. A computer-based system for data acquisition, firing control, and the monitoring of vessel response is described.

  18. Highly Parallel, High-Precision Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-04-22

    This paper describes a scheme for rapidly computing numerical values of definite integrals to very high accuracy, ranging from ordinary machine precision to hundreds or thousands of digits, even for functions with singularities or infinite derivatives at endpoints. Such a scheme is of interest not only in computational physics and computational chemistry, but also in experimental mathematics, where high-precision numerical values of definite integrals can be used to numerically discover new identities. This paper discusses techniques for a parallel implementation of this scheme, then presents performance results for 1-D and 2-D test suites. Results are also given for a certain problem from mathematical physics, which features a difficult singularity, confirming a conjecture to 20,000 digit accuracy. The performance rate for this latter calculation on 1024 CPUs is 690 Gflop/s. We believe that this and one other 20,000-digit integral evaluation that we report are the highest-precision non-trivial numerical integrations performed to date.

  19. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and...

  20. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice of... limited exclusion order against certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing the...

  1. 77 FR 19032 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2888; the Commission is... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same. The complaint...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7567] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2888] Certain Semiconductor...

  2. 77 FR 64826 - Certain Integrated Circuit Chips and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Chips and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation... integrated circuit chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... importation of certain integrated circuit chips and products containing the same that infringe one or more...

  3. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... Manufacturing Corporation of China; Integrated Device Technology, Inc. of San Jose, California; and...

  4. Yb3+ borate laser glasses containing high-valency cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumitani, Tetsuro; Hu, Lili; Dai, Shixun; Jiang, Zhonghong

    1999-07-01

    A new kind of Yb3+ borate laser glass containing high valency cations was reported in this work. B2O3-ZnO and B2O3-BaO glasses were chosen as the base glasses of Yb$3+)-BaO glasses were chosen as the base glasses of Yb3+ ions. Yb3+ ion has a large integrated absorption area in the former and longer fluorescent lifetime in the latter. The effect of Al3+, La3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Nb4+ Ta5+, W6+ high valency cations on the absorption and fluorescent behaviors of Ba2O3-ZnO- RmOn-Yb2O3 and B2O3-BaO-RmOn-Yb2O3 glasses was examined. Some Yb3+ borate laser glasses with high cross section for stimulated emissions, good stability, good stability against devitrification and lower non-linear refractive index were presented.

  5. Integrating Quality into the Textile and Apparel High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Deborah J. C.; Kadolph, Sara J.; Cosbey, Sarah; Hillery, Julie; Haar, Sherry; Day, Marla; Keiser, Sandra; Brandes, Kendra

    2001-01-01

    Explains the importance of quality assurance in high school textiles and apparel instruction. Describes educational activities that integrate quality assurance concepts (teamwork, continuous improvement, customer focus, and empowerment). (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  6. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H.

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  12. Integrated reactor-containment hyperbolic-cooling-tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.R.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary feasibility analysis has been conducted to evaluate placing a nuclear reactor containment building inside a large hyperbolic cooling tower, a concept previously suggested for fossil-fired units but for reasons other than those that motivate this evaluation. The geometry of the design, the amount of water available, and the shielding provided by the cooling tower are beneficial to the safety characteristics of the containment under accident conditions. Three means of decay heat management are employed: an initial water spray on the containment exterior, long-term air convection on side of the containment, and creation of a water pool inside the containment. A continuously spraying water tank on top of the containment allows for a completely passive decay heat removal system. An annular air chimney around the containment is effective in long-term removal of {approximately} 1O MW (thermal) through air convection. Five percent of the water inventory in the cooling-tower pond surrounding the containment is sufficient to flood the containment interior to a depth of 14.6 ft, thereby providing an internal containment heat sink. The packing and the height of the tower provide major scrubbing and dispersing sources for any uncontrolled radioactive leak. The cooling tower veil also protects the containment from external events such as lane crashes.

  13. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.

  14. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    C.N. Corrado; J.E. Bondaryk; V. Godino

    1998-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and Ieaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containment in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify a technique(s) for inspection of inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary. Acoustic imaging has been identified as one of these potential techniques. A numerical feasibility study investigated the use of high-frequency bistatic acoustic imaging techniques for inspection of inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary of nuclear power plant containment. The range-dependent version of the OASES Code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was utilized to perform a series of numerical simulations. OASES is a well developed and extensively tested code for evaluation of the acoustic field in a system of stratified fluid and/or elastic layers. Using the code, an arbitrary number of fluid or solid elastic layers are interleaved, with the outer layers modeled as halfspaces. High frequency vibrational sources were modeled to simulate elastic waves in the steel. The received field due to an arbitrary source array can be calculated at arbitrary depth and range positions. In this numerical study, waves that reflect and scatter from surface roughness caused by modeled degradations (e.g., corrosion) are detected and used to identify and map the steel degradation. Variables in the numerical study included frequency, flaw size, interrogation distance, and sensor incident angle.Based on these analytical simulations, it is considered unlikely that acoustic imaging technology can be used to investigate embedded steel liners of reinforced concrete containment. The thin steel liner and high signal losses to the concrete make this application difficult. Results for portions of steel containment

  15. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits... infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain Seagate hard disk drives that contain...

  16. 78 FR 10635 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same, DN 2938..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit devices...

  17. 76 FR 58041 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason of... integrated circuit devices and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 9, 10, 12, 31, 32,...

  18. 75 FR 43553 - In the Matter of Certain Encapsulated Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Encapsulated Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same..., and sale within the United States after importation of certain encapsulated integrated circuit devices... encapsulated integrated circuit devices and products contains same in connection with claims 1- 4, 7, 17,...

  19. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit... semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1,...

  20. Silica containing highly porous alumina ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svinka, R.; Svinka, V.; Zake, I.

    2011-04-01

    Porous alumina ceramic were produced by slip casting of aqueous alumina slurry with added small amount of metallic aluminium powder. Pores form in result of chemical reaction of aluminum with water by hydrogen gas evolution reaction and solidification of suspension. Porosity of such materials sintered at a temperature of 1600 - 1750°C varies from 60 to 90%. Pore size distribution and mechanical strength of these materials depend largely on the grain size of used raw materials. The major part of pores in the materials produced without additive of silica are larger than 10 ±m, but with 5 - 10 wt.% additive of silica in the raw mix pore size decreases considerably. The sintering shrinkage decreases to 2.5%. Coefficient of thermal expansion equally decreases from 8.9-10-6 K-1 to 7.1 10-6 K-1 and classification temperature increases to 1600°C, while deformation at high temperature decreases considerably.

  1. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  2. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  3. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  4. 77 FR 39510 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated...

  5. Evaluation of Container Closure System Integrity for Frozen Storage Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Nikoloff, Jonas; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, drug product for parenteral administration is stored in a frozen state (e.g., -20 °C or -80 °C), particularly during early stages of development of some biotech molecules in order to provide sufficient stability. Shipment of frozen product could potentially be performed in the frozen state, yet possibly at different temperatures, for example, using dry ice (-80 °C). Container closure systems of drug products usually consist of a glass vial, rubber stopper, and an aluminum crimped cap. In the frozen state, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of commonly used rubber stoppers is between -55 and -65 °C. Below their Tg, rubber stoppers are known to lose their elastic properties and become brittle, and thus potentially fail to maintain container closure integrity in the frozen state. Leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are likely to be transient, yet, can possibly risk container closure integrity and lead to microbial contamination. After thawing, the rubber stopper is supposed to re-seal the container closure system. Given the transient nature of the possible impact on container closure integrity in the frozen state, typical container closure integrity testing methods (used at room temperature conditions) are unable to evaluate and thus confirm container closure integrity in the frozen state. Here we present the development of a novel method (thermal physical container closure integrity) for direct assessment of container closure integrity by a physical method (physical container closure integrity) at frozen conditions, using a modified He leakage test. In this study, different container closure systems were evaluated with regard to physical container closure integrity in the frozen state to assess the suitability of vial/stopper combinations and were compared to a gas headspace method. In summary, the thermal physical container closure integrity He leakage method was more sensitive in detecting physical container closure

  6. High G MEMS integrated accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Barron, C.C.; Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Murray, J.R.; Christenson, T.R.; Bateman, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a surface micromachined accelerometer for measuring very high levels of acceleration (up to 50,000 G). Both the mechanical and electronic portions of the sensor were integrated on a single substrate using a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor were first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the water substrate. The trench was then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface was then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing using Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Next, the CMOS electronics were fabricated on areas of the wafer adjacent to the embedded structures. Finally, the mechanical structures were released and the sensor tested. The mechanical structure of the sensor consisted of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. The first polysilicon plate mass was suspended using compliant springs (cantilever beams) and acted as a variable capacitor during sensor acceleration. The second polysilicon plate mass was suspended using very stiff springs and acted as a fixed capacitor during acceleration. Acceleration was measured by comparing the capacitance of the variable capacitor (compliant suspension) with the fixed capacitance (stiff suspension).

  7. An analytical study of seismic threat to containment integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, M.; Agrawal, P.K.; Ahl, T.J.; CBI Na-Con, Inc., Oak Brook, IL )

    1989-07-01

    The methodology used and the results of an analytical scoping study of the seismic capacity of four containment buildings located in the Eastern United States are described in this report. The study was undertaken to provide quantitative information of containment seismic capacity considering a rather complete list of limit states. This type of information was not available previously. The four containments represent a cross-section of containment, reactor, and foundation types. Evaluations included time history analyses, four combinations of seismic with pressure and temperature loading to consider different severe accident conditions, and seismic aftershocks. Containments were evaluated for applicable limit states from a list of sixteen limit states that included structural, penetration, and foundation failures. The results are presented in terms of capacity margin factors at a prescribed value of peak horizontal ground acceleration, or by stating the seismic capacity in the governing limit states when the capacity is smaller than the acceleration value at which margin factors are listed. For certain critical limit states, curves showing the variation of capacity margin factor with peak horizontal ground acceleration are presented. The report also includes a discussion of factors that are significant for determining seismic and provides recommendations for future work. 25 refs., 285 figs., 70 tabs.

  8. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  9. Solution methods for very highly integrated circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Nong, Ryan; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Chen, Yao; Mei, Ting; Santarelli, Keith R.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-12-01

    While advances in manufacturing enable the fabrication of integrated circuits containing tens-to-hundreds of millions of devices, the time-sensitive modeling and simulation necessary to design these circuits poses a significant computational challenge. This is especially true for mixed-signal integrated circuits where detailed performance analyses are necessary for the individual analog/digital circuit components as well as the full system. When the integrated circuit has millions of devices, performing a full system simulation is practically infeasible using currently available Electrical Design Automation (EDA) tools. The principal reason for this is the time required for the nonlinear solver to compute the solutions of large linearized systems during the simulation of these circuits. The research presented in this report aims to address the computational difficulties introduced by these large linearized systems by using Model Order Reduction (MOR) to (i) generate specialized preconditioners that accelerate the computation of the linear system solution and (ii) reduce the overall dynamical system size. MOR techniques attempt to produce macromodels that capture the desired input-output behavior of larger dynamical systems and enable substantial speedups in simulation time. Several MOR techniques that have been developed under the LDRD on 'Solution Methods for Very Highly Integrated Circuits' will be presented in this report. Among those presented are techniques for linear time-invariant dynamical systems that either extend current approaches or improve the time-domain performance of the reduced model using novel error bounds and a new approach for linear time-varying dynamical systems that guarantees dimension reduction, which has not been proven before. Progress on preconditioning power grid systems using multi-grid techniques will be presented as well as a framework for delivering MOR techniques to the user community using Trilinos and the Xyce circuit simulator

  10. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  11. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S....

  12. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  13. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to...

  14. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to...

  15. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to...

  16. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to...

  17. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200{degree}C (392{degree}F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Micromachined Integrated Quantum Circuit Containing a Superconducting Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, T.; Chu, Y.; Axline, C.; Pfaff, W.; Blumoff, J. Z.; Chou, K.; Krayzman, L.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    We present a device demonstrating a lithographically patterned transmon integrated with a micromachined cavity resonator. Our two-cavity, one-qubit device is a multilayer microwave-integrated quantum circuit (MMIQC), comprising a basic unit capable of performing circuit-QED operations. We describe the qubit-cavity coupling mechanism of a specialized geometry using an electric-field picture and a circuit model, and obtain specific system parameters using simulations. Fabrication of the MMIQC includes lithography, etching, and metallic bonding of silicon wafers. Superconducting wafer bonding is a critical capability that is demonstrated by a micromachined storage-cavity lifetime of 34.3 μ s , corresponding to a quality factor of 2 ×106 at single-photon energies. The transmon coherence times are T1=6.4 μ s , and T2echo=11.7 μ s . We measure qubit-cavity dispersive coupling with a rate χq μ/2 π =-1.17 MHz , constituting a Jaynes-Cummings system with an interaction strength g /2 π =49 MHz . With these parameters we are able to demonstrate circuit-QED operations in the strong dispersive regime with ease. Finally, we highlight several improvements and anticipated extensions of the technology to complex MMIQCs.

  19. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  20. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits,...

  1. 77 FR 57589 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions... found that those Zoran products that were adjudicated in Integrated Circuits I are precluded under the... recommended a limited exclusion order barring entry of Zoran's and MediaTek's infringing integrated...

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  3. Integrated analysis environment for high impact systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Davis, J.; Scott, J.; Sztipanovits, J.; Karsai, G.

    1998-02-01

    Modeling and analysis of high consequence, high assurance systems requires special modeling considerations. System safety and reliability information must be captured in the models. Previously, high consequence systems were modeled using separate, disjoint models for safety, reliability, and security. The MultiGraph Architecture facilitates the implementation of a model integrated system for modeling and analysis of high assurance systems. Model integrated computing allows an integrated modeling technique to be applied to high consequence systems. Among the tools used for analyzing safety and reliability are a behavioral simulator and an automatic fault tree generation and analysis tool. Symbolic model checking techniques are used to efficiently investigate the system models. A method for converting finite state machine models to ordered binary decision diagrams allows the application of symbolic model checking routines to the integrated system models. This integrated approach to modeling and analysis of high consequence systems ensures consistency between the models and the different analysis tools.

  4. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  5. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. III: Validation of the helium leak rate method for rigid pharmaceutical containers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Validation of a helium leak rate method for pharmaceutical container/closure integrity quality assurance required the demonstration that this physical testing method was as good or better than microbial immersion challenge testing in detecting potential integrity failures. One lot of rubber-stoppered, broth-filled glass vials also containing defective vials with known leaks were subjected to both helium leak rate and microbial challenge testing. The defective vials were prepared by affixing glass micropipettes (0.1 to 10 microns) into the vial side walls. The validation lot included a 10% seeded defect rate of which about 50% contained leaks with a predicted probability of failing a microbial challenge (> 10%). Helium tracer was placed in the test units by charging them for 4 hours under a 40 psi helium pressure. The critical leak rate after charging was determined to be 10(-7) standard cc/second, and test units with measured leak rates greater than this value were considered helium leak rate failures. Microbial immersion challenge was conducted by exposing the test units in a bath inoculated with 10(9-10) viable E. coli and B. diminuta organisms for 24 hours followed by a 13 day (35 degrees C) incubation. Microbial failures were determined visually. The helium and microbial leak test methods were compared statistically using mean failure rates. The mean helium failure rate was 6.9%, whereas the mean microbial failure rate was 2.8%. The difference between helium and microbial failure rates was significantly greater than zero. Thus, helium leak rate testing was demonstrated to be a suitable pharmaceutical container/closure integrity method for microbial quality assurance of rigid containers.

  6. 77 FR 40381 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation...

  7. 77 FR 67833 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation in its Entirety AGENCY:...

  8. Integrating smart container technology into existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, Dale; Pysareva, Khrystyna; Rucinski, Andrzej

    2006-05-01

    While there has been important research and development in the area of smart container technologies, no system design methodologies have yet emerged for integrating this technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure. A successful deployment of smart containers requires a precise understanding of how to integrate this new technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure, how to establish communication interoperability, and how to establish procedures and protocols related to the operation of smart containers. In addition, this integration needs to be seamless, unobtrusive to commerce, and cost-effective. In order to address these issues, we need to answer the following series of questions: 1) Who will own and operate the smart container technology; 2) Who will be responsible for monitoring the smart container data and notifying first responders; 3) What communication technologies currently used by first responders might be adopted for smart container data transmission; and 4) How will existing cargo manifest data be integrated into smart container data. In short, we need to identify the best practices for smart container ownership and operation. In order to help provide answers to these questions, we have surveyed a sample group of representatives from law enforcement, first responder, regulatory, and private sector organizations. This paper presents smart container infrastructure best practices recommendations obtained from the results of the survey.

  9. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  10. Integrated Nutrition Education: Senior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Designed for implementation across the school year in existing curriculum areas, 18 nutrition activity units for high school students are provided. Each activity unit consists of a list of coordinated curriculum areas, a statement of objectives, guidelines for teachers, a list of learning activities, and bibliographic citations. Various…

  11. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Generator: Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-25

    included: − material barriers such as thermal blankets, glass bubbles and aerogels , − encapsulation with high molecular weight gases (e.g. Xenon... aerogels impregnated with radiation scattering particles (investigated at the thermoelectric group in the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Thrust

  12. 78 FR 16533 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit devices and... sale for importation, and/or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  13. Uses of Integrated Media Instruction in a Self-Contained Class for Children with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Shigeru

    This conference paper describes the use of integrated media-oriented instruction in a self-contained class at Yokohama Municipal Elementary School in Japan. Three students with mild disabilities, in grades 5 and 6, participated in the project. Integrated media (IM) is defined as the linkage of text, sound, video, graphics, and the computer in such…

  14. 60 kilograms high explosive containment with multi-diagnostic capability

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, L F

    1998-09-17

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60 kilogram (kg) firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high explosives, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste.

  15. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-09-22

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent.

  16. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs). PMID:26270958

  17. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-08-13

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs).

  18. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs).

  19. High performance bio-integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  20. Isolation of high quality RNA from cereal seeds containing high levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fang; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Cereals are an important source of food, feed and fuel with a rapidly increasing global demand. However, cereal seeds contain high levels of starch and polysaccharides, making the isolation of high quality RNA extremely difficult. To develop a novel method for extracting high quality total RNA from various starch- and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds, such as maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. We developed a modified sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/TRIzol method. The combined use of a Tris buffer (pH 9.0) and SDS before TRIzol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such a buffer. A high concentration of SDS was used separately, not only to promote cell lysis but also to effectively dissolve seed sample containing high levels of starch. Moreover, acid phenol saturated with 0.1  M citrate buffer (pH 4.3) was used to separate RNA from DNAs, proteins and high levels of starch. This rapid protocol was compared with other RNA isolation methods preferentially used for plants rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the extracted total RNA had good integrity without apparent DNA contamination. Furthermore, an A₂₆₀/₂₈₀ ratio of approximately 2.0, an A₂₆₀/₂₃₀ ratio of more than 2.0 and RIN values of more than 8.6 indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. The isolated RNA was suitable for subsequent molecular manipulations, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and real-time PCR. The study has described an easy, efficient and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Walter H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly a enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel.

  2. Insights into the structural determinants required for high-affinity binding of chiral cyclopropane-containing ligands to α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: an integrated approach to behaviorally active nicotinic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-Kun; Eaton, J Brek; Yu, Li-Fang; Nys, Mieke; Mazzolari, Angelica; van Elk, René; Smit, August B; Alexandrov, Vadim; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Fedolak, Allison; Brunner, Daniela; Lukas, Ronald J; Vistoli, Giulio; Ulens, Chris; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-09-27

    Structure-based drug design can potentially accelerate the development of new therapeutics. In this study, a cocrystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from Capitella teleta (Ct) in complex with a cyclopropane-containing selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist (compound 5) was acquired. The structural determinants required for ligand binding obtained from this AChBP X-ray structure were used to refine a previous model of the human α4β2-nAChR, thus possibly providing a better understanding of the structure of the human receptor. To validate the potential application of the structure of the Ct-AChBP in the engineering of new α4β2-nAChR ligands, homology modeling methods, combined with in silico ADME calculations, were used to design analogues of compound 5. The most promising compound, 12, exhibited an improved metabolic stability in comparison to the parent compound 5 while retaining favorable pharmacological parameters together with appropriate behavioral end points in the rodent studies.

  3. Insights into the Structural Determinants Required for High Affinity Binding of Chiral Cyclopropane-Containing Ligands to α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; An Integrated Approach to Behaviorally Active Nicotinic Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han-Kun; Eaton, J. Brek; Yu, Li-Fang; Nys, Mieke; Mazzolari, Angelica; van Elk, René; Smit, August B.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Fedolak, Allison; Brunner, Daniela; Lukas, Ronald J.; Vistoli, Giulio; Ulens, Chris; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based drug design can potentially accelerate the development of new therapeutics. In this study, a co-crystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from Capitella teleta (Ct) in complex with a cyclopropane-containing, selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist (compound 5) was acquired. The structural determinants required for ligand binding obtained from this AChBP X-ray structure were used to refine our previous model of the human α4β2-nAChR, thus possibly providing a better understanding of the structure of the human receptor. In order to validate the potential application of the structure of the Ct-AChBP in the engineering of new α4β2-nAChR ligands, homology modeling methods, combined with in silico ADME calculations, were used to design analogs of compound 5. The most promising compound 12, exhibited an improved metabolic stability in comparison to the parent compound 5 while retaining favorable pharmacological parameters together with appropriate behavioral endpoints in the rodent studies. PMID:22928944

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  6. Project management techniques for highly integrated programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. F.; Bauer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The management and control of a representative, highly integrated high-technology project, in the X-29A aircraft flight test project is addressed. The X-29A research aircraft required the development and integration of eight distinct technologies in one aircraft. The project management system developed for the X-29A flight test program focuses on the dynamic interactions and the the intercommunication among components of the system. The insights gained from the new conceptual framework permitted subordination of departments to more functional units of decisionmaking, information processing, and communication networks. These processes were used to develop a project management system for the X-29A around the information flows that minimized the effects inherent in sampled-data systems and exploited the closed-loop multivariable nature of highly integrated projects.

  7. Eddy Current Analysis of Thin Metal Container in Induction Heating by Line Integral Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hagino; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    In recent years, induction-heating cookers have been disseminated explosively. It is wished to commercialize flexible and disposable food containers that are available for induction heating. In order to develop a good quality food container that is heated moderately, it is necessary to analyze accurately eddy currents induced in a thin metal plate. The integral equation method is widely used for solving induction-heating problems. If the plate thickness approaches zero, the surface integral equations on the upper and lower plate surfaces tend to become the same and the equations become ill conditioned. In this paper, firstly, we derive line integral equations from the boundary integral equations on the assumption that the electromagnetic fields in metal are attenuated rapidly compared with those along the metal surface. Next, so as to test validity of the line integral equations, we solve the eddy current induced in a thin metal container in induction heating and obtain power density given to the container and impedance characteristics of the heating coil. We compare computed results with those by FEM.

  8. High modulus filament wound vessels for cryogenic containers in spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.; Lark, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Compared to metallic vessels, filament-wound vessels for containment of cryogens and high pressure gases offer high potential weight savings for NASA spacecraft applications. Since carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites exhibit high strength-to-density ratios, high-cycle fatigue life, and excellent strain compatibility with internal metallic liners, filament-wound carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites were evaluated for application to cryogenic internal pressure vessels. Compared to room temperature values, the cryogenic strengths of the composites were reduced by about 15% at -423 F (with the exception of one composite) while moduli increased as much as 25%. Filament-wound carbon fiber/epoxy resin vessel specimens, made by three fabricators, defined and solved problems in the processing of these friable high-modulus fibers into structurally efficient vessel specimens.

  9. Investigation of corrosion and container integrity in metal food containers using scanning electron microscopy-X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, J E

    2001-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis were used to investigate microleakage, two incidences of loss of coating integrity, filiform corrosion, and sulfide black corrosion in enamel-lined metal food containers. Microleakage developed in a canned cheese sauce at the side seam weld and was traced to a hot weld and a cold weld defect. An enamel-blistering problem developed in an aseptically processed milk-based product when the tinplate was heated above its melting point; the tin melted under the enamel coating, causing the blistering. An enamel-blistering problem, due to silicon contamination of the metal surface prior to enameling, developed on the bottom of a two-piece can that contained a chicken-based product. A sulfide black problem developed in canned clams, caused by scratches in the coating that were introduced during can manufacturing. A filiform corrosion problem developed on the outside of the easy score line of enameled tinplate lids with a light tin coating 0.08 microns thick.

  10. Integrated on-chip mass spectrometry reaction monitoring in microfluidic devices containing porous polymer monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Dietze, C; Schulze, S; Ohla, S; Gilmore, K; Seeberger, P H; Belder, D

    2016-09-21

    Chip-based microfluidics enable the seamless integration of different functions into single devices. Here, we present microfluidic chips containing porous polymer monolithic columns as a means to facilitate chemical transformations as well as both downstream chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis. Rapid liquid phase lithography prototyping creates the multifunctional device economically.

  11. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  12. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  13. Fatigue in a heat treatable high silicon containing aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Talamantes-Silva, J.; Valtierra, S.; Colás, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The use of cast aluminium alloys in automobiles contributes to reductions in weight and fuel consumption without impairing the safety for the occupants or the performance of the car. Most of the alloys used are heat treatable hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, which have the drawback of exhibiting low wear resistance. So industry relies in wear resistant alloys, such as grey iron, for the liners of the combustion chambers in engine blocks, which increase the weight of the engine. Therefore, it is of interest to cast high silicon containing alloys into engine components that are able to resist wear while maintaining the mechanical properties required by the components. This work presents the result of the work carried out in a high silicon containing heat treatable aluminium alloy as it is subjected to high cycle fatigue. The alloy was prepared and cast in ingots designed to promote one dimensional solidification gradient to obtain samples to study the high cycle fatigue. The material was machined into hour-glass specimens that were tested at room temperature in a servohydraulic machine under load control following the stair case method. The results show that the resistance to fatigue depends on the microstructure of the sample, as the fatigue cracks originate in pores close to the surface of the sample and propagate through the eutectic aggregate. The results from this work are compared with those from previously obtained with hypoeutectic alloys.

  14. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-07-20

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements.

  16. Release kinetics of highly porous floating tablets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Tung, Nguyen-Thach; Kim, Ju-Young; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

    2017-02-20

    This study focuses on developing a highly porous floating tablet containing cilostazol. The underlying release mechanism of cilostazol from porous and floating tablets in dissolution media containing surfactants was investigated. The tablets were prepared by compressing granules and excipients with a sublimating agent, followed by sublimation under vacuum. The volatile material for the sublimating agent was chosen based on its flow properties using conventional methods as well as the twisted blade method. Resultant tablets could float immediately and had significantly higher tensile strengths than conventional tablets of similar porosities, holding a promising potential for increasing gastroretentive properties. Fitting the release profiles to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicated Super Case II, Case II and non-Fickian kinetics, which implied that the release was affected by both floating behavior and matrix erosion. Abrupt changes in release kinetic parameters and erosional behaviors were found between the tablets containing different amounts of HPMC, indicating the existence of an excipient percolation threshold. Neither the surfactant in the media nor the porosity affected the dominant release mechanism, which was matrix erosion. Understanding the dominant release mechanism and percolation threshold allows for tuning the formulation to obtain various release profiles.

  17. High-performance electrically conductive silver paste prepared by silver-containing precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Wang, Xiaoye; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2010-09-01

    A high-performance electrically conductive silver paste with no solid particles before drying and/or sintering is developed, in which silver-containing precursor is employed as conductive functional phase. Thermogravimetry analysis, volume electrical resistivity tests and sintering experiments show that the paste with about 14 wt.% silver pristine content is able to achieve the volume electrical resistivity of (2-3) ×10-5 Ω cm after it is sintered at 220°C. A micro-pen direct-writing process indicates that it is very suitable for the fabrication of high-resolution (25 μm) and high-integration devices and apparatus.

  18. Method Development for Container Closure Integrity Evaluation via Headspace Gas Ingress by Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ken G; Levac, Lauren; Timmins, Michael; Veale, James

    2017-07-20

    USP <1207.1> Section 3.5 states that "A deterministic leak test method having the ability to detect leaks at the product's maximum allowable leakage limit is preferred when establishing the inherent integrity of a container-closure system." Ideally, container closure integrity (CCI) of parenteral packaging would be evaluated by measuring a physical property that is sensitive to the presence of any package defect that breaches package integrity by increasing its leakage above its maximum allowable leakage limit (MALL). The primary goals of the work presented herein were to demonstrate the viability of the non-destructive, deterministic method known as laser-based gas headspace analysis for evaluating CCI and to provide a physical model for predicting leak rates for a variety of container volumes, headspace conditions and defect sizes. The results demonstrate that laser-based headspace analysis provides sensitive, accurate and reproducible measurements of the gas ingress into glass vial-stopper package assemblies that are under either diffusive or effusive leak conditions. Two different types of positive controls were examined. First, laser-drilled micro-holes in thin metal disks that were crimped on top of 15R glass vials served as positive controls with a well-characterized defect geometry. For these, a strong correlation was observed between the measured ingress parameter and the size of the defect for both diffusive and effusive conditions. Second, laser-drilled holes in the wall of glass vials served as controls that more closely simulate "real world" defects. Due to their complex defect geometries, their diffusive and effusive ingress parameters did not necessarily correlate; this is an important observation that has significant implications for standardizing the characterization of container defects. Regardless, laser-based headspace analysis could readily differentiate positive and negative controls for all leak conditions and the results provide a guide for

  19. Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Amy F.; Ghosh, Devlina; Zhou, Yan; Seiple, Lauren; McMahon, Moira A.; Spivak, Adam M.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Stivers, James T.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates poorly between dUTP and dTTP, and accordingly, viral DNA products become heavily uracilated when viruses infect host cells that contain high ratios of dUTP:dTTP. Uracilation of invading retroviral DNA is thought to be an innate immunity barrier to retroviral infection, but the mechanistic features of this immune pathway and the cellular fate of uracilated retroviral DNA products is not known. Here we developed a model system in which the cellular dUTP:dTTP ratio can be pharmacologically increased to favor dUTP incorporation, allowing dissection of this innate immunity pathway. When the virus-infected cells contained elevated dUTP levels, reverse transcription was found to proceed unperturbed, but integration and viral protein expression were largely blocked. Furthermore, successfully integrated proviruses lacked detectable uracil, suggesting that only nonuracilated viral DNA products were integration competent. Integration of the uracilated proviruses was restored using an isogenic cell line that had no detectable human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) activity, establishing that hUNG2 is a host restriction factor in cells that contain high dUTP. Biochemical studies in primary cells established that this immune pathway is not operative in CD4+ T cells, because these cells have high dUTPase activity (low dUTP), and only modest levels of hUNG activity. Although monocyte-derived macrophages have high dUTP levels, these cells have low hUNG activity, which may diminish the effectiveness of this restriction pathway. These findings establish the essential elements of this pathway and reconcile diverse observations in the literature. PMID:23341616

  20. Fabrication Of High-Tc Superconducting Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave ring resonator fabricated to demonstrate process for fabrication of passive integrated circuits containing high-transition-temperature superconductors. Superconductors increase efficiencies of communication systems, particularly microwave communication systems, by reducing ohmic losses and dispersion of signals. Used to reduce sizes and masses and increase aiming accuracies and tracking speeds of millimeter-wavelength, electronically steerable antennas. High-Tc superconductors preferable for such applications because they operate at higher temperatures than low-Tc superconductors do, therefore, refrigeration systems needed to maintain superconductivity designed smaller and lighter and to consume less power.

