Science.gov

Sample records for high integrity containers

  1. Crevice corrosion and pitting of high-level waste containers: Integration of deterministic and probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Alloy 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  2. Crevice corrosion {ampersand} pitting of high-level waste containers: integration of deterministic {ampersand} probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  3. CREVICE CORROSION & PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC & PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  4. Effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of high density polyethylene. [Construction material for LLW high-integrity containers

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Arora, H.; Swyler, K.J.; Becker, W.; Sobel, E.

    1986-03-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the short-term tensile and creep properties of Marlex CL-100, a highly cross-linked high-density polyethylene. This material is being considered as a constructional material for a low-level radioactive waste high-integrity container. It was found that the chemical environments studied could be beneficial or detrimental to strength and ductility depending on the type of mechanical property test and the nature of the exposure of the polyethylene to the chemical environment. Gamma irradiation to a sufficiently high dose prior to tensile or creep testing increased the strength and decreased the ductility. In-test irradiation, however, could increase or decrease the creep rate depending on the dose rate and applied stress.

  5. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P; Estill, J; Farmer, J; Hopper, R; Horn, J; Huang, J S; McCright, D; Roy, A; Wang, F; Wilfinger, K

    1999-02-08

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 Gr 55, a carbon steel, or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 G4 55 are favored.

  6. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90{degrees}C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys.

  7. Crevice corrosion {ampersand} pitting of high-level waste containers: the integration of deterministic {ampersand} probabilistic models (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in crevices on the initiation and propagation of pits. A deterministic calculation is used to estimate the accumulation of hydrogen ions (pH suppression) in the crevice solution due to the hydrolysis of dissolved metals. Pit initiation and growth within the crevice is then dealt with by either a probabilistic model, or an equivalent deterministic model. Ultimately, the role of intergranular corrosion will have to be considered. While the strategy presented here is very promising, the integrated model is not yet ready for precise quantitative predictions. Empirical expressions for the rate of penetration based upon experimental crevice corrosion data can be used in the interim period, until the integrated model can be refined. Bounding calculations based upon such empirical expressions can provide important insight into worst-case scenarios.

  8. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  9. High Energy Flywheel Containment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Trase, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel testing facility is being constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility is to be used for life cycle testing of various flywheel rotors. The lifecycle testing consists of spinning a rotor from a low rpm (approx. 20,000 ) to a high rpm (approx. 60,000) and then back to the low rpm. This spin cycle will model that which the rotor will see during use. To simulate the lifetime of the rotor, the spin cycle will be performed tens of thousands of times. A typical life cycle spin test is expected to last six months. During this time the rotor will be spun through a cycle every five minutes. The test will run continuously for the six month period barring a flywheel failure. Since it is not reasonable to have the surrounding area evacuated of personnel for the duration of the testing, the flywheel facility has to be designed to withstand a flywheel rotor failure and insure that there is no danger to any personnel in the adjacent buildings or surrounding areas. In order to determine if the facility can safely contain a flywheel rotor failure an analysis of the facility in conjunction with possible flywheel failure modes was performed. This analysis is intended as a worst case evaluation of the burst liner and vacuum tank's ability to contain a failure. The test chamber consists of a cylindrical stainless steel vacuum tank, two outer steel containment rings, and a stainless steel burst liner. The stainless steel used is annealed 302, which has an ultimate strength of 620 MPa (90,000 psi). A diagram of the vacuum tank configuration is shown. The vacuum tank and air turbine will be located below ground in a pit. The tank is secured in the pit with 0.3 m (12 in.) of cement along the base and the remaining portion of the tank is surrounded by gravel up to the access ports. A 590 kg (1300 lb.) bulkhead is placed on top of the pit during operation and the complete facility is housed within a concrete structure which has 7.5 cm (3 in.) thick walls. A cutaway

  10. Failure assessment techniques to ensure shipping container integrity

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.

    1986-02-01

    This report discusses several methodologies which may be used to ensure the structural integrity of containment systems to be used for the transport and storage of high-level radioactive substances. For economic reasons, shipping containers constructed of ferritic materials are being considered for manufacture by vendors in the US and Europe. Ferritic show an inherent transition from a ductile, high energy failure mode to a brittle, low energy fracture mode with decreasing temperature. Therefore, formal consideration of means by which to avoid unstable brittle fracture is necessary prior to the licensing of ferritic casks. It is suggested that failure of a shipping container wall be defined as occurring when a flaw extends through the outer wall of the containment system. Crack initiation which may lead to unstable brittle crack growth should therefore be prevented. It is suggested that a fundamental linear elastic fracture mechanics (lefm) approach be adopted on a case-by-case basis, applied perhaps by means of appropriate modifications to ASMA Section III or Section XI. A lefm analysis requires information concerning service temperatures, loading rates, flaw sizes, and applied stresses. Tentative judgments regarding these parameters for typical shipping containers have been made.

  11. Flexible Skins Containing Integrated Sensors and Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sensor skins modeled partly in imitation of biological sensor skins are undergoing development. These sensor skins comprise flexible polymer substrates that contain and/or support dense one- and two-dimensional arrays of microscopic sensors and associated microelectronic circuits. They afford multiple tactile sensing modalities for measuring physical phenomena that can include contact forces; hardnesses, temperatures, and thermal conductivities of objects with which they are in contact; and pressures, shear stresses, and flow velocities in fluids. The sensor skins are mechanically robust, and, because of their flexibility, they can be readily attached to curved and possibly moving and flexing surfaces of robots, wind-tunnel models, and other objects that one might seek to equip for tactile sensing. Because of the diversity of actual and potential sensor-skin design criteria and designs and the complexity of the fabrication processes needed to realize the designs, it is not possible to describe the sensor-skin concept in detail within this article.

  12. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qiao; Corradini, Michael

    2016-05-02

    plate may have been underestimated and thus the heat flux had been underestimated. The MELCOR model predicts a film thickness on the order of 100 microns, which agrees very well with film flow model developed in this study for scaling analysis. However, the expected differences in film thicknesses for near vacuum and near atmospheric test conditions are not significant. Further study on the behavior of condensate film is expected to refine the simulation results. Possible refinements include but are not limited to, the followings: CFD simulation focusing on the liquid film behavior and benchmarking with experimental analyses for simpler geometries. 16 1 INTRODUCTION This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). The experimental results are employed to validate the containment condensation model in reactor containment system safety analysis code for integral SMRs. Such a containment condensation model is important to demonstrate the adequate cooling. In the three years of investigation, following the original proposal, the following planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental

  13. Crevice corrosion and pitting of high-level waste containers: a first step towards the integration of deterministic and probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1997-07-01

    An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in crevices on pit initiation and propagation. A deterministic calculation is used to estimate the accumulation of hydrogen ions in the crevice solution due to equilibrium hydrolysis reactions of dissolved metal. Pit initiation and growth within the crevice is dealt with by either a stochastic probability model, or an equivalent deterministic model. While the strategy presented here is very promising, the integrated model is not yet ready for accurate quantitative predictions. Empirical expressions for the rate of penetration based upon experimental crevice corrosion data should be used in the interim period, until the integrated model can be refined. Both approaches are discussed.

  14. In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers.

  15. Highly integrated photonic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmulovich, J.; Frolov, S.; Paunescu, A.; Lee, D. C.; DeHazan, Y.; Hanjani, A.; Bruce, A.

    2006-02-01

    From its foundation Inplane Photonics focused on developing integrated solutions based on Planar Lightwave Circuit(PLC) technology. It is universally agreed that the path to lower cost-per-function in Photonics, as in Electronics, leads to integration. The timing of introduction of a new technological solution and the rate at which it will penetrate the market very much depends on the interplay between the size of the market, advantages the new technology offers, and the investment needed to achieve the level of performance that is envisioned. In telecom applications, where the main drivers for technology selection are cost and performance, such large-scale investment did not materialized yet for the PLC technology mostly due to a limited market size.

  16. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  17. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions that infringe one or...

  18. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS PLASMA CONTAINMENT DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.; Hammel, J.E.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presenied for producing neutrons as a result of collisions between ions in high temperature plasmas. The invention resides in the particular arrangement of ihe device whereby ihe magneiic and electric fields are made to cross at substantially right angles in several places along a torus shaped containment vessel. A plasma of deuterium gas is generated in the vessel under the electric fields and is "trapped" in any one of the "crossed field" regions to produce a release of energy.

  19. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-05-06

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  20. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  1. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  2. High Energy Failure Containment for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pektas, Pete; Baker, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper will be to investigate advancements and any commonality between spacecraft debris containment and the improvements being made in ballistic protection. Scope: This paper will focus on cross application of protection devices and methods, and how they relate to protecting humans from failures in spacecraft. The potential gain is to reduce the risk associated with hardware failure, while decreasing the weight and size of energy containment methods currently being used by the government and commercial industry. Method of Approach: This paper will examine testing that has already been accomplished in regards to the failure of high energy rotating hardware and compare it to advancements in ballistic protection. Examples are: DOT research and testing of turbine containment as documented in DOT/FAA/AR-96/110, DOT/FAA/AR-97/82, DOT/FAA/AR-98/22. It will also look at work accomplished by companies such as ApNano and IBD Deisenroth in the development of nano ceramics and nanometric steels. Other forms of energy absorbent materials and composites will also be considered and discussed. New Advances in State of the Art: There have been numerous advances in technology in regards to high energy debris containment and in the similar field of ballistic protection. This paper will discuss methods such as using impregnated or dry Kevlar, ceramic, and nano-technology which have been successfully tested but are yet to be utilized in spacecraft. Reports on tungsten disulfide nanotubes claim that they are 4-5 times stronger than steel and reports vary about the magnitude increase over Kevlar, but it appears to be somewhere in the range of 2-6 times stronger. This technology could also have applications in the protection of pressure vessels, motor housings, and hydraulic component failures.

  3. Integrated high power VCSEL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    High power VCSEL systems are a novel laser source used for thermal treatment in industrial manufacturing. These systems will be applied in many applications, which have not used a laser source before. This is enabled by the unique combination of efficiency, compactness and robustness. High power VCSEL system technology encompasses elements far beyond the VCSEL chip itself: i.e. heat sinks, bonding technology and integrated optics. This paper discusses the optimization of these components and processes specifically for building high-power laser systems with VCSEL arrays. New approaches help to eliminate components and process steps and make the system more robust and easier to manufacture. New cooler concepts with integrated electrical and mechanical interfaces have been investigated and offer advantages for high power system design. The bonding process of chips on sub-mounts and coolers has been studied extensively and for a variety of solder materials. High quality of the interfaces as well as good reliability under normal operation and thermal cycling have been realized. A viable alternative to soldering is silver sintering. The very positive results which have been achieved with a variety of technologies indicate the robustness of the VCSEL chips and their suitability for high power systems. Beam shaping micro-optics can be integrated on the VCSEL chip in a wafer scale process by replication of lenses in a polymer layer. The performance of VCSEL arrays with integrated collimation lenses has been positively evaluated and the integrated chips are fully compatible with all further assembly steps. The integrated high power systems make the application even easier and more robust. New examples in laser material processing and pumping of solid state lasers are presented.

  4. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions....

  5. 77 FR 35426 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Institution of... within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices... after importation of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices containing same...

  6. PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.

    2010-02-01

    A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

  7. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  8. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  9. Highly Parallel, High-Precision Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-04-22

    This paper describes a scheme for rapidly computing numerical values of definite integrals to very high accuracy, ranging from ordinary machine precision to hundreds or thousands of digits, even for functions with singularities or infinite derivatives at endpoints. Such a scheme is of interest not only in computational physics and computational chemistry, but also in experimental mathematics, where high-precision numerical values of definite integrals can be used to numerically discover new identities. This paper discusses techniques for a parallel implementation of this scheme, then presents performance results for 1-D and 2-D test suites. Results are also given for a certain problem from mathematical physics, which features a difficult singularity, confirming a conjecture to 20,000 digit accuracy. The performance rate for this latter calculation on 1024 CPUs is 690 Gflop/s. We believe that this and one other 20,000-digit integral evaluation that we report are the highest-precision non-trivial numerical integrations performed to date.

  10. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  5. Contained high explosive firing facility (CHEFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, H.L.; Seitz, W.L.; Wackerle, J.; Polcyn, M.; Esparza, E.

    1993-08-01

    A cylindrical vessel capable of totally containing the products and shrapnel resulting from the detonation of 10 kg of TNT (or equivalent) has been designed and built by Southwest Research Institute for and according to the requirements of the Detonation Systems Group (M-7) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The vessel is 6.0-m long by 3.6-m diameter and is manufactured of 50-mm (elliptical end caps) and 38-mm (cylindrical walls) thick high-strength steel (HY-100). The cylindrical walls of the vessel are lined with 13-mm thick replaceable steel plates for shrapnel protection. The floor is made of steel-covered concrete. Ten large-aperture (254 mm) optical ports are available for instrumentation and four ports are provided for cabling and plumbing. Two qualifying detonation tests of 8.8 kg of C-4 explosive (equivalent to 10 kg TNT) have shown that the maximum strain produced is less than 78% of the elastic limit. The vessel is installed in a converted outdoor firing facility that has been modified to include an insulated and heated metal building to house the vessel and additional instrumentation. A computer-based system for data acquisition, firing control, and the monitoring of vessel response is described.