  1. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities.

  2. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP`s Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE`s site restoration activities.

  3. High piezoelectric properties of cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huang Hsing; Yang, Ruei-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    To obtain high piezoelectric properties, PZT/cement composites with kaolin were fabricated and polarized by 1.5kV/mm electric field for 40 min, where lead zirconate titanate (PZT) inclusion with 50% by volume was used. After the polarization, piezoelectric properties of the composite were measured daily till 100 days. Results indicated that relative dielectric constant (ɛr) and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) increase with aging day, and approach to asymptotic values after 70 days. Temperature treatment to the composite is a dominate factor to enhance piezoelectric properties. The d33 and ɛr values of PZT/cement composites treated at the ambient temperature (23℃) were 57pC/N and 275 at the 70th aging day respectively, and then reached 106pC/N and 455 in turn with 150℃ treatment. The composite contains 4% kaolin having the highest value of d33=111pC/N and ɛr=500 at 90 days because the porosity is the less than the others. Cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin own the higher d33 and ɛr value, compared with the other reported composites with 50% PZT. The porosity, the electromechanical coupling factor and impedance-frequency spectra of the cement piezoelectric composites were also discussed.

  4. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    PubMed

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  5. A Flexible Integrated System Containing a Microsupercapacitor, a Photodetector, and a Wireless Charging Coil.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Yang, Zhichun; Liu, Nishuang; Liu, Weijie; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yanan; Yang, Congxing; Su, Jun; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-12-27

    Nowadays, the integrated systems on a plane substrate containing energy harvesting, energy storing, and working units are strongly desired with the fast development of wearable and portable devices. Here, a simple, low cost, and scalable strategy involving ink printing and electrochemical deposition is proposed to fabricate a flexible integrated system on a plane substrate containing an all-solid-state asymmetric microsupercapacitor (MSC), a photoconduct-type photodetector of perovskite nanowires (NWs), and a wireless charging coil. In the asymmetric MSCs, MnO2-PPy and V2O5-PANI composites are used as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. Typical values of energy density in the range of 15-20 mWh cm(-3) at power densities of 0.3-2.5 W cm(-3) with an operation potential window of 1.6 V are achieved. In the system, the wireless charging coil receives energy from a wireless power transmitter, which then can be stored in the MSC to drive the photoconductive detector of perovskite NWs in sequence. The designed integrated system exhibits a stable photocurrent response comparable with the detector driven by an external power source. This research provides an important routine to fabricate integrated systems.

  6. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Kukacka, L.; Fontana, J.

    High temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10 to 30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture is described. It consists essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures thereof. About 70 to 90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, carbon black or mixtures thereof. Optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobyutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides are used to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  7. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeldin, Arkady; Carciello, Neal; Kukacka, Lawrence; Fontana, Jack

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  8. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.; Zeldin, A.

    1980-11-04

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, nphenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, fe2o3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tertbutyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  9. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  10. Analysis of metagenomic data containing high biodiversity levels.

    PubMed

    Valverde, José R; Mellado, Rafael P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have addressed the problem of analysing Next Generation Sequencing samples with an expected large biodiversity content. We analysed several well-known 16S rRNA datasets from experimental samples, including both large and short sequences, in numbers of tens of thousands, in addition to carefully crafted synthetic datasets containing more than 7000 OTUs. From this data analysis several patterns were identified and used to develop new guidelines for experimentation in conditions of high biodiversity. We analysed the suitability of different clustering packages for these type of situations, the problem of even sampling, the relative effectiveness of Chao1 and ACE estimators as well as their effect on sampling size for a variety of population distributions. As regards practical analysis procedures, we advocated an approach that retains as much high-quality experimental data as possible. By carefully applying selection rules combining the taxonomic assignment with clustering strategies, we derived a set of recommendations for ultra-sequencing data analysis at high biodiversity levels.

  11. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  12. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  13. High order path integrals made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-01

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  14. LLCE burial container high density polyethylene chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, E.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    An independent chemical compatibility review of LLCE HDPE polyethylene burial containers was conducted to evaluate the container resistance to the chemicals and constituents thought to reside within the Tank Farms. The study concluded that the LLCE Burial Container fabricated from HDPE Polyethylene was a good choice for this application. The reviewer was unaware that the specification for these containers require 2 - 3 percent finely dispensed carbon black which allows long term storage outside.

  15. Analysis of High Enriched Uranyl Nitrate Solution Containing Cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Kim

    2006-09-01

    A benchmark evaluation has been performed for a set of twenty-one critical experiments involving high enriched uranyl nitrate solution with and without cadmium nitrate as a soluble neutron absorber. The critical experiments analyzed include two types of cylindrical vessels with 24.18 and 29.16 cm in diameters. The vessels were reflected with water and in some cases with water containing dissolved cadmium nitrate. The uranium concentration ranged from 482 to 529 g/l, and cadmium concentration in the uranyl nitrate solution ranged from 0.0 to 11.31 g/l. The cadmium concentration in the reflector solution ranged from 0.0 to 15.16 g/l. Using MCNP and KENO-V.a, complete three-dimensional models were created for the two vessels filled with the uranyl nitrate solution and reflector solution. A series of criticality calculations were performed with KENO-V.a, MCNP4b, and MCNP5. In general, good agreement between KENO-V.a and MCNP4b was observed. However, MCNP5 results show consistently lower values compared with MCNP4b results with the maximum difference of 1.2 %. This ICSBEP supported evaluation provides valuable data for the effect of soluble neutron absorber (cadmium nitrate) on the criticality safety of high-enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These data can also be used in determining critical controls and for validation of the calculation methods.

  16. High-energy sources before INTEGRAL. INTEGRAL reference catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Bourban, G.; Bodaghee, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2003-11-01

    We describe the INTEGRAL reference catalog which classifies previously known bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources before the launch of INTEGRAL. These sources are, or have been at least once, brighter than ~ 1 mCrab above 3 keV, and are expected to be detected by INTEGRAL. This catalog is being used in the INTEGRAL Quick Look Analysis to discover new sources or significantly variable sources. We compiled several published X-ray and gamma-ray catalogs, and surveyed recent publications for new sources. Consequently, there are 1122 sources in our INTEGRAL reference catalog. In addition to the source positions, we show an approximate spectral model and expected flux for each source, based on which we derive expected INTEGRAL counting rates. Assuming the default instrument performances and at least ~ 105 s exposure time for any part of the sky, we expect that INTEGRAL will detect at least ~ 700 sources below 10 keV and ~ 400 sources above 20 keV over the mission life. The Catalog is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/411/L59

  17. Neurons secrete miR-132-containing exosomes to regulate brain vascular integrity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Du, Xu-Fei; Li, Jia; Zi, Hua-Xing; Bu, Ji-Wen; Yan, Yong; Han, Hua; Du, Jiu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Vascular integrity helps maintain brain microenvironment homeostasis, which is critical for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. It is known that neural cells can regulate brain vascular integrity. However, due to the high complexity of neurovascular interactions involved, understanding of the neural regulation of brain vascular integrity is still rudimentary. Using intact zebrafish larvae and cultured rodent brain cells, we find that neurons transfer miR-132, a highly conserved and neuron-enriched microRNA, via secreting exosomes to endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain brain vascular integrity. Following translocation to ECs through exosome internalization, miR-132 regulates the expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), an important adherens junction protein, by directly targeting eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eef2k). Disruption of neuronal miR-132 expression or exosome secretion, or overexpression of vascular eef2k impairs VE-cadherin expression and brain vascular integrity. Our study indicates that miR-132 acts as an intercellular signal mediating neural regulation of the brain vascular integrity and suggests that the neuronal exosome is a novel avenue for neurovascular communication. PMID:28429770

  18. Neurons secrete miR-132-containing exosomes to regulate brain vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Du, Xu-Fei; Li, Jia; Zi, Hua-Xing; Bu, Ji-Wen; Yan, Yong; Han, Hua; Du, Jiu-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Vascular integrity helps maintain brain microenvironment homeostasis, which is critical for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. It is known that neural cells can regulate brain vascular integrity. However, due to the high complexity of neurovascular interactions involved, understanding of the neural regulation of brain vascular integrity is still rudimentary. Using intact zebrafish larvae and cultured rodent brain cells, we find that neurons transfer miR-132, a highly conserved and neuron-enriched microRNA, via secreting exosomes to endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain brain vascular integrity. Following translocation to ECs through exosome internalization, miR-132 regulates the expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), an important adherens junction protein, by directly targeting eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eef2k). Disruption of neuronal miR-132 expression or exosome secretion, or overexpression of vascular eef2k impairs VE-cadherin expression and brain vascular integrity. Our study indicates that miR-132 acts as an intercellular signal mediating neural regulation of the brain vascular integrity and suggests that the neuronal exosome is a novel avenue for neurovascular communication.

  19. High-speed integrated electroabsorption modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, John E.; Morton, Paul A.; Park, Yong-Kwan; Ketelsen, Leonard J. P.; Grenko, J. A.; Miller, Thomas J.; Sputz, Sharon K.; Tanbun-Ek, Tawee; Vandenberg, J. M.; Yadvish, R. D.; Fullowan, Thomas R.; Sciortino, Paul F., Jr.; Sergent, A. M.; Tsang, Won-Tien

    1997-04-01

    The explosive growth in internet, multimedia and wireless traffic in recent years is rapidly exhausting capacity in public networks worldwide, forcing network service providers to aggressively install new lines and upgrade old ones. Fortunately, technological breakthroughs in the areas of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's), passive wavelength demultiplexers and low chirp sources have made all-optical dense wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) systems a cost- effective way to utilize the vast bandwidth already available in the embedded fiber plant. WDM systems offer additional operational advantages, including high ultimate capacity, bit-rate transparency, flexible growth strategies, and the potential to use all-optical wavelength routing in future broadband network architectures. Commercial WDM systems operating at the OC-48 (2.5 Gbit/s) line rate are now available, and OC-192 (10 Gbit/s) terminal equipment which is under development will further enhance the capacity of these systems. One of the keys to viable WDM systems is the availability of inexpensive low-chirp optical transmitters. By taking advantage of photonic integrated circuit technology, it is possible to produce monolithically integrated DFB laser/EA modulators (EML's) with low chirp, low drive voltage and high extinction ratio, in a single compact package. In this talk we discuss the operating characteristics of these devices and their relationship to WDM system performance.

  20. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  1. Construction and uses of cell lines containing integrated adenovirus E2 promoters.

    PubMed

    Strair, R K

    1991-11-01

    The adenovirus E1a gene encodes polypeptides which regulate the expression of adenovirus early genes as well as a variety of cellular genes. Although it is likely that the E1a encoded polypeptides regulate the expression of these genes by interaction with a variety of cellular transcription factors, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is currently unknown. This report describes the development of cell lines which contain integrated copies of the E2 promoter driving the expression of the Tn5 neo gene or the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. In each case phenotypic changes concurrent with expression of the E1a 289 amino acid polypeptide are demonstrated. The use of these cell lines to detect rare events in the activation of the E2 promoter is demonstrated in transfection experiments. These cell lines are also used to study the effects of c-myc expression on integrated E2 promoters.

  2. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C. )

    1993-08-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip.

  3. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  4. An integrated exhaust gas analysis system with self-contained data processing and automatic calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Summers, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An integrated gas analysis system designed to operate in automatic, semiautomatic, and manual modes from a remote control panel is described. The system measures the carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A pull through design provides increased reliability and eliminates the need for manual flow rate adjustment and pressure correction. The system contains two microprocessors to range the analyzers, calibrate the system, process the raw data to units of concentration, and provides information to the facility research computer and to the operator through terminal and the control panels. After initial setup, the system operates for several hours without significant operator attention.

  5. Results of direct containment heating integral experiments at 1/40th scale at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-09-01

    A series of integral tests have been completed that investigate the effect of scale and containment atmosphere initial composition on Direct Containment Heating (DCH) phenomena at 1/40 linear scale. A portion of these experiments were performed as counterparts to integral experiments conducted at 1/10th linear scale at Sandia National Laboratories. The tests investigated DCH phenomena in a 1/40th scale mockup of Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry. The test apparatus was a scaled down version of the SNL apparatus and included models of the reactor vessel lower head, containment cavity, instrument tunnel, lower subcompartment structures and the upper dome. A High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) was produced using steam as a blowdown gas and iron-alumina thermite with chromium as a core melt simulant. The results of the counterpart experiments indicated no effect of scale on debris/gas heat transfer and debris metal oxidation with steam. However, the tests indicated a slight effect of scale on hydrogen combustion, the results indicating slightly more efficient combustion with increasing scale. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the subcompartment structures in trapping debris exiting the cavity and preventing it from reaching the upper dome. The test results also indicated that a 50% air -- 50% steam atmosphere prevented hydrogen combustion. However, a 50% air - 50% nitrogen did not prevent hydrogen combustion in a HPME with all other conditions being nominally the same.

  6. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume II. The Challenges of Implementing Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the challenges of integrating high school vocational and academic curricula to provide education through occupations: "Components of a Complex Reform" (W. Norton Grubb); "Integrating Vocational and Academic Education: Lessons from Early Innovators" (Kimberly Ramsey et al.);…

  7. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume II. The Challenges of Implementing Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the challenges of integrating high school vocational and academic curricula to provide education through occupations: "Components of a Complex Reform" (W. Norton Grubb); "Integrating Vocational and Academic Education: Lessons from Early Innovators" (Kimberly Ramsey et al.);…

  8. High-authority smart material integrated electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisensel, G. N.; Pierce, Thomas D.; Zunkel, Gary

    1997-05-01

    For many current applications, hydraulic power is still the preferred method of gaining mechanical advantage. However, in many of these applications, this power comes with the penalties of high weight, size, cost, and maintenance due to the system's distributed nature and redundancy requirements. A high authority smart material Integrated Electric Actuator (IEA) is a modular, self-contained linear motion device that is capable of producing dynamic output strokes similar to those of hydraulic actuators yet at significantly reduced weight and volume. It provides system simplification and miniaturization. This actuator concept has many innovative features, including a TERFENOL-D-based pump, TERFENOL-D- based active valves, control algorithms, a displacement amplification unit and integrated, unitized packaging. The IEA needs only electrical power and a control command signal as inputs to provide high authority, high response rate actuation. This approach is directly compatible with distributed control strategies. Aircraft control, automotive brakes and fuel injection, and fluid power delivery are just some examples of the IEA's pervasive applications in aerospace, defense and commercial systems.

  9. A highly integrated payload suite for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a

  10. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume I. Approaches to Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining approaches to integrating high school vocational and academic curricula in U.S. high schools to provide education through occupations: "Resolving the Paradox of the High School" (W. Norton Grubb); "'The Cunning Hand, the Cultured Mind': Sources of Support for Curriculum…

  11. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume I. Approaches to Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining approaches to integrating high school vocational and academic curricula in U.S. high schools to provide education through occupations: "Resolving the Paradox of the High School" (W. Norton Grubb); "'The Cunning Hand, the Cultured Mind': Sources of Support for Curriculum…

  12. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components-core histones-that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Histone Sequence Database is a curated collection of sequences and structures of histones and non-histone proteins containing histone folds, assembled from major public databases. Here, we report a substantial increase in the number of sequences and taxonomic coverage for histone and histone fold-containing proteins available in the database. Additionally, the database now contains an expanded dataset that includes archaeal histone sequences. The database also provides comprehensive multiple sequence alignments for each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the linker histones (H1/H5) and the archaeal histones. The database also includes current information on solved histone fold-containing structures. The Histone Sequence Database is an inclusive resource for the analysis of chromatin structure and function focused on histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

  13. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M.; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R. Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components—core histones—that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Histone Sequence Database is a curated collection of sequences and structures of histones and non-histone proteins containing histone folds, assembled from major public databases. Here, we report a substantial increase in the number of sequences and taxonomic coverage for histone and histone fold-containing proteins available in the database. Additionally, the database now contains an expanded dataset that includes archaeal histone sequences. The database also provides comprehensive multiple sequence alignments for each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the linker histones (H1/H5) and the archaeal histones. The database also includes current information on solved histone fold-containing structures. The Histone Sequence Database is an inclusive resource for the analysis of chromatin structure and function focused on histones and histone fold-containing proteins. Database URL: The Histone Sequence Database is freely available and can be accessed at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/histones/. PMID:22025671

  14. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipose, K.; Shenton, B.

    2011-04-01

    The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1), Quebec, Canada (250 MWe) was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE) methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  15. High-G MEMS integrated accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Brady R.; Craig Barron, Carole; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Murray, James R.; Christenson, Todd R.; Bateman, Vesta I.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a surface micromachined accelerometer for measuring very high levels of acceleration (up to 50,000 G). Both the mechanical and electronic portions of the sensor were integrated on a single substrate using a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor were first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench was then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface was then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing using Chemical Mechanical Polishing. Next, the CMOS electronics were fabricated on areas of the wafer adjacent to the embedded structures. Finally, the mechanical structures were released and the sensor tested. The mechanical structure of the sensor consisted to two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. The first polysilicon plate mass was suspended using compliant springs (cantilever beams) and acted as a variable capacitor during sensor acceleration. The second polysilicon plate mass was suspended using very stiff springs and acted as a fixed capacitor during acceleration. Acceleration was measured by comparing the capacitance of the variable capacitor (compliant suspension) with the fixed capacitance (stiff suspension).

  16. High Schoolers' Views on Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla Nola; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The issue of academic integrity in cheating on exams and plagiarising in writing is not a new one. All schools need to address this problem and some more than others. In the L2 context, the issues become more complex as non-native students need to adhere to the "culture of learning" of a Western model of academic integrity if they are to…

  17. High Schoolers' Views on Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla Nola; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The issue of academic integrity in cheating on exams and plagiarising in writing is not a new one. All schools need to address this problem and some more than others. In the L2 context, the issues become more complex as non-native students need to adhere to the "culture of learning" of a Western model of academic integrity if they are to…

  18. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  19. Container Closure Integrity Testing-Practical Aspects and Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mellman, James; Nieto, Alejandra; Wagner, Daniel; Schaar, Matthias; Mathaes, Roman; Kossinna, Juergen; Schmitting, Franz; Dreher, Sascha; Roehl, Holger; Hemminger, Markus; Wuchner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The assurance of sterility of a parenteral drug product, prior to any human use, is a regulatory requirement. Hence, all strategies related to container closure integrity (CCI) must demonstrate absence of microbial contamination through leaks as part of the container closure system (CCS) qualification, during manufacturing, for quality control purposes and to ensure microbiological integrity (sterility) during storage and shipment up to the end of product shelf life. Current regulatory guidances, which differ between countries and regions, provide limited detail on how to assess CCI. The new revision of USP <1207> aims to provide extensive and detailed guidance for CCI assessments for sterile products. However, practical questions and considerations are yet to be addressed by the pharmaceutical industry. These may include: (1) choice of method, for example whether a deterministic CCI method (e.g., helium leak) is preferable over the probabilistic CCI method (e.g., microbial ingress), (2) the type of primary packaging (e.g., vial, syringe, device), (3) dosage form (e.g., liquid versus lyophilisate), (4) suitable acceptance criteria, (5) appropriate sample size, (6) the most appropriate way to introduce artificial leaks into the CCS, (7) ensuring suitable assurance of CCI during drug product manufacturing, and (8) evaluating CCI under intended shipment and storage conditions (e.g., in the frozen state).A group of European industry peers have met to discuss these and other related questions in order to provide their viewpoint and best practice on practical approaches to CCI. Their perspective is provided in this white paper. Through these discussions, it became clear that there is currently no gold standard for CCI test methods or for the generation of artificial leaks; therefore flexibility toward CCI approaches is required. Although there should be flexibility, any CCI approach must consider the intended use (e.g., CCS qualification, routine manufacturing, or

  20. In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys in modified-simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Raman, R K Singh

    2008-05-01

    The successful applications of magnesium-based alloys as degradable orthopaedic implants are mainly inhibited due to their high degradation rates in physiological environment and consequent loss in the mechanical integrity. This study examines the degradation behaviour and the mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys using electrochemical techniques and slow strain rate test (SSRT) method, respectively, in modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF). Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that calcium addition enhances the general and pitting corrosion resistances of magnesium alloys significantly. The corrosion current was significantly lower in AZ91Ca alloy than that in AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, AZ91Ca alloy exhibited a five-fold increase in the surface film resistance than AZ91 alloy. The SSRT results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to fracture of AZ91Ca alloy in m-SBF decreased only marginally (approximately 15% and 20%, respectively) in comparison with these properties in air. The fracture morphologies of the failed samples are discussed in the paper. The in vitro study suggests that calcium-containing magnesium alloys to be a promising candidate for their applications in degradable orthopaedic implants, and it is worthwhile to further investigate the in vivo corrosion behaviour of these alloys.

  1. Integrated process for high conversion and high yield protein PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, PEGylation has become a powerful technique to increase the in vivo circulation half-life of therapeutic proteins while maintaining their activity. The development of new therapeutic proteins is likely to require further improvement of the PEGylation methods to reach even better selectivity and yield for reduced costs. The intensification of the PEGylation process was investigated through the integration of a chromatographic step in order to increase yield and conversion for the production of mono-PEGylated protein. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the feasibility of such approach. In the integrated reaction/separation process, chromatography was used as fractionation technique in order to isolate and recycle the unreacted protein from the PEGylated products. This allows operating the reactor with short reaction times so as to minimize the production of multi-PEGylated proteins (i.e., conjugated to more than one polymer). That is, the reaction is stopped before the desired product (i.e., the mono-PEGylated protein) can further react, thus leading to limited conversion but high yield. The recycling of the unreacted protein was then considered to drive the protein overall conversion to completion. This approach has great potential to improve processes whose yield is limited by the further reaction of the product leading to undesirable by-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1711-1718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Self-contained sub-millimeter wave rectifying antenna integrated circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a monolithic semiconductor integrated circuit in which is formed an antenna, such as a slot dipole antenna, connected across a rectifying diode. In the preferred embodiment, the antenna is tuned to received an electromagnetic wave of about 2500 GHz so that the device is on the order of a wavelength in size, or about 200 microns across and 30 microns thick. This size is ideal for mounting on a microdevice such as a microrobot for example. The antenna is endowed with high gain in the direction of the incident radiation by providing a quarter-wavelength (30 microns) thick resonant cavity below the antenna, the cavity being formed as part of the monolithic integrated circuit. Preferably, the integrated circuit consists of a thin gallium arsenide membrane overlying the resonant cavity and supporting an epitaxial Gallium Arsenide semiconductor layer. The rectifying diode is a Schottky diode formed in the GaAs semiconductor layer and having an area that is a very small fraction of the wavelength of the 2500 GHz incident radiation. The cavity provides high forward gain in the antenna and isolation from surrounding structure.

  3. Heterogeneous Integration, An Approach to High Density and High Flexibility Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, S. A.; Schatzel, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Key to the design of spacecraft for exploration of the outer planets will be the development of highly integrated and mass/volume efficient electronic systems. Exploration of the outer planets will require optimized propulsion approaches which mandates mass minimization. If one looks at a mission such as the Europa Lander, a high mass/volume efficiency feeds back directly into lower mass for radiation shielding. Concurrently the long mission lengths will drive the need for fault isolation and fault tolerance. The ability to build distributed electronic systems is an inherent requirement and one which is enabled by heterogeneous integration. The electronic packaging approach must be capable of interconnecting various components at a scale comparable with that on the components themselves (chip scale) and it must facilitate efficient integration of the electronics with elements of the spacecraft such as structure or antennae. The concept of 'Heterogeneous Integration' is being explored in the System On A Chip (SOAC) Project at JPL. The goal, of this approach to electronic packaging, is to enable the fabrication and assembly of complete electronic subsystems from components fabricated by a range of processes. Included in such a system could be MEMS sensors, SOI mixed signal ASICs, micro scale passive components and micro power. Secondarily the compact size will enable distributed architectures and integrated assemblies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Heterogeneous Integration, An Approach to High Density and High Flexibility Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, S. A.; Schatzel, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Key to the design of spacecraft for exploration of the outer planets will be the development of highly integrated and mass/volume efficient electronic systems. Exploration of the outer planets will require optimized propulsion approaches which mandates mass minimization. If one looks at a mission such as the Europa Lander, a high mass/volume efficiency feeds back directly into lower mass for radiation shielding. Concurrently the long mission lengths will drive the need for fault isolation and fault tolerance. The ability to build distributed electronic systems is an inherent requirement and one which is enabled by heterogeneous integration. The electronic packaging approach must be capable of interconnecting various components at a scale comparable with that on the components themselves (chip scale) and it must facilitate efficient integration of the electronics with elements of the spacecraft such as structure or antennae. The concept of 'Heterogeneous Integration' is being explored in the System On A Chip (SOAC) Project at JPL. The goal, of this approach to electronic packaging, is to enable the fabrication and assembly of complete electronic subsystems from components fabricated by a range of processes. Included in such a system could be MEMS sensors, SOI mixed signal ASICs, micro scale passive components and micro power. Secondarily the compact size will enable distributed architectures and integrated assemblies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 2. Comparison to dye ingress tests.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    Part 1 of this series demonstrated that a container closure integrity test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method using a VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak tester by Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC (PTI) is capable of detecting leaks > or = 5.0 microm (nominal diameter) in rigid, nonporous package systems, such as prefilled glass syringes. The current study compared USP, Ph.Eur. and ISO dye ingress integrity test methods to PTI's vacuum decay technology for the detection of these same 5-, 10-, and 15-microm laser-drilled hole defects in 1-mL glass prefilled syringes. The study was performed at three test sites using several inspectors and a variety of inspection conditions. No standard dye ingress method was found to reliably identify all holed syringes. Modifications to these standard dye tests' challenge conditions increased the potential for dye ingress, and adjustments to the visual inspection environment improved dye ingress detection. However, the risk of false positive test results with dye ingress tests remained. In contrast, the nondestructive vacuum decay leak test method reliably identified syringes with holes > or = 5.0 microm.

  6. Covalently antibacterial alginate-chitosan hydrogel dressing integrated gelatin microspheres containing tetracycline hydrochloride for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huinan; Xing, Xiaodong; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zhou, Tianle; Chen, Yong; Ling, Zhonghua; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    An antibacterial and biodegradable composite hydrogel dressing integrated with microspheres is developed for drug delivery and wound healing. The mechanism of gelation is attributed to the Schiff-base reaction between aldehyde and amino groups of oxidized alginate (OAlg) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). To enhance antibacterial and mechanical properties, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) loaded gelatin microspheres (GMs) were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by integrating into the OAlg-CMCS hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. In vitro gelation time, swelling, degradation, compressive modulus and rheological properties of the gel dressing were investigated as the function of microsphere ratios. With increasing ratios of microspheres from 10 to 40mg/mL, the composite dressing manifested shorter gelation time and lower swelling ratios, as well as higher mechanical strength. Comparing to other formulations, the gel dressing with 30mg/mL microspheres showed more suitable stabilities and mechanical properties for wound healing. Also, in vitro drug release results showed that the loaded TH could be sustained release from the composite gel dressing by contrast with pure hydrogels and microspheres. Furthermore, powerful bacteria growth inhibition effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus suggested that the composite gel dressing, especially the one with 30mg/mL GMs containing TH, has a promising future in treatment of bacterial infection.

  7. High temperature corrosion during use of chlorine containing gel

    SciTech Connect

    McNallan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to characterize the role of chlorine in coal on the high temperature corrosion processes which can occur in coal combustion and conversion processes. The experiments include laboratory tests performed in well-controlled high temperature environments and field tests in industrial coal fired boilers. Evaluation of samples of boiler tubes which have been recovered from boilers which used both high and low chlorine coals does not indicate that the higher chlorine levels are associated with accelerated corrosion of either water wall tubes or superheater tubes in pulverized coal boilers. Laboratory testing of metal coupons in combustion gas environments produced from low sulfur, high chlorine coal IBC-109 and high sulfur-low chlorine coal IBC-101 has been performed at 700 and 800{degrees}C. Initial results indicate that more corrosion is produced in the high sulfur environment than in the high chlorine environment. Further testing at other temperatures and gas compositions is in progress.

  8. Extraction of total RNA from Chrysanthemum containing high levels of phenolic and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Daohong, Wang; Bochu, Wang; Biao, Li; Chuanren, Duan; Jin, Zhang

    2004-07-15

    Some standard methods are available in total RNA extraction of plant tissue, which are effective for the ordinary plants. But it is difficult to extract the total RNA from the plants with high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, or other compounds that bind and/or coprecipitate with RNA. In this paper, a method was described that used the soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), ethanol precipitation, phenol extraction and LiCl precipitation. By this method, RNA capable of reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was isolated from Chrysanthemum that contains high levels of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The OD260/OD280 absorbance ratio is 2, and the RNA is intact. Other specialized RNA extraction methods failed to deliver suitable product. Bands of PCR products are clearly appearing on the polypropylene acyl gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gel, which indicates that the purity, concentration and integrity of total RNA were suitable for the sequent researches.