  6. 77 FR 19032 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2888; the Commission is... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same. The complaint...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7567] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2888] Certain Semiconductor...

  7. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and...

  8. Integrating Quality into the Textile and Apparel High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Deborah J. C.; Kadolph, Sara J.; Cosbey, Sarah; Hillery, Julie; Haar, Sherry; Day, Marla; Keiser, Sandra; Brandes, Kendra

    2001-01-01

    Explains the importance of quality assurance in high school textiles and apparel instruction. Describes educational activities that integrate quality assurance concepts (teamwork, continuous improvement, customer focus, and empowerment). (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  9. 77 FR 64826 - Certain Integrated Circuit Chips and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Chips and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation... integrated circuit chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... importation of certain integrated circuit chips and products containing the same that infringe one or more...

  10. Yb3+ borate laser glasses containing high-valency cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumitani, Tetsuro; Hu, Lili; Dai, Shixun; Jiang, Zhonghong

    1999-07-01

    A new kind of Yb3+ borate laser glass containing high valency cations was reported in this work. B2O3-ZnO and B2O3-BaO glasses were chosen as the base glasses of Yb$3+)-BaO glasses were chosen as the base glasses of Yb3+ ions. Yb3+ ion has a large integrated absorption area in the former and longer fluorescent lifetime in the latter. The effect of Al3+, La3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Nb4+ Ta5+, W6+ high valency cations on the absorption and fluorescent behaviors of Ba2O3-ZnO- RmOn-Yb2O3 and B2O3-BaO-RmOn-Yb2O3 glasses was examined. Some Yb3+ borate laser glasses with high cross section for stimulated emissions, good stability, good stability against devitrification and lower non-linear refractive index were presented.

  11. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H.

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  12. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  17. Integrated reactor-containment hyperbolic-cooling-tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.R.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary feasibility analysis has been conducted to evaluate placing a nuclear reactor containment building inside a large hyperbolic cooling tower, a concept previously suggested for fossil-fired units but for reasons other than those that motivate this evaluation. The geometry of the design, the amount of water available, and the shielding provided by the cooling tower are beneficial to the safety characteristics of the containment under accident conditions. Three means of decay heat management are employed: an initial water spray on the containment exterior, long-term air convection on side of the containment, and creation of a water pool inside the containment. A continuously spraying water tank on top of the containment allows for a completely passive decay heat removal system. An annular air chimney around the containment is effective in long-term removal of {approximately} 1O MW (thermal) through air convection. Five percent of the water inventory in the cooling-tower pond surrounding the containment is sufficient to flood the containment interior to a depth of 14.6 ft, thereby providing an internal containment heat sink. The packing and the height of the tower provide major scrubbing and dispersing sources for any uncontrolled radioactive leak. The cooling tower veil also protects the containment from external events such as lane crashes.

  18. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.

  19. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    C.N. Corrado; J.E. Bondaryk; V. Godino

    1998-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and Ieaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containment in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify a technique(s) for inspection of inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary. Acoustic imaging has been identified as one of these potential techniques. A numerical feasibility study investigated the use of high-frequency bistatic acoustic imaging techniques for inspection of inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary of nuclear power plant containment. The range-dependent version of the OASES Code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was utilized to perform a series of numerical simulations. OASES is a well developed and extensively tested code for evaluation of the acoustic field in a system of stratified fluid and/or elastic layers. Using the code, an arbitrary number of fluid or solid elastic layers are interleaved, with the outer layers modeled as halfspaces. High frequency vibrational sources were modeled to simulate elastic waves in the steel. The received field due to an arbitrary source array can be calculated at arbitrary depth and range positions. In this numerical study, waves that reflect and scatter from surface roughness caused by modeled degradations (e.g., corrosion) are detected and used to identify and map the steel degradation. Variables in the numerical study included frequency, flaw size, interrogation distance, and sensor incident angle.Based on these analytical simulations, it is considered unlikely that acoustic imaging technology can be used to investigate embedded steel liners of reinforced concrete containment. The thin steel liner and high signal losses to the concrete make this application difficult. Results for portions of steel containment

  20. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit... semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1,...

  1. 75 FR 43553 - In the Matter of Certain Encapsulated Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Encapsulated Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same..., and sale within the United States after importation of certain encapsulated integrated circuit devices... encapsulated integrated circuit devices and products contains same in connection with claims 1- 4, 7, 17,...

  2. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits... infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain Seagate hard disk drives that contain...

  3. 78 FR 10635 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same, DN 2938..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit devices...

  4. High G MEMS integrated accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Barron, C.C.; Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Murray, J.R.; Christenson, T.R.; Bateman, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a surface micromachined accelerometer for measuring very high levels of acceleration (up to 50,000 G). Both the mechanical and electronic portions of the sensor were integrated on a single substrate using a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor were first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the water substrate. The trench was then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface was then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing using Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Next, the CMOS electronics were fabricated on areas of the wafer adjacent to the embedded structures. Finally, the mechanical structures were released and the sensor tested. The mechanical structure of the sensor consisted of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. The first polysilicon plate mass was suspended using compliant springs (cantilever beams) and acted as a variable capacitor during sensor acceleration. The second polysilicon plate mass was suspended using very stiff springs and acted as a fixed capacitor during acceleration. Acceleration was measured by comparing the capacitance of the variable capacitor (compliant suspension) with the fixed capacitance (stiff suspension).

  5. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  6. Silica containing highly porous alumina ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svinka, R.; Svinka, V.; Zake, I.

    2011-04-01

    Porous alumina ceramic were produced by slip casting of aqueous alumina slurry with added small amount of metallic aluminium powder. Pores form in result of chemical reaction of aluminum with water by hydrogen gas evolution reaction and solidification of suspension. Porosity of such materials sintered at a temperature of 1600 - 1750°C varies from 60 to 90%. Pore size distribution and mechanical strength of these materials depend largely on the grain size of used raw materials. The major part of pores in the materials produced without additive of silica are larger than 10 ±m, but with 5 - 10 wt.% additive of silica in the raw mix pore size decreases considerably. The sintering shrinkage decreases to 2.5%. Coefficient of thermal expansion equally decreases from 8.9-10-6 K-1 to 7.1 10-6 K-1 and classification temperature increases to 1600°C, while deformation at high temperature decreases considerably.

  7. 77 FR 39510 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated...

  8. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten...

  9. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  10. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  11. Solution methods for very highly integrated circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Nong, Ryan; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Chen, Yao; Mei, Ting; Santarelli, Keith R.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-12-01

    While advances in manufacturing enable the fabrication of integrated circuits containing tens-to-hundreds of millions of devices, the time-sensitive modeling and simulation necessary to design these circuits poses a significant computational challenge. This is especially true for mixed-signal integrated circuits where detailed performance analyses are necessary for the individual analog/digital circuit components as well as the full system. When the integrated circuit has millions of devices, performing a full system simulation is practically infeasible using currently available Electrical Design Automation (EDA) tools. The principal reason for this is the time required for the nonlinear solver to compute the solutions of large linearized systems during the simulation of these circuits. The research presented in this report aims to address the computational difficulties introduced by these large linearized systems by using Model Order Reduction (MOR) to (i) generate specialized preconditioners that accelerate the computation of the linear system solution and (ii) reduce the overall dynamical system size. MOR techniques attempt to produce macromodels that capture the desired input-output behavior of larger dynamical systems and enable substantial speedups in simulation time. Several MOR techniques that have been developed under the LDRD on 'Solution Methods for Very Highly Integrated Circuits' will be presented in this report. Among those presented are techniques for linear time-invariant dynamical systems that either extend current approaches or improve the time-domain performance of the reduced model using novel error bounds and a new approach for linear time-varying dynamical systems that guarantees dimension reduction, which has not been proven before. Progress on preconditioning power grid systems using multi-grid techniques will be presented as well as a framework for delivering MOR techniques to the user community using Trilinos and the Xyce circuit simulator

  12. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  13. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S....

  14. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  15. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  16. 76 FR 58041 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Renesas Electronics Corporation of Japan and 511... certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason...

  17. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is...

  18. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is...

  19. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is...

  20. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is...

  1. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is...

  2. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200{degree}C (392{degree}F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  4. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits,...

  5. 77 FR 57589 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions... found that those Zoran products that were adjudicated in Integrated Circuits I are precluded under the... recommended a limited exclusion order barring entry of Zoran's and MediaTek's infringing integrated...

  6. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  7. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  8. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. III: Validation of the helium leak rate method for rigid pharmaceutical containers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Validation of a helium leak rate method for pharmaceutical container/closure integrity quality assurance required the demonstration that this physical testing method was as good or better than microbial immersion challenge testing in detecting potential integrity failures. One lot of rubber-stoppered, broth-filled glass vials also containing defective vials with known leaks were subjected to both helium leak rate and microbial challenge testing. The defective vials were prepared by affixing glass micropipettes (0.1 to 10 microns) into the vial side walls. The validation lot included a 10% seeded defect rate of which about 50% contained leaks with a predicted probability of failing a microbial challenge (> 10%). Helium tracer was placed in the test units by charging them for 4 hours under a 40 psi helium pressure. The critical leak rate after charging was determined to be 10(-7) standard cc/second, and test units with measured leak rates greater than this value were considered helium leak rate failures. Microbial immersion challenge was conducted by exposing the test units in a bath inoculated with 10(9-10) viable E. coli and B. diminuta organisms for 24 hours followed by a 13 day (35 degrees C) incubation. Microbial failures were determined visually. The helium and microbial leak test methods were compared statistically using mean failure rates. The mean helium failure rate was 6.9%, whereas the mean microbial failure rate was 2.8%. The difference between helium and microbial failure rates was significantly greater than zero. Thus, helium leak rate testing was demonstrated to be a suitable pharmaceutical container/closure integrity method for microbial quality assurance of rigid containers.

  9. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Generator: Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-25

    included: − material barriers such as thermal blankets, glass bubbles and aerogels , − encapsulation with high molecular weight gases (e.g. Xenon... aerogels impregnated with radiation scattering particles (investigated at the thermoelectric group in the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Thrust

  10. Integrated Nutrition Education: Senior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Designed for implementation across the school year in existing curriculum areas, 18 nutrition activity units for high school students are provided. Each activity unit consists of a list of coordinated curriculum areas, a statement of objectives, guidelines for teachers, a list of learning activities, and bibliographic citations. Various…

  11. 77 FR 67833 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation in its Entirety AGENCY:...

  12. 77 FR 40381 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation...

  13. Integrating smart container technology into existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, Dale; Pysareva, Khrystyna; Rucinski, Andrzej

    2006-05-01

    While there has been important research and development in the area of smart container technologies, no system design methodologies have yet emerged for integrating this technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure. A successful deployment of smart containers requires a precise understanding of how to integrate this new technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure, how to establish communication interoperability, and how to establish procedures and protocols related to the operation of smart containers. In addition, this integration needs to be seamless, unobtrusive to commerce, and cost-effective. In order to address these issues, we need to answer the following series of questions: 1) Who will own and operate the smart container technology; 2) Who will be responsible for monitoring the smart container data and notifying first responders; 3) What communication technologies currently used by first responders might be adopted for smart container data transmission; and 4) How will existing cargo manifest data be integrated into smart container data. In short, we need to identify the best practices for smart container ownership and operation. In order to help provide answers to these questions, we have surveyed a sample group of representatives from law enforcement, first responder, regulatory, and private sector organizations. This paper presents smart container infrastructure best practices recommendations obtained from the results of the survey.

  14. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  15. 77 FR 66481 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and... collectively filed a motion to stay the procedural schedule pending the completion of Certain...

  16. 78 FR 16533 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit devices and... sale for importation, and/or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  17. 60 kilograms high explosive containment with multi-diagnostic capability

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, L F

    1998-09-17

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60 kilogram (kg) firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high explosives, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste.

  18. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs). PMID:26270958

  19. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs).

  20. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-08-13

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs).

  1. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-09-22

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent.