  9. Best-bet integrated strategies for containing drug-resistant trypanosomes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African animal trypanosomosis is a major constraint to the rearing of productive livestock in the sub-humid Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa where cotton is grown. Trypanosomosis is mainly controlled using trypanocidal drugs, but the effective use of drugs is threatened by the development of widespread resistance. This study tested integrated best-bet strategies for containment and/ or reversal of trypanocide resistance in villages in south-east Mali where resistance has been reported. Methods Four sentinel villages each from an intervention area (along the road from Mali to Burkina Faso) and a control area (along the road from Mali to Côte d’Ivoire) were selected for the study. Tsetse control was based on deltamethrin-treated stationary attractive devices and targeted cattle spraying between March 2008 and November 2009. Trypanosome-positive cattle were selectively treated with 3.5 mg/kg diminazene aceturate. Strategic helminth control using 10 mg/kg albendazole was also undertaken. During the intervention, tsetse densities along drainage lines, trypanosome infections and faecal egg counts in risk cattle (3 to 12 months of age) were monitored. Results Catch reductions of 66.5 % in Glossina palpalis gambiensis and 90 % in G. tachinoides were observed in the intervention area. Trypanosome prevalence was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the intervention area (2.3 %; 1.3-3.6 %) compared to the control area (17.3 %; 14.8-20.1 %). Albendazole treatment resulted in a faecal egg count reduction of 55.6 % and reduced trypanosome infection risk (2.9 times lower than in the placebo group) although not significantly (p > 0.05). Further studies are required before confirming the existence of albendazole resistant strongyles in the study area. Conclusion Integration of best-bet strategies in areas of multiple drug-resistance is expected to reduce trypanosome infection risk thus contributing to containment of trypanocidal drug resistance

  10. Recombinant bacteriophages containing the integrated transforming provirus of Gardner--Arnstein feline sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, L A; Even, J; Garon, C F; Donner, L; Sherr, C J

    1981-01-01

    The integrated DNA provirus of the Gardner-Arnstein (GA) strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) was molecularly cloned in a bacteriophage lambda vector. The cloned DNA fragment is 14.4 kilobase pairs long and contains a 6.7-kilobase provirus flanked by cellular sequences derived from nonproductively transformed mink cells. Transfection of mouse NIH/3T3 cells with the cloned DNA fragment induced foci of transformation at efficiencies of 10(4) focus-forming units/pmol of sarcoma virus DNA. Restriction endonuclease mapping and heteroduplex analyses were used to compare the GA-FeSV provirus with that of Snyder-Theilen (ST)-FeSV, a second strain that contains homologous transformation-specific sequences (v-fes). Both viruses have the general structure 5'-gag-fes-env-c region-3', each having retained portions of the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag and env genes. In addition to segments shared by the two sarcoma viruses, GA-FeSV contains 1.7 kilobases of extra sequences not found in ST-FeSV. Of these, at least 400-500 base pairs located near the 5' end of v-fes encode a portion of the GA-FeSV polyprotein; the remaining 1.2 kilobases are derived from the FeLV env gene but do not appear to encode any detectable product related to the FeLV envelope glycoprotein. The close homology of the v-fes sequences shows that GA- and ST-FeSV were formed by recombination of FeLV with similar portions of a cat cellular gene (c-fes). Images PMID:6270655

  11. High molecular weight opioid-containing proteins in striatum.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R V; Stein, S; Gerber, L D; Rubinstein, M; Udenfriend, S

    1978-01-01

    Striatal extracts of guinea pigs, rats, and cattle were found to contain two large proteins (greater than 40,000 and greater than 100,000 daltons) that on treatment with trypsin yield opioid peptides differing chromatographically from the opioid nonapeptide generated by trypsin digestion of endorphins, beta-lipotropin, or pro-opiocortin. Furthermore, the large opioid proteins found in the pituitary do not appear to be present in the striatum. These and other findings indicate that the striatal enkephalins are produced via a pathway from the one deduced from studies on the pituitary. Images PMID:279019

  12. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  13. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D.

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  14. Dissociation energies of some high temperature molecules containing aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometric method has been used to investigate the gaseous molecules Al2, AlSi,AlSiO, AlC2, Al2C2, and AlAuC2. Special attention was given to the experimental considerations and techniques needed to identify and to measure ion intensities for very low abundance molecular species. Second- and third-law procedures were used to obtain reaction enthalpies for pressure calibration independent and isomolecular exchange reactions. Dissociation energies for the molecules were derived from the measured ion intensities, free-energy functions obtained from estimated molecular constants, and auxiliary thermodynamic data. The bonding and stability of these aluminum containing molecules are compared with other similar species.

  15. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  16. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  17. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  18. Highly inducible expression from vectors containing multiple GRE's in CHO cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Israel, D I; Kaufman, R J

    1989-01-01

    A conditional glucocorticoid-responsive expression vector system is described for highly inducible expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells. This host-vector system requires high level expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the host cell and multiple copies of the receptor binding site within the expression vector. Transfection and selection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with expression vectors encoding the rat GR yielded cell lines which express functional receptor at high levels. Insertion of multiple copies of the MMTV enhancer (glucocorticoid responsive element, GRE) into an Adenovirus major late promoter (AdMLP) based expression vector yielded greater than 1000-fold inducible expression by dexamethasone (dex) in transient DNA transfection assays. The induced expression level was 7-fold greater than that obtained with an AdMLP based vector containing an SV40 enhancer, but lacking GRE's. Vectors containing the SV40 enhancer in combination with multiple GRE's exhibited elevated basal expression in the absence of dex, but retained inducibility in both transient assays and after integration and amplification in the CHO genome. This expression system should be of general utility for studying gene regulation and for expressing heterologous genes in a regulatable fashion. Images PMID:2546123

  19. Feasibility of Using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry to Develop a Sensitive Dye Immersion Method for Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xujin; Lloyd, David K; Klohr, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a sensitive and robust dye immersion method for the measurement of container closure integrity of unopened prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry as the detection method. A Varian Cary Eclipse spectrofluorometer was used with a custom-made sample holder to position the intact syringe in the sample compartment for fluorescence measurements. Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore in a syringe with excitation at 607 nm and emission at 682 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/mL. Further studies were conducted using rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 480 nm excitation and 525 nm emission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 10 measurements of a sample of 0.005 μg/mL (with repositioning of the syringe after each measurement) was less than 1.1%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, and emission slit widths. The specificity of the testing was challenged by using marketed drug products and a protein sample, which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that using rhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in-situ (in-syringe) fluorescence measurements significantly enhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene blue method with visual or UV-visible absorption detection. Ensuring container closure integrity of injectable pharmaceutical products is necessary to maintain quality throughout the shelf life of a sterile drug product. Container closure integrity testing has routinely been used to evaluate closure integrity during product development and production line qualification of prefilled syringes, vials, and devices. However, container closure integrity testing

  20. Numerical Integration with GeoGebra in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herceg, Dorde; Herceg, Dragoslav

    2010-01-01

    The concept of definite integral is almost always introduced as the Riemann integral, which is defined in terms of the Riemann sum, and its geometric interpretation. This definition is hard to understand for high school students. With the aid of mathematical software for visualisation and computation of approximate integrals, the notion of…

  1. Numerical Integration with GeoGebra in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herceg, Dorde; Herceg, Dragoslav

    2010-01-01

    The concept of definite integral is almost always introduced as the Riemann integral, which is defined in terms of the Riemann sum, and its geometric interpretation. This definition is hard to understand for high school students. With the aid of mathematical software for visualisation and computation of approximate integrals, the notion of…

  2. Loneliness, Social Integration and Consumption of Sugar-Containing Beverages: Testing the Social Baseline Theory

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Methods Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Results Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. Conclusions This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline

  3. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social isolation leads

  4. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  5. Managing a potentially high profile NORM containing remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, R.K.

    1997-06-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) contained in scale and sludge in a large earthen pit, approximately 12 acres, had the potential to turn a relatively straightforward remediation project into a public relations nightmare. Lack of specific regulations for dealing with NORM, at this location, further complicated the situation. Proactive early involvement with local officials as part of a detailed comprehensive public relations plan minimized potential public relations problems. Education of local employees, who were then prepared to answer any questions from their neighbors, was also a key part of the plan. Early, frequent, and complete communication with potential agencies was critical to the success of the project. Multiple agencies potentially had jurisdiction. Close cooperation with all potential agencies was a necessity, even after the lead agency had been determined. Selection of the right contractors with well defined scopes of work eased the burdens of the project. Contractors must be well respected experts in the appropriate disciplines. Local contractors with good working relationships with the agencies was also beneficial. Orchestrating all of these components can be time consuming and frustrating, but necessary. Be patient, the time spent in remediation plan preparation and the education of local officials and agency staff, resulted in a smooth running remediation project that protected both the environment and human health at a substantial cost savings compared to other available NORM disposal options.

  6. High resolution quantitative element mapping of neuromelanin-containing neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Tilo; Fiedler, Anja; Morawski, Markus; Arendt, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Neuromelanin is a dark coloured intracellular pigment that appears in a specific population of neurons (dopaminergic and noradrenergic) predominantly in the substantia nigra and in the locus coeruleus. In recent years, there is increasing interest in the role of neuromelanin because of a hypothesised link between this pigment and the cell death of neuromelanin-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the role of neuromelanin in the pathology of PD is an actual focus in neuroscience. We have investigated the elemental contents and distributions of sulphur, calcium, iron, nickel and copper of neuromelanin in dopaminergic neurons for a Parkinson case and a control case ( in situ, 6 μm brain sections). There was no difference in the iron concentration between the two cases. However, the calcium concentration was 3-fold higher in the Parkinson case, whereas the copper and nickel concentrations decreased. An ultrastructural investigation of the concentrations of calcium and iron within the neuromelanin suggests that these two elements are not necessarily co-localized.

  7. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  8. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  9. Novel bipolar bathophenanthroline containing hosts for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ziyi; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Ando, Shinji; Ueda, Mitsuru; Akiike, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hidetoshi; Kajita, Toru; Kakimoto, Masa-aki

    2008-02-07

    The electronic structures of eight bathophenanthroline derivatives were elucidated by DFT calculations, and four representatives of which CZBP, m-CZBP, m-TPAP, and BPABP were synthesized and employed as the hosts to afford highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. The calculated molecular orbital energies agree well with the experimental results, which further demonstrates that the localization of HOMO and LUMO at the respective hole- and electron-transporting moieties is desirable in bipolar molecular designs.

  10. Fermentation of crystalline cellulose to ethanol by Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated zymomonas mobilis genes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Ingram, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is generally required for efficient fermentation to ethanol. This hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase. The Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca, contains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose, minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase. Strain P2 is a recombinant derivative in which the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes have been integrated into the chromosome and expressed, directing the metabolism of pyruvate to ethanol. This organism has been evaluated in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments to determine optimal conditions and limits of performance. The temperature was varied between 32 and 40{degree}C over a pH range of 5.0-5.8 with 100 g/L crystalline cellulose (Sigmacell 50, Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO) as the substrate and commercial cellulase (Spezyme CE, South San Francisco, CA). A broad optimum for SSF was observed, with a pH of 5.2-5.5 and temperatures of 32-35{degree}C, which allowed the production of over 44 g of ethanol/L (81-86% of the maximum theoretical yield). Although the rate of ethanol production increased with cellulase, diminishing improvements were observed at enzyme loadings above 10 filter paper units/g of cellulose. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  12. High-Energy-Absorbing Enclosure for Internal Explosion Containment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-15

    quartz fiber; ceramic fiber (e.g., silicon carbide is fiber); metallic fiber (e.g., aluminum fiber). Natural fibers such as silk or cotton or...nich completely exteriorly : nateriai; the eia"- —- - ^ "* COe££lC1Mt °f «^ ^-sion ana a tnicxness i;>.: 10 havi „„ h ’ 0t " 1SaSt °-5 inches...material, the faster it will react the load. Accordingly, conventional materials, such as metals or conventional composites, will experience very high

  13. High-temperature zirconia microthruster with an integrated flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Palmer, Kristoffer; Ericson, Fredric; Thornell, Greger

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a ceramic, heated cold-gas microthruster device made with silicon tools and high temperature co-fired ceramic processing. The device contains two opposing thrusters, each with an integrated calorimetric propellant flow sensor and a heater in the stagnation chamber of the nozzle. The exhaust from a thruster was photographed using schlieren imaging to study its behavior and search for leaks. The heater elements were tested under a cyclic thermal load and to the maximum power before failure. The nozzle heater was shown to improve the efficiency of the thruster by 6.9%, from a specific impulse of 66 to 71 s, as calculated from a decrease of the flow rate through the nozzle of 13%, from 44.9 to 39.2 sccm. The sensitivity of the integrated flow sensor was measured to 0.15 mΩ sccm-1 in the region of 0-15 sccm and to 0.04 mΩ sccm-1 above 20 sccm, with a zero-flow sensitivity of 0.27 mΩ sccm-1. The choice of yttria-stabilized zirconia as a material for the devices makes them robust and capable of surviving temperatures locally exceeding 1000 °C.

  14. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  15. Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report presents a description and final account of the VHSIC program during its ten years of successfully developing advanced integrated circuit technologies and products for military systems. The new technologies and the products that VHSIC has produced have steadily found their way not only in defense systems but also into the commercial industrial base. They provide the reservoir from which new system capabilities are emerging and a foundation upon which continual further advances are being made. Over the course of the past decade, the VHSIC program has been active in the development of new materials, new circuit design concepts, advanced fabrication processes, new manufacturing equipment, higher levels of radiation harding, new data interface standards and specifications, and improved techniques for built-in-test maintainability. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language and other design automation tools have broken through major integrated circuit complexity barriers and will decrease the cost and development time of modern electronic systems. The resulting achievements have helped to produce a new level of system design and fabrication - one that approaches an integrated concept-to-system capability.

  16. Magnetically-related properties of bismuth containing high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Gary C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Safari, A.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Burke, Terence; Shoga, M.

    1990-08-01

    The effect of magnetic fields to 15 T on electrical resistance has been measured for the BiSrCaCuO superconductor at precise temperatures during the transition to the superconducting state from pre-onset conditions to essentially zero resistance conditions. The results show that the temperature at which the magnetic field causes a divergence in the resistance versus 1000/ T curve is approximately the same temperature as the value at which, during cooling, the positive Hall coefficient begins its abrupt descent to zero. This temperature gives the best measure of Tc. It is also shown that small oscillations of low frequency start near onset conditions, the amplitude of which at a given temperature is B-field dependent. Additionally, Hall effect studies as a function of temperature at 4 T in three separate experiments (including high Tc BiSrCaCu PbO of > 90% theoretical density) show that sharp delta-function-like peaks in + RH are observed near Tc and are superimposed on a broader maximum. The Hall data are explicable in terms of exciton formation and ionization. The bound holes associated with these excitons are believed to be the mediators producing Cooper-pairing, and scale very well with Tc for all the known high Tc oxides.

  17. Exploratory Research for a High Temperature Superconducting Integrated Circuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    of monolithic integration of the subsystems in a compact package which can be efficiently cryocooled. In addressing this issue, the goal of this...AD-A275 798 WL-TR-93-5031 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH FOR A HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING INTEGRATED CIRCUIT E. K. Track & 0. Mukhanov Hypres Inc., 175...RESEARCH FOR A HIGH C F33615-90-C-1456 TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING PE 65502 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PR 3005 o 0. MUKHANOV, J.N. ECKSTEIN, TA 65 I. BOZOVIC

  18. High mobility group protein, HMG-1, contains insignificant glycosyl modification.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Y. B.; Scovell, W. M.; Yan, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    High mobility group protein-1 (HMG-1) is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, and abundant nuclear protein. Recent findings suggest that HMG-1 may serve as a DNA chaperone protein and play a role in the regulation of transcription. There is a mounting interest in elucidating the mechanism by which HMG-1 protein takes part in these activities. HMG-1 has been reported to undergo an extensive array of posttranslational modifications, including glycosylation. We extend the earlier findings on the glycosylation of HMG-1 by quantitating the amount of carbohydrate on HMG-1 from calf thymus and chicken erythrocytes isolated by 2 different purification procedures. In addition, 2 different developmental stages (embryonic and adult) were examined in the chicken erythrocytes. The glycosyl composition was quantitated using the Dionex HPAE-PAD II system. Furthermore, the presence of O-linked GlcNAc on HMG-1 was determined by the enzymatic incorporation of 3H-galactose into HMG-1 protein. Contrary to earlier reports, less than 0.5 mol of total monosaccharides (Fuc, Man, GalNH2, GlcNH2, Gal) were detected per mole of HMG-1 protein, regardless of the source of the protein or the method of isolation. In addition, less than 0.002 mol of O-linked GlcNAc per mole of HMG-1 protein was detected. Thus, insignificant amount of glycosylation was found on HMG-1 protein. Because O-linked GlcNAc modification of proteins is believed to be a reversible posttranslational event, more definitive studies will need to be conducted before ruling out that the function of HMG-1 protein is not regulated by glycosylation. PMID:7757000

  19. Glycemic response of mashed potato containing high-viscocity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-08-01

    Potatoes generally have one of the highest glycemic index values of any food. Relatively small differences in the glycemic response (GR) of regularly consumed starch foods have shown beneficial effects on health. Lowering the GR of a potato-based meal has potentially wide-reaching health benefits. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HV-HPMC) is a modified cellulose dietary fiber extensively used in the food industry. We hypothesized that the GR of a high-glycemic index product such as mashed potato would be lower with the addition of HV-HPMC. In a nonblind, randomized, repeat-measure, crossover controlled trial, 15 healthy adults consumed portions of mashed potato with different doses (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of a specially selected and optimized HV-HPMC and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Five subjects were excluded from the final analysis due to noncompliance with study procedures. Capillary blood glucose was measured in fasted subjects and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after starting to eat. For each sample, the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve was calculated and the GR determined. There was a significant lowering effect of HV-HPMC on GR (P < .001) of mashed potato. Glycemic responses for all mashed potato samples with the HV-HPMC were significantly lower than the standard mashed potato: 1% level (P < .05), 2% level (P < .05), and 4% level (P < .05). However, there was no significant effect of the HV-HPMC dose on GR. We conclude that addition of select HV-HPMC to mashed potato blunts GR.

  20. Making Sense of Integrated Science: A Guide for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This guide outlines the initial work and includes recommendations for schools and districts on how to implement an integrated science program. Chapters include: (1) "What Is Integrated Science and What Does It Look Like at the High School Level?"; (2) "Coherence in High School Science" (F. James Rutherford); (3) "Thinking about Change: What Will…

  1. Discovery of a new RNA-containing nuclear structure in UVC-induced apoptotic cells by integrated laser electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Karreman, Matthia A; Agronskaia, Alexandra V; Verkleij, Arie J; Cremers, Fons F M; Gerritsen, Hans C; Humbel, Bruno M

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of cells with UVC radiation leads to the formation of DNA cross-links which, if not repaired, can lead to apoptosis. gamma-H2AX and cleaved caspase 3 are proteins formed during UVC-induced DNA damage and apoptosis respectively. The present study sets out to identify early morphological markers of apoptosis using a new method of correlative microscopy, ILEM (integrated laser electron microscopy). Cleaved caspase 3 and gamma-H2AX were immunofluorescently labelled to mark the cells of interest. These cells were subsequently searched in the fluorescence mode of the ILEM and further analysed at high resolution with TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Following the treatment of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) with UVC radiation, in the majority of the cells gamma-H2AX was formed, whereas only in a subset of cells caspase 3 was activated. In severely damaged cells with high levels of gamma-H2AX a round, electron-dense nuclear structure was found, which was hitherto not identified in UV-stressed cells. This structure exists only in nuclei of cells containing cleaved caspase 3 and is present during all stages of the apoptotic process. Energy-loss imaging showed that the nuclear structure accumulates phosphorus, indicating that it is rich in nucleic acids. Because the nuclear structure did not label for DNA and was not affected by regressive EDTA treatment, it is suggested that the UV-induced nuclear structure contains a high amount of RNA. Because the UV-induced nuclear structure was only found in cells labelled for cleaved caspase 3 it is proposed as an electron microscopic marker for all stages of apoptosis. Such a marker will especially facilitate the screening for early apoptotic cells, which lack the well-known hallmarks of apoptosis within a cell population. It also raises new questions on the mechanisms involved in the UV-induced apoptotic pathway.

  2. An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537

  3. An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

    2010-08-01

    A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid-based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids.

  4. Ultra High Bypass Integrated System Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-14

    NASA’s Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, in collaboration with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Pratt & Whitney, completed testing of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Model in the 9’ x 15’ Low Speed Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. The fan model is representative of the next generation of efficient and quiet Ultra High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Engine designs.

  5. High-efficiency entrapment of superoxide dismutase into cationic liposomes containing synthetic aminoglycolipid.

    PubMed

    Aoki, H; Fujita, M; Sun, C; Fuji, K; Miyajima, K

    1997-08-01

    A monofatty acid ester of glucosamine (PGlcN) was synthesized to provide liposomal membranes with a positive charge, and the trapping efficiency of negatively charged substances (superoxide dismutases, SODs) into cationic liposomes containing PGlcN or stearylamine (SA) prepared by various methods was compared to find the most efficient trapping methods. We demonstrated that cationic liposomes, which were prepared in a buffer of low ionic strength containing sorbitol by a simple hydration method, could entrap a large amount of negatively charged SODs which retained their activity, as compared with cationic liposomes prepared in a buffer of high ionic strength. We also showed a reverse-phase evaporation method entrapped a large amount of SODs. However, SODs were inactivated during the preparation; therefore, this method was not suitable to entrap the enzyme. Freeze-thaw method induced the formation of cationic liposomes which were smaller than extruded liposomes and could entrap the SODs in a buffer of low ionic strength. Dehydration-rehydration method with a buffer of low ionic strength also entrapped a large amount of SODs, indicating that the integrity of liposomes was lost in the lipid bilayer after freeze-drying and the SODs were entrapped in the reconstruction of liposomes during rehydration. These findings showed that the hydration method based on electrostatic attraction with a buffer of low ionic strength was simple and the most effective for entrapping SODs without loss of their activity.

  6. High strain rate and high temperature behaviour of metallic materials for jet engine turbine containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, F.; Cendón, D.; Enfedaque, A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents a study on the mechanical characterisation of the materials involved in air jet engine turbines. The final objective is to analyse the phenomenon of a turbine blade off failure, to verify the requirements of the case containment. The materials in the turbine are under high temperatures, ranging from 400circC to 800circC and when the fail of the blade occurs if impacts against the case, reaching strain rates up to 103 s - 1. To obtain the behaviour of the materials, testing at high strain rate and high temperature at one time is necessary. The experimental set-up used was a split Hopkinson pressure bar, with a high temperature furnace adapted. The bars used on the device were high strength nickel alloys with a cooling system to decrease the temperature of the measurement devices. The effect of wave dispersion due to the temperature gradient has been also studied to correct the measurements if necessary. The material tested has been the FV535 stainless steel used on the case. The full stress-strain curves at different temperatures and at strain rates up to 103 s-1 have been obtained. The experimental results show a marked influence of the strain rate and the temperature that cannot be neglected. The Johnson-Cook material model has been used to fit the results of the material tests.

  7. High school science fair and research integrity.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Frederick; Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students' science fair experiences or expectations were evident.

  8. High school science fair and research integrity

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976

  9. Integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using an easily recyclable di-carboxylic acid

    Treesearch

    Huiyang Bian; Liheng Chen; Hongqi Dai; J.Y. Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate di-carboxylic acid hydrolysis for the integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using two unbleached hardwood chemical pulps of lignin contents of 3.9 and 17.2%. Acid hydrolysis experiments used maleic acid solution of 60 wt% concentration at 120°C for 120 min under ambient pressure. Yields of...

  10. Curriculum Integration in Ontario High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grice, James

    2011-01-01

    In many North American schools, the acquirement of knowledge is encouraged in the most fractious of ways. At the high-school level, knowledge is often channelled into separate, specialized units of study. Rarely is an effort made to develop cross-subject, unifying themes that can help students recognize important points of curricular overlap.…

  11. A High Integrity Can Design for Degraded Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.A.

    1999-08-01

    A high integrity can (HIC), designed to meet the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section III, Div. 3, static conditions) is proposed for the interim storage and repository disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel. The HIC will be approximately 5 3/8 inches (134.38mm) in outside diameter with 1/4 inch (6.35mm) thick walls, and have a removable lid with a metallic seal that is capable of being welded shut. The opening of the can is approximately 4 3/8 inches (111.13mm). The HIC is primarily designed to contain items in the DOE SNF inventory that do not meet acceptance standards for direct disposal in a geologic repository. This includes fuel in the form of particulate dusts, sectioned pieces of fuel, core rubble, melted or degraded (non-intact) fuel elements, unclad uranium alloys, metallurgical specimens, and chemically reactive fuel components. The HIC is intended to act as a substitute cladding for the spent nuclear fuel, further isolate problematic materials, provide a long-term corrosion barrier, and add an extra internal pressure barrier to the waste package. The HIC will also delay potential fission product release and maintain geometry control for extended periods of time. For the entire disposal package to be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a HIC must effectively eliminate the disposal problems associated with problem SNF including the release of radioactive and/or reactive material and over pressurization of the HIC due to chemical reactions within the can. Two HICs were analyzed to envelop a range of can lengths between 42 and 101 inches. Using Abacus software, the HIC's were analyzed for end, side, and corner drops. Hastelloy C-22 was chosen based upon structural integrity, corrosion resistance, and neutron adsorption properties.

  12. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing

  13. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-11-01

    Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO(2) , biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO(2) to CH(4) by addition of H(2) . Enrichment at thermophilic temperature (55°C) resulted in CO(2) and H(2) bioconversion rate of 320 mL CH(4) /(gVSS h), which was more than 60% higher than that under mesophilic temperature (37°C). Different dominant species were found at mesophilic- and thermophilic-enriched cultures, as revealed by PCR-DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree of biogas upgrading was achieved. The produced biogas had a CH(4) content, around 95% at steady-state, at gas (mixture of biogas and hydrogen) injection rate of 6 L/(L day). The increase of gas injection rate to 12 L/(L day) resulted in the decrease of CH(4) content to around 90%. Further study showed that by decreasing the gas-liquid mass transfer by increasing the stirring speed of the mixture the CH(4) content was increased to around 95%. Finally, the CH(4) content around 90% was achieved in this study with the gas injection rate as high as 24 L/(L day).

  14. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Leisher, W.B.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-04-01

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface.

  15. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... S5.1.2Type 2—Composite metallic hoop wrapped container means a metal liner reinforced with resin....4Type 4—Composite non-metallic full wrapped container means resin impregnated continuous filament with a... and the ambient conditions. Full wrapped means applying the reinforcement of a filament or resin...

  16. Modification of some biological properties of HeLa cells containing adeno-associated virus DNA integrated into chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, C; Schlehofer, J R

    1992-01-01

    Parvoviruses are known to interfere with cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Since infecting adeno-associated virus (AAV) frequently integrates its DNA into the cellular genome, we analyzed whether this integration influences the transformed phenotype of the human tumor cell line HeLa. Analysis of three independent HeLa cell clones with integrated AAV DNA (HA-3x, HA-16, and HA-28) revealed the following phenotypic changes of these cells: (i) reduced growth rate, (ii) increased serum requirement, (iii) reduced capacity for colony formation in soft agar, (iv) reduced cloning efficiency on plastic, (v) elevated sensitivity to genotoxic agents (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, human tumor necrosis factor alpha, UV irradiation [256 nm], and heat [42 degrees C]), and (vi) reduced sensitivity to the cytolytic effect of parvovirus H-1. Reduced growth rate and enhanced sensitivity to gamma irradiation were also observed in vivo when tumors from AAV DNA-containing HeLa cells were transplanted into nude mice. This alteration of the biological properties of HeLa cells was independent of the number of AAV genomes integrated, the physical structure of integrated AAV DNA, and the transcription of AAV genes. Integration of AAV DNA was found to occur preferentially on the long arm of chromosome 17 in the three HeLa cell clones analyzed. These findings demonstrate that genomic integration of AAV DNA can alter the biological properties of human tumor cells. Images PMID:1313913

  17. Considerations for Storage of High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Utilizing Non-Metal Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin E.; Scott, Joseph P.; Wise, Harry

    2005-01-01

    When working with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, it is critical that the storage container be constructed of the proper materials, those which will not degrade to the extent that container breakdown or dangerous decomposition occurs. It has been suggested that the only materials that will safely contain the peroxide for a significant period of time are metals of stainless steel construction or aluminum use as High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Containers. The stability and decomposition of HTP will be also discussed as well as various means suggested in the literature to minimize these problems. The dangers of excess oxygen generation are also touched upon.

  18. Considerations for Storage of High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Utilizing Non-Metal Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin E.; Scott, Joseph P.; Wise, Harry

    2005-01-01

    When working with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, it is critical that the storage container be constructed of the proper materials, those which will not degrade to the extent that container breakdown or dangerous decomposition occurs. It has been suggested that the only materials that will safely contain the peroxide for a significant period of time are metals of stainless steel construction or aluminum use as High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Containers. The stability and decomposition of HTP will be also discussed as well as various means suggested in the literature to minimize these problems. The dangers of excess oxygen generation are also touched upon.

  19. Campoletis sonorensis Endoparasitic Wasps Contain Forms of C. sonorensis Virus DNA Suggestive of Integrated and Extrachromosomal Polydnavirus DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Jo-Ann G. W.; Summers, Max D.

    1986-01-01

    Campoletis sonorensis virus (CsV) (Polydnaviridae) previously was detected only in the calyx epithelial cells and lumen of the oviducts from female C. sonorensis (Ichneumonidae) endoparasitic wasps (Norton et al., Cell Tissue Res. 162:195-208, 1975). Using dot-blot hybridizations, we detected low amounts of CsV DNA in male and female wasp head and thorax tissues and in male abdominal tissues. Low amounts of extrachromosomal viral DNA were detected in Southern blots of undigested male wasp DNA and in male DNA purified by isopycnic centrifugation. High-molecular-weight male wasp DNA digested with any of several restriction endonucleases and hybridized with cloned viral DNAs from CsV superhelices B and Q under stringent conditions contained CsV-specific DNA fragments that differed significantly in size and number from the hybridizing fragments detected in comparably digested viral DNA. Identical offsize restriction fragments were detected in digested female head and thorax DNA. These data suggest that at least CsV DNAs B and Q are integrated in C. sonorensis cellular DNA and that the virus may be transmitted through the germline. Images PMID:16789255

  20. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere. Initially, the

  1. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Anderson, B.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m{sup 3} (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site.

  2. Involvement of Iron-Containing Proteins in Genome Integrity in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caiguo

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes numerous iron-containing proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins and hemoproteins. These proteins generally utilize iron as a cofactor, and they perform critical roles in photosynthesis, genome stability, electron transfer, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis for the assembly of functional iron-containing proteins, thereby ensuring genome stability, cell development, and plant growth. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron-containing proteins and their functions involved in genome stability has expanded enormously. In this review, I provide the current perspectives on iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis, followed by a summary of iron-containing protein functions involved in genome stability maintenance and a discussion of their possible molecular mechanisms. PMID:27330736

  3. Integrated Ring Oscillators based on high-performance Graphene Inverters.

    PubMed

    Schall, Daniel; Otto, Martin; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    The road to the realization of complex integrated circuits based on graphene remains an open issue so far. Current graphene based integrated circuits are limited by low integration depth and significant doping variations, representing major road blocks for the success of graphene in future electronic devices. Here we report on the realization of graphene based integrated inverters and ring oscillators. By using an optimized process technology for high-performance graphene transistors with local back-gate electrodes we demonstrate that complex graphene based integrated circuits can be manufactured reproducibly, circumventing problems associated with doping variations. The fabrication process developed here is scalable and fully compatible with conventional silicon technology. Therefore, our results pave the way towards applications based on graphene transistors in future electronic devices.

  4. Integrated Ring Oscillators based on high-performance Graphene Inverters

    PubMed Central

    Schall, Daniel; Otto, Martin; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    The road to the realization of complex integrated circuits based on graphene remains an open issue so far. Current graphene based integrated circuits are limited by low integration depth and significant doping variations, representing major road blocks for the success of graphene in future electronic devices. Here we report on the realization of graphene based integrated inverters and ring oscillators. By using an optimized process technology for high-performance graphene transistors with local back-gate electrodes we demonstrate that complex graphene based integrated circuits can be manufactured reproducibly, circumventing problems associated with doping variations. The fabrication process developed here is scalable and fully compatible with conventional silicon technology. Therefore, our results pave the way towards applications based on graphene transistors in future electronic devices. PMID:24005257

  5. Integrated microfluidic systems for high-performance genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-10-01

    Driven by the ambitious goals of genome-related research, fully integrated microfluidic systems have developed rapidly to advance biomolecular and, in particular, genetic analysis. To produce a microsystem with high performance, several key elements must be strategically chosen, including device materials, temperature control, microfluidic control, and sample/product transport integration. We review several significant examples of microfluidic integration in DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis, pathogen detection, and forensic short tandem repeat typing. The advantages of high speed, increased sensitivity, and enhanced reliability enable these integrated microsystems to address bioanalytical challenges such as single-copy DNA sequencing, single-cell gene expression analysis, pathogen detection, and forensic identification of humans in formats that enable large-scale and point-of-analysis applications.

  6. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  7. The Integration of an Electro-Hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-Contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    M. Borland; S. M. Berry

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field-deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self-contained, propane-fired 8-KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as power to operate the 110-VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles of integration.

  8. The Integration of an Electro-hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Mark Wilson; Berry, Stephen Michael

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self contained, propane fired 8 KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as provide power to operate the 110 VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles on integration.

  9. Internet Integration in High Schools: Patterns, Opportunities, and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruth; Adams, Marilyn; Meghani, Naheed; Smith, Maria

    Internet integration in high schools on a schoolwide scale was examined through case studies of five high schools in inner city, urban, suburban, and rural communities across the United States. A total of 322 teachers, 19 administrators, 19 counselors, 7 technology coordinators, and 3,822 students were surveyed, and 219 staff and students were…

  10. Headwaters: The Next Stage in High School Integrated Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    For 12 years, Centennial High School in Guelph has run an integrated program called the Community Environmental Leadership Program (CELP). In 1995 the program was offered at the grade 11 level. The program ran successfully in the second semester for seven years. In 2001, with the high school system being modified to fit into a four-year model, and…

  11. Corrosion models for predictions of performance of high-level radioactive-waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1991-11-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the US is to seal it in containers before emplacement in a geologic repository. A proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated for its suitability as a geologic repository. The containers will probably be made of either an austenitic or a copper-based alloy. Models of alloy degradation are being used to predict the long-term performance of the containers under repository conditions. The models are of uniform oxidation and corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking, and are applicable to worst-case scenarios of container degradation. This paper reviews several of the models.

  12. Self-contained GPS integrity monitoring using a censored Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBurney, Paul W.; Brown, R. Grover

    AT least two approaches to GPS integrity monitoring have been presented which are based on the statistics of the measurement residuals from redundant satellites. However, the parameter of interest in the civil aviation community is the horizontal protection and not the measurement residuals. Thus, most tests suffer from providing only a weak inference about the horizontal protection. This work attempts to firm up this connection by placing the final integrity check in the horizontal plane. An algorithm is presented which censors the measurement residuals from one measurement source and determines the effect on the horizontal position estimate. The final test is a two-confidence-region overlap test about the horizontal position estimates. Analytic expressions are developed for the alarm and miss rate as well as the horizontal protection level. Simulation results are also presented which show the effectiveness of the scheme in detecting incipient satellite clock failures in the presence of selective availability.

  13. Observations of Cyanopolyynes toward Four High-mass Star-forming Regions Containing Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Hirota, Tomoya; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Dobashi, Kazuhito

    2017-07-01

    We carried out line survey observations at the 26-30 GHz band toward the four high-mass star-forming regions containing hot cores, G10.30-0.15, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We have detected HC5N from all of the sources, and HC7N from the three sources, except for G10.30-0.15. We further conducted observations of HC5N at the 42-46 GHz and 82-103 GHz bands toward the three sources, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The rotational lines of HC5N with the high-excitation energies ({E}{{u}}/k˜ 63{--}100 K), which are hardly excited in the cold dark clouds, have been detected from the three sources. The rotational temperatures of HC5N are found to be ˜13-20 K in the three sources. The detection of the lines with the high-excitation energies and the derived rotational temperatures indicate that HC5N exists in the warm gas within 0.07-0.1 pc radii around massive young stellar objects. The column densities of HC5N in the three sources are derived to be (˜2.0-2.8) × {10}13 cm-2. We compare the ratios between N(HC5N) the column density of HC5N and W(CH3OH) the integrated intensity of the thermal CH3OH emission line among the three high-mass star-forming regions. We found a possibility of the chemical differentiation in the three high-mass star-forming regions; G28.28-0.36 shows the largest N(HC5N)/W(CH3OH) ratio of > 8.0× {10}14 in units of (K km s-1)-1 cm-2, while G12.89+0.49 and G16.86-2.16 show the smaller values (˜ 2× {10}13).

  14. High-quality weather data for grid integration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxl, C.

    2016-12-01

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. In this talk we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets will be presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) is available as time synchronized with the WIND Toolkit, and will allow for combined wind-solar grid integration studies. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. Grid integration studies are also carried out in various countries, which aim at increasing their wind and solar penetration through combined wind and solar integration data sets. We will present a multi-year effort to directly support India's 24x7 energy access goal through a suite of activities aimed at enabling large-scale deployment of clean energy and energy efficiency. Another current effort is the North-American-Renewable-Integration-Study, with the aim of providing

  15. Summary of Calculations Performed to Evaluate the Structural Integrity of the 6-Pack Container Pallet

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C.A.

    1999-10-01

    The 6-Pack Container Pallet is a space-frame structure, designed by Mason & Hanger Corp. to hold six AL-R8 containers together in a convenient bundle. The AL-R8 containers hold nuclear weapon components that require special care and consideration. The primary purpose of the 6-pack assembly is storage, but there is some manipulation as the 6-pack is loaded, moved and stacked. Recently, there has been an upgrade to a new AL-R8-SI container that is heavier than its predecessor was. The analysis discussed herein was conducted to ensure that the increased stresses due to the heavier containers are within design safety limits. At this time, however, there is disagreement as to what the strength requirements for the 6-pack pallet are. Depending on which classification applies to the structure, a factor of safety (yield stress over design stress) of 3.0 or more may need to be satisfied. This report documents strength analyses of loaded 6-packs performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The entire 6-pack assembly was discretized into a mesh with a total of 38682 first-order finite elements. The stresses were found for four characteristic load cases using the implicit code NIKE3D. This was a static strength analysis only. Dynamic loading was not considered. Stability, also, was not addressed. There are two 6-pack pallet designs under consideration: one that uses 1/2 inch diameter bolts and one with 3/8 inch bolts. In both cases, the maximum torque applied to the bolts is 55 in-lbf. This analysis finds the minimum factor of safety based on yield to be less than 3.0 in the main load path of both the 1/2 inch and 3/8 inch diameter bolt designs. In general, the peak stresses found in the 1/2 inch bolt design are less than those of the 3/8 inch bolt design. At the welded ends of the main tube section that spans the length of the pallet, the minimum safety factor is 2.14 when 1/2 inch bolts are used and 1.77 when 3/8 inch bolts are used. Minimum safety factors of

  16. High Gain and Frequency Ultra-Stable Integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. E.; Ziemba, T. M.; Prager, J. R.; Lotz, D. E.

    2011-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies has received DOE Phase I SBIR funding to continue the development of high gain and stability integrators that are capable of high bandwidth measurements over long pulse operation. The present design operates with a 10 us RC time, for pulse durations up to the second time scale, with a frequency response in excess of 10 MHz, and typical drift errors of under 10 mV. This integrator development effort consists of two primary tasks. The first is to demonstrate stable operation over the much longer time scales required by ITER. When a proper comparison between available integrator designs is made that normalizes for gain and operation time, the existing integrators are the best available and meet ITER requirements for stability. However, this stability needs to be demonstrated over the hour type time scales relevant to ITER, as opposed to the very high gain second type operation typically used within the ICC community. The second primary task is to incorporate the integrators into the National Instruments (NI) platform to allow for easy operation with modern DAQ systems.

  17. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  18. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  19. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  20. Abnormal white matter integrity in chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y-W; Su, H-H; Lv, X-F; Jiang, G-H

    2015-01-01

    anisotropy values of the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the duration of codeine-containing syrup use in chronic users. Chronic codeine-containing syrup abuse may be associated with disruptions in brain WM integrity. These WM microstructural deficits may be linked to higher impulsivity in chronic codeine-containing syrup users. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. High index contrast polymer waveguide platform for integrated biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Jennifer; Arnfinnsdottir, Nina B; Jonsdottir, Asta B; Agnarsson, Björn; Leosson, Kristjan

    2010-07-19

    We present detailed characterization of a unique high-index-contrast integrated optical polymer waveguide platform where the index of the cladding material is closely matched to that of water. Single-mode waveguides designed to operate across a large part of the visible spectrum have been fabricated and waveguide properties, including mode size, bend loss and evanescent coupling have been modeled using effective-index approximation, finite-element and finite-difference time domain methods. Integrated components such as directional couplers for wavelength splitting and ring resonators for refractive-index or temperature sensing have been modeled, fabricated and characterized. The waveguide platform described here is applicable to a wide range of biophotonic applications relying on evanescent-wave sensing or excitation, offering a high level of integration and functionality. The technology is biocompatible and suitable for wafer-level mass production.

  2. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  3. Speech-and-Gesture Integration in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Laura B.; Bennetto, Loisa; Campana, Ellen; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined iconic gesture comprehension in autism, with the goal of assessing whether cross-modal processing difficulties impede speech-and-gesture integration. Participants were 19 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 20 typical controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and socio-economic status (SES). Gesture…

  4. Integrated Modeling of Polymer Composites Under High Energy Laser Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    the SThM measurements deviates from standard procedures for neat resin and prepreg composites . Individual carbon fibers are suspended or draped across...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2016-0071 INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION Brent Volk, Gregory Ehlert...DAVIS, Chief Composite Materials and Processing Section Composite Materials and Processing Section Composite Branch

  5. Study of highly integrated payload architectures for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Stefan; Moorhouse, Joseph; Mieremet, Arjan L.; Collon, Maximilien; Montella, Jarno; Beijersbergen, Marco; Harris, J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Atzei, Alessandro; Lyngvi, Aleksander; Renton, Daniel; Erd, Christian; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Future planetary missions will require advanced, smart, low resource payloads and satellites to enable the exploration of our solar system in a more frequent, timely and multi-mission manner. A viable route towards low resource science instrumentation is the concept of Highly Integrated Payload Suites (HIPS), which was introduced during the re-assessment of the payload of the BepiColombo (BC) Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Considerable mass and power savings were demonstrated throughout the instrumentation by improved definition of the instrument design, a higher level of integration, and identification of resource drivers. The higher integration and associated synergy effects permitted optimisation of the payload performance at minimum investment while still meeting the demanding science requirements. For the specific example of the BepiColombo MPO, the mass reduction by designing the instruments towards a Highly Integrated Payload Suite was found to be about 60%. This has endorsed the acceptance of a number of additional instruments as core payload of the BC MPO thereby enhancing the scientific return. This promising strategic approach and concept is now applied to a set of planetary mission studies for future exploration of the solar system. Innovative technologies, miniaturised electronics and advanced remote sensing technologies are the baseline for a generic approach to payload integration, which is here investigated also in the context of largely differing mission requirements. A review of the approach and the implications to the generic concept as found from the applications to the mission studies are presented.

  6. Online processing of sentences containing noun modification in young children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Bavin, Edith L; Prendergast, Luke A; Kidd, Evan; Baker, Emma; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-03-01

    There is variability in the language of children with autism, even those who are high functioning. However, little is known about how they process language structures in real time, including how they handle potential ambiguity, and whether they follow referential constraints. Previous research with older autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants has shown that these individuals can use context to access rapidly the meaning of ambiguous words. The severity of autism has also been shown to influence the speed in which children with ASD access lexical information. To understand more about how children with ASD process language in real time (i.e., as it unfolds). The focus was the integration of information and use of referential constraints to identify a referent named in a sentence. We used an eye-tracking task to compare performance between young, high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD). A large sample of 5-9-year-old children (mean age = 6;8 years), 48 with HFA and 56 with TD participated; all were attending mainstream schools. For each item participants were shown a display of four images that differed in two dimensions. Each sentence contained an adjective and noun that restricted the choice from four to two (the target and competitor), followed by a prepositional phrase (e.g., the blue square with dots); this added modifying information to provide a unique description of the target. We calculated looking time at the target, the competitor and the two distractors for each 200 ms time interval as children processed the sentence and looked at the display. Generalized estimating equations were used to carry out repeated-measures analyses on the proportion of looking time to target and competitor and time to fixate to target. Children in both groups (HFA and TD) looked at the target and competitor more than at the distractors following the adjective and noun and following the modifying information in the prepositional

  7. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  8. Development of integrated thermionic circuits for high-temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J. B.; Wilde, D.; Depp, S.; Hamilton, D. J.; Kerwin, W.; Derouin, C.; Roybal, L.; Wooley, R.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500 C are studied. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits were successfully operated in 5000 C environments for extended periods. It is suggested that ITC's may become an important technology for high temperature instrumentation and control systems in geothermal and other high temperature environments.

  9. Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source with Integrated Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    gral part of t utilized for source ope d. The peak asured to be 2 ns. SS HIGH IN kach Institu .Mironenk iv 04073, U SA; Ya. T 1 er Microwave W...Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source With Integrated Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES See also ADM002371. 2013 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Digest of Technical Papers 1976-2013, and Abstracts of the 2013 IEEE International

  10. The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kane J. Fisher

    2000-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

  11. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  12. Integrated, nonvolatile, high-speed analog random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides an integrated, non-volatile, high-speed random access memory. A magnetically switchable ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic layer is sandwiched between an electrical conductor which provides the ability to magnetize the magnetically switchable layer and a magneto resistive or Hall effect material which allows sensing the magnetic field which emanates from the magnetization of the magnetically switchable layer. By using this integrated three-layer form, the writing process, which is controlled by the conductor, is separated from the storage medium in the magnetic layer and from the readback process which is controlled by the magnetoresistive layer. A circuit for implementing the memory in CMOS or the like is disclosed.

  13. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  14. Integration of smart materials into high-volume manufacturing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele

    2006-03-01

    The integration of smart materials such as piezoelectric devices and shape memory alloys into structures has been typically limited to a bonding process that occurs as a secondary operation. Such an operation is not only costly for high volume applications but also has the potential of degrading the performance of the actuator or sensor due to the bonding agent selected. The work presented here explores the integration of piezoelectric materials using a high volume injection molding process. The process used is typical for large automotive components such as bumpers, instrument panels and other body panels. Different materials were evaluated, including plastics and both bare and packaged smart materials. Temperature and flow rate were also changed to investigate the effects on the durability of the materials. Both electrical and mechanical properties were tested with the key parameters including, void content, shifting from initial position, strain transfer and peal strength. It was found that good integration of piezoelectric materials could be achieved and electro-mechanical properties were improved as compared to a secondary bonding operation. Integration of screen-printed electrical circuits for electrical connectivity for piezoelectric materials will be evaluated in future research. In conclusion, a step forward was made in developing a multifunctional material based upon smart materials and conventional high volume manufacturing processes.

  15. Novel EDTA-ligands containing an integral perylene bisimide (PBI) core as an optical reporter unit.

    PubMed

    Marcia, Mario; Singh, Prabhpreet; Hauke, Frank; Maggini, Michele; Hirsch, Andreas

    2014-09-28

    The synthesis, characterization and metal complexation of a new class of perylene bisimides (PBIs) as an integral part of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are reported. The simplest representative, namely derivative 1a, was synthesized both by a convergent as well as a direct approach while the elongated derivatives, 1b and 1c, were obtained only via a convergent synthetic pathway. All these new prototypes of water-soluble perylenes are bolaamphiphiles and were fully characterized by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. In order to acquaint ourselves with the behaviour in solution of our PBIs bearing dendritic wedges, the simplest derivative, 1a, was chosen and tested by means of UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by zeta-potential measurements. A photoexcitation induced intramolecular photo-electron transfer (PET) can be observed in these molecules. Therefore their potential applications as sensors can be imagined. Model compound 1a efficiently coordinates trivalent metal cations both in water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Significantly, the effects of the complexation strongly depend on the aggregation state of the PBI molecules in solution. As a matter of fact, in water, the presence of M(3+) ions triggers the formation of light emitting supramolecular aggregates (excimers). On the other hand, in DMSO-rich solutions metal complexation leads to the suppression of the PET and leads to a strong fluorescence enhancement.

  16. Development of the HIDEC inlet integration mode. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisholm, J. D.; Nobbs, S. G.; Stewart, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) development program conducted at NASA-Ames/Dryden will use an F-15 test aircraft for flight demonstration. An account is presently given of the HIDEC Inlet Integration mode's design concept, control law, and test aircraft implementation, with a view to its performance benefits. The enhancement of performance is a function of the use of Digital Electronic Engine Control corrected engine airflow computations to improve the scheduling of inlet ramp positions in real time; excess thrust can thereby be increased by 13 percent at Mach 2.3 and 40,000 ft. Aircraft supportability is also improved through the obviation of inlet controllers.

  17. Technical Report: Scalable Parallel Algorithms for High Dimensional Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Masalma, Yahya; Jiao, Yu

    2010-10-01

    We implemented a scalable parallel quasi-Monte Carlo numerical high-dimensional integration for tera-scale data points. The implemented algorithm uses the Sobol s quasi-sequences to generate random samples. Sobol s sequence was used to avoid clustering effects in the generated random samples and to produce low-discrepancy random samples which cover the entire integration domain. The performance of the algorithm was tested. Obtained results prove the scalability and accuracy of the implemented algorithms. The implemented algorithm could be used in different applications where a huge data volume is generated and numerical integration is required. We suggest using the hyprid MPI and OpenMP programming model to improve the performance of the algorithms. If the mixed model is used, attention should be paid to the scalability and accuracy.

  18. Integrating GPS with GLONASS for high-rate seismogeodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianghui; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-04-01

    High-rate GPS is a precious seismogeodetic tool to capture coseismic displacements unambiguously and usually improved by sidereal filtering to mitigate multipath effects dominating the periods of tens of seconds to minutes. We further introduced GLONASS (Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema) data into high-rate GPS to deliver over 2000 24 h displacements at 99 stations in Europe. We find that the major displacement errors induced by orbits and atmosphere on the low-frequency band that are not characterized by sidereal repeatabilities can be amplified markedly by up to 40% after GPS sidereal filtering. In contrast, integration with GLONASS can reduce the noise of high-rate GPS significantly and near uniformly over the entire frequency band, especially for the north components by up to 40%, suggesting that this integration is able to mitigate more errors than only multipath within high-rate GPS. Integrating GPS with GLONASS outperforms GPS sidereal filtering substantially in ameliorating displacement noise by up to 60% over a wide frequency band (e.g., 2 s-0.5 days) except a minor portion between 100 and 1000 s. High-rate multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) can be enhanced further by sidereal filtering, which should however be carefully implemented to avoid adverse complications of the noise spectrum of displacements.

  19. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  20. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  1. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  2. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  3. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  4. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  5. Container materials for high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1991-05-01

    Candidate container materials for high-level nuclear waste packages to be emplaced at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site are being considered for their long-term resistance to corrosion, oxidation, embrittlement and other kinds of degradation. An extensive compilation of the degradation phenomena for six candidate materials is complete, and further studies have begun on the degradation modes affecting additional candidate materials. Phenomenological models for predicting container degradation rates are being advanced for environmental conditions applicable to Yucca Mountain. An experimental program is underway to evaluate the susceptibility of container materials is localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and enhancement of corrosion and oxidation attack by gamma radiation. Initial evaluations of container fabrication and welding processes have identified some processes that appear to alleviate some long-term susceptibility concerns. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. High-frequency BiCMOS transconductance integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beards, R. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    The capabilities of a fine-line bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process in the design of wideband transconductance integrators for precision monolithic continuous time filtering are explored. The design considerations of such an integrator are examined in detail, with an emphasis on tunability and phase compensation as a means for realizing a precision wideband design. The concept of open-loop transconductance filtering is described and possible circuit topologies are investigated. Detailed small-signal and large-signal analysis of one proposed circuit which has both tunable bandwidth and tunable phase compensation is presented. Application of such an integrator to open-loop transconductance filtering in the 10-50 MHz frequency range is studied. Simulation results show specific performance expectations of the proposed circuit. The tunable compensation circuit was seen to restrict the amplitude of signals which the integrator can pass without severe distortion or even instability occurring. A potential solution to this problem is deemed to be unsuitable for high frequency applications. The general design philosophy of applying low-frequency techniques to realize a high frequency circuit was seen to result in several fundamental problems.

  7. High integrity adaptive SMA components for gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, John

    2006-03-01

    The use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is growing rapidly. They have been under serious development for aerospace applications for over 15 years, but are still restricted to niche areas and small scale applications. Very few applications have found their way into service. Whilst they have been predominantly aimed at airframe applications, they also offer major advantages for adaptive gas turbine components. The harsh environment within a gas turbine with its high loads, temperatures and vibration excitation provide considerable challenges which must be met whilst still delivering high integrity, light weight, aerodynamic and efficient structures. A novel method has been developed which will deliver high integrity, stiff mechanical components which can provide massive shape change capability without the need for conventional moving parts. The lead application is for a shape changing engine nozzle to provide noise reduction at take off but will withdraw at cruise to remove any performance penalty. The technology also promises to provide significant advantages for applications in a gas turbine such as shape change aerofoils, heat exchanger controls, and intake shapes. The same mechanism should be directly applicable to other areas such as air frames, automotive and civil structures, where similar high integrity requirements exist.

  8. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    SciTech Connect

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  9. Long-term performance of container materials for high-level waste: (Technical report, April 1982-August 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Markworth, A.J.; Cialone, H.J.; Majumdar, B.S.; McCoy, J.K.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the results of experimental and analytical studies of high-level waste container degradation. Corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted on selected materials to identify environmental and metallurgical factors that promote material degradation, especially stress-corrosion cracking. A major emphasis on overpack materials focused on cast and wrought low-carbon steels. Results of the corrosion work show that, to more completely identify potential failure modes, exposure environments must be further defined. Predictions of pitting rates based on models utilizing nonreactive walls may lead to rejection of carbon steel as a viable overpack material when, on the basis of performance, it may perform satisfactorily. Hydrogen embrittlement was shown to be promoted in regions of microstructural change such as the weld heat-affected zone. These findings show that hydrogen embrittlement is important to container integrity. A small portion of this task was devoted to studying the possible internal corrosion of the canister. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel will likely contain high-level waste glass for the retrieval period and probably the thermal period. Modeling studies focused on general corrosion and pitting corrosion, with the models being extended to account for more realistic conditions. Results show that pit wall reactivity is an important consideration in predicting corrosion rates. 102 refs., 132 figs., 57 tabs.

  10. Gamma-ray isotopic analysis of plutonium within highly attenuating shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, P. A.; Mercer, D. J.; Dinwiddie, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic measurements of items stored in shielded shipping containers presents a challenge to standard, nondestructive high-resolution gamma spectroscopy analysis. For example, some plutonium oxide material that will be shipped from Rocky Flats will be packaged in a combination of containers that places more than 12 mm of lead and 25 mm of steel between the material and the detector. This shielding effectively eliminates gamma rays below approximately 300 keV. Spectra were taken through simulated containers and analyzed using FRAM version 4.0 and a parameter set developed for use with highly attenuated items. The results indicate that 10% precision in measured {sup 240}Pu content should be achievable with 2-hour measurements.

  11. Social Representations of the Integrated High School Students about Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose Isnaldo de Lima; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2017-07-01

    Astronomy issues are not always adequately handled in the formal education system, as well as, their dissemination in the media is often loaded with sensationalism. However, in this context the students are forming their explanations about it. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social representations of students from the Integrated High School on the inductor term Astronomy. It is basically a descriptive research, therefore, a quali-qualitative approach was adopted. The procedures for obtaining the data occurred in the form of a survey, and they involved 653 subjects students from the Integrated High School. The results indicate that the surveyed students have social representations of the object Astronomy, which are based on elements from the formal education space, and also disclosed in the media. In addition, they demonstrate that the students have information about Astronomy, and a value judgment in relation to this science.

  12. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  13. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  14. Integrated microcantilevers for high-resolution sensing and probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2012-02-01

    This topical review is focused on microcantilever-based sensing and probing functions that are realized by integrating a mechanically compliant cantilever with self-sensing and self-actuating elements, specific sensing materials as well as functionalized nano-tips. Such integrated cantilever devices have shown great promise in ultra-sensitive applications such as on-the-spot portable bio/chemical detection and in situ micro/nanoscale surface analysis and manipulation. The technical details of this review will be given in a sequence of cantilever sensors and, then, cantilever-tip probes. For the integrated cantilever sensors, the frequency-output style dynamic cantilevers are described first, with the contents including optimized resonance modes, sensing-group-modified nanostructures for specific bio/chemical mass adsorption and nanoscale sensing effects, etc. Thereafter, the static cantilever sensors for surface-stress detection are described in the sequence of the sensing mechanism, surface modification of the sensitive molecule layer and the model of specific reaction-induced surface-energy variation. After technical description of the cantilever sensors, the emphasis of the review moves to functionalized nano-tip equipped cantilever-tip probing devices. The probing functions are not only integrated on the cantilever but also integrated at the sharp apex of the tip. After description of single integrated cantilever probes and their applications in surface scanning and imaging, arrayed cantilever-tip devices and their simultaneous parallel operation for high throughput imaging and nanomechanical data storage are also addressed. With cantilever-tip probes as key elements, micro-analysis instruments are introduced that can be widely used for macro/nanoscale characterizations.

  15. Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies Program Material Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Stropki, M.; Cleyrat, D.; Stucke, B.; Phillips, S.; Reed, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, IMWG (IHPRPT Materials Working Group) government and industry members, together with the IHPRPT (Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies Program Material Development Plan) National Component Leads, have developed a materials plan to address the critical needs of the IHPRPT community: (1) liquids boost and orbit transfer; (2) solids boost and orbit transfer; (3) tactical propulsion; and (4) spacecraft propulsion. Criticality of materials' role in achieving IHPRPT goals is evidenced by the significant investment over the next five years.

  16. Beam breakup integral measurement on high-power laser chains.

    PubMed

    Villate, Denis; Blanchot, Nathalie; Rouyer, Claude

    2007-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the efficiency of a single-shot method to measure the beam breakup integral (B) accumulated across a high power chain. The technique uses spectrally shaped strongly chirped femtosecond pulses and takes advantage of time-to-spectral coupling generated by nonlinear effects. We performed B measurements on regenerative amplifiers (Ti:sapphire) and on the ALISE 200 J facility currently installed at CEA-CESTA (France).

  17. High temperature volatility and oxidation measurements of titanium and silicon containing ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study first evaluates several hot-pressed Ti-containing compositions at high temperatures as a function of oxidation resistance. This study will also evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400°C--1200°C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydoxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole % and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation at all three temperatures: TiO 2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  18. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  19. Experimental study of the thermal stability of materials in high temperature oxygen-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abaltusov, Y. Y.; Bagramyan, A. R.; Grishin, A. M.; Yukhvid, V. I.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the interaction of several materials with a high temperature medium containing oxygen. The temperature of the surface was measured as a function of time. It is found that the higher the velocity of mass removal from the surface, the more effective is the material from the viewpoint of heat resistance.

  20. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  1. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  2. SMART composite high pressure vessels with integrated optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazejewski, Wojciech; Czulak, Andrzej; Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy; Mech, Rafal

    2010-04-01

    In this paper application of integrated Optical Fiber Sensors for strain state monitoring of composite high pressure vessels is presented. The composite tanks find broad application in areas such as: automotive industry, aeronautics, rescue services, etc. In automotive application they are mainly used for gaseous fuels storage (like CNG or compressed Hydrogen). In comparison with standard steel vessels, composite ones have many advantages (i.e. high mechanical strength, significant weight reduction, etc). In the present work a novel technique of vessel manufacturing, according to this construction, was applied. It is called braiding technique, and can be used as an alternative to the winding method. During braiding process, between GFRC layers, two types of optical fiber sensors were installed: point sensors in the form of FBGs as well as interferometric sensors with long measuring arms (SOFO®). Integrated optical fiber sensors create the nervous system of the pressure vessel and are used for its structural health monitoring. OFS register deformation areas and detect construction damages in their early stage (ensure a high safety level for users). Applied sensor system also ensured a possibility of strain state monitoring even during the vessel manufacturing process. However the main application of OFS based monitoring system is to detect defects in the composite structure. An idea of such a SMART vessel with integrated sensor system as well as an algorithm of defect detection was presented.