  2. Insights into the structural determinants required for high-affinity binding of chiral cyclopropane-containing ligands to α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: an integrated approach to behaviorally active nicotinic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-Kun; Eaton, J Brek; Yu, Li-Fang; Nys, Mieke; Mazzolari, Angelica; van Elk, René; Smit, August B; Alexandrov, Vadim; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Fedolak, Allison; Brunner, Daniela; Lukas, Ronald J; Vistoli, Giulio; Ulens, Chris; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-09-27

    Structure-based drug design can potentially accelerate the development of new therapeutics. In this study, a cocrystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from Capitella teleta (Ct) in complex with a cyclopropane-containing selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist (compound 5) was acquired. The structural determinants required for ligand binding obtained from this AChBP X-ray structure were used to refine a previous model of the human α4β2-nAChR, thus possibly providing a better understanding of the structure of the human receptor. To validate the potential application of the structure of the Ct-AChBP in the engineering of new α4β2-nAChR ligands, homology modeling methods, combined with in silico ADME calculations, were used to design analogues of compound 5. The most promising compound, 12, exhibited an improved metabolic stability in comparison to the parent compound 5 while retaining favorable pharmacological parameters together with appropriate behavioral end points in the rodent studies.

  3. Insights into the Structural Determinants Required for High Affinity Binding of Chiral Cyclopropane-Containing Ligands to α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; An Integrated Approach to Behaviorally Active Nicotinic Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han-Kun; Eaton, J. Brek; Yu, Li-Fang; Nys, Mieke; Mazzolari, Angelica; van Elk, René; Smit, August B.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Fedolak, Allison; Brunner, Daniela; Lukas, Ronald J.; Vistoli, Giulio; Ulens, Chris; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based drug design can potentially accelerate the development of new therapeutics. In this study, a co-crystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from Capitella teleta (Ct) in complex with a cyclopropane-containing, selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist (compound 5) was acquired. The structural determinants required for ligand binding obtained from this AChBP X-ray structure were used to refine our previous model of the human α4β2-nAChR, thus possibly providing a better understanding of the structure of the human receptor. In order to validate the potential application of the structure of the Ct-AChBP in the engineering of new α4β2-nAChR ligands, homology modeling methods, combined with in silico ADME calculations, were used to design analogs of compound 5. The most promising compound 12, exhibited an improved metabolic stability in comparison to the parent compound 5 while retaining favorable pharmacological parameters together with appropriate behavioral endpoints in the rodent studies. PMID:22928944

  4. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Walter H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly a enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel.

  5. Project management techniques for highly integrated programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. F.; Bauer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The management and control of a representative, highly integrated high-technology project, in the X-29A aircraft flight test project is addressed. The X-29A research aircraft required the development and integration of eight distinct technologies in one aircraft. The project management system developed for the X-29A flight test program focuses on the dynamic interactions and the the intercommunication among components of the system. The insights gained from the new conceptual framework permitted subordination of departments to more functional units of decisionmaking, information processing, and communication networks. These processes were used to develop a project management system for the X-29A around the information flows that minimized the effects inherent in sampled-data systems and exploited the closed-loop multivariable nature of highly integrated projects.

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  8. Eddy Current Analysis of Thin Metal Container in Induction Heating by Line Integral Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hagino; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    In recent years, induction-heating cookers have been disseminated explosively. It is wished to commercialize flexible and disposable food containers that are available for induction heating. In order to develop a good quality food container that is heated moderately, it is necessary to analyze accurately eddy currents induced in a thin metal plate. The integral equation method is widely used for solving induction-heating problems. If the plate thickness approaches zero, the surface integral equations on the upper and lower plate surfaces tend to become the same and the equations become ill conditioned. In this paper, firstly, we derive line integral equations from the boundary integral equations on the assumption that the electromagnetic fields in metal are attenuated rapidly compared with those along the metal surface. Next, so as to test validity of the line integral equations, we solve the eddy current induced in a thin metal container in induction heating and obtain power density given to the container and impedance characteristics of the heating coil. We compare computed results with those by FEM.

  9. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  10. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  11. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-07-20

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements.

  13. Release kinetics of highly porous floating tablets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Tung, Nguyen-Thach; Kim, Ju-Young; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

    2017-02-20

    This study focuses on developing a highly porous floating tablet containing cilostazol. The underlying release mechanism of cilostazol from porous and floating tablets in dissolution media containing surfactants was investigated. The tablets were prepared by compressing granules and excipients with a sublimating agent, followed by sublimation under vacuum. The volatile material for the sublimating agent was chosen based on its flow properties using conventional methods as well as the twisted blade method. Resultant tablets could float immediately and had significantly higher tensile strengths than conventional tablets of similar porosities, holding a promising potential for increasing gastroretentive properties. Fitting the release profiles to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicated Super Case II, Case II and non-Fickian kinetics, which implied that the release was affected by both floating behavior and matrix erosion. Abrupt changes in release kinetic parameters and erosional behaviors were found between the tablets containing different amounts of HPMC, indicating the existence of an excipient percolation threshold. Neither the surfactant in the media nor the porosity affected the dominant release mechanism, which was matrix erosion. Understanding the dominant release mechanism and percolation threshold allows for tuning the formulation to obtain various release profiles.

  14. High-performance electrically conductive silver paste prepared by silver-containing precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Wang, Xiaoye; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2010-09-01

    A high-performance electrically conductive silver paste with no solid particles before drying and/or sintering is developed, in which silver-containing precursor is employed as conductive functional phase. Thermogravimetry analysis, volume electrical resistivity tests and sintering experiments show that the paste with about 14 wt.% silver pristine content is able to achieve the volume electrical resistivity of (2-3) ×10-5 Ω cm after it is sintered at 220°C. A micro-pen direct-writing process indicates that it is very suitable for the fabrication of high-resolution (25 μm) and high-integration devices and apparatus.

  15. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities.

  16. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP`s Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE`s site restoration activities.

  17. High order path integrals made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-01

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  18. High piezoelectric properties of cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huang Hsing; Yang, Ruei-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    To obtain high piezoelectric properties, PZT/cement composites with kaolin were fabricated and polarized by 1.5kV/mm electric field for 40 min, where lead zirconate titanate (PZT) inclusion with 50% by volume was used. After the polarization, piezoelectric properties of the composite were measured daily till 100 days. Results indicated that relative dielectric constant (ɛr) and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) increase with aging day, and approach to asymptotic values after 70 days. Temperature treatment to the composite is a dominate factor to enhance piezoelectric properties. The d33 and ɛr values of PZT/cement composites treated at the ambient temperature (23℃) were 57pC/N and 275 at the 70th aging day respectively, and then reached 106pC/N and 455 in turn with 150℃ treatment. The composite contains 4% kaolin having the highest value of d33=111pC/N and ɛr=500 at 90 days because the porosity is the less than the others. Cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin own the higher d33 and ɛr value, compared with the other reported composites with 50% PZT. The porosity, the electromechanical coupling factor and impedance-frequency spectra of the cement piezoelectric composites were also discussed.

  19. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    PubMed

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  20. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeldin, Arkady; Carciello, Neal; Kukacka, Lawrence; Fontana, Jack

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  1. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Kukacka, L.; Fontana, J.

    High temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10 to 30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture is described. It consists essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures thereof. About 70 to 90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, carbon black or mixtures thereof. Optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobyutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides are used to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  2. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.; Zeldin, A.

    1980-11-04

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, nphenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, fe2o3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tertbutyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  3. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  4. High-energy sources before INTEGRAL. INTEGRAL reference catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Bourban, G.; Bodaghee, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2003-11-01

    We describe the INTEGRAL reference catalog which classifies previously known bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources before the launch of INTEGRAL. These sources are, or have been at least once, brighter than ~ 1 mCrab above 3 keV, and are expected to be detected by INTEGRAL. This catalog is being used in the INTEGRAL Quick Look Analysis to discover new sources or significantly variable sources. We compiled several published X-ray and gamma-ray catalogs, and surveyed recent publications for new sources. Consequently, there are 1122 sources in our INTEGRAL reference catalog. In addition to the source positions, we show an approximate spectral model and expected flux for each source, based on which we derive expected INTEGRAL counting rates. Assuming the default instrument performances and at least ~ 105 s exposure time for any part of the sky, we expect that INTEGRAL will detect at least ~ 700 sources below 10 keV and ~ 400 sources above 20 keV over the mission life. The Catalog is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/411/L59

  5. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  6. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  7. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume II. The Challenges of Implementing Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the challenges of integrating high school vocational and academic curricula to provide education through occupations: "Components of a Complex Reform" (W. Norton Grubb); "Integrating Vocational and Academic Education: Lessons from Early Innovators" (Kimberly Ramsey et al.);…

  8. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  9. Results of direct containment heating integral experiments at 1/40th scale at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-09-01

    A series of integral tests have been completed that investigate the effect of scale and containment atmosphere initial composition on Direct Containment Heating (DCH) phenomena at 1/40 linear scale. A portion of these experiments were performed as counterparts to integral experiments conducted at 1/10th linear scale at Sandia National Laboratories. The tests investigated DCH phenomena in a 1/40th scale mockup of Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry. The test apparatus was a scaled down version of the SNL apparatus and included models of the reactor vessel lower head, containment cavity, instrument tunnel, lower subcompartment structures and the upper dome. A High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) was produced using steam as a blowdown gas and iron-alumina thermite with chromium as a core melt simulant. The results of the counterpart experiments indicated no effect of scale on debris/gas heat transfer and debris metal oxidation with steam. However, the tests indicated a slight effect of scale on hydrogen combustion, the results indicating slightly more efficient combustion with increasing scale. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the subcompartment structures in trapping debris exiting the cavity and preventing it from reaching the upper dome. The test results also indicated that a 50% air -- 50% steam atmosphere prevented hydrogen combustion. However, a 50% air - 50% nitrogen did not prevent hydrogen combustion in a HPME with all other conditions being nominally the same.

  10. High-authority smart material integrated electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisensel, G. N.; Pierce, Thomas D.; Zunkel, Gary

    1997-05-01

    For many current applications, hydraulic power is still the preferred method of gaining mechanical advantage. However, in many of these applications, this power comes with the penalties of high weight, size, cost, and maintenance due to the system's distributed nature and redundancy requirements. A high authority smart material Integrated Electric Actuator (IEA) is a modular, self-contained linear motion device that is capable of producing dynamic output strokes similar to those of hydraulic actuators yet at significantly reduced weight and volume. It provides system simplification and miniaturization. This actuator concept has many innovative features, including a TERFENOL-D-based pump, TERFENOL-D- based active valves, control algorithms, a displacement amplification unit and integrated, unitized packaging. The IEA needs only electrical power and a control command signal as inputs to provide high authority, high response rate actuation. This approach is directly compatible with distributed control strategies. Aircraft control, automotive brakes and fuel injection, and fluid power delivery are just some examples of the IEA's pervasive applications in aerospace, defense and commercial systems.

  11. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume I. Approaches to Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining approaches to integrating high school vocational and academic curricula in U.S. high schools to provide education through occupations: "Resolving the Paradox of the High School" (W. Norton Grubb); "'The Cunning Hand, the Cultured Mind': Sources of Support for Curriculum…

  12. High Schoolers' Views on Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla Nola; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The issue of academic integrity in cheating on exams and plagiarising in writing is not a new one. All schools need to address this problem and some more than others. In the L2 context, the issues become more complex as non-native students need to adhere to the "culture of learning" of a Western model of academic integrity if they are to…

  13. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  14. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components-core histones-that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Histone Sequence Database is a curated collection of sequences and structures of histones and non-histone proteins containing histone folds, assembled from major public databases. Here, we report a substantial increase in the number of sequences and taxonomic coverage for histone and histone fold-containing proteins available in the database. Additionally, the database now contains an expanded dataset that includes archaeal histone sequences. The database also provides comprehensive multiple sequence alignments for each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the linker histones (H1/H5) and the archaeal histones. The database also includes current information on solved histone fold-containing structures. The Histone Sequence Database is an inclusive resource for the analysis of chromatin structure and function focused on histones and histone fold-containing proteins.