  3. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  4. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  5. Performance of digital integrated circuit technologies at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, J.L.; Draper, B.L.; Rapp, E.A.; Kromberg, J.N.; Fitch, L.T.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations of the performance and reliability of digital bipolar and CMOS integrated circuits over the 25 to 340/sup 0/C range are reported. Included in these results are both parametric variation information and analysis of the functional failure mechanisms. Although most of the work was done using commercially available circuits (TTL and CMOS) and test chips from commercially compatible processes, some results of experimental simulations of dielectrically isolated CMOS are also discussed. It was found that commercial Schottky clamped TTL, and dielectrically isolated, low power Schottky-clamped TTL, functioned to junction temperatures in excess of 325/sup 0/C. Standard gold doped TTL functioned only to 250/sup 0/C, while commercial, isolated I/sup 2/L functioned to the range 250/sup 0/C to 275/sup 0/C. Commercial junction isolated CMOS, buffered and unbuffered, functioned to the range 280/sup 0/C to 310/sup 0/C/sup +/, depending on the manufacturer. Experimental simulations of simple dielectrically isolated CMOS integrated circuits, fabricated with heavier doping levels than normal, functioned to temperatures in excess of 340/sup 0/C. High temperature life testing of experimental, silicone-encapsulated simple TTL and CMOS integrated circuits have shown no obvious life limiting problems to date. No barrier to reliable functionality of TTL bipolar or CMOS integrated ciruits at temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C has been found.

  6. Towards Integrated Design and Modeling of High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets will most likely use a brittle conductor (such as Nb{sub 3}Sn), generate fields around 18 T, handle forces that are 3-4 times higher than in the present LHC dipoles, and store energy that starts to make accelerator magnets look like fusion magnets. To meet the challenge and reduce the complexity, magnet design will have to be more innovative and better integrated. The recent design of several high field superconducting magnets have now benefited from the integration between CAD (e.g. ProE), magnetic analysis tools (e.g. TOSCA) and structural analysis tools (e.g. ANSYS). Not only it is now possible to address complex issues such as stress in magnet ends, but the analysis can be better detailed an extended into new areas previously too difficult to address. Integrated thermal, electrical and structural analysis can be followed from assembly and cool-down through excitation and quench propagation. In this paper we report on the integrated design approach, discuss analysis results and point out areas of future interest.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. High-brightness displays in integrated weapon sight systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tim; Hogan, Tim

    2014-06-01

    In the past several years Kopin has demonstrated the ability to provide ultra-high brightness, low power display solutions in VGA, SVGA, SXGA and 2k x 2k display formats. This paper will review various approaches for integrating high brightness overlay displays with existing direct view rifle sights and augmenting their precision aiming and targeting capability. Examples of overlay display systems solutions will be presented and discussed. This paper will review significant capability enhancements that are possible when augmenting the real-world as seen through a rifle sight with other soldier system equipment including laser range finders, ballistic computers and sensor systems.

  9. High temperature polymers - A review of novel thermally stable hexafluoroisopropylidene-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, K. M.; Cassidy, P. E.; Tullos, G. L.; Reynolds, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis and properties to date of several novel HFIP-containing polymers and copolymers are presented. Thermal analyses of polyether ketones (PEK), aromatic polyesters, and polymers from a novel 18F-diacid were performed on a thermal analyzer. All three polymer types exhibited enhanced solubility, thermal stability, and low dielectric constants that are predicted for polymers containing the HFIP moiety. The moderate thermal stability observed in the polymers derived from the 18F-diacid is attributed to the oxidatively weak methylene linkage between the HFIP groups and the phenyl rings. PEKs and polyarylates show potential as high emissivity coatings under conditions where atomic oxygen is present.

  10. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  11. Integrable high order UWB pulse photonic generator based on cross phase modulation in a SOA-MZI.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel, Miguel A; Capmany, José

    2013-09-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a potentially integrable optical scheme to generate high order UWB pulses. The technique is based on exploiting the cross phase modulation generated in an InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, and is also adaptable to different pulse modulation formats through an optical processing unit which allows to control of the amplitude, polarity and time delay of the generated taps.

  12. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  13. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  14. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Uesugi, Kentaro Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  15. Characterization of high cesium containing glass-bonded ceramic waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, M. J.; Frank, S. M.

    2003-10-03

    High cesium containing glass-bonded ceramic waste form samples were prepared and characterized to identify possible cesium phases present in glass-bonded ceramic waste forms developed for the containment of fission product bearing salts. Major phases of the waste forms are sodalite and glass. A combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to study the multiphase nature of these waste forms. Cesium was found to be present in the higher loaded waste forms in a cesium aluminosilicate phase with an analcime structure and a 1:1 Si:Al ratio, a pollucite phase, and also in the glass phase. The glass phase contains the majority of the cesium at lower loadings, however some pollucite also remains. Cesium was not detected in the sodalite phase of any of the samples.

  16. Cup-Drawing Behavior of High-Strength Steel Sheets Containing Different Volume Fractions of Martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Shi-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Wan; Yang, Hoe-Seok; Han, Seong-Ho; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2010-06-15

    Planar anisotropy and cup-drawing behavior were investigated for high-strength steel sheets containing different volume fractions of martensite. Macrotexture analysis using XRD was conducted to capture the effect of crystallographic orientation on the planar anisotropy of high-strength steel sheets. A phenomenological yield function, Yld96, which accounts for the anisotropy of yield stress and r-values, was implemented into ABAQUS using the user subroutine UMAT. Cup drawing of high-strength steel sheets was simulated using the FEM code. The profiles of earing and thickness strain were compared with the experimentally measured results.

  17. Integrating bioinformatics into senior high school: design principles and implications.

    PubMed

    Machluf, Yossy; Yarden, Anat

    2013-09-01

    Bioinformatics is an integral part of modern life sciences. It has revolutionized and redefined how research is carried out and has had an enormous impact on biotechnology, medicine, agriculture and related areas. Yet, it is only rarely integrated into high school teaching and learning programs, playing almost no role in preparing the next generation of information-oriented citizens. Here, we describe the design principles of bioinformatics learning environments, including our own, that are aimed at introducing bioinformatics into senior high school curricula through engaging learners in scientifically authentic inquiry activities. We discuss the bioinformatics-related benefits and challenges that high school teachers and students face in the course of the implementation process, in light of previous studies and our own experience. Based on these lessons, we present a new approach for characterizing the questions embedded in bioinformatics teaching and learning units, based on three criteria: the type of domain-specific knowledge required to answer each question (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, strategic knowledge, situational knowledge), the scientific approach from which each question stems (biological, bioinformatics, a combination of the two) and the associated cognitive process dimension (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create). We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using a learning environment, which we developed for the high school level, and suggest some of its implications. This review sheds light on unique and critical characteristics related to broader integration of bioinformatics in secondary education, which are also relevant to the undergraduate level, and especially on curriculum design, development of suitable learning environments and teaching and learning processes.

  18. Integration of encapsulated piezoelectric actuators in highly loaded CFRP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Florian; Ermanni, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    The present work has been initiated in the frame of the European research project DREAM. Within this highly interdisciplinary project we are focusing on the development and application of vibration damping solutions based on piezoelectric shunt circuits for future aeroelastic applications. The scientific community has put significant effort into the investigation of piezoelectric shunt damping in conjuction with typical engineering test structures such as beams and plates. However, investigations are mainly restricted to surface bonded piezoelectric elements. Commercially available actuators and sensors can be easily bonded to structures using standard epoxy resins. Yet, the structural integration into composite laminates is cumbersome, due to the implications in terms of overall structural integrity and functionality, and due to the problems in achieving a good electrical conductivity, intimate contact betwen electrode and piezoceramic material as well as a perfect isolation from the surrounding host structure. This contribution is concerned with technological aspects related to the integration of piezoceramic actuators into highly loaded CFRP structures. In particular, we present results of a comparative study aiming at the characterization of less invasive electrodes to establish electrical contact between the piezoceramic material and possible shunt circuits. Another drawback of commercial actuators are their limited strain allowables ranging from 0.1% to 0.3% which is not sufficient for high performance lighweight structures. The second part of this contribution is therefore dedicated to the description of a novel prestressing procedure which is used to fabricate actuators that command 170% higher strain allowables than non-prestressed actuators. Mechanical testing of these prestressed actuators are very encouraging, showing high strain allowables, perfect electrical isolation from the host structure, excellent electric contacting of the piezoelectric material

  19. Highly integrated Pluto payload system (HIPPS): a sciencecraft instrument for the Pluto mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Slater, David C.; Gibson, William; Reitsema, Harold J.; Delamere, W. Alan; Jennings, Donald E.; Reuter, D. C.; Clarke, John T.; Porco, Carolyn C.; Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Spencer, John R.

    1995-09-01

    We describe the design concept for the highly integrated Pluto payload system (HIPPS): a highly integrated, low-cost, light-weight, low-power instrument payload designed to fly aboard the proposed NASA Pluto flyby spacecraft destined for the Pluto/Charon system. The HIPPS payload is designed to accomplish all of the Pluto flyby prime (IA) science objectives, except radio science, set forth by NASA's Outer Planets Science Working Group (OPSWG) and the Pluto Express Science Definition Team (SDT). HIPPS contains a complement of three instrument components within one common infrastructure; these are: (1) a visible/near UV CCD imaging camera; (2) an infrared spectrograph; and (3) an ultraviolet spectrograph. A detailed description of each instrument is presented along with how they will meet the IA science requirements.

  20. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Soer, Wouter

    2016-02-29

    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  2. ENDOGENOUS SIGNALING THROUGH α7-CONTAINING NICOTINIC RECEPTORS PROMOTES MATURATION AND INTEGRATION OF ADULTBORN NEURONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Nolan R.; Fernandes, Catarina C.; Halff, Andrew W.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus occurs throughout adult mammalian life and is essential for proper hippocampal function. Early in their development, adultborn neurons express homomeric α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) and receive direct cholinergic innervation. We show here that functional α7-nAChRs are necessary for normal survival, maturation, and integration of adultborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. Stereotaxic retroviral injection into the dentate gyrus of wildtype and α7-knockout (α7KO) male and female mice was used to label and birthdate adultborn neurons for morphological and electrophysiological measures; BrdU injections were used to quantify cell survival. In α7KO mice, we find that adultborn neurons develop with truncated, less complex dendritic arbors, and display GABAergic postsynaptic currents with immature kinetics. The neurons also have a prolonged period of GABAergic depolarization characteristic of an immature state. In this condition they receive fewer spontaneous synaptic currents and are more prone to die during the critical period when adultborn neurons are normally integrated into behaviorally relevant networks. Even those adultborn neurons that survive the critical period retain long-term dendritic abnormalities in α7KO mice. Interestingly, local infection with retroviral constructs to knockdown α7-mRNA mimics the α7KO phenotype, demonstrating that the relevant α7-nAChR signaling is cell-autonomous. The results indicate a profound role for α7-nAChRs in adult neurogenesis and predict that α7-nAChR loss will cause progressive impairment in hippocampal circuitry and function over time as fewer neurons are added to the dentate gyrus and those that are added integrate less well. PMID:20592195

  3. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification.

  4. Mass Production of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Embryoids on Media Containing High Concentrations of Sugar1.

    PubMed

    Asaka, I; Ii, I; Hirotani, M; Asada, Y; Yoshokawa, T; Furuya, T

    1994-04-01

    A lot of ginseng embryoids were produced by culturing on high concentrations of sugar media from the embryogenic tissues obtained by moderately high temperature treatment. When the sucrose concentration was 100 g/l, the number of embryoids produced were over 100 pieces per g of inoculum weight. It was about ten times of that produced by culturing on 30 g/l of sucrose. Glucose showed an effect similar to sucrose on the basis of weight percentage. However, mannitol did not show this effect. The embryoids obtained by these processes redifferentiated to normal plantlets on culturing on the medium containing 30 g/l of sucrose. The saponin components of the tissue containing embryoids showed a similar pattern to those of natural GINSENG by HPLC.

  5. A linker peptide with high affinity towards silica-containing materials.

    PubMed

    Sunna, Anwar; Chi, Fei; Bergquist, Peter L

    2013-06-25

    A peptide sequence with affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to a truncated form of Streptococcus strain G148 Protein G. The resulting recombinant Linker-Protein G (LPG) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. It displayed high affinity towards two natural clinoptilolite zeolites. The LPG also displayed high binding affinity towards commercial-grade synthetic zeolite, silica and silica-containing materials. A commercial sample of the truncated Protein G and a basic protein, both without the linker, did not bind to natural or synthetic zeolites or silica. We conclude that the zeolite-binding affinity is mediated by the linker peptide sequence. As a consequence, these data may imply that the binding affinity is directed to the SiO2 component rather than to the atomic orientation on the zeolite crystal surface as previously assumed.

  6. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  7. Containment building atmosphere response during severe accidents in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Chan, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Several safety evaluations for large High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR), using a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) design, have concluded that Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) present the most important severe accidents, resulting in the dominant source term. While the core thermohydraulic transients for such accident sequences have been presented previously, the subject of this paper is the containment building (CB) atmosphere transient, with primary emphasis on the CB atmosphere temperature and pressure, as overpressurization is the most likely failure mode.

  8. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  9. Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kyle; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gondarenko, Alexander; Poitras, Carl B; Lipson, Michal

    2009-03-30

    We demonstrate a micrometer-scale electro-optic modulator operating at 2.5 Gbps and 10 dB extinction ratio that is fabricated entirely from deposited silicon. The polycrystalline silicon material exhibits properties that simultaneously enable high quality factor optical resonators and sub-nanosecond electrical carrier injection. We use an embedded p(+)n(-)n(+) diode to achieve optical modulation using the free carrier plasma dispersion effect. Active optical devices in a deposited microelectronic material can break the dependence on the traditional single layer silicon-on-insulator platform and help lead to monolithic large-scale integration of photonic networks on a microprocessor chip.

  10. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W; Toma, Francesca M; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-13

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells.

  11. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  12. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-08-25

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species.

  13. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    , as are AFC architecture aspects such as AFC unit placement, number AFC units, operating pressures, mass flow rates, and steady versus unsteady AFC applications. These efforts led to the development of a novel traversing AFC actuation concept which is efficient in that it reduces the AFC mass flow requirements by as much as an order of magnitude compared to previous AFC technologies, and it is predicted to be effective in driving the aerodynamic performance of a mechanical simplified high-lift system close to that of the reference conventional high-lift system. Conceptual system integration studies were conducted for the AFC-enhanced high-lift concept applied to a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. The results from these design integration assessments identify overall system performance improvement opportunities over conventional high-lift systems that suggest the viability of further technology maturation efforts for AFC-enabled high lift flap systems. To that end, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled high-lift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  14. Coupling Ideality of Integrated Planar High-Q Microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Liu, Junqiu; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2017-02-01

    Chip-scale optical microresonators with integrated planar optical waveguides are useful building blocks for linear, nonlinear, and quantum-optical photonic devices alike. Loss reduction through improving fabrication processes results in several integrated microresonator platforms attaining quality (Q ) factors of several millions. Beyond the improvement of the quality factor, the ability to operate the microresonator with high coupling ideality in the overcoupled regime is of central importance. In this regime, the dominant source of loss constitutes the coupling to a single desired output channel, which is particularly important not only for quantum-optical applications such as the generation of squeezed light and correlated photon pairs but also for linear and nonlinear photonics. However, to date, the coupling ideality in integrated photonic microresonators is not well understood, in particular, design-dependent losses and their impact on the regime of high ideality. Here we investigate design-dependent parasitic losses described by the coupling ideality of the commonly employed microresonator design consisting of a microring-resonator waveguide side coupled to a straight bus waveguide, a system which is not properly described by the conventional input-output theory of open systems due to the presence of higher-order modes. By systematic characterization of multimode high-Q silicon nitride microresonator devices, we show that this design can suffer from low coupling ideality. By performing 3D simulations, we identify the coupling to higher-order bus waveguide modes as the dominant origin of parasitic losses which lead to the low coupling ideality. Using suitably designed bus waveguides, parasitic losses are mitigated with a nearly unity ideality and strong overcoupling (i.e., a ratio of external coupling to internal resonator loss rate >9 ) are demonstrated. Moreover, we find that different resonator modes can exchange power through the coupler, which, therefore

  15. Serum amyloid A-containing human high density lipoprotein 3. Density, size, and apolipoprotein composition.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, G A; Strachan, A F; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Hoppe, H C; Jeenah, M S; de Beer, F C

    1986-07-25

    Serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA), an acute phase reactant, is an apolipoprotein of high density lipoproteins (HDL), in particular the denser subpopulation HDL3. The structure of HDL3 isolated from humans affected by a variety of severe disease states was investigated with respect to density, size, and apolipoprotein composition, using density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and solid phase immunoadsorption. Apo-SAA was present in HDL particles in increasing amounts as particle density increased. Apo-SAA-containing HDL3 had bigger radii than normal HDL3 of comparable density. Purified apo-SAA associated readily with normal HDL3 in vitro, giving rise to particles containing up to 80% of their apoproteins as apo-SAA. The addition of apo-SAA resulted in a displacement of apo-A-I and an increase in particle size. Acute phase HDL3 represented a mixture of particles, polydisperse with respect to apolipoprotein content; for example, some particles were isolated that contained apo-A-I, apo-A-II, and apo-SAA, whereas others contained apo-A-I and apo-SAA but no apo-A-II. We conclude that apo-SAA probably associates in the circulation of acute phase patients with existing HDL particles, causing the remodeling of the HDL shell to yield particles of bigger size and higher density that are relatively depleted of apo-A-I.

  16. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.H.; Davis, N.R.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure.

  17. High-voltage field-controlled integrated thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekhov, I. V.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Kostina, L. S.; Konovalov, A. V.; Fomenko, Yu. L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and technology of powerful field-controlled integrated thyristors, new energy-saving devices intended for converter equipment, are considered. The turn-on and turn-off current and voltage waveforms of the n+ p' N- n' p + microthyristor chip are presented, and turn-on and turn-off mechanisms are discussed. The development of local dynamic breakdown at turn-off is experimentally studied. The respective waveforms for this process are given, and the type of breakdown at a current density of about 150 A/cm2 is demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristics in the on state at room temperature and at 125°C indicate the temperature dependence changes sign at a current density above 60 A/cm2, becoming positive. This is significant for parallel operation of microthyristor chips in a module. It is shown that the static and dynamic characteristics of simple-in-design field-controlled integrated thyristors are highly competitive with those of insulated-gate bipolar transistors-basic devices of advanced high-power converter equipment.

  18. Voyages Through Time: Integrated science for high schools, Pamela Harman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Devore, Edna

    Investigating the origin and evolution of the universe and life is a compelling theme for teaching science. It engages students in the key questions about change and the evidence for change over time, and offers a unifying theme for integrated science. "Voyages Through Time" is a high school integrated science curriculum on the theme of evolution. Six modules comprise the year-long course: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, and Evolution of Technology. A brief overview of the curriculum is presented. Participants conduct one or two activities representative of the six modules. Each workshop participant receives a sampler CD-ROM with a comprehensive overview of the curriculum, standards, and resources including complete lessons for use in the classroom. "Voyages Through Time" is being developed by a US team of scientists, educators, writers, and classroom teachers and students led by the SETI Institute partnered with NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences and San Francisco State University. In 2000-2001 school year, "Voyages Through Time" was pilot tested (trialed) in high school classrooms in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Following revisions, the curriculum was field tested (trialed) in 28 US states in more than 90 schools August 2001-June 2002. The final version is expected to be ready for publication by the beginning of 2003. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the National Science Foundation (IMD # 9730693), NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Fundamental Biology, The Foundation for Microbiology, Educate America, and the Hewlett-Packard Company.

  19. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  20. Ionic photoacid generators containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates for high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yi; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Ober, Christopher K.; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi

    2008-03-01

    To meet the challenges for resist materials raised by high resolution lithography technologies, tailor-made photoacid generators (PAGs) with controlled acid diffusion and improved miscibility with polymers are very important. We have developed new ionic PAGs containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates. These PAGs have excellent solubility in polymer matrices and common organic solvents, high thermal stability, high acid strength and low volatility of the generated acids, and make them attractive PAGs for high resolution lithography. In this contribution, the preparation and characterization of several new ionic PAGs, the influence of the host matrix on PAG properties, and a comparison of their lithographic performance are presented. Specifically their lithographic performance at EUV wavelength is discussed.

  1. Self-integrating inductive loop for measuring high frequency pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Moreno, Mónica V.; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan M.; Sanz-Feito, Javier

    2011-08-01

    High frequency pulses can be measured by means of inductive sensors. The main advantage of these sensors consists of non-contact measurements that isolate and protect measuring equipment. The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of an inductive sensor for measuring rapidly varying currents. It consists of a rectangular loop with a resistor at its terminals. The inductive loop gives the derivative of the current according to Faraday's law and the resistor connected to the loop modifies the sensor's frequency response to obtain an output proportional to the current pulse. The self-integrating inductive sensor was validated with two sensors, a non-inductive resistor and a commercial high frequency current transformer. The results were compared to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the probe as an adequate inductive transducer.

  2. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  3. Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

    The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

  4. High-pressure combinatorial process integrating hot isostatic pressing.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Morita, Hiroki; Goshima, Yuji; Ito, Shigeru

    2013-12-09

    A high-pressure combinatorial process integrating hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was developed by providing a reaction vessel with a high-pressure tightness based on a commercial flange. The reaction vessel can be used up to 200 MPa and 500 °C under HIP processing condition. Preparation of spinel-type MgAl2O4 from Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and AlOOH was performed using the reaction vessel under 200 MPa and 500 °C as demonstration. The entire powder library was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction patterns, and the single phase of spinel-type MgAl2O4 was obtained from Mg(OH)2+Al(OH)3. These assessments corresponded with previously published data.

  5. Robust finite-time containment control for high-order multi-agent systems with matched uncertainties under directed communication graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  6. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  7. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of the high- current emission lanthanum and niobium contained ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, O. Yu; Shamanin, I. V.; Chursin, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the production of metal-ceramic high-current emitters containing lanthanum hexaboride LaB6 by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Tests of emitters as explosive-emission cathodes in an OMEGA-350 microsecond accelerator are presented. Experiments show that when a metal-ceramic cathode is used, the emitted energy was 12-17% higher than that produced by tungsten and graphite cathodes and the beam “signature” is a circle with a small (∼ 15%) variation in radius.

  8. Green tea extract containing a highly absorbent catechin prevents diet-induced lipid metabolism disorder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Yamashita, Shuya; Nakahara, Kanami; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Sasaki, Masako; Hagihara, Takatoki; Tsurudome, Yukari; Huang, Yuhui; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-09-25

    We investigated the effects of extracts of Benifuuki (a tea cultivar that contains methylated catechins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me)) in mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. This tea cultivar was then compared with an extract of Yabukita (a popular tea cultivar that lacks methylated catechins). For 6 weeks, C57BL/6J mice were fed either HF/HS diet with or without tea extracts from tea cultivars, which contained almost identical ingredients except for methylated catechins (i.e., Yabukita (0.2% and 1%) or Benifuuki (0.2% and 1%) extract powders). Supplementation with Benifuuki 0.2% markedly lowered plasma levels of TG and NEFAs compared with mice supplemented with Yabukita 0.2%. The diet containing Benifuuki 1% decreased adipose tissue weights, liver TG, and expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. These results suggested that Benifuuki had much greater lipid-lowering effects than Yabukita. Taken together, these data suggest that methylated catechins direct the strong lipid-lowering activity of Benifuuki.

  9. Structure and spectral properties of the silver-containing high-silica glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girsova, M. A.; Golovina, G. F.; Anfimova, I. N.; Arsent'ev, M. Yu; Antropova, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    Silver-containing high-silica glasses were synthesized by an impregnation of the silica porous glasses (PGs) first with AgNO3 aqueous solution (with or without the presence of the sensitizers, such as Cu(NO3)2 or Ce(NO3)3), next in the mixed halide salt (NH4Cl, KBr, KI) solution. Then some part of the samples was sintered at the temperatures from 850 to 900°C up to closing of the pores. The structure of glasses was studied by UV-VIS-NIR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. According to XRD data the silver-containing high-silica glasses contain the AgBr, AgI, Ag3PO4, (CuBr)0.75(CuI)0.25 phases. IR spectra confirmed B-O-B, Si- O-Si, P-O-P, O-P-O, O-B-O bonds, (PO4)3- and P-O- groups in glasses.

  10. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects.

  11. Final evaluation of characterizing pipe-over-pack containers using high efficiency neutron counters

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Pete; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Cramer, Doug; Harvill, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-over-Pack Containers (POC) contain a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Currently there are a number ofPOC containers at LANL that require evaluation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. Updated data has been evaluated that finalizes the evaluation of characterizing Pipe-Over-Pack Containers. Currently at LANL, a single instrument has been used to explore the appropriateness of both passive neutron and quantitative gamma ray methods for measuring POC's. The passive neutron approach uses the Reals coincidence count rate to establish plutonium mass and other parameters of interest for TRU waste. The quantitative gamma ray method assumes a homogeneous distribution of radioactive source material with the surrounding material throughout the drum volume. Drums are assayed with a calibration based on the known density of the matrix. Both methods are supplemented by a simultaneous isotopic measurement using Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition. If MGA fails to provide a viable isotopic result Fixed Energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies (FRAM) has been used to replace the MGA results. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) may also be used in certain instances. This report will discuss the two methods in detail. Included in the discussion will be descriptions of the setup parameters and calibration techniques for the instrument. A number of test measurements have been performed to compare HENC data with certified historical data. Empty POCs loaded with known sources have also been measured to determine the viability of the technique. A comparison between calorimetry data, historical measurements and HENC data will also be

  12. An integral membrane protein of the pore membrane domain of the nuclear envelope contains a nucleoporin-like region

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have identified an integral membrane protein of 145 kD (estimated by SDS-PAGE) of rat liver nuclear envelopes that binds to WGA. We obtained peptide sequence from purified p145 and cloned and sequenced several cDNA clones and one genomic clone. The relative molecular mass of p145 calculated from its complete, cDNA deduced primary structure is 120.7 kD. Antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide represented in p145 reacted monospecifically with p145. In indirect immunofluorescence these antibodies gave punctate staining of the nuclear envelope. Immunogold EM showed specific decoration of the nuclear pores. Thus p145 is an integral membrane protein located specifically in the "pore membrane" domain of the nuclear envelope. To indicate this specific location, and based on its calculated relative molecular mass, the protein is termed POM 121 (pore membrane protein of 121 kD). The 1,199- residue-long primary structure shows a hydrophobic region (residues 29- 72) that is likely to form one (or two adjacent) transmembrane segment(s). The bulk of the protein (residues 73-1199) is predicted to be exposed not on the cisternal side but on the pore side of the pore membrane. It contains 36 consensus sites for various kinases. However, its most striking feature is a repetitive pentapeptide motif XFXFG that has also been shown to occur in several nucleoporins. This nucleoporin- like domain of POM 121 is proposed to function in anchoring components of the nuclear pore complex to the pore membrane. PMID:8335683

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Fabrication of high aluminium containing rare-earth doped fiber without core-clad interface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Maiti, Himadri Sekhar; Sen, Ranjan

    2010-06-01

    The unwanted core-clad interface defect generation and related scattering loss in rare-earth doped optical fibers containing Al-oxide is up to now an unsolved problem as it cannot be avoided without modifying fiber design or composition. Here a simple technique is proposed to eliminate the problem without affecting fiber parameters. The method comprises addition of fumed silica in appropriate amount under dispersed condition to the soaking solution containing Al and rare-earth salts during the solution impregnation stage. This facilitates the networking between Al 2O 3 and SiO 2 during sintering. The method leads to an improvement in optical properties of the fibers and enables doping of high concentration of Al-oxide even in presence of GeO 2 in the core.

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy study of synthetic carbonate and aluminum containing apatites.

    PubMed

    Layani, J D; Cuisinier, F J; Steuer, P; Cohen, H; Voegel, J C; Mayer, I

    2000-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-containing calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatites were produced by a precipitation method from aqueous solution with carbonate (0-6.1%) and aluminum (0.1-0.5%) concentrations close to those found in biological materials. Two series of apatites were prepared: one at pH 7.0 and another at pH 9. 0. High-resolution electron microscopy has shown that many of them possess structural defects such as screw dislocations, grain boundaries, and central defects. Samples with high carbonate content and high water and high Al(3+) content had a high amount of structural defects. Accordingly, a sample (7Al1) with a relatively high carbonate content (6.1%) and a sample (7Al6) without carbonate but with a relatively high water (2.0 mol) and Al(3+) content (0. 39%) presented the highest amount of structural defects, 54% and 47%, respectively. A sample (7Al13) with a low level of crystalline water (1 mol) and low carbonate (2.5%) showed a small amount of defects. The presence of water associated with Al(3+) induced a high number of crystals having a central defect with a great similarity to the so-called water layer of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Observed images of all these crystals have shown good correspondence with the computer-simulated image based on the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite, indicating that the addition of Al(3+) and carbonate does not perturb the apatitic structure.

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  18. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F. |

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W.; Toma, Francesca M.; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D.; Javey, Ali

    2015-12-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. (Figure Presented).

  20. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; ...

    2015-12-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescencemore » quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. (Figure Presented).« less

  1. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae Moon; Gupta, Anurag; Mueller, Craig; Morrisette, Monica; Dec, John; Brewer, Jason; Donofrio, Kevin; Sturisky, Hilton; Smick, Doug; An, Meng Lin

    1994-01-01

    In June 1992, the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech was awarded a three year NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) grant to address issues associated with the Integrated Design and Manufacturing of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations in its graduate Aerospace Systems Design courses. This report provides an overview of the on-going Georgia Tech initiative to address these design/manufacturing issues during the preliminary design phases of an HSCT concept. The new design methodology presented here has been incorporated in the graduate aerospace design curriculum and is based on the concept of Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). The selection of the HSCT as a pilot project was motivated by its potential global transportation payoffs; its technological, environmental, and economic challenges; and its impact on U.S. global competitiveness. This pilot project was the focus of each of the five design courses that form the graduate level aerospace systems design curriculum. This year's main objective was the development of a systematic approach to preliminary design and optimization and its implementation to an HSCT wing/propulsion configuration. The new methodology, based on the Taguchi Parameter Design Optimization Method (PDOM), was established and was used to carry out a parametric study where various feasible alternative configurations were evaluated. The comparison criterion selected for this evaluation was the economic impact of this aircraft, measured in terms of average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM).

  2. Highly integrated near-to-eye display and gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Äyräs, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a Near-to-Eye Display (NED) technology based on diffractive optics. Thin and highly transparent plastic light guides enable a light-weight and ergonomic see-through NED design. We have previously reported of a compact NED with an integrated gaze tracker. Eye gaze tracker can detect the user's focus point in the displayed image. We have now made advances to further increase the level of integration as well as to enable the optical see-through. Originally, three separate light guides were used: two for the display (red, green/blue) and one for infrared light of the gaze tracker. To reduce weight and the system complexity, a shared light guide is now used for transmitting red (~630 nm, display) and infrared (~850 nm, gaze tracker) wavelengths. In addition, shared output gratings are used for outcoupling the light. Light guide plates have been characterized by measuring their modulation transfer functions. Measurements show that the deterioration of the NED's resolution, caused by the light guides, is reduced with improved manufacturing techniques. Also, it has been verified that the additional gratings for infrared (light in-coupling and expansion areas) do not have a notable effect on the display resolution.