  15. Integrated process for high conversion and high yield protein PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, PEGylation has become a powerful technique to increase the in vivo circulation half-life of therapeutic proteins while maintaining their activity. The development of new therapeutic proteins is likely to require further improvement of the PEGylation methods to reach even better selectivity and yield for reduced costs. The intensification of the PEGylation process was investigated through the integration of a chromatographic step in order to increase yield and conversion for the production of mono-PEGylated protein. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the feasibility of such approach. In the integrated reaction/separation process, chromatography was used as fractionation technique in order to isolate and recycle the unreacted protein from the PEGylated products. This allows operating the reactor with short reaction times so as to minimize the production of multi-PEGylated proteins (i.e., conjugated to more than one polymer). That is, the reaction is stopped before the desired product (i.e., the mono-PEGylated protein) can further react, thus leading to limited conversion but high yield. The recycling of the unreacted protein was then considered to drive the protein overall conversion to completion. This approach has great potential to improve processes whose yield is limited by the further reaction of the product leading to undesirable by-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1711-1718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heterogeneous Integration, An Approach to High Density and High Flexibility Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, S. A.; Schatzel, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Key to the design of spacecraft for exploration of the outer planets will be the development of highly integrated and mass/volume efficient electronic systems. Exploration of the outer planets will require optimized propulsion approaches which mandates mass minimization. If one looks at a mission such as the Europa Lander, a high mass/volume efficiency feeds back directly into lower mass for radiation shielding. Concurrently the long mission lengths will drive the need for fault isolation and fault tolerance. The ability to build distributed electronic systems is an inherent requirement and one which is enabled by heterogeneous integration. The electronic packaging approach must be capable of interconnecting various components at a scale comparable with that on the components themselves (chip scale) and it must facilitate efficient integration of the electronics with elements of the spacecraft such as structure or antennae. The concept of 'Heterogeneous Integration' is being explored in the System On A Chip (SOAC) Project at JPL. The goal, of this approach to electronic packaging, is to enable the fabrication and assembly of complete electronic subsystems from components fabricated by a range of processes. Included in such a system could be MEMS sensors, SOI mixed signal ASICs, micro scale passive components and micro power. Secondarily the compact size will enable distributed architectures and integrated assemblies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys in modified-simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Raman, R K Singh

    2008-05-01

    The successful applications of magnesium-based alloys as degradable orthopaedic implants are mainly inhibited due to their high degradation rates in physiological environment and consequent loss in the mechanical integrity. This study examines the degradation behaviour and the mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys using electrochemical techniques and slow strain rate test (SSRT) method, respectively, in modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF). Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that calcium addition enhances the general and pitting corrosion resistances of magnesium alloys significantly. The corrosion current was significantly lower in AZ91Ca alloy than that in AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, AZ91Ca alloy exhibited a five-fold increase in the surface film resistance than AZ91 alloy. The SSRT results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to fracture of AZ91Ca alloy in m-SBF decreased only marginally (approximately 15% and 20%, respectively) in comparison with these properties in air. The fracture morphologies of the failed samples are discussed in the paper. The in vitro study suggests that calcium-containing magnesium alloys to be a promising candidate for their applications in degradable orthopaedic implants, and it is worthwhile to further investigate the in vivo corrosion behaviour of these alloys.

  18. Container Closure Integrity Testing - Practical Aspects and Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mellman, James; Nieto, Alejandra; Wagner, Daniel; Schaar, Matthias; Mathaes, Roman; Kossinna, Juergen; Schmitting, Franz; Dreher, Sascha; Roehl, Holger; Hemminger, Markus; Wuchner, Klaus

    2016-10-27

    The assurance of sterility of a parenteral drug product, prior to any human use, is a regulatory requirement. Hence, all strategies related to container closure integrity (CCI) must demonstrate absence of microbial contamination through leaks as part of the container closure system (CCS) qualification, during manufacturing, for Quality Control purposes and to ensure microbiological integrity (sterility) during storage and shipment up to the end of product shelf life. Current regulatory guidances, which differ between countries and regions, provide limited detail on how to assess CCI. The new revision of USP <1207> aims to provide extensive and detailed guidance for CCI assessments for sterile products. However, practical questions and considerations are yet to be addressed by the pharmaceutical industry. These may include: (i) choice of method, e.g., whether a deterministic CCI method (e.g., helium leak) is preferable over probabilistic CCI method (e.g., microbial ingress), (ii) the type of primary packaging (e.g., vial, syringe, device) and (iii) dosage form (e.g., liquid vs lyophilisate), (iv) suitable acceptance criteria and (v) appropriate sample size, (vi) the most appropriate way to introduce artificial leaks into the CCS, (vii) ensure suitable assurance of CCI during Drug Product manufacturing, (viii) evaluate CCI under intended shipment and storage conditions (e.g., in the frozen state). A group of European industry peers have met to discuss these and other related questions in order to provide their viewpoint and best-practice on practical approaches to CCI. Their perspective is provided in this white paper. Through these discussions, it became clear that there is currently no gold standard for CCI test methods or for the generation of artificial leaks; therefore flexibility towards CCI approaches is required. Although there should be flexibility, any CCI approach must consider the intended use (e.g., CCS qualification, routine manufacturing, or Quality

  19. Self-contained sub-millimeter wave rectifying antenna integrated circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a monolithic semiconductor integrated circuit in which is formed an antenna, such as a slot dipole antenna, connected across a rectifying diode. In the preferred embodiment, the antenna is tuned to received an electromagnetic wave of about 2500 GHz so that the device is on the order of a wavelength in size, or about 200 microns across and 30 microns thick. This size is ideal for mounting on a microdevice such as a microrobot for example. The antenna is endowed with high gain in the direction of the incident radiation by providing a quarter-wavelength (30 microns) thick resonant cavity below the antenna, the cavity being formed as part of the monolithic integrated circuit. Preferably, the integrated circuit consists of a thin gallium arsenide membrane overlying the resonant cavity and supporting an epitaxial Gallium Arsenide semiconductor layer. The rectifying diode is a Schottky diode formed in the GaAs semiconductor layer and having an area that is a very small fraction of the wavelength of the 2500 GHz incident radiation. The cavity provides high forward gain in the antenna and isolation from surrounding structure.

  20. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 2. Comparison to dye ingress tests.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    Part 1 of this series demonstrated that a container closure integrity test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method using a VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak tester by Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC (PTI) is capable of detecting leaks > or = 5.0 microm (nominal diameter) in rigid, nonporous package systems, such as prefilled glass syringes. The current study compared USP, Ph.Eur. and ISO dye ingress integrity test methods to PTI's vacuum decay technology for the detection of these same 5-, 10-, and 15-microm laser-drilled hole defects in 1-mL glass prefilled syringes. The study was performed at three test sites using several inspectors and a variety of inspection conditions. No standard dye ingress method was found to reliably identify all holed syringes. Modifications to these standard dye tests' challenge conditions increased the potential for dye ingress, and adjustments to the visual inspection environment improved dye ingress detection. However, the risk of false positive test results with dye ingress tests remained. In contrast, the nondestructive vacuum decay leak test method reliably identified syringes with holes > or = 5.0 microm.

  1. Covalently antibacterial alginate-chitosan hydrogel dressing integrated gelatin microspheres containing tetracycline hydrochloride for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huinan; Xing, Xiaodong; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zhou, Tianle; Chen, Yong; Ling, Zhonghua; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    An antibacterial and biodegradable composite hydrogel dressing integrated with microspheres is developed for drug delivery and wound healing. The mechanism of gelation is attributed to the Schiff-base reaction between aldehyde and amino groups of oxidized alginate (OAlg) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). To enhance antibacterial and mechanical properties, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) loaded gelatin microspheres (GMs) were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by integrating into the OAlg-CMCS hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. In vitro gelation time, swelling, degradation, compressive modulus and rheological properties of the gel dressing were investigated as the function of microsphere ratios. With increasing ratios of microspheres from 10 to 40mg/mL, the composite dressing manifested shorter gelation time and lower swelling ratios, as well as higher mechanical strength. Comparing to other formulations, the gel dressing with 30mg/mL microspheres showed more suitable stabilities and mechanical properties for wound healing. Also, in vitro drug release results showed that the loaded TH could be sustained release from the composite gel dressing by contrast with pure hydrogels and microspheres. Furthermore, powerful bacteria growth inhibition effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus suggested that the composite gel dressing, especially the one with 30mg/mL GMs containing TH, has a promising future in treatment of bacterial infection.

  2. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D.

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  3. Recombinant bacteriophages containing the integrated transforming provirus of Gardner--Arnstein feline sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, L A; Even, J; Garon, C F; Donner, L; Sherr, C J

    1981-01-01

    The integrated DNA provirus of the Gardner-Arnstein (GA) strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) was molecularly cloned in a bacteriophage lambda vector. The cloned DNA fragment is 14.4 kilobase pairs long and contains a 6.7-kilobase provirus flanked by cellular sequences derived from nonproductively transformed mink cells. Transfection of mouse NIH/3T3 cells with the cloned DNA fragment induced foci of transformation at efficiencies of 10(4) focus-forming units/pmol of sarcoma virus DNA. Restriction endonuclease mapping and heteroduplex analyses were used to compare the GA-FeSV provirus with that of Snyder-Theilen (ST)-FeSV, a second strain that contains homologous transformation-specific sequences (v-fes). Both viruses have the general structure 5'-gag-fes-env-c region-3', each having retained portions of the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag and env genes. In addition to segments shared by the two sarcoma viruses, GA-FeSV contains 1.7 kilobases of extra sequences not found in ST-FeSV. Of these, at least 400-500 base pairs located near the 5' end of v-fes encode a portion of the GA-FeSV polyprotein; the remaining 1.2 kilobases are derived from the FeLV env gene but do not appear to encode any detectable product related to the FeLV envelope glycoprotein. The close homology of the v-fes sequences shows that GA- and ST-FeSV were formed by recombination of FeLV with similar portions of a cat cellular gene (c-fes). Images PMID:6270655

  4. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  5. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  6. Numerical Integration with GeoGebra in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herceg, Dorde; Herceg, Dragoslav

    2010-01-01

    The concept of definite integral is almost always introduced as the Riemann integral, which is defined in terms of the Riemann sum, and its geometric interpretation. This definition is hard to understand for high school students. With the aid of mathematical software for visualisation and computation of approximate integrals, the notion of…

  7. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  8. Highly inducible expression from vectors containing multiple GRE's in CHO cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Israel, D I; Kaufman, R J

    1989-01-01

    A conditional glucocorticoid-responsive expression vector system is described for highly inducible expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells. This host-vector system requires high level expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the host cell and multiple copies of the receptor binding site within the expression vector. Transfection and selection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with expression vectors encoding the rat GR yielded cell lines which express functional receptor at high levels. Insertion of multiple copies of the MMTV enhancer (glucocorticoid responsive element, GRE) into an Adenovirus major late promoter (AdMLP) based expression vector yielded greater than 1000-fold inducible expression by dexamethasone (dex) in transient DNA transfection assays. The induced expression level was 7-fold greater than that obtained with an AdMLP based vector containing an SV40 enhancer, but lacking GRE's. Vectors containing the SV40 enhancer in combination with multiple GRE's exhibited elevated basal expression in the absence of dex, but retained inducibility in both transient assays and after integration and amplification in the CHO genome. This expression system should be of general utility for studying gene regulation and for expressing heterologous genes in a regulatable fashion. Images PMID:2546123

  9. Dissociation energies of some high temperature molecules containing aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometric method has been used to investigate the gaseous molecules Al2, AlSi,AlSiO, AlC2, Al2C2, and AlAuC2. Special attention was given to the experimental considerations and techniques needed to identify and to measure ion intensities for very low abundance molecular species. Second- and third-law procedures were used to obtain reaction enthalpies for pressure calibration independent and isomolecular exchange reactions. Dissociation energies for the molecules were derived from the measured ion intensities, free-energy functions obtained from estimated molecular constants, and auxiliary thermodynamic data. The bonding and stability of these aluminum containing molecules are compared with other similar species.

  10. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  11. Loneliness, Social Integration and Consumption of Sugar-Containing Beverages: Testing the Social Baseline Theory

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Methods Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Results Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. Conclusions This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline

  12. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  13. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  14. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  15. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  16. High-temperature zirconia microthruster with an integrated flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Palmer, Kristoffer; Ericson, Fredric; Thornell, Greger

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a ceramic, heated cold-gas microthruster device made with silicon tools and high temperature co-fired ceramic processing. The device contains two opposing thrusters, each with an integrated calorimetric propellant flow sensor and a heater in the stagnation chamber of the nozzle. The exhaust from a thruster was photographed using schlieren imaging to study its behavior and search for leaks. The heater elements were tested under a cyclic thermal load and to the maximum power before failure. The nozzle heater was shown to improve the efficiency of the thruster by 6.9%, from a specific impulse of 66 to 71 s, as calculated from a decrease of the flow rate through the nozzle of 13%, from 44.9 to 39.2 sccm. The sensitivity of the integrated flow sensor was measured to 0.15 mΩ sccm-1 in the region of 0-15 sccm and to 0.04 mΩ sccm-1 above 20 sccm, with a zero-flow sensitivity of 0.27 mΩ sccm-1. The choice of yttria-stabilized zirconia as a material for the devices makes them robust and capable of surviving temperatures locally exceeding 1000 °C.

  17. High resolution quantitative element mapping of neuromelanin-containing neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Tilo; Fiedler, Anja; Morawski, Markus; Arendt, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Neuromelanin is a dark coloured intracellular pigment that appears in a specific population of neurons (dopaminergic and noradrenergic) predominantly in the substantia nigra and in the locus coeruleus. In recent years, there is increasing interest in the role of neuromelanin because of a hypothesised link between this pigment and the cell death of neuromelanin-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the role of neuromelanin in the pathology of PD is an actual focus in neuroscience. We have investigated the elemental contents and distributions of sulphur, calcium, iron, nickel and copper of neuromelanin in dopaminergic neurons for a Parkinson case and a control case ( in situ, 6 μm brain sections). There was no difference in the iron concentration between the two cases. However, the calcium concentration was 3-fold higher in the Parkinson case, whereas the copper and nickel concentrations decreased. An ultrastructural investigation of the concentrations of calcium and iron within the neuromelanin suggests that these two elements are not necessarily co-localized.

  18. Managing a potentially high profile NORM containing remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, R.K.

    1997-06-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) contained in scale and sludge in a large earthen pit, approximately 12 acres, had the potential to turn a relatively straightforward remediation project into a public relations nightmare. Lack of specific regulations for dealing with NORM, at this location, further complicated the situation. Proactive early involvement with local officials as part of a detailed comprehensive public relations plan minimized potential public relations problems. Education of local employees, who were then prepared to answer any questions from their neighbors, was also a key part of the plan. Early, frequent, and complete communication with potential agencies was critical to the success of the project. Multiple agencies potentially had jurisdiction. Close cooperation with all potential agencies was a necessity, even after the lead agency had been determined. Selection of the right contractors with well defined scopes of work eased the burdens of the project. Contractors must be well respected experts in the appropriate disciplines. Local contractors with good working relationships with the agencies was also beneficial. Orchestrating all of these components can be time consuming and frustrating, but necessary. Be patient, the time spent in remediation plan preparation and the education of local officials and agency staff, resulted in a smooth running remediation project that protected both the environment and human health at a substantial cost savings compared to other available NORM disposal options.

  19. Novel bipolar bathophenanthroline containing hosts for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ziyi; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Ando, Shinji; Ueda, Mitsuru; Akiike, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hidetoshi; Kajita, Toru; Kakimoto, Masa-aki

    2008-02-07

    The electronic structures of eight bathophenanthroline derivatives were elucidated by DFT calculations, and four representatives of which CZBP, m-CZBP, m-TPAP, and BPABP were synthesized and employed as the hosts to afford highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. The calculated molecular orbital energies agree well with the experimental results, which further demonstrates that the localization of HOMO and LUMO at the respective hole- and electron-transporting moieties is desirable in bipolar molecular designs.

  20. Making Sense of Integrated Science: A Guide for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This guide outlines the initial work and includes recommendations for schools and districts on how to implement an integrated science program. Chapters include: (1) "What Is Integrated Science and What Does It Look Like at the High School Level?"; (2) "Coherence in High School Science" (F. James Rutherford); (3) "Thinking about Change: What Will…

  1. Glycemic response of mashed potato containing high-viscocity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-08-01

    Potatoes generally have one of the highest glycemic index values of any food. Relatively small differences in the glycemic response (GR) of regularly consumed starch foods have shown beneficial effects on health. Lowering the GR of a potato-based meal has potentially wide-reaching health benefits. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HV-HPMC) is a modified cellulose dietary fiber extensively used in the food industry. We hypothesized that the GR of a high-glycemic index product such as mashed potato would be lower with the addition of HV-HPMC. In a nonblind, randomized, repeat-measure, crossover controlled trial, 15 healthy adults consumed portions of mashed potato with different doses (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of a specially selected and optimized HV-HPMC and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Five subjects were excluded from the final analysis due to noncompliance with study procedures. Capillary blood glucose was measured in fasted subjects and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after starting to eat. For each sample, the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve was calculated and the GR determined. There was a significant lowering effect of HV-HPMC on GR (P < .001) of mashed potato. Glycemic responses for all mashed potato samples with the HV-HPMC were significantly lower than the standard mashed potato: 1% level (P < .05), 2% level (P < .05), and 4% level (P < .05). However, there was no significant effect of the HV-HPMC dose on GR. We conclude that addition of select HV-HPMC to mashed potato blunts GR.

  2. High school science fair and research integrity

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976

  3. High school science fair and research integrity.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Frederick; Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students' science fair experiences or expectations were evident.

  4. An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

    2010-08-01

    A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid-based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids.

  5. An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537

  6. High strain rate and high temperature behaviour of metallic materials for jet engine turbine containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, F.; Cendón, D.; Enfedaque, A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents a study on the mechanical characterisation of the materials involved in air jet engine turbines. The final objective is to analyse the phenomenon of a turbine blade off failure, to verify the requirements of the case containment. The materials in the turbine are under high temperatures, ranging from 400circC to 800circC and when the fail of the blade occurs if impacts against the case, reaching strain rates up to 103 s - 1. To obtain the behaviour of the materials, testing at high strain rate and high temperature at one time is necessary. The experimental set-up used was a split Hopkinson pressure bar, with a high temperature furnace adapted. The bars used on the device were high strength nickel alloys with a cooling system to decrease the temperature of the measurement devices. The effect of wave dispersion due to the temperature gradient has been also studied to correct the measurements if necessary. The material tested has been the FV535 stainless steel used on the case. The full stress-strain curves at different temperatures and at strain rates up to 103 s-1 have been obtained. The experimental results show a marked influence of the strain rate and the temperature that cannot be neglected. The Johnson-Cook material model has been used to fit the results of the material tests.

  7. High-efficiency entrapment of superoxide dismutase into cationic liposomes containing synthetic aminoglycolipid.

    PubMed

    Aoki, H; Fujita, M; Sun, C; Fuji, K; Miyajima, K

    1997-08-01

    A monofatty acid ester of glucosamine (PGlcN) was synthesized to provide liposomal membranes with a positive charge, and the trapping efficiency of negatively charged substances (superoxide dismutases, SODs) into cationic liposomes containing PGlcN or stearylamine (SA) prepared by various methods was compared to find the most efficient trapping methods. We demonstrated that cationic liposomes, which were prepared in a buffer of low ionic strength containing sorbitol by a simple hydration method, could entrap a large amount of negatively charged SODs which retained their activity, as compared with cationic liposomes prepared in a buffer of high ionic strength. We also showed a reverse-phase evaporation method entrapped a large amount of SODs. However, SODs were inactivated during the preparation; therefore, this method was not suitable to entrap the enzyme. Freeze-thaw method induced the formation of cationic liposomes which were smaller than extruded liposomes and could entrap the SODs in a buffer of low ionic strength. Dehydration-rehydration method with a buffer of low ionic strength also entrapped a large amount of SODs, indicating that the integrity of liposomes was lost in the lipid bilayer after freeze-drying and the SODs were entrapped in the reconstruction of liposomes during rehydration. These findings showed that the hydration method based on electrostatic attraction with a buffer of low ionic strength was simple and the most effective for entrapping SODs without loss of their activity.

  8. Curriculum Integration in Ontario High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grice, James

    2011-01-01

    In many North American schools, the acquirement of knowledge is encouraged in the most fractious of ways. At the high-school level, knowledge is often channelled into separate, specialized units of study. Rarely is an effort made to develop cross-subject, unifying themes that can help students recognize important points of curricular overlap.…

  9. A High Integrity Can Design for Degraded Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.A.

    1999-08-01

    A high integrity can (HIC), designed to meet the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section III, Div. 3, static conditions) is proposed for the interim storage and repository disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel. The HIC will be approximately 5 3/8 inches (134.38mm) in outside diameter with 1/4 inch (6.35mm) thick walls, and have a removable lid with a metallic seal that is capable of being welded shut. The opening of the can is approximately 4 3/8 inches (111.13mm). The HIC is primarily designed to contain items in the DOE SNF inventory that do not meet acceptance standards for direct disposal in a geologic repository. This includes fuel in the form of particulate dusts, sectioned pieces of fuel, core rubble, melted or degraded (non-intact) fuel elements, unclad uranium alloys, metallurgical specimens, and chemically reactive fuel components. The HIC is intended to act as a substitute cladding for the spent nuclear fuel, further isolate problematic materials, provide a long-term corrosion barrier, and add an extra internal pressure barrier to the waste package. The HIC will also delay potential fission product release and maintain geometry control for extended periods of time. For the entire disposal package to be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a HIC must effectively eliminate the disposal problems associated with problem SNF including the release of radioactive and/or reactive material and over pressurization of the HIC due to chemical reactions within the can. Two HICs were analyzed to envelop a range of can lengths between 42 and 101 inches. Using Abacus software, the HIC's were analyzed for end, side, and corner drops. Hastelloy C-22 was chosen based upon structural integrity, corrosion resistance, and neutron adsorption properties.

  10. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing

  11. Integrated Modeling of Polymer Composites Under High Energy Laser Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    included as an appendix. 15. SUBJECT TERMS organic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, lasers, thermal transport, ICMSE, molecular dynamics...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2016-0071 INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION Brent Volk, Gregory Ehlert...22 July 2013 – 30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION 5a. CONTRACT

  12. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-11-01

    Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO(2) , biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO(2) to CH(4) by addition of H(2) . Enrichment at thermophilic temperature (55°C) resulted in CO(2) and H(2) bioconversion rate of 320 mL CH(4) /(gVSS h), which was more than 60% higher than that under mesophilic temperature (37°C). Different dominant species were found at mesophilic- and thermophilic-enriched cultures, as revealed by PCR-DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree of biogas upgrading was achieved. The produced biogas had a CH(4) content, around 95% at steady-state, at gas (mixture of biogas and hydrogen) injection rate of 6 L/(L day). The increase of gas injection rate to 12 L/(L day) resulted in the decrease of CH(4) content to around 90%. Further study showed that by decreasing the gas-liquid mass transfer by increasing the stirring speed of the mixture the CH(4) content was increased to around 95%. Finally, the CH(4) content around 90% was achieved in this study with the gas injection rate as high as 24 L/(L day).

  13. Modification of some biological properties of HeLa cells containing adeno-associated virus DNA integrated into chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, C; Schlehofer, J R

    1992-01-01

    Parvoviruses are known to interfere with cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Since infecting adeno-associated virus (AAV) frequently integrates its DNA into the cellular genome, we analyzed whether this integration influences the transformed phenotype of the human tumor cell line HeLa. Analysis of three independent HeLa cell clones with integrated AAV DNA (HA-3x, HA-16, and HA-28) revealed the following phenotypic changes of these cells: (i) reduced growth rate, (ii) increased serum requirement, (iii) reduced capacity for colony formation in soft agar, (iv) reduced cloning efficiency on plastic, (v) elevated sensitivity to genotoxic agents (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, human tumor necrosis factor alpha, UV irradiation [256 nm], and heat [42 degrees C]), and (vi) reduced sensitivity to the cytolytic effect of parvovirus H-1. Reduced growth rate and enhanced sensitivity to gamma irradiation were also observed in vivo when tumors from AAV DNA-containing HeLa cells were transplanted into nude mice. This alteration of the biological properties of HeLa cells was independent of the number of AAV genomes integrated, the physical structure of integrated AAV DNA, and the transcription of AAV genes. Integration of AAV DNA was found to occur preferentially on the long arm of chromosome 17 in the three HeLa cell clones analyzed. These findings demonstrate that genomic integration of AAV DNA can alter the biological properties of human tumor cells. Images PMID:1313913

  14. Considerations for Storage of High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Utilizing Non-Metal Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin E.; Scott, Joseph P.; Wise, Harry

    2005-01-01

    When working with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, it is critical that the storage container be constructed of the proper materials, those which will not degrade to the extent that container breakdown or dangerous decomposition occurs. It has been suggested that the only materials that will safely contain the peroxide for a significant period of time are metals of stainless steel construction or aluminum use as High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Containers. The stability and decomposition of HTP will be also discussed as well as various means suggested in the literature to minimize these problems. The dangers of excess oxygen generation are also touched upon.

  15. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere. Initially, the

  16. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Anderson, B.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m{sup 3} (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site.

  17. Involvement of Iron-Containing Proteins in Genome Integrity in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caiguo

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes numerous iron-containing proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins and hemoproteins. These proteins generally utilize iron as a cofactor, and they perform critical roles in photosynthesis, genome stability, electron transfer, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis for the assembly of functional iron-containing proteins, thereby ensuring genome stability, cell development, and plant growth. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron-containing proteins and their functions involved in genome stability has expanded enormously. In this review, I provide the current perspectives on iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis, followed by a summary of iron-containing protein functions involved in genome stability maintenance and a discussion of their possible molecular mechanisms. PMID:27330736

  18. Integrated microfluidic systems for high-performance genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-10-01

    Driven by the ambitious goals of genome-related research, fully integrated microfluidic systems have developed rapidly to advance biomolecular and, in particular, genetic analysis. To produce a microsystem with high performance, several key elements must be strategically chosen, including device materials, temperature control, microfluidic control, and sample/product transport integration. We review several significant examples of microfluidic integration in DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis, pathogen detection, and forensic short tandem repeat typing. The advantages of high speed, increased sensitivity, and enhanced reliability enable these integrated microsystems to address bioanalytical challenges such as single-copy DNA sequencing, single-cell gene expression analysis, pathogen detection, and forensic identification of humans in formats that enable large-scale and point-of-analysis applications.