  3. Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-gain point design

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Tabak, M.

    2014-04-17

    Here, integrated fast ignition experiments were performed at ILE, Osaka, and LLE, Rochester, in which a nanosecond driver laser implodes a deuterated plastic shell in front of the tip of a hollow metal cone and an intense ultrashort-pulse laser is injected through the cone to heat the compressed plasma. Based on the initial successful results of fast electron heating of cone-in-shell targets, large-energy short-pulse laser beam lines were constructed and became operational: OMEGA-EP at Rochester and LFEX at Osaka. Neutron enhancement due to heating with a ~kJ short-pulse laser has been demonstrated in the integrated experiments at Osaka and Rochester. The neutron yields are being analyzed by comparing the experimental results with simulations. Details of the fast electron beam transport and the electron energy deposition in the imploded fuel plasma are complicated and further studies are imperative. The hydrodynamics of the implosion was studied including the interaction of the imploded core plasma with the cone tip. Theory and simulation studies are presented on the hydrodynamics of a high-gain target for a fast ignition point design.

  4. Speech-and-gesture integration in high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Laura B; Bennetto, Loisa; Campana, Ellen; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    This study examined iconic gesture comprehension in autism, with the goal of assessing whether cross-modal processing difficulties impede speech-and-gesture integration. Participants were 19 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 20 typical controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and socio-economic status (SES). Gesture comprehension was assessed via quantitative analyses of visual fixations during a video-based task, using the visual world paradigm. Participants' eye movements were recorded while they watched videos of a person describing one of four shapes shown on a computer screen, using speech-and-gesture or speech-only descriptions. Participants clicked on the shape that the speaker described. Since gesture naturally precedes speech, earlier visual fixations to the target shape during speech-and-gesture compared to speech-only trials, would suggest immediate integration of auditory and visual information. Analyses of eye movements supported this pattern in control participants but not in individuals with autism: iconic gestures facilitated comprehension in typical individuals, while it hindered comprehension in those with autism. Cross-modal processing difficulties in autism were not accounted for by impaired unimodal speech or gesture processing. The results have important implications for the treatment of children and adults with this disorder.

  5. Environmental Vibrio spp., isolated in Mozambique, contain a polymorphic group of integrative conjugative elements and class 1 integrons.

    PubMed

    Taviani, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Lazaro, Nivalda; Bani, Stefania; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colwell, Rita R; Colombo, Mauro M

    2008-04-01

    Circulation of mobile genetic elements linked to drug resistance spread was studied in Vibrio strains isolated from surface urban water (river and sea) and shellfish samples in 2002-2003 in Maputo, Mozambique. Class 1 integrons and integrating conjugative elements (ICE) were investigated by PCR and mating experiments in strains of major health interest: 10 Vibrio cholerae, six Vibrio parahaemolyticus, two Vibrio alginolyticus and one Vibrio fluvialis. Resistance to at least two antibiotics (predominantly beta-lactams) was detected in all the strains, with additional resistances to sulfamethoxazole, spectinomycin, streptomycin and/or trimethoprim. Class 1 integrons contributed partially to the expression of drug resistance and were found in five isolates: four V. cholerae (blaP1 cassette, one strain also contained the dfrA15 cassette) and one V. alginolyticus (aadA2 cassette). ICEs, apparently devoid of resistance genes, were found in eight V. cholerae, three V. parahaemolyticus and one V. fluvialis isolates. A wide variability was observed by molecular characterization of ICEs. Five ICEs were included in the SXT/R391 family and seven ICEs were not classified. Our results indicate that the SXT/R391 family and related ICEs comprise a large class of polymorphic genetic elements widely circulating in environmental Vibrio strains in Africa, beside those evidently linked to drug resistance in clinical isolates.

  6. GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.

    1963-07-23

    A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

  7. Highly selective deuteration of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles: a flow chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    A simple and efficient flow-based technique is reported for the catalytic deuteration of several model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds which are important building blocks of pharmacologically active materials. A continuous flow reactor was used in combination with on-demand pressure-controlled electrolytic D(2) production. The D(2) source was D(2)O, the consumption of which was very low. The experimental set-up allows the fine-tuning of pressure, temperature, and flow rate so as to determine the optimal conditions for the deuteration reactions. The described procedure lacks most of the drawbacks of the conventional batch deuteration techniques, and additionally is highly selective and reproducible.

  8. Silicon-Containing Moieties as Enhancers of Segment and Junction Flexibility in High-Temperature Thermosetting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    All samples were melted, blended, and de-gassed for 30 min. prior to cure in silicone molds under N2, cure schedule for 1 hr at 150 °C followed...Containing Cyanate Esters: Non-isothermal DSC 12 114 kJ/mol Post- cure Tg: 305 °C BADCy 95 kJ/mol Incomplete Cure 117 kJ/mol Post- cure Tg: 250°C...STT3 do not achieve full conversion even when cured at high temperatures, in accord with the shape of the non-isothermal DSC curves STT3

  9. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan - Soo; Boncella, James M; Kuiper, David; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  10. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  11. Crystallization Kinetics of Indomethacin/Polyethylene Glycol Dispersions Containing High Drug Loadings.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tu Van; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-07-06

    The reproducibility and consistency of physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical performance are major concerns during preparation of solid dispersions. The crystallization kinetics of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions, an important factor that is governed by the properties of both drug and polymer has not been adequately explored, especially in systems containing high drug loadings. In this paper, by using standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, we describe the influence of drug loading on crystallization behavior of dispersions made up of indomethacin and polyethylene glycol 6000. Higher drug loading increases the amorphicity of the polymer and inhibits the crystallization of PEG. At 52% drug loading, polyethylene glycol was completely transformed to the amorphous state. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of the solubilization effect of a low molecular weight drug on a semicrystalline polymer in their dispersions. In mixtures containing up to 55% indomethacin, the dispersions exhibited distinct glass transition events resulting from amorphous-amorphous phase separation which generates polymer-rich and drug-rich domains upon the solidification of supercooled polyethylene glycol, whereas samples containing at least 60% drug showed a single amorphous phase during the period in which crystallization normally occurs. The current study demonstrates a wide range in physicochemical properties of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions as a result of the complex nature in crystallization of this system, which should be taken into account during preparation and storage.

  12. Lanthanide-Containing Polymer Microspheres by Multiple-Stage Dispersion Polymerization for Highly Multiplexed Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 µm and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of LnCl3 salts and excess acrylic acid or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, i.e., well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 106 – 108 chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles, and its detection by an anti-mouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr. PMID:19807075

  13. The Visual Motor Integration Test: High Interjudge Reliability, High Potential For Diagnostic Error.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Peggy P.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated scoring agreement among three different training levels of Visual Motor Integration Test (VMI) diagnosticians. Correlational data demonstrated high interexaminer reliabilities; however, there were gross errors in precision after raw scores had been converted into VMI age equivalent scores. (Author/RC)

  14. The Visual Motor Integration Test: High Interjudge Reliability, High Potential For Diagnostic Error.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Peggy P.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated scoring agreement among three different training levels of Visual Motor Integration Test (VMI) diagnosticians. Correlational data demonstrated high interexaminer reliabilities; however, there were gross errors in precision after raw scores had been converted into VMI age equivalent scores. (Author/RC)

  15. Factors influencing intake of high urea-containing rations by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Koepke, M K; Davidson, L E; Betz, N L; Norris, J R; Skoch, L V; Cords, B R; Hopkins, D T

    1982-04-01

    In a series of experiments we investigated effects of several factors on intake of urea by lactating dairy cows. Cows given an unfamiliar ingredient or altered moisture in the ration reduced their intake, and this effect was attributed to a newness factor. Addition of urea to a ration may have a similar effect. An experimental design providing both no-choice and two-choice data was devised to minimize the effect of newness. When urea was isolated physically by pellets coated with ground corn, cows selected against urea-containing pellets on a two-choice basis and reduced intake on a no-choice basis. When the choice was between two urea-containing rations, cows preferred the pellets in which urea flavor and odor should have been most evident. Urea odor in the feedbox or urea in the drinking water did not reduce feed intake. Eating rate of a 2.5% urea-containing ration over two daily 30-min feeding periods was about one-half that of a non-urea ration. This effect was evident during the first 5-min eating interval. Administration of urea solution into the rumen prior to feeding a nonurea ration markedly reduced subsequent intake. Reticulum pH and ammonia indicated possible sublethal ammonia toxicity. Intake and eating rate were depressed and reticulum pH was elevated when cows were fed a ration with 2.5% urea versus 1% urea or nonurea rations. Elevated reticulum ammonia occurred on both 1 and 2.5% urea-containing rations. Cows not previously exposed to urea-containing rations reduced intake and eating rate when fed rations with 2.0 and 2.5% urea. Intake reduction was not comparable to that by cows preconditioned to urea rations. Upon third exposure to 2.5% urea in the ration, cows reduced and ceased intake but readily consumed a nonurea ration. Cows require preconditioning to develop a negative aversion to rations containing high urea, perhaps through a mechanism of sublethal ammonia toxicity.

  16. Monolithic CMOS-MEMS integration for high-g accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Li, Holden; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights work-in-progress towards the conceptualization, simulation, fabrication and initial testing of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) integrated CMOS-MEMS high-g accelerometer for military, munition, fuze and shock measurement applications. Developed on IMEC's SiGe MEMS platform, the MEMS offers a dynamic range of 5,000 g and a bandwidth of 12 kHz. The low noise readout circuit adopts a chopper-stabilization technique implementing the CMOS through the TSMC 0.18 µm process. The device structure employs a fully differential split comb-drive set up with two sets of stators and a rotor all driven separately. Dummy structures acting as protective over-range stops were designed to protect the active components when under impacts well above the designed dynamic range.

  17. Highly sensitive tactile sensors integrated with organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiseok; Nga Ng, Tse; Soo Kim, Woo

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a highly sensitive capacitive pressure sensor composed of a polymer dielectric film with a nano-needle structure. The nano-needle polymer films were prepared by facile fabrication methods including breath figures formation followed by stamping. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor reached 1.76 kPa-1 in the low pressure range (<1 kPa), which is comparable to the sensitivity of human skin. Analysis of the geometries and densities effect was shown, and the nano-needle film showed better sensitivity in comparison to films with hemispherical or conical structures. The pressure sensors were integrated with printed organic thin film transistors to enable flexible, large-area tactile sensing applications.

  18. Evaluation of peristaltic micromixers for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duckjong; Rho, Hoon Suk; Jambovane, Sachin; Shin, Soojeong; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-03-01

    Microfluidic devices based on the multilayer soft lithography allow accurate manipulation of liquids, handling reagents at the sub-nanoliter level, and performing multiple reactions in parallel processors by adapting micromixers. Here, we have experimentally evaluated and compared several designs of micromixers and operating conditions to find design guidelines for the micromixers. We tested circular, triangular, and rectangular mixing loops and measured mixing performance according to the position and the width of the valves that drive nanoliters of fluids in the micrometer scale mixing loop. We found that the rectangular mixer is best for the applications of highly integrated microfluidic platforms in terms of the mixing performance and the space utilization. This study provides an improved understanding of the flow behaviors inside micromixers and design guidelines for micromixers that are critical to build higher order fluidic systems for the complicated parallel bio/chemical processes on a chip.

  19. An integrated inundation model for highly developed urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, A S; Hsu, M H; Chen, T S; Chang, T J

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this study with various components for simulating the complex flow phenomena in urban drainage basins. The model integrates the HEC-1 model, a 1-D dynamic channel-flow model, a 2-D non-inertia overland-flow model and the SWMM model to reflect the hydraulic processes in areas with different characteristics. The inundation of underground infrastructure during flood is also considered in the model. The typhoon Nari event in 2001, which resulted in severe flood in downtown Taipei, is simulated by the model. The result is compared with the survey records of flooded areas, which reveals the storage effect of underground infrastrucures is significant to the simulation results of highly developed urban areas.

  20. Empty substrate integrated waveguide technology for E plane high-frequency and high-performance circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenguer, Angel; Cano, Juan Luis; Esteban, Héctor; Artal, Eduardo; Boria, Vicente E.

    2017-01-01

    Substrate integrated circuits (SIC) have attracted much attention in the last years because of their great potential of low cost, easy manufacturing, integration in a circuit board, and higher-quality factor than planar circuits. A first suite of SIC where the waves propagate through dielectric have been first developed, based on the well-known substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and related technological implementations. One step further has been made with a new suite of empty substrate integrated waveguides, where the waves propagate through air, thus reducing the associated losses. This is the case of the empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW) or the air-filled substrate integrated waveguide (air-filled SIW). However, all these SIC are H plane structures, so classical H plane solutions in rectangular waveguides have already been mapped to most of these new SIC. In this paper a novel E plane empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW-E) is presented. This structure allows to easily map classical E plane solutions in rectangular waveguide to this new substrate integrated solution. It is similar to the ESIW, although more layers are needed to build the structure. A wideband transition (covering the frequency range between 33 GHz and 50 GHz) from microstrip to ESIW-E is designed and manufactured. Measurements are successfully compared with simulation, proving the validity of this new SIC. A broadband high-frequency phase shifter (for operation from 35 GHz to 47 GHz) is successfully implemented in ESIW-E, thus proving the good performance of this new SIC in a practical application.

  1. Dewar-cooler-integrated high sensitivity MWIR wave front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velghe, Sabrina; Magli, Serge; Aubry, Gilles; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Jaeck, Julien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in the Mid Wave InfraRed (MWIR) optical domain were made on materials, optical design and manufacturing. They answer increasing demands for more compact, less temperature dependent optical systems with increased optical performances and complexity (multi- or hyper- spectral imagery). At the same time, the characterization of these components has become strategic and requires solutions with higher performance. The optical quality of such devices is measured by wave front sensing techniques. PHASICS previously developed wave front sensors based on Quadri-Wave Lateral Shearing Interferometry (QWLSI) using broadband microbolometers cameras for infrared measurements. However they suffer from reduced light sensitivity in the MWIR domain, which limits their use with broadband sources such as black bodies. To meet metrology demands, we developed an innovative wave front sensor. This instrument combines the metrological qualities of QWLSI with the radiometric performances of a last generation detection block (Infrared Detector Dewar Cooler Assembly, IDDCA) with a quantum infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) of HgCdTe technology. The key component of QWLSI is a specific diffractive grating placed a few millimeters from the focal plane array. This requirement implies that this optics should be integrated inside the IDDCA. To achieve this, we take advantage of the experience acquired from recent developments with optics integrated in IDDCA. Thanks to this approach, we developed a high spatial resolution MWIR wave front sensor (160x128 points) with a high sensitivity for accurate measurements under low-flux conditions. This paper will present the instrument technological solutions, the development key steps and experimental results on various metrology applications.

  2. Chromatin-Dependent Repression of the Arabidopsis Floral Integrator Genes Involves Plant Specific PHD-Containing Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants. PMID:25281686

  3. Chromatin-dependent repression of the Arabidopsis floral integrator genes involves plant specific PHD-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants.

  4. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, Georgia Tech's School of Aerospace Engineering was awarded a NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) to address 'Integrated Design and Manufacturing for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)' in its graduate aerospace systems design courses. This report summarizes the results of the five courses incorporated into the Georgia Tech's USRA ADP program. It covers AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering, AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD, AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost, AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One, and AE6352: Aerospace Systems Design Two. AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering was an introductory course addressing the basic principles of concurrent engineering (CE) or integrated product development (IPD). The design of a total system was not the objective of this course. The goal was to understand and define the 'up-front' customer requirements, their decomposition, and determine the value objectives for a complex product, such as the high speed civil transport (HSCT). A generic CE methodology developed at Georgia Tech was used for this purpose. AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost addressed the basic economic issues for an HSCT using a robust design technique, Taguchi's parameter design optimization method (PDOM). An HSCT economic sensitivity assessment was conducted using a Taguchi PDOM approach to address the robustness of the basic HSCT design. AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD permitted students to develop and utilize CAE/CAD/CAM knowledge and skills using CATIA and CADAM as the basic geometric tools. AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One focused on the conceptual design refinement of a baseline HSCT configuration as defined by Boeing, Douglas, and NASA in their system studies. It required the use of NASA's synthesis codes FLOPS and ACSYNT. A criterion called the productivity index (P.I.) was used to evaluate disciplinary sensitivities and provide refinements of the baseline HSCT

  5. AGILE integration into APC for high mix logic fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatefait, M.; Lam, A.; Le Gratiet, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Morin, V.; Chojnowski, N.; Kocsis, Z.; Smith, I.; Decaunes, J.; Ostrovsky, A.; Monget, C.

    2015-09-01

    mix logic Fab) in term of product and technology portfolio AGILE corrects for up to 120nm of product topography error on process layer with less than 50nm depth of focus Based on tool functionalities delivered by ASML and on high volume manufacturing requirement, AGILE integration is a real challenge. Regarding ST requirements "Automatic AGILE" functionality developed by ASML was not a turnkey solution and a dedicated functionality was needed. A "ST homemade AGILE integration" has been fully developed and implemented within ASML and ST constraints. This paper describes this integration in our Advanced Process Control platform (APC).

  6. Coherent integrated receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klamkin, Jonathan

    Phase modulation can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spurfree dynamic range (SFDR) of microwave photonic links because phase modulation is not limited in input modulation swing and is inherently linear using certain electro-optic devices. Traditional interferometer-based phase demodulators have a sinusoidal response therefore a novel approach is required for achieving linear coherent detection at the receive end of a photonic link employing phase modulation. In this work, a balanced receiver with feedback to a reference tracking phase modulator was developed. With sufficient feedback loop gain, the received signal phase is closely tracked and the phase detection falls within the linear regime of the interferometer response. For stable operation at high frequency the delay of the feedback loop must be kept short, therefore a monolithic approach is required to realize a compact receiver architecture. The monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) developed here consists of a high power balanced uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a compact 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, and multi-quantum well reference phase modulators. This PIC is hybrid integrated with an electronic IC that provides transconductance amplification of the feedback signal for increased loop gain. Novel concepts such as charge compensation, partially depleted absorption, and absorption profile modification were incorporated into the design of the waveguide UTCPDs resulting in record output saturation current and linearity. Both general interference surface ridge (SR) MMI couplers and restricted interference deep ridge (DR) MMI couplers were explored, the latter for reducing the loop delay. Current injection tuning was incorporated into the MMI couplers for fine tuning the output power splitting ratio. The quantum well design of the reference phase modulators was optimized for realizing low Vpi, low insertion loss, low absorption modulation, and improved linearity

  7. Phase composition and elemental partitioning in glass-ceramics containing high-Na/Al high level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Sorokaletova, A. N.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2012-05-01

    Mixtures of surrogates of high level waste with high sodium and aluminum contents and sodium-lithium borosilicate frit were melted in alumina crucibles in a resistive furnace followed by quenching of one portion of the melt and annealing of the residual material in a turned-off furnace. The annealed materials with waste loading of up to 45 wt.% contained minor spinel type phase and trace of nepheline (Na,K)AlSiO4. In the annealed materials contained waste oxides in amount of 50 wt.% and more nepheline and spinel were found to be major and minor phases, respectively. At high waste loadings two extra phases: Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO4) and mixed Na/Cs-aluminosilicate were found in amount of 3-5 vol.% each. The latter phase contains of up to ˜5.7 wt.% SO3 or 0.13 formula units S (Na0.75K0.05Cs0.29Ca0.02Sr0.02Al0.99Fe0.03Si0.76S0.13O4). Sulfur incorporation as S6+ or SO42- ions into crystal lattice may be facilitated in the presence of large-size Cs+ cations. Simplified suggested formula of this phase may be represented as Na0.8Cs0.3AlSi0.8S0.1O3.95. It was also synthesized by sintering of mixture of chemicals at 1300 °C and found to be instable at temperatures higher than 1300 °C.

  8. High-water-content and resilient PEG-containing hydrogels with low fibrotic response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; An, Duo; Pardo, Yehudah; Chiu, Alan; Song, Wei; Liu, Qingsheng; Zhou, Fang; McDonough, Sean P; Ma, Minglin

    2017-04-15

    Hydrogels such as those based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) are broadly used in biomedicine where high water contents, robust mechanical properties such as resilience and favorable interactions with the body are often simultaneously desirable. However, the mechanical properties of conventional hydrogels often degrade rapidly after swelling or with increasing water content, limiting their potential in many applications. Here we describe a new class of PEG-containing hydrogels that remain highly resilient after maximum swelling. We achieved the hydrogels by incorporating reversible "dual" hydrogen bonding into highly coiled, elastic PEG networks. These hydrogels, due to their high water content and high mechanical resilience, can form highly permeable, yet durable and easy-to-handle cell delivery devices without any additional structural support. In addition, optimization of chemical composition resulted in hydrogels with superior bio-inertness, inducing much less fibrosis upon subcutaneous implantation in mice than a polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA) hydrogel control. Hydrogels such as polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based ones are broadly used in the biomedical world. Examples include wound dressings, tissue scaffolds, medical implants, biosensors and drug or cell delivery devices. In many of these applications, robust mechanical property, high water content (or facile mass transfer) and favorable interactions with the body are often simultaneously desirable. However, the mechanical property of hydrogels often degrades rapidly after swelling or with increasing water content. Here we report a new class of PEG-based hydrogels that simultaneously possess high water content, high mechanical resilience and low fibrotic response upon subcutaneous implantation in mice. These hydrogels may therefore find broad applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of skin care with an emollient containing a high water content on mild uremic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Skin care is very important for preventing uremic pruritus. However, mild uremic pruritus has usually been treated with antihistamine and urea-containing ointments. We therefore examined the effects of an aqueous gel with higher water content. Twenty hemodialysis patients with mild pruritus who were not being treated with any emollient were divided into two groups of 10 each. Patients in one group were treated with an aqueous gel containing 80% water. This emollient was applied twice daily for 2 weeks. No emollient was applied for the next 2 weeks. The other group of patients were not treated with any emollient for the 4 weeks. Visual analog scale scores for itching in the experimental group at week 2 were significantly decreased compared with that at week 0 (3.5 +/- 0.3 vs 0.6 +/- 0.2, P < 0.01). Skin dryness in the experimental group was significantly improved at week 2 compared with that at week 0. The visual analog scale score for itching increased to 1.2 +/- 0.5 and skin dryness reappeared in 40% of patients by week 4, i.e. after the emollient was stopped. There were no significant changes in the control group during the study. It is concluded that the aqueous gel with high water content reduced itching and improved xerosis in patients with mild uremic pruritus. It is reasonable that skin care with an emollient containing a high water content is first started for hemodialysis patients with xerosis, even if they do not feel itching.

  10. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; ...

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  12. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  13. High resolution melting analysis as a new approach to discriminate gluten-containing cereals.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Costa, Joana; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-11-15

    With this work, it is intended to propose a novel approach based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect wheat and discriminate it from other gluten-containing cereals. The method consisted of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding for the germ agglutinin isolectin A protein (Tri a 18 allergen), using the fluorescent Evagreen dye combined with HRM analysis. The results enabled wheat differentiation from other phylogenetically related cereals, namely barley, rye and oat with high level of confidence. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR approach was proposed, allowing detecting and quantifying wheat down to 20mg/kg in rice flour and 20pg of wheat DNA (∼1.1 DNA copies). Its application was successfully achieved in the analysis of processed foods to verify labelling compliance, being considered as a cost-effective tool for the specific detection of cereals in gluten-free foods.

  14. Hydrothermal transformations in an aluminophosphate glass matrix containing simulators of high-level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudintsev, S. V.; Mal'kovsky, V. I.; Mokhov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of aluminophosphate glass with water at 95°C for 35 days results in glass heterogenization and in the appearance of a gel layer and various phases. The leaching rate of elements is low owing to the formation of a protective layer on the glass surface. It is shown that over 80% of uranium leached from the glass matrix occurs as colloids below 450 nm in size characterized by high migration ability in the geological environment. To determine the composition of these colloids is a primary task for further studies. Water vapor is a crystallization factor for glasses. The conditions as such may appear even at early stages of glass storage because of the failure of seals on containers of high-level radioactive wastes. The examination of water resistance of crystallized matrices and determination of the fraction of radionuclide in colloids are also subjects for further studies.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-05-13

    Although nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present detailed characterization of the NOC constituents of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) samples using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurements combined with MS/MS fragmentation experiments of selected ions were used to assign molecular structures to individual NOC species. Our results indicate that N-heterocyclic alkaloid compounds - species naturally produced by plants and living organisms - comprise a substantial fraction of NOC in BBA samples collected from test burns of five biomass fuels. High abundance of alkaloids in test burns of ponderosa pine - a widespread tree in the western U.S. areas frequently affected by large scale fires - suggests that N-heterocyclic alkaloids in BBA can play a significant role in dry and wet deposition of fixed nitrogen in this region.

  16. Simulation of Impact Phenomena on the Composite Structures Containing Ceramic Plates and High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geantă, V.; Cherecheș, T.; Lixandru, P.; Voiculescu, I.; Ștefănoiu, R.; Dragnea, D.; Zecheru, T.; Matache, L.

    2017-06-01

    Due to excellent mechanical properties, high entropy alloys from the system AlxCrFeCoNi can be used successfully to create composite structures containing both metallic and ceramic plates, which resists at dynamic load during high speeds impact (like projectiles, explosion). The paper presents four different composite structures made from a combination of metallic materials and ceramics plates: duralumin-ceramics, duralumin-ceramics-HEA, HEA-ceramics-HEA, HEA-ceramics-duralumin. Numerical simulation of impact behavior of the composite structures was performed by virtual methods, taking into account the mechanical properties of both materials. The best results were obtained using composite structures HEA-ceramics-HEA, HEA-ceramics-duralumin.

  17. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  18. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  19. Modern dosimetric tools for 60Co irradiation at high containment laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Twardoski, Barri; Feldmann, Heinz; Bloom, Marshall E.; Ward, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate an innovative photo-fluorescent film as a routine dosimetric tool during 60Co irradiations at a high containment biological research laboratory, and to investigate whether manufacturer-provided chamber exposure rates can be used to accurately administer a prescribed dose to biological specimens. Materials and methods Photo-fluorescent, lithium fluoride film dosimeters and National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) transfer dosimeters were co-located in a self-shielded 60Co irradiator and exposed to γ-radiation with doses ranging from 5–85 kGy. Film dose-response relationships were developed for varying temperatures simulating conditions present when irradiating infectious biological specimens. Dose measurement results from NIST transfer dosimeters were compared to doses predicted using manufacturer-provided irradiator chamber exposure rates. Results The film dosimeter exhibited a photo-fluorescent response signal that was consistent and nearly linear in relationship to γ-radiation exposure over a wide dose range. The dosimeter response also showed negligible effects from dose fractionization and humidity. Significant disparities existed between manufacturer-provided chamber exposure rates and actual doses administered. Conclusion This study demonstrates the merit of utilizing dosimetric tools to validate the process of exposing dangerous and exotic biological agents to γ-radiation at high containment laboratories. The film dosimeter used in this study can be utilized to eliminate potential for improperly administering γ-radiation doses. PMID:21961968

  20. The change in orientation of subsidiary shears near faults containing pore fluid under high pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.

    1992-01-01

    Byerlee, J., 1992. The change in orientation of subsidiary shears near faults containing pore fluid under high pressure. In: T. Mikumo, K. Aki, M. Ohnaka, L.J. Ruff and P.K.P. Spudich (Editors), Earthquake Source Physics and Earthquake Precursors. Tectonophysics, 211: 295-303. The mechanical effects of a fault containing near-lithostatic fluid pressure in which fluid pressure decreases monotonically from the core of the fault zone to the adjacent country rock is considered. This fluid pressure distribution has mechanical implications for the orientation of subsidiary shears around a fault. Analysis shows that the maximum principal stress is oriented at a high angle to the fault in the country rock where the pore pressure is hydrostatic, and rotates to 45?? to the fault within the fault zone where the pore pressure is much higher. This analysis suggests that on the San Andreas fault, where heat flow constraints require that the coefficient of friction for slip on the fault be less than 0.1, the pore fluid pressure on the main fault is 85% of the lithostatic pressure. The observed geometry of the subsidiary shears in the creeping section of the San Andreas are broadly consistent with this model, with differences that may be due to the heterogeneous nature of the fault. ?? 1992.

  1. ES-3100: A New Generation Shipping Container for Bulk Highly Enriched Uranium and Other Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A.; Tousley, D.R.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10CFR71) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  2. Dimensional stability under wet curing of mortars containing high amounts of nitrates and phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Benard, P.

    2008-10-15

    Investigations were carried out in order to solidify in cement some aqueous streams resulting from nuclear decommissioning processes and characterized by a high salinity (300 g/L), as well as important concentrations of nitrate (150-210 g/L) and phosphate ions (0-50 g/L). Special attention was paid to the influence of these compounds on the dimensional variations under wet curing of simulated solidified waste forms. The length changes of mortars containing nitrate salts only (KNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}) were shown to be governed by a concentration effect which involved osmosis: the higher their concentration in the mixing solution, the higher the swelling. The expansion of mortars containing high amounts of phosphates ({>=} 30 g/L in the mixing solution) was preceded by a shrinkage which increased with the phosphate concentration, and which could be suppressed by seeding the cement used with hydroxyapatite crystals. This transitory shrinkage was attributed to the conversion into hydroxyapatite of a precursor readily precipitated in the cement paste after mixing.

  3. Refolding by high pressure of a toxin containing seven disulfide bonds: bothropstoxin-1 from Bothrops jararacussu.

    PubMed

    Balduino, Keli N; Spencer, Patrick J; Malavasi, Natalia V; Chura-Chambi, Rosa M; Lemke, Laura S; Morganti, Ligia

    2011-07-01

    Aggregation is a serious obstacle for recovery of biologically active heterologous proteins from inclusion bodies (IBs) produced by recombinant bacteria. E. coli transformed with a vector containing the cDNA for Bothropstoxin-1 (BthTx-1) expressed the recombinant product as IBs. In order to obtain the native toxin, insoluble and aggregated protein was refolded using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). IBs were dissolved and refolded (2 kbar, 16 h), and the effects of protein concentration, as well as changes in ratio and concentration of oxido-shuffling reagents, guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), and pH in the refolding buffer, were assayed. A 32% yield (7.6 mg per liter of bacterial culture) in refolding of the native BthTx-1 was obtained using optimal conditions of the refolding buffer (Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 3 mM of a 2:3 ratio of GSH/GSSG, and 1 M GdnHCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that that disaggregation of part of IBs particles occurred upon compression and that the morphology of the remaining IBs, spherical particles, was not substantially altered. Dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of high-pressure refolded BthTx-1 was shown in C2C12 muscle cells.