  19. Internet Integration in High Schools: Patterns, Opportunities, and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruth; Adams, Marilyn; Meghani, Naheed; Smith, Maria

    Internet integration in high schools on a schoolwide scale was examined through case studies of five high schools in inner city, urban, suburban, and rural communities across the United States. A total of 322 teachers, 19 administrators, 19 counselors, 7 technology coordinators, and 3,822 students were surveyed, and 219 staff and students were…

  20. Headwaters: The Next Stage in High School Integrated Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    For 12 years, Centennial High School in Guelph has run an integrated program called the Community Environmental Leadership Program (CELP). In 1995 the program was offered at the grade 11 level. The program ran successfully in the second semester for seven years. In 2001, with the high school system being modified to fit into a four-year model, and…

  1. The Integration of an Electro-Hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-Contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    M. Borland; S. M. Berry

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field-deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self-contained, propane-fired 8-KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as power to operate the 110-VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles of integration.

  2. The Integration of an Electro-hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Mark Wilson; Berry, Stephen Michael

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self contained, propane fired 8 KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as provide power to operate the 110 VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles on integration.

  3. Corrosion models for predictions of performance of high-level radioactive-waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1991-11-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the US is to seal it in containers before emplacement in a geologic repository. A proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated for its suitability as a geologic repository. The containers will probably be made of either an austenitic or a copper-based alloy. Models of alloy degradation are being used to predict the long-term performance of the containers under repository conditions. The models are of uniform oxidation and corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking, and are applicable to worst-case scenarios of container degradation. This paper reviews several of the models.

  4. Summary of Calculations Performed to Evaluate the Structural Integrity of the 6-Pack Container Pallet

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C.A.

    1999-10-01

    The 6-Pack Container Pallet is a space-frame structure, designed by Mason & Hanger Corp. to hold six AL-R8 containers together in a convenient bundle. The AL-R8 containers hold nuclear weapon components that require special care and consideration. The primary purpose of the 6-pack assembly is storage, but there is some manipulation as the 6-pack is loaded, moved and stacked. Recently, there has been an upgrade to a new AL-R8-SI container that is heavier than its predecessor was. The analysis discussed herein was conducted to ensure that the increased stresses due to the heavier containers are within design safety limits. At this time, however, there is disagreement as to what the strength requirements for the 6-pack pallet are. Depending on which classification applies to the structure, a factor of safety (yield stress over design stress) of 3.0 or more may need to be satisfied. This report documents strength analyses of loaded 6-packs performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The entire 6-pack assembly was discretized into a mesh with a total of 38682 first-order finite elements. The stresses were found for four characteristic load cases using the implicit code NIKE3D. This was a static strength analysis only. Dynamic loading was not considered. Stability, also, was not addressed. There are two 6-pack pallet designs under consideration: one that uses 1/2 inch diameter bolts and one with 3/8 inch bolts. In both cases, the maximum torque applied to the bolts is 55 in-lbf. This analysis finds the minimum factor of safety based on yield to be less than 3.0 in the main load path of both the 1/2 inch and 3/8 inch diameter bolt designs. In general, the peak stresses found in the 1/2 inch bolt design are less than those of the 3/8 inch bolt design. At the welded ends of the main tube section that spans the length of the pallet, the minimum safety factor is 2.14 when 1/2 inch bolts are used and 1.77 when 3/8 inch bolts are used. Minimum safety factors of

  5. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  6. Speech-and-Gesture Integration in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Laura B.; Bennetto, Loisa; Campana, Ellen; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined iconic gesture comprehension in autism, with the goal of assessing whether cross-modal processing difficulties impede speech-and-gesture integration. Participants were 19 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 20 typical controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and socio-economic status (SES). Gesture…

  7. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  8. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  9. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  10. Development of integrated thermionic circuits for high-temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J. B.; Wilde, D.; Depp, S.; Hamilton, D. J.; Kerwin, W.; Derouin, C.; Roybal, L.; Wooley, R.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500 C are studied. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits were successfully operated in 5000 C environments for extended periods. It is suggested that ITC's may become an important technology for high temperature instrumentation and control systems in geothermal and other high temperature environments.

  11. Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source with Integrated Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    gral part of t utilized for source ope d. The peak asured to be 2 ns. SS HIGH IN kach Institu .Mironenk iv 04073, U SA; Ya. T 1 er Microwave W...Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source With Integrated Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES See also ADM002371. 2013 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Digest of Technical Papers 1976-2013, and Abstracts of the 2013 IEEE International

  12. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  13. Integrated, nonvolatile, high-speed analog random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides an integrated, non-volatile, high-speed random access memory. A magnetically switchable ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic layer is sandwiched between an electrical conductor which provides the ability to magnetize the magnetically switchable layer and a magneto resistive or Hall effect material which allows sensing the magnetic field which emanates from the magnetization of the magnetically switchable layer. By using this integrated three-layer form, the writing process, which is controlled by the conductor, is separated from the storage medium in the magnetic layer and from the readback process which is controlled by the magnetoresistive layer. A circuit for implementing the memory in CMOS or the like is disclosed.

  14. Integration of smart materials into high-volume manufacturing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele

    2006-03-01

    The integration of smart materials such as piezoelectric devices and shape memory alloys into structures has been typically limited to a bonding process that occurs as a secondary operation. Such an operation is not only costly for high volume applications but also has the potential of degrading the performance of the actuator or sensor due to the bonding agent selected. The work presented here explores the integration of piezoelectric materials using a high volume injection molding process. The process used is typical for large automotive components such as bumpers, instrument panels and other body panels. Different materials were evaluated, including plastics and both bare and packaged smart materials. Temperature and flow rate were also changed to investigate the effects on the durability of the materials. Both electrical and mechanical properties were tested with the key parameters including, void content, shifting from initial position, strain transfer and peal strength. It was found that good integration of piezoelectric materials could be achieved and electro-mechanical properties were improved as compared to a secondary bonding operation. Integration of screen-printed electrical circuits for electrical connectivity for piezoelectric materials will be evaluated in future research. In conclusion, a step forward was made in developing a multifunctional material based upon smart materials and conventional high volume manufacturing processes.

  15. Development of the HIDEC inlet integration mode. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisholm, J. D.; Nobbs, S. G.; Stewart, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) development program conducted at NASA-Ames/Dryden will use an F-15 test aircraft for flight demonstration. An account is presently given of the HIDEC Inlet Integration mode's design concept, control law, and test aircraft implementation, with a view to its performance benefits. The enhancement of performance is a function of the use of Digital Electronic Engine Control corrected engine airflow computations to improve the scheduling of inlet ramp positions in real time; excess thrust can thereby be increased by 13 percent at Mach 2.3 and 40,000 ft. Aircraft supportability is also improved through the obviation of inlet controllers.

  16. Technical Report: Scalable Parallel Algorithms for High Dimensional Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Masalma, Yahya; Jiao, Yu

    2010-10-01

    We implemented a scalable parallel quasi-Monte Carlo numerical high-dimensional integration for tera-scale data points. The implemented algorithm uses the Sobol s quasi-sequences to generate random samples. Sobol s sequence was used to avoid clustering effects in the generated random samples and to produce low-discrepancy random samples which cover the entire integration domain. The performance of the algorithm was tested. Obtained results prove the scalability and accuracy of the implemented algorithms. The implemented algorithm could be used in different applications where a huge data volume is generated and numerical integration is required. We suggest using the hyprid MPI and OpenMP programming model to improve the performance of the algorithms. If the mixed model is used, attention should be paid to the scalability and accuracy.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  18. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  19. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  20. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  1. High-frequency BiCMOS transconductance integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beards, R. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    The capabilities of a fine-line bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process in the design of wideband transconductance integrators for precision monolithic continuous time filtering are explored. The design considerations of such an integrator are examined in detail, with an emphasis on tunability and phase compensation as a means for realizing a precision wideband design. The concept of open-loop transconductance filtering is described and possible circuit topologies are investigated. Detailed small-signal and large-signal analysis of one proposed circuit which has both tunable bandwidth and tunable phase compensation is presented. Application of such an integrator to open-loop transconductance filtering in the 10-50 MHz frequency range is studied. Simulation results show specific performance expectations of the proposed circuit. The tunable compensation circuit was seen to restrict the amplitude of signals which the integrator can pass without severe distortion or even instability occurring. A potential solution to this problem is deemed to be unsuitable for high frequency applications. The general design philosophy of applying low-frequency techniques to realize a high frequency circuit was seen to result in several fundamental problems.

  2. High integrity adaptive SMA components for gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, John

    2006-03-01

    The use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is growing rapidly. They have been under serious development for aerospace applications for over 15 years, but are still restricted to niche areas and small scale applications. Very few applications have found their way into service. Whilst they have been predominantly aimed at airframe applications, they also offer major advantages for adaptive gas turbine components. The harsh environment within a gas turbine with its high loads, temperatures and vibration excitation provide considerable challenges which must be met whilst still delivering high integrity, light weight, aerodynamic and efficient structures. A novel method has been developed which will deliver high integrity, stiff mechanical components which can provide massive shape change capability without the need for conventional moving parts. The lead application is for a shape changing engine nozzle to provide noise reduction at take off but will withdraw at cruise to remove any performance penalty. The technology also promises to provide significant advantages for applications in a gas turbine such as shape change aerofoils, heat exchanger controls, and intake shapes. The same mechanism should be directly applicable to other areas such as air frames, automotive and civil structures, where similar high integrity requirements exist.

  3. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    SciTech Connect

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  4. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  5. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  6. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  7. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  8. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  9. Integrated microcantilevers for high-resolution sensing and probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2012-02-01

    This topical review is focused on microcantilever-based sensing and probing functions that are realized by integrating a mechanically compliant cantilever with self-sensing and self-actuating elements, specific sensing materials as well as functionalized nano-tips. Such integrated cantilever devices have shown great promise in ultra-sensitive applications such as on-the-spot portable bio/chemical detection and in situ micro/nanoscale surface analysis and manipulation. The technical details of this review will be given in a sequence of cantilever sensors and, then, cantilever-tip probes. For the integrated cantilever sensors, the frequency-output style dynamic cantilevers are described first, with the contents including optimized resonance modes, sensing-group-modified nanostructures for specific bio/chemical mass adsorption and nanoscale sensing effects, etc. Thereafter, the static cantilever sensors for surface-stress detection are described in the sequence of the sensing mechanism, surface modification of the sensitive molecule layer and the model of specific reaction-induced surface-energy variation. After technical description of the cantilever sensors, the emphasis of the review moves to functionalized nano-tip equipped cantilever-tip probing devices. The probing functions are not only integrated on the cantilever but also integrated at the sharp apex of the tip. After description of single integrated cantilever probes and their applications in surface scanning and imaging, arrayed cantilever-tip devices and their simultaneous parallel operation for high throughput imaging and nanomechanical data storage are also addressed. With cantilever-tip probes as key elements, micro-analysis instruments are introduced that can be widely used for macro/nanoscale characterizations.

  10. Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies Program Material Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Stropki, M.; Cleyrat, D.; Stucke, B.; Phillips, S.; Reed, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, IMWG (IHPRPT Materials Working Group) government and industry members, together with the IHPRPT (Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies Program Material Development Plan) National Component Leads, have developed a materials plan to address the critical needs of the IHPRPT community: (1) liquids boost and orbit transfer; (2) solids boost and orbit transfer; (3) tactical propulsion; and (4) spacecraft propulsion. Criticality of materials' role in achieving IHPRPT goals is evidenced by the significant investment over the next five years.

  11. Beam breakup integral measurement on high-power laser chains.

    PubMed

    Villate, Denis; Blanchot, Nathalie; Rouyer, Claude

    2007-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the efficiency of a single-shot method to measure the beam breakup integral (B) accumulated across a high power chain. The technique uses spectrally shaped strongly chirped femtosecond pulses and takes advantage of time-to-spectral coupling generated by nonlinear effects. We performed B measurements on regenerative amplifiers (Ti:sapphire) and on the ALISE 200 J facility currently installed at CEA-CESTA (France).

  12. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  13. Long-term performance of container materials for high-level waste: (Technical report, April 1982-August 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Markworth, A.J.; Cialone, H.J.; Majumdar, B.S.; McCoy, J.K.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the results of experimental and analytical studies of high-level waste container degradation. Corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted on selected materials to identify environmental and metallurgical factors that promote material degradation, especially stress-corrosion cracking. A major emphasis on overpack materials focused on cast and wrought low-carbon steels. Results of the corrosion work show that, to more completely identify potential failure modes, exposure environments must be further defined. Predictions of pitting rates based on models utilizing nonreactive walls may lead to rejection of carbon steel as a viable overpack material when, on the basis of performance, it may perform satisfactorily. Hydrogen embrittlement was shown to be promoted in regions of microstructural change such as the weld heat-affected zone. These findings show that hydrogen embrittlement is important to container integrity. A small portion of this task was devoted to studying the possible internal corrosion of the canister. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel will likely contain high-level waste glass for the retrieval period and probably the thermal period. Modeling studies focused on general corrosion and pitting corrosion, with the models being extended to account for more realistic conditions. Results show that pit wall reactivity is an important consideration in predicting corrosion rates. 102 refs., 132 figs., 57 tabs.

  14. Towards Integrated Design and Modeling of High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets will most likely use a brittle conductor (such as Nb{sub 3}Sn), generate fields around 18 T, handle forces that are 3-4 times higher than in the present LHC dipoles, and store energy that starts to make accelerator magnets look like fusion magnets. To meet the challenge and reduce the complexity, magnet design will have to be more innovative and better integrated. The recent design of several high field superconducting magnets have now benefited from the integration between CAD (e.g. ProE), magnetic analysis tools (e.g. TOSCA) and structural analysis tools (e.g. ANSYS). Not only it is now possible to address complex issues such as stress in magnet ends, but the analysis can be better detailed an extended into new areas previously too difficult to address. Integrated thermal, electrical and structural analysis can be followed from assembly and cool-down through excitation and quench propagation. In this paper we report on the integrated design approach, discuss analysis results and point out areas of future interest.

  15. 77 FR 36277 - Academic Development of a Training Program for Good Laboratory Practices in High Containment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Academic Development of a Training Program for Good Laboratory Practices in High Containment Environments (U24) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the support of a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) entitled ``Academic Development of a...

  16. High temperature volatility and oxidation measurements of titanium and silicon containing ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study first evaluates several hot-pressed Ti-containing compositions at high temperatures as a function of oxidation resistance. This study will also evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400°C--1200°C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydoxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole % and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation at all three temperatures: TiO 2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  17. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  18. Experimental study of the thermal stability of materials in high temperature oxygen-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abaltusov, Y. Y.; Bagramyan, A. R.; Grishin, A. M.; Yukhvid, V. I.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the interaction of several materials with a high temperature medium containing oxygen. The temperature of the surface was measured as a function of time. It is found that the higher the velocity of mass removal from the surface, the more effective is the material from the viewpoint of heat resistance.

  19. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  20. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  1. Integrable high order UWB pulse photonic generator based on cross phase modulation in a SOA-MZI.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel, Miguel A; Capmany, José

    2013-09-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a potentially integrable optical scheme to generate high order UWB pulses. The technique is based on exploiting the cross phase modulation generated in an InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, and is also adaptable to different pulse modulation formats through an optical processing unit which allows to control of the amplitude, polarity and time delay of the generated taps.

  2. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  3. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Integration of encapsulated piezoelectric actuators in highly loaded CFRP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Florian; Ermanni, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    The present work has been initiated in the frame of the European research project DREAM. Within this highly interdisciplinary project we are focusing on the development and application of vibration damping solutions based on piezoelectric shunt circuits for future aeroelastic applications. The scientific community has put significant effort into the investigation of piezoelectric shunt damping in conjuction with typical engineering test structures such as beams and plates. However, investigations are mainly restricted to surface bonded piezoelectric elements. Commercially available actuators and sensors can be easily bonded to structures using standard epoxy resins. Yet, the structural integration into composite laminates is cumbersome, due to the implications in terms of overall structural integrity and functionality, and due to the problems in achieving a good electrical conductivity, intimate contact betwen electrode and piezoceramic material as well as a perfect isolation from the surrounding host structure. This contribution is concerned with technological aspects related to the integration of piezoceramic actuators into highly loaded CFRP structures. In particular, we present results of a comparative study aiming at the characterization of less invasive electrodes to establish electrical contact between the piezoceramic material and possible shunt circuits. Another drawback of commercial actuators are their limited strain allowables ranging from 0.1% to 0.3% which is not sufficient for high performance lighweight structures. The second part of this contribution is therefore dedicated to the description of a novel prestressing procedure which is used to fabricate actuators that command 170% higher strain allowables than non-prestressed actuators. Mechanical testing of these prestressed actuators are very encouraging, showing high strain allowables, perfect electrical isolation from the host structure, excellent electric contacting of the piezoelectric material

  5. Integrating bioinformatics into senior high school: design principles and implications.

    PubMed

    Machluf, Yossy; Yarden, Anat

    2013-09-01

    Bioinformatics is an integral part of modern life sciences. It has revolutionized and redefined how research is carried out and has had an enormous impact on biotechnology, medicine, agriculture and related areas. Yet, it is only rarely integrated into high school teaching and learning programs, playing almost no role in preparing the next generation of information-oriented citizens. Here, we describe the design principles of bioinformatics learning environments, including our own, that are aimed at introducing bioinformatics into senior high school curricula through engaging learners in scientifically authentic inquiry activities. We discuss the bioinformatics-related benefits and challenges that high school teachers and students face in the course of the implementation process, in light of previous studies and our own experience. Based on these lessons, we present a new approach for characterizing the questions embedded in bioinformatics teaching and learning units, based on three criteria: the type of domain-specific knowledge required to answer each question (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, strategic knowledge, situational knowledge), the scientific approach from which each question stems (biological, bioinformatics, a combination of the two) and the associated cognitive process dimension (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create). We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using a learning environment, which we developed for the high school level, and suggest some of its implications. This review sheds light on unique and critical characteristics related to broader integration of bioinformatics in secondary education, which are also relevant to the undergraduate level, and especially on curriculum design, development of suitable learning environments and teaching and learning processes.

  6. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  7. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Soer, Wouter

    2016-02-29

    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  8. Characterization of high cesium containing glass-bonded ceramic waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, M. J.; Frank, S. M.

    2003-10-03

    High cesium containing glass-bonded ceramic waste form samples were prepared and characterized to identify possible cesium phases present in glass-bonded ceramic waste forms developed for the containment of fission product bearing salts. Major phases of the waste forms are sodalite and glass. A combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to study the multiphase nature of these waste forms. Cesium was found to be present in the higher loaded waste forms in a cesium aluminosilicate phase with an analcime structure and a 1:1 Si:Al ratio, a pollucite phase, and also in the glass phase. The glass phase contains the majority of the cesium at lower loadings, however some pollucite also remains. Cesium was not detected in the sodalite phase of any of the samples.

  9. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Uesugi, Kentaro Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  10. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  11. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  12. Cup-Drawing Behavior of High-Strength Steel Sheets Containing Different Volume Fractions of Martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Shi-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Wan; Yang, Hoe-Seok; Han, Seong-Ho; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2010-06-15

    Planar anisotropy and cup-drawing behavior were investigated for high-strength steel sheets containing different volume fractions of martensite. Macrotexture analysis using XRD was conducted to capture the effect of crystallographic orientation on the planar anisotropy of high-strength steel sheets. A phenomenological yield function, Yld96, which accounts for the anisotropy of yield stress and r-values, was implemented into ABAQUS using the user subroutine UMAT. Cup drawing of high-strength steel sheets was simulated using the FEM code. The profiles of earing and thickness strain were compared with the experimentally measured results.

  13. High-water-content and Resilient PEG-containing Hydrogels with Low Fibrotic Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; An, Duo; Pardo, Yehudah; Chiu, Alan; Song, Wei; Liu, Qingsheng; Zhou, Fang; McDonough, Sean P; Ma, Minglin

    2017-02-16

    Hydrogels such as those based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) are broadly used in biomedicine where high water contents, robust mechanical properties such as resilience and favorable interactions with the body are often simultaneously desirable. However, the mechanical properties of conventional hydrogels often degrade rapidly after swelling or with increasing water content, limiting their potential in many applications. Here we describe a new class of PEG-containing hydrogels that remain highly resilient after maximum swelling. We achieved the hydrogels by incorporating reversible "dual" hydrogen bonding into highly coiled, elastic PEG networks. These hydrogels, due to their high water content and high mechanical resilience, can form highly permeable, yet durable and easy-to-handle cell delivery devices without any additional structural support. In addition, optimization of chemical composition resulted in hydrogels with superior bio-inertness, inducing much less fibrosis upon subcutaneous implantation in mice than a polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA) hydrogel control.

  14. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  15. Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kyle; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gondarenko, Alexander; Poitras, Carl B; Lipson, Michal

    2009-03-30

    We demonstrate a micrometer-scale electro-optic modulator operating at 2.5 Gbps and 10 dB extinction ratio that is fabricated entirely from deposited silicon. The polycrystalline silicon material exhibits properties that simultaneously enable high quality factor optical resonators and sub-nanosecond electrical carrier injection. We use an embedded p(+)n(-)n(+) diode to achieve optical modulation using the free carrier plasma dispersion effect. Active optical devices in a deposited microelectronic material can break the dependence on the traditional single layer silicon-on-insulator platform and help lead to monolithic large-scale integration of photonic networks on a microprocessor chip.

  16. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. ENDOGENOUS SIGNALING THROUGH α7-CONTAINING NICOTINIC RECEPTORS PROMOTES MATURATION AND INTEGRATION OF ADULTBORN NEURONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Nolan R.; Fernandes, Catarina C.; Halff, Andrew W.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus occurs throughout adult mammalian life and is essential for proper hippocampal function. Early in their development, adultborn neurons express homomeric α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) and receive direct cholinergic innervation. We show here that functional α7-nAChRs are necessary for normal survival, maturation, and integration of adultborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. Stereotaxic retroviral injection into the dentate gyrus of wildtype and α7-knockout (α7KO) male and female mice was used to label and birthdate adultborn neurons for morphological and electrophysiological measures; BrdU injections were used to quantify cell survival. In α7KO mice, we find that adultborn neurons develop with truncated, less complex dendritic arbors, and display GABAergic postsynaptic currents with immature kinetics. The neurons also have a prolonged period of GABAergic depolarization characteristic of an immature state. In this condition they receive fewer spontaneous synaptic currents and are more prone to die during the critical period when adultborn neurons are normally integrated into behaviorally relevant networks. Even those adultborn neurons that survive the critical period retain long-term dendritic abnormalities in α7KO mice. Interestingly, local infection with retroviral constructs to knockdown α7-mRNA mimics the α7KO phenotype, demonstrating that the relevant α7-nAChR signaling is cell-autonomous. The results indicate a profound role for α7-nAChRs in adult neurogenesis and predict that α7-nAChR loss will cause progressive impairment in hippocampal circuitry and function over time as fewer neurons are added to the dentate gyrus and those that are added integrate less well. PMID:20592195

  19. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    , as are AFC architecture aspects such as AFC unit placement, number AFC units, operating pressures, mass flow rates, and steady versus unsteady AFC applications. These efforts led to the development of a novel traversing AFC actuation concept which is efficient in that it reduces the AFC mass flow requirements by as much as an order of magnitude compared to previous AFC technologies, and it is predicted to be effective in driving the aerodynamic performance of a mechanical simplified high-lift system close to that of the reference conventional high-lift system. Conceptual system integration studies were conducted for the AFC-enhanced high-lift concept applied to a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. The results from these design integration assessments identify overall system performance improvement opportunities over conventional high-lift systems that suggest the viability of further technology maturation efforts for AFC-enabled high lift flap systems. To that end, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled high-lift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  20. A linker peptide with high affinity towards silica-containing materials.

    PubMed

    Sunna, Anwar; Chi, Fei; Bergquist, Peter L

    2013-06-25

    A peptide sequence with affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to a truncated form of Streptococcus strain G148 Protein G. The resulting recombinant Linker-Protein G (LPG) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. It displayed high affinity towards two natural clinoptilolite zeolites. The LPG also displayed high binding affinity towards commercial-grade synthetic zeolite, silica and silica-containing materials. A commercial sample of the truncated Protein G and a basic protein, both without the linker, did not bind to natural or synthetic zeolites or silica. We conclude that the zeolite-binding affinity is mediated by the linker peptide sequence. As a consequence, these data may imply that the binding affinity is directed to the SiO2 component rather than to the atomic orientation on the zeolite crystal surface as previously assumed.

  1. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification.

  2. Mass Production of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Embryoids on Media Containing High Concentrations of Sugar1.

    PubMed

    Asaka, I; Ii, I; Hirotani, M; Asada, Y; Yoshokawa, T; Furuya, T

    1994-04-01

    A lot of ginseng embryoids were produced by culturing on high concentrations of sugar media from the embryogenic tissues obtained by moderately high temperature treatment. When the sucrose concentration was 100 g/l, the number of embryoids produced were over 100 pieces per g of inoculum weight. It was about ten times of that produced by culturing on 30 g/l of sucrose. Glucose showed an effect similar to sucrose on the basis of weight percentage. However, mannitol did not show this effect. The embryoids obtained by these processes redifferentiated to normal plantlets on culturing on the medium containing 30 g/l of sucrose. The saponin components of the tissue containing embryoids showed a similar pattern to those of natural GINSENG by HPLC.