  4. Three-dimensional porous carbon composites containing high sulfur nanoparticle content for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoxing; Sun, Jinhua; Hou, Wenpeng; Jiang, Shidong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is a promising cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (1,675 mA h g−1); however, its low electrical conductivity and the instability of sulfur-based electrodes limit its practical application. Here we report a facile in situ method for preparing three-dimensional porous graphitic carbon composites containing sulfur nanoparticles (3D S@PGC). With this strategy, the sulfur content of the composites can be tuned to a high level (up to 90 wt%). Because of the high sulfur content, the nanoscale distribution of the sulfur particles, and the covalent bonding between the sulfur and the PGC, the developed 3D S@PGC cathodes exhibit excellent performance, with a high sulfur utilization, high specific capacity (1,382, 1,242 and 1,115 mA h g−1 at 0.5, 1 and 2 C, respectively), long cycling life (small capacity decay of 0.039% per cycle over 1,000 cycles at 2 C) and excellent rate capability at a high charge/discharge current. PMID:26830732

  5. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  6. Electrochemical Deposition of Azobenzene-Containing Network Films with High-Contrast and Stable Photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruiyang; Zhan, Xuepeng; Yao, Liang; Chen, Qidai; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-04-01

    To fabricate stable photoresponsive films and devices, a cross-linked network that firmly fixes the position of the chromophores is an ideal structure, because aggregation and/or phase separation effects of chromophores in matrix can be effectively restrained in such robust films. Herein, the in situ electrochemical deposition (ED) of azo-based precursors containing multielectroactive carbazole units is utilized to construct highly cross-linked photoresponsive films. 2-(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-7-yl)phenyl)diazene (BFCzAzo) with high solvability in electrolyte solution, high electroactivity, and highly efficient photoresponsive ability is synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction as a kind of ED precursor. A highly cross-linked photoresponsive film is fabricated by ED method using BFCzAzo as ED precursor. The film can be patterned in large area by irradiation with interfering laser beam (355 nm), and the pattern possesses excellent thermal stability and insoluble ability in both organic and inorganic solvents. Excellent reversibility of the nanostructures is demonstrated by irradiation with 550 nm laser beam.

  7. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    SciTech Connect

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  8. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. IV: Development of an indirect correlation between vacuum decay leak measurement and microbial ingress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Muangsiri, W; Schiere, R; Guazzo, D K; Kirsch, L E

    1999-01-01

    The rational development of a physical test method to evaluate the microbial barrier properties of sterile containers necessitates its correlation to microbiological exclusion. This can be accomplished by direct or indirect correlation. In the former, the proposed physical test is directly compared to microbial challenges using appropriate test units that stimulate container leaks at both high and low probabilities of microbial ingress. Previous work has demonstrated the development of a direct correlation using helium leak rate methods and microbial immersion challenges. An indirect correlation can be established by comparing the proposed physical method to well-defined leakage standards that represent various known levels of microbial ingress. Thus the quality assurance properties of a physical test method can be established by comparison to another physical test method that has been previously characterized. This approach has the distinct advantages of being faster, quantitatively rigorous, and less subject to the vicissitudes, of microbial testing. This approach was demonstrated by comparing the helium leak rate method to vacuum decay testing. Additionally it was demonstrated that vacuum decay testing was a fast and reproducible method for detecting leaks of about 1 to 2 mm. Leaks were simulated by affixing micropipettes into glass vials.

  9. Velocity-pressure integrated versus penalty finite element methods for high Reynolds number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Decker, Rand A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity-pressure integrated and consistent penalty finite element computations of high Reynolds number laminar flows are presented. In both methods the pressure has been interpolated using linear shape functions for a triangular element which is contained inside the biquadratic flow element. It has been shown previously that the pressure interpolation method, when used in conjunction with the velocity-pressure integrated method, yields accurate computational results for high-Reynolds-number flows. It is shown in this paper that use of the same pressure interpolation method in the consistent penalty finite element method yields computational results which are comparable to those of the velocity-pressure integrated method for both the velocity and the pressure fields. Accuracy of the two finite element methods has been demonstrated by comparing the computational results with available experimental data and/or fine grid finite difference computational results. Advantages and disadvantages of the two finite element methods are discussed on the basis of accuracy and convergence nature. Example problems considered include a lid-driven cavity flow of Reynolds number 10000, a laminar backward-facing step flow and a laminar flow through a nest of cylinders.

  10. Velocity-pressure integrated versus penalty finite element methods for high Reynolds number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang-Wook

    1988-01-01

    Velocity-pressure integrated and consistent penalty finite element computations of high Reynolds number, laminar flows are presented. In both of the methods, the pressure has been interpolated using linear shape functions for a triangular element. The triangular element is contained inside the bi-quadratic isoparametric element. It has been reported previously that the pressure interpolation method, when used in the velocity-pressure integrated method, yielded accurate computational results for high Reynolds number flows. It is shown that use of the same pressure interpolation method in the consistent penalty finite element method yielded accurate velocity and pressure fields which were comparable to those obtained using the velocity-pressure integrated method. Accuracy of the two finite element methods has been demonstrated by comparing the computational results with available experimental data and/or fine-grid finite difference computational results. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are discussed on the basis of accuracy and convergence nature. Example problems considered include a lid-driven cavity flow for Reynolds number of 10,000, a laminar backward-facing step flow, a laminar flow through a nest of cylinders, and a channel flow with an internal blockage. A finite element computer program (NSFLOW/P) for the 2-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is also presented.

  11. Internal performance of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.; Asbury, Scott C.; Mason, Mary L.; Lamb, Milton

    1993-01-01

    The internal performance characteristics of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles (HIDEN) applicable to advanced short take-off and vertical landing aircraft have been investigated. Four nozzle concepts, designed for fan and core flow installations, were tested with varying contraction ratio and nozzle exit plane shape. In addition, two offtake duct designs, along with several centerbody and blocker geometries were tested to evaluate their effect on the static thrust and flow performance. This investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. A six-component strain-gage balance collected force and moment data, and static pressure, total pressure, and total temperature measurements were also made internal to the model. Room temperature, dry high-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust. The results indicate that the internal performance of these HIDEN concepts is comparable to previously tested nozzle concepts designed for thrust vectoring about a bearing plane. This report presents the configuration design of the HIDEN concepts and the results of the internal performance testing.

  12. Internal performance of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.; Asbury, Scott C.; Mason, Mary L.; Lamb, Milton

    1993-01-01

    The internal performance characteristics of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles (HIDEN) applicable to advanced short take-off and vertical landing aircraft have been investigated. Four nozzle concepts, designed for fan and core flow installations, were tested with varying contraction ratio and nozzle exit plane shape. In addition, two offtake duct designs, along with several centerbody and blocker geometries were tested to evaluate their effect on the static thrust and flow performance. This investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. A six-component strain-gage balance collected force and moment data, and static pressure, total pressure, and total temperature measurements were also made internal to the model. Room temperature, dry high-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust. The results indicate that the internal performance of these HIDEN concepts is comparable to previously tested nozzle concepts designed for thrust vectoring about a bearing plane. This report presents the configuration design of the HIDEN concepts and the results of the internal performance testing.

  13. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  14. A complete high integrity overpressure pipeline protection system

    SciTech Connect

    High, G.; Loth, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    Although most often associated with high-pressure production, a reliable system enabling subsea wells to be produced safely at long tie-back distances through flowlines rated to less than shut-in wellhead pressure offers cost savings for many developments. Previous work has shown that there is a small but finite probability of conventional flow control systems failing to shut off damaging overpressures. In most cases, this will arise from mechanical problems which are more likely causes than electronic failure within the production control system. The proposed system provides a viable means of implementing a pressure specification break through the use of a modular, configurable system comprising four main components. The system is semi-autonomous, with dedicated pressure sensors and high integrity electronics being incorporated to avoid common mode system failures. Routine telemetry and reset capability would be conducted through the electro-hydraulic production control system. The near-term availability of this protection system is an important consideration in justifying the economic viability of many marginal field developments.

  15. High temperature spectral emissivity measurement using integral blackbody method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Spectral emissivity is a critical material's thermos-physical property for heat design and radiation thermometry. A prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method was developed to measure material's spectral emissivity above 1000 °. The system was implemented with an optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, the sample was pushed to the end opening of the tube by a graphite rod which was actuated through a pneumatic cylinder. A linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface through the measurement. The corresponding opto-converted voltage signal was fed and recorded by a digital multi-meter. A physical model was proposed to numerically evaluate the temperature drop along the process. Tube was discretized as several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature profile of the tube was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were calculated and updated along the whole pushing process. The actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage profile and the calculated true temperature, spectral emissivity under this temperature point was calculated.

  16. High bandwidth piezoresistive force probes with integrated thermal actuation

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Joseph C.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-speed force probes with on-chip actuation and sensing for the measurement of pN-scale forces at the microsecond time scale. We achieve a high resonant frequency in water (1–100 kHz) with requisite low spring constants (0.3–40 pN/nm) and low integrated force noise (1–100 pN) by targeting probe dimensions on the order of 300 nm thick, 1–2 μm wide and 30–200 μm long. Forces are measured using silicon piezoresistors while the probes are actuated thermally with an aluminum unimorph and silicon heater. The piezoresistive sensors are designed using open source numerical optimization code that incorporates constraints on operating temperature. Parylene passivation enables operation in ionic media and we demonstrate simultaneous actuation and sensing. The improved design and fabrication techniques that we describe enable a 10–20 fold improvement in force resolution or measurement bandwidth over prior piezoresistive cantilevers of comparable thickness. PMID:23175616

  17. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    PubMed Central

    Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1∶50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30  min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here]. PMID:20308577

  18. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    SciTech Connect

    Moliner, Manuel; Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  19. Haze defect control and containment in a high volume DRAM manufacturing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jerry X.; Nguyen, Maihan; Arasaki, Osamu; Maraquin, Tammy; Sawyer, Daniel; Morrison, Pedro

    2005-11-01

    Haze and other progressive reticle defects have been known in the semiconductor industry for more than a decade [1]. Extensive research and experiments have been carried out to determine the sources and origins of the progressive haze growth, but the true mechanisms of its cause are still under speculation. To minimize the wafer yield loss at Samsung Austin Semiconductor (SAS), we introduced a practical method to control the haze defects in a DRAM manufacturing environment that integrates reticle and wafer inspections, reticle cleaning, and a dose-based and time-based control forecast software system. This development has been proven to be very effective in controlling the haze defects and reducing the related yield loss while still supporting high volume wafer production.

  20. Highly condensed potato pericentromeric heterochromatin contains rDNA-related tandem repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Song, Junqi; Tek, Ahmet L; Cheng, Zhukuan; Dong, Fenggao; Jiang, Jiming

    2002-01-01

    The heterochromatin in eukaryotic genomes represents gene-poor regions and contains highly repetitive DNA sequences. The origin and evolution of DNA sequences in the heterochromatic regions are poorly understood. Here we report a unique class of pericentromeric heterochromatin consisting of DNA sequences highly homologous to the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the 18S.25S ribosomal RNA genes in potato. A 5.9-kb tandem repeat, named 2D8, was isolated from a diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Sequence analysis indicates that the 2D8 repeat is related to the IGS of potato rDNA. This repeat is associated with highly condensed pericentromeric heterochromatin at several hemizygous loci. The 2D8 repeat is highly variable in structure and copy number throughout the Solanum genus, suggesting that it is evolutionarily dynamic. Additional IGS-related repetitive DNA elements were also identified in the potato genome. The possible mechanism of the origin and evolution of the IGS-related repeats is discussed. We demonstrate that potato serves as an interesting model for studying repetitive DNA families because it is propagated vegetatively, thus minimizing the meiotic mechanisms that can remove novel DNA repeats. PMID:12454086

  1. Highly efficient modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) using novel shuttle vectors containing the R6Kgamma origin of replication.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shiaoching; Yang, Xiangdong William; Li, Chenjian; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2002-12-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mediated transgenesis has proven to be a highly reliable way to obtain accurate transgene expression for in vivo studies of gene expression and function. A rate-limiting step in use of this technology to characterize large numbers of genes has been the process with which BACs can be modified by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. We report here a highly efficient method for modifying BACs by using a novel set of shuttle vectors that contain the R6Kgamma origin for DNA replication, the E. coli RecA gene for recombination, and the SacB gene for negative selection. These new vectors greatly increased the ease with which one can clone the shuttle vectors, as well as screen for co-integrated and resolved clones. Furthermore, we simplify the shuttle vector cloning to one step by incorporation of a "built-in" resolution cassette for rapid removal of the unwanted vector sequences. This new system has been used to modify a dozen BACs. It is well suited for efficient production of modified BACs for use in a variety of in vivo studies.

  2. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  3. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  4. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-21

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa(-1). The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.

  5. Semi-implicit Integration Factor Methods on Sparse Grids for High-Dimensional Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongyong; Chen, Weitao; Nie, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Numerical methods for partial differential equations in high-dimensional spaces are often limited by the curse of dimensionality. Though the sparse grid technique, based on a one-dimensional hierarchical basis through tensor products, is popular for handling challenges such as those associated with spatial discretization, the stability conditions on time step size due to temporal discretization, such as those associated with high-order derivatives in space and stiff reactions, remain. Here, we incorporate the sparse grids with the implicit integration factor method (IIF) that is advantageous in terms of stability conditions for systems containing stiff reactions and diffusions. We combine IIF, in which the reaction is treated implicitly and the diffusion is treated explicitly and exactly, with various sparse grid techniques based on the finite element and finite difference methods and a multi-level combination approach. The overall method is found to be efficient in terms of both storage and computational time for solving a wide range of PDEs in high dimensions. In particular, the IIF with the sparse grid combination technique is flexible and effective in solving systems that may include cross-derivatives and non-constant diffusion coefficients. Extensive numerical simulations in both linear and nonlinear systems in high dimensions, along with applications of diffusive logistic equations and Fokker-Planck equations, demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the new methods, indicating potential broad applications of the sparse grid-based integration factor method. PMID:25897178

  6. Semi-implicit integration factor methods on sparse grids for high-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongyong; Chen, Weitao; Nie, Qing

    2015-07-01

    Numerical methods for partial differential equations in high-dimensional spaces are often limited by the curse of dimensionality. Though the sparse grid technique, based on a one-dimensional hierarchical basis through tensor products, is popular for handling challenges such as those associated with spatial discretization, the stability conditions on time step size due to temporal discretization, such as those associated with high-order derivatives in space and stiff reactions, remain. Here, we incorporate the sparse grids with the implicit integration factor method (IIF) that is advantageous in terms of stability conditions for systems containing stiff reactions and diffusions. We combine IIF, in which the reaction is treated implicitly and the diffusion is treated explicitly and exactly, with various sparse grid techniques based on the finite element and finite difference methods and a multi-level combination approach. The overall method is found to be efficient in terms of both storage and computational time for solving a wide range of PDEs in high dimensions. In particular, the IIF with the sparse grid combination technique is flexible and effective in solving systems that may include cross-derivatives and non-constant diffusion coefficients. Extensive numerical simulations in both linear and nonlinear systems in high dimensions, along with applications of diffusive logistic equations and Fokker-Planck equations, demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the new methods, indicating potential broad applications of the sparse grid-based integration factor method.

  7. Factor analysis in optimization of formulation of high content uniformity tablets containing low dose active substance.

    PubMed

    Lukášová, Ivana; Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Goněc, Roman; Mika, Filip; Vetchý, David

    2017-09-11

    Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic range. There have been cases of bleeding attributed to varying content or altered quality of the active substance. Factor analysis is useful for finding suitable technological parameters leading to high content uniformity of tablets containing low amount of active substance. The composition of tabletting blend and technological procedure were set with respect to factor analysis of previously published results. The correctness of set parameters was checked by manufacturing and evaluation of tablets containing 1-10mg of warfarin sodium. The robustness of suggested technology was checked by using "worst case scenario" and statistical evaluation of European Pharmacopoeia (EP) content uniformity limits with respect to Bergum division and process capability index (Cpk). To evaluate the quality of active substance and tablets, dissolution method was developed (water; EP apparatus II; 25rpm), allowing for statistical comparison of dissolution profiles. Obtained results prove the suitability of factor analysis to optimize the composition with respect to batches manufactured previously and thus the use of metaanalysis under industrial conditions is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of monodisperse aqueous microspheres containing high concentration of l-ascorbic acid by microchannel emulsification.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Nauman; Kobayashi, Isao; Neves, Marcos A; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Nabetani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse aqueous microspheres containing high concentrations of l-ascorbic acid with different concentrations of sodium alginate (Na-ALG) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) were prepared by using microchannel emulsification (MCE). The continuous phase was water-saturated decane containing a 5% (w/w) hydrophobic emulsifier. The flow rate of the continuous phase was maintained at 10 mL h(-1), whereas the pressure applied to the disperse phase was varied between 3 and 25 kPa. The disperse phase optimized for successfully generating aqueous microspheres included 2% (w/w) Na-ALG and 1% (w/w) MgSO4. At a higher MgSO4 concentration, the generated microspheres resulted in coalescence and subsequent bursting. At a lower MgSO4 concentration, unstable and polydisperse microspheres were obtained. The aqueous microspheres generated from the MCs under optimized conditions had a mean particle diameter (dav) of 14-16 µm and a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 8% at the disperse phase pressures of 5-15 kPa.

  9. High strength thermoplastic composite hybrids containing random and oriented fiber reinforcements

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, M.; Kovacich, A.; Marshall, D.; Schachner, K.

    1997-12-31

    Polypropylene-based composites containing hybrid reinforcements of random and oriented fibers were developed by combining Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composite sheets with thin tapes containing unidirectional fibers. The idea of this construction is to use GMT to form the basic shape of a composite structure while adding oriented tape at strategic locations for additional reinforcement according to the load requirement. Compression molding was used to laminate GMT sheets and oriented tapes in various combinations of tape arrangement. Room temperature bending tests showed that beam deflection could be improved by 33% when it was reinforced with one layer of the glass tape on the tension side and up to 71% when reinforced with one layer each of the carbon tape on the tension and compression sides. Finite Element Analyses showed the deflection of hybrid beams under different loading conditions agreed well with the experimental data. The hybrid concept was also successfully applied to an automotive seat cushion frame in which glass and carbon tapes were molded-in at the high stress area under production conditions, indicating that this concept is both feasible and practical for automotive structural applications.

  10. Cyclic GMP-AMP Containing Mixed Phosphodiester Linkages Is An Endogenous High Affinity Ligand for STING

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Xuewu; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Chuo; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of microbial or self DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal detected by the DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), which catalyzes the production of cGAMP that in turn serves as a second messenger to activate innate immune responses. Here we show that endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells contains two distinct phosphodiester linkages, one between 2′-OH of GMP and 5′-phosphate of AMP, and the other between 3′-OH of AMP and 5′-phosphate of GMP. This molecule, termed 2′3′-cGAMP, is unique in that it binds to the adaptor protein STING with a much greater affinity than cGAMP molecules containing other combinations of phosphodiester linkages. The crystal structure of STING bound to 2′3′-cGAMP revealed the structural basis of this high-affinity binding and a ligand-induced conformational change in STING that may underlie its activation. PMID:23747010

  11. MODELING THE CORROSION OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS CAM-CRM INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph; McCright, Daniel

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel400. Initially, the containers will be hot and dry due to the heat generated by radioactive decay. However, the temperature will eventually drop to levels where both humid air and aqueous phase corrosion will be possible. As the outer barrier is penetrated, uniform corrosion of the CRM will be possible in exfoliated areas. The possibility for crevice formation between the CAM and CRM will also exist. In the case of either Alloy 625 or C-22, a crevice will have to form before significant penetration of the CRM can occur. Crevice corrosion of the CRMs has been well documented. Lillard and Scully have induced crevice corrosion in Alloy 625 during exposure to artificial sea water. Jones and Wilde have prepared simulated crevice solutions of FeCl{sub 2}, NiCl{sub 2} and CrCl{sub 3}, and measured substantial pH suppression. Asphahani measured the dissolution rates of Alloys 625 and C-22 in such artificial crevice solutions at various temperatures. Others have observed no significant localized attack in less severe environments.

  12. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, M.

    1997-12-09

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design,the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 and C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. Initially, the containers will be hot and dry due to the heat generated by radioactive decay. However, the temperature will eventually drop to levels where both humid air and aqueous phase corrosion will be possible. As the outer barrier is penetrated, uniform corrosion of the CRM will be possible of exfoliated areas. The possibility of crevice formation between the CAM and CRM will also exist. In the case of either Alloy 625 or C-22, a crevice will have to form before significant penetration of the CRM can occur. Crevice corrosion of the CRMs has been well documented.

  13. High Treatment Success Rates When Switching to Once Daily Nevirapine Containing Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Benzie, Andrew; Marett, Brett; Mackie, Nicola E; Winston, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Two recent studies have highlighted low rates of virological response to once daily nevirapine containing combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected subjects. Aim We assessed factors associated with treatment responses in a cohort of HIV-1 infected, therapy naïve individuals, commencing nevirapine CART with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) containing either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Results Between January 2002 and 2006, 173 subjects (80 female) met the study inclusion criteria. All subjects initially commenced on twice daily nevirapine with six different NRTI backbones. Mean follow up was 802 days. 49 (28%) subjects switched to once daily nevirapine, 23 (13%) within the first year. After 48 weeks of therapy, HIV RNA was < 50 copies/mL in 154/173 subjects (89%). A trend was observed towards improved virological outcome (HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL) and switching to once daily nevirapine during the first year of therapy (p=0.051). Conclusion Whilst awaiting the results of prospective studies assessing once daily nevirapine, our data describe high treatment success rates and good safety responses when switching to once daily nevirapine. PMID:19274065

  14. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  15. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  16. The determination of organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, T.M.; Arrecis, J.J.; Witt, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    A method to measure trace quantities of methyl mercuric chloride and other organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads has been developed. Since organomercurials are usually present at ultra trace levels (0.02 to 0.2 ng/L) in surface waters, sample pre concentration is often necessary. This paper outlines the use of solid phase extraction to achieve the desired pre concentration. The compounds are then separated using gas chromatography and detected using an atomic fluorescence detector. Unlike the conventional approach which employs ethylation, there is no need to derivative the organomercurials to their more volatile ethylated analogs, and direct injection of the SPE extract onto a column is possible. Moreover this technique lends itself to a limited amount of automation, and higher throughput. Results from the analysis of surface waters from the Florida Everglades will be presented.

  17. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environment (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  18. Highly Efficient and Enzymatic Regioselective Undecylenoylation of Gastrodin in 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-Containing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rongling; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Yang, Chunying; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7′-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v), the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7′-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn’t be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin. PMID:25329539

  19. Effect of galvanic coupling between overpack materials for high-level nuclear waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.S.; Cragnolino, G.A.; Sridhar, N.

    1998-12-31

    The effect of environmental parameters and area ratio on the galvanic protection of Alloy 825 by A516 steel was studied. A simplified model was used to calculate the potential and corrosion current density of the bimetallic couple as a function of the galvanic coupling efficiency. Galvanic corrosion tests were performed to gain confidence in the calculated values. Both the calculations and laboratory testing indicate that, with highly efficient coupling, the potential of the galvanic couple is maintained below the repassivation potential for Alloy 825 in chloride-containing solutions. As a result, the initiation of localized corrosion on Alloy 825 is prevented. The formation of oxides, scales, and corrosion product layers between the barriers is shown to reduce the efficiency of the galvanic couple, which may result in conditions under which the localized corrosion of the inner corrosion resistant barrier can occur.

  20. Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented.

  2. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-Jie; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Teng-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  3. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qi-jie; Yang, Dong-xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-fei; Chen, Teng-yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  4. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Mccarthy, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop an optimization procedure for high-speed and civil tilt-rotors by coupling all of the necessary disciplines within a closed-loop optimization procedure. Both simplified and comprehensive analysis codes are used for the aerodynamic analyses. The structural properties are calculated using in-house developed algorithms for both isotropic and composite box beam sections. There are four major objectives of this study. (1) Aerodynamic optimization: The effects of blade aerodynamic characteristics on cruise and hover performance of prop-rotor aircraft are investigated using the classical blade element momentum approach with corrections for the high lift capability of rotors/propellers. (2) Coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization: A multilevel hybrid optimization technique is developed for the design of prop-rotor aircraft. The design problem is decomposed into a level for improved aerodynamics with continuous design variables and a level with discrete variables to investigate composite tailoring. The aerodynamic analysis is based on that developed in objective 1 and the structural analysis is performed using an in-house code which models a composite box beam. The results are compared to both a reference rotor and the optimum rotor found in the purely aerodynamic formulation. (3) Multipoint optimization: The multilevel optimization procedure of objective 2 is extended to a multipoint design problem. Hover, cruise, and take-off are the three flight conditions simultaneously maximized. (4) Coupled rotor/wing optimization: Using the comprehensive rotary wing code CAMRAD, an optimization procedure is developed for the coupled rotor/wing performance in high speed tilt-rotor aircraft. The developed procedure contains design variables which define the rotor and wing planforms.

  5. Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum-Containing Refractory High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkov, O. N.; Woodward, C.; Miracle, D. B.

    2014-10-01

    A new metallurgical strategy, high-entropy alloying (HEA), was used to explore new composition and phase spaces in the development of new refractory alloys with reduced densities and improved properties. Combining Mo, Ta, and Hf with "low-density" refractory elements (Nb, V, and Zr) and with Ti and Al produced six new refractory HEAs with densities ranging from 6.9 g/cm3 to 9.1 g/cm3. Three alloys have single-phase disordered body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structures and three other alloys contain two bcc nanophases with very close lattice parameters. The alloys have high hardness, in the range from H v = 4.0 GPa to 5.8 GPa, and compression yield strength, σ 0.2 = 1280 MPa to 2035 MPa, depending on the composition. Some of these refractory HEAs show considerably improved high temperature strengths relative to advanced Ni-based superalloys. Compressive ductility of all the alloys is limited at room temperature, but it improves significantly at 800°C and 1000°C.

  6. High-Throughput Construction of Intron-Containing Hairpin RNA Vectors for RNAi in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Gao, XinZheng; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng; Duan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    With the wide use of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene function in plants, a high-throughput system for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs is in great demand. Here, we describe a novel restriction-ligation approach that provides a simple but efficient construction of intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) vectors. The system takes advantage of the type IIs restriction enzyme BsaI and our new plant RNAi vector pRNAi-GG based on the Golden Gate (GG) cloning. This method requires only a single PCR product of the gene of interest flanked with BsaI recognition sequence, which can then be cloned into pRNAi-GG at both sense and antisense orientations simultaneously to form ihpRNA construct. The process, completed in one tube with one restriction-ligation step, produced a recombinant ihpRNA with high efficiency and zero background. We demonstrate the utility of the ihpRNA constructs generated with pRNAi-GG vector for the effective silencing of various individual endogenous and exogenous marker genes as well as two genes simultaneously. This method provides a novel and high-throughput platform for large-scale analysis of plant functional genomics. PMID:22675447

  7. The High Performance of Crystal Water Containing Manganese Birnessite Cathodes for Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwan Woo; Kim, Sangryun; Lee, Soyeon; Salama, Michael; Shterenberg, Ivgeni; Gofer, Yossi; Kim, Joo-Seong; Yang, Eunjeong; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Ju-Sik; Lee, Seok-Soo; Chang, Won-Seok; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Jo, Yong Nam; Jung, Yousung; Aurbach, Doron; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-06-10

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have lately received great attention for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high volumetric capacities, low materials cost, and safe characteristic. However, the bivalency of Mg(2+) ions has made it challenging to find cathode materials operating at high voltages with decent (de)intercalation kinetics. In an effort to overcome this challenge, we adopt an unconventional approach of engaging crystal water in the layered structure of Birnessite MnO2 because the crystal water can effectively screen electrostatic interactions between Mg(2+) ions and the host anions. The crucial role of the crystal water was revealed by directly visualizing its presence and dynamic rearrangement using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Moreover, the importance of lowering desolvation energy penalty at the cathode-electrolyte interface was elucidated by working with water containing nonaqueous electrolytes. In aqueous electrolytes, the decreased interfacial energy penalty by hydration of Mg(2+) allows Birnessite MnO2 to achieve a large reversible capacity (231.1 mAh g(-1)) at high operating voltage (2.8 V vs Mg/Mg(2+)) with excellent cycle life (62.5% retention after 10000 cycles), unveiling the importance of effective charge shielding in the host and facile Mg(2+) ions transfer through the cathode's interface.

  8. Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei

    Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).

  9. Characterization of high temperature deposited Ti-containing hydrogenated carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, B.; Meng, W. J.; Evans, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    A detailed structural and mechanical characterization was performed on Ti-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Ti-C:H) thin films deposited at ˜600°C by plasma assisted hybrid chemical/physical vapor deposition. The structural and mechanical characteristics of these specimens were compared to those deposited at the lower temperature of ˜250°C. The results indicated that Ti-C :H consisted of a nanocrystalline TiC phase and a hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) phase, and that Ti atoms were incorporated into Ti-C :H predominantly as B1-TiC. Deposition at ˜600°C promoted TiC precipitation, resulting in little Ti dissolution within the a-C :H matrix. High temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens were found to possess lower modulus and hardness values as compared to low temperature deposited specimens, especially at low Ti compositions. This is rationalized by electron microscopy evidence of increased short and medium range graphitic order within the a-C :H matrix of high temperature deposited Ti-C :H, and supported by additional Raman spectroscopic observations. Heat treatments at 600 °C combined with Raman scattering measurements showed that the a-C :H matrix in high temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens appears to be less structurally sensitive to additional annealing.