  3. Coupling Ideality of Integrated Planar High-Q Microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Liu, Junqiu; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2017-02-01

    Chip-scale optical microresonators with integrated planar optical waveguides are useful building blocks for linear, nonlinear, and quantum-optical photonic devices alike. Loss reduction through improving fabrication processes results in several integrated microresonator platforms attaining quality (Q ) factors of several millions. Beyond the improvement of the quality factor, the ability to operate the microresonator with high coupling ideality in the overcoupled regime is of central importance. In this regime, the dominant source of loss constitutes the coupling to a single desired output channel, which is particularly important not only for quantum-optical applications such as the generation of squeezed light and correlated photon pairs but also for linear and nonlinear photonics. However, to date, the coupling ideality in integrated photonic microresonators is not well understood, in particular, design-dependent losses and their impact on the regime of high ideality. Here we investigate design-dependent parasitic losses described by the coupling ideality of the commonly employed microresonator design consisting of a microring-resonator waveguide side coupled to a straight bus waveguide, a system which is not properly described by the conventional input-output theory of open systems due to the presence of higher-order modes. By systematic characterization of multimode high-Q silicon nitride microresonator devices, we show that this design can suffer from low coupling ideality. By performing 3D simulations, we identify the coupling to higher-order bus waveguide modes as the dominant origin of parasitic losses which lead to the low coupling ideality. Using suitably designed bus waveguides, parasitic losses are mitigated with a nearly unity ideality and strong overcoupling (i.e., a ratio of external coupling to internal resonator loss rate >9 ) are demonstrated. Moreover, we find that different resonator modes can exchange power through the coupler, which, therefore

  4. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.H.; Davis, N.R.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure.

  5. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  6. Voyages Through Time: Integrated science for high schools, Pamela Harman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Devore, Edna

    Investigating the origin and evolution of the universe and life is a compelling theme for teaching science. It engages students in the key questions about change and the evidence for change over time, and offers a unifying theme for integrated science. "Voyages Through Time" is a high school integrated science curriculum on the theme of evolution. Six modules comprise the year-long course: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, and Evolution of Technology. A brief overview of the curriculum is presented. Participants conduct one or two activities representative of the six modules. Each workshop participant receives a sampler CD-ROM with a comprehensive overview of the curriculum, standards, and resources including complete lessons for use in the classroom. "Voyages Through Time" is being developed by a US team of scientists, educators, writers, and classroom teachers and students led by the SETI Institute partnered with NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences and San Francisco State University. In 2000-2001 school year, "Voyages Through Time" was pilot tested (trialed) in high school classrooms in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Following revisions, the curriculum was field tested (trialed) in 28 US states in more than 90 schools August 2001-June 2002. The final version is expected to be ready for publication by the beginning of 2003. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the National Science Foundation (IMD # 9730693), NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Fundamental Biology, The Foundation for Microbiology, Educate America, and the Hewlett-Packard Company.

  7. High-voltage field-controlled integrated thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekhov, I. V.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Kostina, L. S.; Konovalov, A. V.; Fomenko, Yu. L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and technology of powerful field-controlled integrated thyristors, new energy-saving devices intended for converter equipment, are considered. The turn-on and turn-off current and voltage waveforms of the n+ p' N- n' p + microthyristor chip are presented, and turn-on and turn-off mechanisms are discussed. The development of local dynamic breakdown at turn-off is experimentally studied. The respective waveforms for this process are given, and the type of breakdown at a current density of about 150 A/cm2 is demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristics in the on state at room temperature and at 125°C indicate the temperature dependence changes sign at a current density above 60 A/cm2, becoming positive. This is significant for parallel operation of microthyristor chips in a module. It is shown that the static and dynamic characteristics of simple-in-design field-controlled integrated thyristors are highly competitive with those of insulated-gate bipolar transistors-basic devices of advanced high-power converter equipment.

  8. Self-integrating inductive loop for measuring high frequency pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Moreno, Mónica V.; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan M.; Sanz-Feito, Javier

    2011-08-01

    High frequency pulses can be measured by means of inductive sensors. The main advantage of these sensors consists of non-contact measurements that isolate and protect measuring equipment. The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of an inductive sensor for measuring rapidly varying currents. It consists of a rectangular loop with a resistor at its terminals. The inductive loop gives the derivative of the current according to Faraday's law and the resistor connected to the loop modifies the sensor's frequency response to obtain an output proportional to the current pulse. The self-integrating inductive sensor was validated with two sensors, a non-inductive resistor and a commercial high frequency current transformer. The results were compared to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the probe as an adequate inductive transducer.

  9. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  10. Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

    The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

  11. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects.

  12. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-08-25

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species.

  13. Serum amyloid A-containing human high density lipoprotein 3. Density, size, and apolipoprotein composition.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, G A; Strachan, A F; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Hoppe, H C; Jeenah, M S; de Beer, F C

    1986-07-25

    Serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA), an acute phase reactant, is an apolipoprotein of high density lipoproteins (HDL), in particular the denser subpopulation HDL3. The structure of HDL3 isolated from humans affected by a variety of severe disease states was investigated with respect to density, size, and apolipoprotein composition, using density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and solid phase immunoadsorption. Apo-SAA was present in HDL particles in increasing amounts as particle density increased. Apo-SAA-containing HDL3 had bigger radii than normal HDL3 of comparable density. Purified apo-SAA associated readily with normal HDL3 in vitro, giving rise to particles containing up to 80% of their apoproteins as apo-SAA. The addition of apo-SAA resulted in a displacement of apo-A-I and an increase in particle size. Acute phase HDL3 represented a mixture of particles, polydisperse with respect to apolipoprotein content; for example, some particles were isolated that contained apo-A-I, apo-A-II, and apo-SAA, whereas others contained apo-A-I and apo-SAA but no apo-A-II. We conclude that apo-SAA probably associates in the circulation of acute phase patients with existing HDL particles, causing the remodeling of the HDL shell to yield particles of bigger size and higher density that are relatively depleted of apo-A-I.

  14. Robust finite-time containment control for high-order multi-agent systems with matched uncertainties under directed communication graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  15. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  16. Ionic photoacid generators containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates for high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yi; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Ober, Christopher K.; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi

    2008-03-01

    To meet the challenges for resist materials raised by high resolution lithography technologies, tailor-made photoacid generators (PAGs) with controlled acid diffusion and improved miscibility with polymers are very important. We have developed new ionic PAGs containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates. These PAGs have excellent solubility in polymer matrices and common organic solvents, high thermal stability, high acid strength and low volatility of the generated acids, and make them attractive PAGs for high resolution lithography. In this contribution, the preparation and characterization of several new ionic PAGs, the influence of the host matrix on PAG properties, and a comparison of their lithographic performance are presented. Specifically their lithographic performance at EUV wavelength is discussed.

  17. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of the high- current emission lanthanum and niobium contained ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, O. Yu; Shamanin, I. V.; Chursin, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the production of metal-ceramic high-current emitters containing lanthanum hexaboride LaB6 by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Tests of emitters as explosive-emission cathodes in an OMEGA-350 microsecond accelerator are presented. Experiments show that when a metal-ceramic cathode is used, the emitted energy was 12-17% higher than that produced by tungsten and graphite cathodes and the beam “signature” is a circle with a small (∼ 15%) variation in radius.

  18. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  19. Green tea extract containing a highly absorbent catechin prevents diet-induced lipid metabolism disorder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Yamashita, Shuya; Nakahara, Kanami; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Sasaki, Masako; Hagihara, Takatoki; Tsurudome, Yukari; Huang, Yuhui; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-09-25

    We investigated the effects of extracts of Benifuuki (a tea cultivar that contains methylated catechins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me)) in mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. This tea cultivar was then compared with an extract of Yabukita (a popular tea cultivar that lacks methylated catechins). For 6 weeks, C57BL/6J mice were fed either HF/HS diet with or without tea extracts from tea cultivars, which contained almost identical ingredients except for methylated catechins (i.e., Yabukita (0.2% and 1%) or Benifuuki (0.2% and 1%) extract powders). Supplementation with Benifuuki 0.2% markedly lowered plasma levels of TG and NEFAs compared with mice supplemented with Yabukita 0.2%. The diet containing Benifuuki 1% decreased adipose tissue weights, liver TG, and expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. These results suggested that Benifuuki had much greater lipid-lowering effects than Yabukita. Taken together, these data suggest that methylated catechins direct the strong lipid-lowering activity of Benifuuki.

  20. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae Moon; Gupta, Anurag; Mueller, Craig; Morrisette, Monica; Dec, John; Brewer, Jason; Donofrio, Kevin; Sturisky, Hilton; Smick, Doug; An, Meng Lin

    1994-01-01

    In June 1992, the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech was awarded a three year NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) grant to address issues associated with the Integrated Design and Manufacturing of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations in its graduate Aerospace Systems Design courses. This report provides an overview of the on-going Georgia Tech initiative to address these design/manufacturing issues during the preliminary design phases of an HSCT concept. The new design methodology presented here has been incorporated in the graduate aerospace design curriculum and is based on the concept of Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). The selection of the HSCT as a pilot project was motivated by its potential global transportation payoffs; its technological, environmental, and economic challenges; and its impact on U.S. global competitiveness. This pilot project was the focus of each of the five design courses that form the graduate level aerospace systems design curriculum. This year's main objective was the development of a systematic approach to preliminary design and optimization and its implementation to an HSCT wing/propulsion configuration. The new methodology, based on the Taguchi Parameter Design Optimization Method (PDOM), was established and was used to carry out a parametric study where various feasible alternative configurations were evaluated. The comparison criterion selected for this evaluation was the economic impact of this aircraft, measured in terms of average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM).

  1. Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-gain point design

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Tabak, M.

    2014-04-17

    Here, integrated fast ignition experiments were performed at ILE, Osaka, and LLE, Rochester, in which a nanosecond driver laser implodes a deuterated plastic shell in front of the tip of a hollow metal cone and an intense ultrashort-pulse laser is injected through the cone to heat the compressed plasma. Based on the initial successful results of fast electron heating of cone-in-shell targets, large-energy short-pulse laser beam lines were constructed and became operational: OMEGA-EP at Rochester and LFEX at Osaka. Neutron enhancement due to heating with a ~kJ short-pulse laser has been demonstrated in the integrated experiments at Osaka and Rochester. The neutron yields are being analyzed by comparing the experimental results with simulations. Details of the fast electron beam transport and the electron energy deposition in the imploded fuel plasma are complicated and further studies are imperative. The hydrodynamics of the implosion was studied including the interaction of the imploded core plasma with the cone tip. Theory and simulation studies are presented on the hydrodynamics of a high-gain target for a fast ignition point design.

  2. Speech-and-gesture integration in high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Laura B; Bennetto, Loisa; Campana, Ellen; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    This study examined iconic gesture comprehension in autism, with the goal of assessing whether cross-modal processing difficulties impede speech-and-gesture integration. Participants were 19 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 20 typical controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and socio-economic status (SES). Gesture comprehension was assessed via quantitative analyses of visual fixations during a video-based task, using the visual world paradigm. Participants' eye movements were recorded while they watched videos of a person describing one of four shapes shown on a computer screen, using speech-and-gesture or speech-only descriptions. Participants clicked on the shape that the speaker described. Since gesture naturally precedes speech, earlier visual fixations to the target shape during speech-and-gesture compared to speech-only trials, would suggest immediate integration of auditory and visual information. Analyses of eye movements supported this pattern in control participants but not in individuals with autism: iconic gestures facilitated comprehension in typical individuals, while it hindered comprehension in those with autism. Cross-modal processing difficulties in autism were not accounted for by impaired unimodal speech or gesture processing. The results have important implications for the treatment of children and adults with this disorder.

  3. Final evaluation of characterizing pipe-over-pack containers using high efficiency neutron counters

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Pete; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Cramer, Doug; Harvill, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-over-Pack Containers (POC) contain a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Currently there are a number ofPOC containers at LANL that require evaluation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. Updated data has been evaluated that finalizes the evaluation of characterizing Pipe-Over-Pack Containers. Currently at LANL, a single instrument has been used to explore the appropriateness of both passive neutron and quantitative gamma ray methods for measuring POC's. The passive neutron approach uses the Reals coincidence count rate to establish plutonium mass and other parameters of interest for TRU waste. The quantitative gamma ray method assumes a homogeneous distribution of radioactive source material with the surrounding material throughout the drum volume. Drums are assayed with a calibration based on the known density of the matrix. Both methods are supplemented by a simultaneous isotopic measurement using Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition. If MGA fails to provide a viable isotopic result Fixed Energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies (FRAM) has been used to replace the MGA results. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) may also be used in certain instances