  10. In vitro evolution of high-titer, virus-like vesicles containing a single structural protein.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nina F; Buonocore, Linda; Schell, John B; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Bahl, Kapil; Liu, Xinran; Rose, John K

    2014-11-25

    Self-propagating, infectious, virus-like vesicles (VLVs) are generated when an alphavirus RNA replicon expresses the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) as the only structural protein. The mechanism that generates these VLVs lacking a capsid protein has remained a mystery for over 20 years. We present evidence that VLVs arise from membrane-enveloped RNA replication factories (spherules) containing VSV G protein that are largely trapped on the cell surface. After extensive passaging, VLVs evolve to grow to high titers through acquisition of multiple point mutations in their nonstructural replicase proteins. We reconstituted these mutations into a plasmid-based system from which high-titer VLVs can be recovered. One of these mutations generates a late domain motif (PTAP) that is critical for high-titer VLV production. We propose a model in which the VLVs have evolved in vitro to exploit a cellular budding pathway that is hijacked by many enveloped viruses, allowing them to bud efficiently from the cell surface. Our results suggest a basic mechanism of propagation that may have been used by primitive RNA viruses lacking capsid proteins. Capsids may have evolved later to allow more efficient packaging of RNA, greater virus stability, and evasion of innate immunity.

  11. In vitro evolution of high-titer, virus-like vesicles containing a single structural protein

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nina F.; Buonocore, Linda; Schell, John B.; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Bahl, Kapil; Liu, Xinran; Rose, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Self-propagating, infectious, virus-like vesicles (VLVs) are generated when an alphavirus RNA replicon expresses the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) as the only structural protein. The mechanism that generates these VLVs lacking a capsid protein has remained a mystery for over 20 years. We present evidence that VLVs arise from membrane-enveloped RNA replication factories (spherules) containing VSV G protein that are largely trapped on the cell surface. After extensive passaging, VLVs evolve to grow to high titers through acquisition of multiple point mutations in their nonstructural replicase proteins. We reconstituted these mutations into a plasmid-based system from which high-titer VLVs can be recovered. One of these mutations generates a late domain motif (PTAP) that is critical for high-titer VLV production. We propose a model in which the VLVs have evolved in vitro to exploit a cellular budding pathway that is hijacked by many enveloped viruses, allowing them to bud efficiently from the cell surface. Our results suggest a basic mechanism of propagation that may have been used by primitive RNA viruses lacking capsid proteins. Capsids may have evolved later to allow more efficient packaging of RNA, greater virus stability, and evasion of innate immunity. PMID:25385608

  12. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  13. A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF receiver front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhua, Wang; Minglin, Ma; Jingru, Sun; Sichun, Du; Xiaorong, Guo; Haizhen, He

    2011-02-01

    A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF front end for an 802.11b WLAN is proposed. It contains a differential transconductance low noise amplifier (Gm-LNA) and a differential current-mode down converted mixer. The single terminal of the Gm-LNA contains just one MOS transistor, two capacitors and two inductors. The gate-source shunt capacitors, Cx1 and Cx2, can not only reduce the effects of gate-source Cgs on resonance frequency and input-matching impedance, but they also enable the gate inductance Lg1,2 to be selected at a very small value. The current-mode mixer is composed of four switched current mirrors. Adjusting the ratio of the drain channel sizes of the switched current mirrors can increase the gain of the mixer and accordingly increase the gain of RF receiver front-end. The RF front-end operates under 1 V supply voltage. The receiver RFIC was fabricated using a chartered 0.18 μm CMOS process. The integrated RF receiver front-end has a measured power conversion gain of 17.48 dB and an input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of -7.02 dBm. The total noise figure is 4.5 dB and the power is only 14 mW by post-simulations.

  14. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Hunt, Thomas P; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm(2) in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip's surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications.

  15. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  16. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A.; Hunt, Thomas P.; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm2 in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip’s surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications. PMID:20625468

  17. Challenges in graphene integration for high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannazzo, F.; Fisichella, G.; Greco, G.; Roccaforte, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research on graphene (Gr) for high-frequency (RF) devices. After discussing current limitations of lateral Gr RF transistors, novel vertical devices concepts such as the Gr Base Hot Electron Transistor (GBHET) will be introduced and the main challenges in Gr integration within these architectures will be discussed. In particular, a GBHET device based on Gr/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure will be considered. An approach to the fabrication of this heterostructure by transfer of CVD grown Gr on copper to the AlGaN surface will be presented. The morphological and electrical properties of this system have been investigated at nanoscale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). In particular, local current-voltage measurements by the CAFM probe revealed the formation of a Schottky contact with low barrier height (˜0.41 eV) and excellent lateral uniformity between Gr and AlGaN. Basing on the electrical parameters extracted from this characterization, the theoretical performances of a GBHET formed by a metal/Al2O3/Gr/AlGaN/GaN stack have been evaluated.

  18. Adaptive weld control for high-integrity welding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Bradley W.

    Adaptive, closed-loop weld control is necessary to maintain high-integrity, zero-defect welds. Conventional weld control techniques using weld parameter feedback control loops are sufficient to maintain set points, but fall short when confronted with unexpected variations in part/tooling temperature and mechanical structure, weldment material, arc skew angle, or calibration in weld parameter feedback measurement. Modern technology allows closed-loop control utilizing input from real-time weld monitoring sensors and inspection devices. Weld puddle parameters, bead profile parameters, and weld seam position are fed back into the weld control loop which adapts for the weld condition variations and drives them back to a desired state, thereby preventing weld defects or perturbations. Parameters such as arc position relative to the weld seam, puddle symmetry, arc length, weld width, and bead shape can be extracted from sensor imagery and used in closed-loop active weld control. All weld bead and puddle measurements are available for real-time display and statistical process control analysis, after which the data is archived to permanent storage or later retrieval and analysis.

  19. High integrity pressure protection systems for production applications

    SciTech Connect

    Langvik, S.; Aarebrot, E.

    1995-12-31

    Through the use of a High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) the flare capacity of a wellhead platform can be reduced to the flowrate required for depressurization. The HIPPS may also be used to reduce the flare capacity of a process plant. By the use of HIPPS, the discharge of hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide due to venting/flaring is reduced. This paper describes the development of HIPPS for the Sleipner B-platform offshore Norway. A 20 inch multiphase pipeline is protected against overpressure by two 20 inch quick acting shut down valves (QSV) installed in series, instead of pressure safety valves. The valves have been qualified for operation in wellstream at a shut-in pressure of 336 bar, and have a closing time of 2 seconds. Each of the QSVs has independent, fail safe instrumentation circuits. A parallel train of QSVs has been installed due to the testing requirements. The estimated saving using HIPPS on SLB was $25 mill. The paper also discuss existing and new applications of the HIPPS.

  20. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Berry, Robert; Durfee, Neal; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  2. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  3. High-Assurance System Support through 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    Support through 3-D Integration by Theodore Huffmire, Tim Levin, Cynthia Irvine, Thuy Nguyen, Jonathan Valamehr, Ryan Kastner, and Tim...5. FUNDING 6. AUTHOR(S) Theodore Huffmire, Timothy Levin, Cynthia Irvine, Thuy Nguyen, Jonathan Valamehr, Ryan Kastner, and...Assurance System Support Through 3-D Integration Theodore D. Huffmire, Timothy E. Levin, Cynthia E. Irvine, Thuy D. Nguyen, Jonathan D. Valamehr

  4. Highly stable linear carbonate-containing electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate for high-performance cathodes in sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Hyungsub; Kang, Kisuk; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-07-01

    Employing linear carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) as electrolyte solvents provides an opportunity to design appropriate electrolyte systems for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, in practice, the use of linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is quite challenging because linear carbonates readily decompose at Na metal electrodes or sodiated anodes. One of the promising approaches is using an electrolyte additive to resolve the critical problems related to linear carbonates. Our investigation reveals that remarkable enhancement in electrochemical performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathodes with linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is achieved by using a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Importantly, the initial Coulombic efficiency of the Na deposition/stripping on a stainless steel (SS) electrode is drastically improved from 16% to 90% by introducing the FEC additive into ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC)/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M NaClO4. The underlying mechanism of FEC at the electrode-electrolyte interface is clearly demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathode in EC/PC/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) with FEC delivers a discharge capacity of 90.5 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/2 and exhibits excellent capacity retention of 97.5% with high Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% after 300 cycles at 30 °C.

  5. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  6. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  7. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  8. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  9. Cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium-containing drugs: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Korb-Savoldelli, Virginie; Karras, Alexandre; Danchin, Nicolas; Durieux, Pierre; Sabatier, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess dietary sodium is associated with increased blood pressure (BP). Some drugs are associated with high sodium intake (in particular effervescent tablets), but the cardiovascular risk associated with such high sodium-containing drugs (HSCD) is largely underevaluated. Objectives To summarize the evidence for a potential cardiovascular risk associated with exposure to HSCD, and to highlight possible risk factors associated with this iatrogenic issue; in general and/or specific populations. Methods We conducted a systematic review, by searching electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL and grey literature between 1960 and 2015. We included studies that reported modification of cardiovascular parameters or incidence/prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, between a group of subjects exposed to HSCD relative to a non-exposed group. The threshold used to identify HSCD was 391 mg/day. We did not consider studies evaluating exposure to sodium as an active ingredient or those focusing on dialysis solutions or enteral/parenteral nutrition. Study quality was assessed using the EPHPP tool. Results A total of eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Four reported results for short-term exposure to HSCD (≤ 7 days) on BP fluctuations. One study reported an elevation of BP (associated sodium intake: 1,656 mg/day). Four studies evaluated a long-term exposure (≥ 2 years or discontinuation of a chronic treatment). Two studies reported iatrogenic risk. For these studies, drug associated sodium intake was high (> 1,500 mg/day) in patients with comorbidities (in particular, diabetes mellitus and hypertension). Conclusion Despite numerous study limitations, this systematic review suggests three potential synergistic risk factors for cardiovascular complications after exposure to HSCD: a high sodium intake (≥ 1,500 mg/day), a long duration of exposure, and the presence of comorbidities. Further studies are required to characterize this

  10. Consumer Awareness and Preferences Related to Taurine-Containing Drinks in Korean Female High School Students.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Lee, Seon Hwa; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate awareness, consumption patterns, and preferences related to intake experience of taurine-containing drinks (TCD) in Korean female high school students. Study subjects were 335 female high school students residing in Incheon, Korea. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 249 students (74.3%) consumed TCD while 86 students (25.7%) did not. In the TCD consumption group, 66.7% of consumers drank TCD once every 2 or 3 months while most consumers consumed it during the examination period (57.4%). Regarding the effects of TCD intake, 45.8% of students cited 'relieve sleepiness' while 41.8% showed 'no effect'. According to self-reported school records, there were significant differences in intake time of TCD, effects of TCD intake, and degree of interest in TCD (p < 0.05). About 82.7% of all the subjects perceived TCD as an energy drink for fatigue recovery. Degree of interest in TCD (p < 0.001), degree of harmfulness to the body (p < 0.01), and improvement for learning-ability (p < 0.001) had significant effects on intake frequency of TCD. Regarding preferences, 'Vita 500' was preferred by 52.2% of subjects, 'Bacchas' by 20.1%, and 'Hot Six' by 17.3%. Although subjects preferred 'Vita 500' as a caffeine-free TCD, caffeine was perceived as the most abundant ingredients in TCD by 77.1% of subjects, taurine by 16.1%, and vitamin by 4.8%. These results show most Korean female high school students consumed TCD in order to stay awake during the examination periods. Therefore, nutritional education is needed to correct Korean high school students' consumption of TCD.

  11. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area. PMID:11836136

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  13. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  14. A weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid induces esophageal epithelial apoptosis and impairs integrity in an in vivo perfusion rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Pardon, Nicolas A.; Vicario, Maria; Vanheel, Hanne; Vanuytsel, Tim; Ceulemans, Laurens J.; Vieth, Michael; Jimenez, Marcel; Tack, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired esophageal mucosal integrity may be an important contributor in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Nevertheless, the effect of potentially harmful agents on epithelial integrity is mainly evaluated in vitro for a short period of time and the possible induction of epithelial apoptosis has been neglected. Our objective was to assess the effect of an acidic and weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid (DCA) on the esophageal epithelium in an in vivo rabbit model of esophageal perfusion and to evaluate the role of the epithelial apoptosis. The esophagus of 55 anesthetized rabbits was perfused for 30 min with different solutions at pH 7.2, pH 5.0, pH 1.0, and pH 5.0 containing 200 and 500 μM DCA. Thereafter, animals were euthanized immediately or at 24 or 48 h after the perfusion. Transepithelial electrical resistance, epithelial dilated intercellular spaces, and apoptosis were assessed in Ussing chambers, by transmission electron microscopy, and by TUNEL staining, respectively. No macroscopic or major microscopic alterations were observed after the esophageal perfusions. The acidic and weakly acidic solution containing DCA induced similar long-lasting functional impairment of the epithelial integrity but different ultrastructural morphological changes. Only the solution containing DCA induced epithelial apoptosis in vivo and in vitro in rabbit and human tissue. In contrast to acid, a weakly acidic solution containing DCA induces epithelial apoptosis and a long-lasting impaired mucosal integrity. The presence of apoptotic cells in the esophageal epithelium may be used as a marker of impaired integrity and/or bile reflux exposure. PMID:26797397

  15. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-01

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa-1. The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present

  16. Depressurization and two-phase flow of water containing high levels of dissolved nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Depressurization of water containing various concentrations of dissolved nitrogen gas was studied. In a nonflow depressurization experiment, water with very high nitrogen content was depressurized at rates from 0.09 to 0.50 MPa per second and a metastable behavior which was a strong function of the depressurization rate was observed. Flow experiments were performed in an axisymmetric, converging diverging nozzle, a two dimensional, converging nozzle with glass sidewalls, and a sharp edge orifice. The converging diverging nozzle exhibited choked flow behavior even at nitrogen concentration levels as low as 4 percent of the saturation level. The flow rates were independent of concentration level. Flow in the two dimensional, converging, visual nozzle appeared to have a sufficient pressure drop at the throat to cause nitrogen to come out of solution, but choking occurred further downstream. The orifice flow motion pictures showed considerable oscillation downstream of the orifice and parallel to the flow. Nitrogen bubbles appeared in the flow at back pressures as high as 3.28 MPa, and the level at which bubbles were no longer visible was a function of nitrogen concentration.

  17. High strain rate superplasticity in an Al-Mg alloy containing scandium

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Shogo; Horita, Zenji; Nemoto, Minoru; Berbon, P.B.; Langdon, T.G.; Furukawa, Minoru

    1998-05-12

    Superplastic forming is a well-established industrial process for the fabrication of complex shapes in sheet metals. It has been suggested that it may be possible to achieve superplasticity at high strain rates in conventional materials by making a substantial reduction in the grain size. This may be achieved by using a process such as equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, where the sample is subjected to intense plastic straining in simple shear, because it is well established that ECA pressing leads to significant grain refinement in large-grained polycrystalline materials down to the submicrometer or even the nanometer level. High strain rate superplasticity (HSR SP) has been widely documented in a range of metal matrix composites, mechanically alloyed materials and in alloys fabricated using powder metallurgy procedures and very recently there was a report of HSR SP in commercial cast Al-based alloys after ECA pressing. The present investigation was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for achieving HSR SP in an Al-3% Mg alloy containing a scandium addition. Scandium was selected for use in this investigation because it is well established that dilute amounts of scandium in the Al-Mg system lead to a considerable enhancement in both the strength and the thermal stability of the material.

  18. Preparation and optimization of glyceryl behenate-based highly porous pellets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Byun, Woojin; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Park, Eun-Seok

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare a highly porous multiparticulate dosage form containing cilostazol for gastroretentive drug delivery. The floating pellets were prepared with glyceryl behenate as a matrix former and camphor as a sublimating agent by extrusion/spheronization and sublimation under vacuum. Granules prepared with sublimation at 60 °C displayed a slower dissolution rate and smoother surface morphology than those prepared at lower temperatures. This was unexpected as the reported melting point of glyceryl behenate is higher than 69 °C. The DSC study revealed that melting began at a lower temperature owing to the multicomponent property of glyceryl behenate, which led to a sintering effect. The prepared pellets were spherical with unimodal size distribution. They also had porous structures with increased porosity, which led to immediate buoyancy. As cilostazol is a hydrophobic drug that has an erosion-based release mechanism, drug release profile was highly correlated with the percentage of disintegrated pellets. Various excipients were added to the glyceryl behenate-based formulation to increase the floating duration. When hydroxyethyl cellulose was added to the glyceryl behenate-based pellets, acceptable dissolution rate and buoyancy were acquired. This system could potentially be used for gastroretentive delivery of various hydrophobic drugs, which was generally considered difficult.

  19. Interface stability of electrode/Bi-containing relaxor ferroelectric oxide for high-temperature operational capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Kumaragurubaran, Somu; Tsunekawa, Yoshifumi; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Ri, Sung-Gi; Suzuki, Setsu; Oh, Seungjun; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2016-06-01

    The interface stability between electrodes (Pt, TaC, TiC, and RuO2) and a Bi-containing relaxor ferroelectric oxide, BaTiO3-Bi(Mg2/3Nb1/3)O3 (BT-BMN), applied to a high-temperature operational capacitor was investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All the electrodes showed electron filling at the Fermi level after annealing at 400 °C. However, Pt and TaC indicated electrical property degradations due to the thick intermediate layer formation and defect formation of the BT-BMN layer relating to the Bi diffusion into the electrodes. In contrast, TiC inhibited the Bi diffusion and did not show any change in the band alignment after annealing. Furthermore, RuO2 eliminated the defect formation in BT-BMN and showed no change in the band alignment although the Bi diffusion was also observed. These results suggest that the TiC/RuO2/BT-BMN stack structure is a potential candidate for the high-temperature operational capacitor.

  20. Single-Vector, Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccines Against High-Containment Viruses.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Michael A; Geisbert, Thomas W; Mire, Chad E

    2016-01-01

    There are many avenues for making an effective vaccine against viruses. Depending on the virus these can include one of the following: inactivation of whole virions; attenuation of viruses; recombinant viral proteins; non-replication-competent virus particles; or surrogate virus vector systems such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). VSV is a prototypic enveloped animal virus that has been used for over four decades to study virus replication, entry, and assembly due to its ability to replicate to high titers in a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells. The use of reverse genetics to recover infectious and single-cycle replicating VSV from plasmid DNA transfected in cell culture began a revolution in the study of recombinant VSV (rVSV). This platform can be manipulated to study the viral genetic sequences and proteins important in the virus life cycle. Additionally, foreign genes can be inserted between naturally occurring or generated start/stop signals and polyadenylation sites within the VSV genome. VSV has a tolerance for foreign gene expression which has led to numerous rVSVs reported in the literature. Of particular interest are the very effective single-dose rVSV vaccine vectors against high-containment viruses such as filoviruses, henipaviruses, and arenaviruses. Herein we describe the methods for selecting foreign antigenic genes, selecting the location within the VSV genome for insertion, generation of rVSV using reverse genetics, and proper vaccine study designs.

  1. Analysis of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, A.; Smith, J. S.; Laskin, J.

    2009-05-01

    Chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols presents a serious analytical challenge because of the complexity of particulate matter analyte composed of a large number of compounds with a wide range of molecular structures, physico-chemical properties, and reactivity. In this study the chemical composition of the nitrogen containing organic (NOC) constituents of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) samples is characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurements combined with MS/MS fragmentation experiments of selected ions were used to assign molecular structures to individual NOC species. Our results indicate that N-heterocyclic alkaloid compounds - species naturally produced by plants and living organisms - comprise a substantial fraction of NOC in BBA samples collected from test burns of five biomass fuels. High abundance of alkaloids in test burns of ponderosa pine - a widespread tree in the western U.S. areas frequently affected by large scale fires - suggests that N-heterocyclic alkaloids in BBA may play a significant role in dry and wet deposition of fixed nitrogen in this region. Atmospheric processing and chemical transformations of alkaloids in the particulate phase will be discussed.

  2. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    PubMed

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire.

  3. Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2009-12-01

    Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source.

  4. On vortex pairing in several free shear layer containing high Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimy, Mo; Crawley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    There are several free shear flows with-well known Kevin Helmholtz instability, which contain an additional instability mechanism. For example, a jet has shear layer and jet column instabilities, a stalled airfoil has shear layer and wake instabilities, and a cavity flow has a shear layer instability and Rossiter modes. The shear layer's most amplified frequency is normally several times larger than that of the other instability. Typically, the structures associated with the lower frequency instability are observed in the experiments. There is not much information in the literature, especially in high Reynolds number flows, on whether these structures are generated directly or by multiple merging of smaller structures generated by the shear layer instability. Single or multiple merging has been shown in the literature in only low Reynolds number flows (e.g. in jets). Our recent experimental results in high Reynolds number flows excited by plasma actuators seem to show the occurrence of multiple merging events before the observation of lower frequency large-scale coherent structures. The experimental PIV images obtained in jets using reconstructed flow and in stalled airfoils obtained using phase averaging. Supported by AFOSR, ARO, AFRL.

  5. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ultra-High Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C K; Lesuer, D R; Goldberg, A; Tsai, H C; Sherby, O D

    2005-10-03

    The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs containing silicon and tin as solutes. The thermal expansion of UHCSs with dilute aluminum additions shows no discontinuity in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite transformation temperature. This is the result of a three phase region of ferrite, carbides and austenite. The slope of the expansion curve is higher in the austenite range than in the ferrite range as a result of the dissolution of carbon in austenite with temperature. Processing to achieve a fine grain size in UHCS-Al alloys was principally by hot and warm working (HWW) followed by isothermal warm working (IWW). The high temperature mechanical properties of a UHCS-10Al-1.5C material show nearly Newtonian-viscous behavior at 900 to 1000 C. Tensile elongations of 1200% without failure were achieved in the 1.5%C material. The high oxidation corrosion resistance of the UHCS-10Al materials is described.

  6. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ultra-High Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C K; Lesuer, D R; Goldberg, A; Tsai, H; Sherby, O D

    2006-01-31

    The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs containing silicon and tin as solutes. The thermal expansion of UHCSs with dilute aluminum additions shows no discontinuity in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite transformation temperature. This is the result of a three phase region of ferrite, carbides and austenite. The slope of the expansion curve is higher in the austenite range than in the ferrite range as a result of the dissolution of carbon in austenite with temperature. Processing to achieve a fine grain size in UHCS-Al alloys was principally by hot and warm working (HWW) followed by isothermal warm working (IWW). The high temperature mechanical properties of a UHCS-10Al-1.5C material show nearly Newtonian-viscous behavior at 900 to 1000 C. Tensile elongations of 1200% without failure were achieved in the 1.5%C material. The high oxidation corrosion resistance of the UHCS-10Al materials is described.

  7. [Withdrawal of high estrogen containing oral contraceptives and the demand for medical service].

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jorgensen, F; Albertsen, J; Almind, G; Andersen, K; Braae, M; Dybkjaer, L; Frolund, F; Granlie, K; Hald, E; Hald, J; Hector, O; Jacobsen, K; Kaltoft, S; Kjaerulff, E; Mabeck, C D; Magnusson, B; Nielsen, A; Novella, P; Olsen, O M; Pedersen, P A; Rasmussen, I; Strunk, K; Traeden, J B; Veje, J O

    1975-03-24

    The results of a survey are presented conerning the effectiveness of mass media publicity with the public. After oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen were prohibited in Denmark, a telephone survey of 23 doctors was taken to determine the fluctuation in demand for medical information from patients, and the reason for the fluctuation. The reasons were divided into 3 groups: 1) resulting from mass media publicity, 2) resulting from the unavailability of a particular contraceptive, and 3) other. 3 surveys were conducted of the frequency of demand for information on the high estrogen contraceptives, 1 for each of the 2 weeks after the prohibition and withdrawal of the contraceptives took place, and 1 1 month after the prohibition. 2-3% of the inquiries received by the doctors concerned the prohibited contraceptives, and half of these could be attributed directly to the mass media publicity. The number of requests in categories 1 and 2 dropped sharply in the 2nd and 3rd surveys, indicating that the effect of the mass meida publicity and the withdrawal of the contraceptive from the market had only a very immediate effect. It is also shown that the telephone can be used successfully to ascertain the effects of a short-term social phenomenon on the public.

  8. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic α-Galactosyl epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Ganiko, Luciane; Medeiros, Lia C Soares; Miranda, Kildare; Silva, Luiz S; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Almeida, Igor C; Puccia, Rosana

    2011-03-01

    Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic α-linked galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing α-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-α-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal α-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-α-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with α-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying α-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-α-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with α-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after β-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and α-galactosyl epitopes.

  9. Integrating High School and the Community College: Previous Efforts and Current Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Carrie B.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores three incarnations of the idea to integrate high school and the community college--Leonard Koos's 6-4-4 plan of public school organization, Middle College High School, and the early college high school initiative. The author discusses rationales for integrating high school and the first 2 years of college, as well as possible…

  10. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  11. High Sensitivity Planetary Composition Measurements Using Integrating Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. Z.; Retherford, K. D.; Davis, M. W.; Raut, U.; Mandt, K. E.; Mason, J. D.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The desire to understand planetary atmospheres, terrestrial chemistry, or search for potential biological markers often involves optical spectroscopy. We present a new approach to planetary instrumentation based on a novel integrating cavity.

  12. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  13. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  14. Electromagnetic Interactions in High-Speed Integrated Electronic Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Sommerfeld integrals using the fast Fourier transform ," Nat. Radio Science (USNC/URSI) Meeting, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, digest p. 73, Jan...p. 180, Jan. 1989. 3 [12] B. Drachman, M. Cloud, and D. Nyquist, "Accurate evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals using the fast Fourier transform ," to...leads to the transform -domain Hertz potential maintained by currents immersed in the tri-layered environment. The space-domain electric field is recovered

  15. First spectroscopic identification of pyrocarbonate for high CO2 flux membranes containing highly interconnected three dimensional ionic channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Huang, Xinyu; Qin, Changyong; Brinkman, Kyle; Gong, Yunhui; Wang, Siwei; Huang, Kevin

    2013-08-21

    Identification of the existence of pyrocarbonate ion C2O5(2-) in molten carbonates exposed to a CO2 atmosphere provides key support for a newly established bi-ionic transport model that explains the mechanisms of high CO2 permeation flux observed in mixed oxide-ion and carbonate-ion conducting (MOCC) membranes containing highly interconnected three dimensional ionic channels. Here we report the first Raman spectroscopic evidence of C2O5(2-) as an active species involved in the CO2-transport process of MOCC membranes exposed to a CO2 atmosphere. The two new broad peaks centered at 1317 cm(-1) and 1582 cm(-1) are identified as the characteristic frequencies of the C2O5(2-) species. The measured characteristic Raman frequencies of C2O5(2-) are in excellent agreement with the DFT-model consisting of six overlapping individual theoretical bands calculated from Li2C2O5 and Na2C2O5.

  16. Autographa californica Nucleopolyhedrovirus Ac76: a Dimeric Type II Integral Membrane Protein That Contains an Inner Nuclear Membrane-Sorting Motif

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Denghui; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hu, Zhaoyang; Yang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that the Autographa californica Nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac76 gene is essential for both budded virion (BV) and occlusion-derived virion (ODV) development. More importantly, deletion of ac76 affects intranuclear microvesicle formation. However, the exact role by which ac76 affects virion morphogenesis remains unknown. In this report, we characterized the expression, distribution, and topology of Ac76 to further understand the functional role of Ac76 in virion morphogenesis. Ac76 contains an α-helical transmembrane domain, and phase separation showed that it was an integral membrane protein. In AcMNPV-infected cells, Ac76 was detected as a stable dimer that was resistant to SDS and thermal denaturation, and only a trace amount of monomer was detected. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the dimerization of Ac76 by high-affinity self-association. Western blot analyses of purified virions and their nucleocapsid and envelope fractions showed that Ac76 was associated with the envelope fractions of both BVs and ODVs. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Ac76 was localized to the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nuclear membrane, intranuclear microvesicles, and ODV envelope. Amino acids 15 to 48 of Ac76 were identified as an atypical inner nuclear membrane-sorting motif because it was sufficient to target fusion proteins to the ER and nuclear membrane in the absence of viral infection and to the intranuclear microvesicles and ODV envelope during infection. Topology analysis of Ac76 by selective permeabilization showed that Ac76 was a type II integral membrane protein with an N terminus exposed to the cytosol and a C terminus hidden in the ER lumen. PMID:24198428

  17. HIgh b-value and high Resolution Integrated Diffusion (HIBRID) imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiuyun; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Witzel, Thomas; Huang, Susie Y; Wedeen, Van J; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2017-02-07

    The parameter selection for diffusion MRI experiments is dominated by the "k-q tradeoff" whereby the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images is traded for either high spatial resolution (determined by the maximum k-value collected) or high diffusion sensitivity (effected by b-value or the q vector) but usually not both. Furthermore, different brain regions (such as gray matter and white matter) likely require different tradeoffs between these parameters due to the size of the structures to be visualized or the length-scale of the microstructure being probed. In this case, it might be advantageous to combine information from two scans - a scan with high q but low k (high angular resolution in diffusion but low spatial resolution in the image domain) to provide maximal information about white matter fiber crossing, and one low q but high k (low angular resolution but high spatial resolution) for probing the cortex. In this study, we propose a method, termed HIgh b-value and high Resolution Integrated Diffusion (HIBRID) imaging, for acquiring and combining the information from these two complementary types of scan with the goal of studying diffusion in the cortex without compromising white matter fiber information. The white-gray boundary and pial surface obtained from anatomical scans are incorporated as prior information to guide the fusion. We study the complementary advantages of the fused datasets, and assess the quality of the HIBRID data compared to either alone.

  18. The Agrocybe aegerita mitochondrial genome contains two inverted repeats of the nad4 gene arisen by duplication on both sides of a linear plasmid integration site.

    PubMed

    Ferandon, C; Chatel, S El Kirat; Castandet, B; Castroviejo, M; Barroso, G

    2008-03-01

    The Agrocybe aegerita mitochondrial genome possesses two polB genes with linear plasmid origin. The cloning and sequencing of the regions flanking Aa-polB P1 revealed two large inverted repeats (higher than 2421 nt) separated by a single copy region of 5834 nt. Both repeats contain identical copies of the nad4 gene. The single copy region contains two disrupted genes with plasmid origin Aa-polB P1 and a small ORF homologous to a small gene described in two basidiomycete linear plasmids. The phylogenetic analyses argue in favor of a same plasmid origin for both genes but, surprisingly, these genes were separated by a mitochondrial tRNA-Met. Both strands of the complete region containing the two nad4 inverted copies and the tRNA-Met appear to be transcribed on large polycistronic mRNAs. A model summarizing the events that would have occurred is proposed: (1) capture of the tRNA by the plasmid before its integration in the mtDNA or acquisition of the tRNA gene by recombination after the plasmid integration, (2) integration of the plasmid in the mtDNA, accompanied by a large duplication containing the nad4 gene and (3) erosion of the plasmid sequences by large deletions and mutations.

  19. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Manaktala, H.K. . Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. . Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  20. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-03-02

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect.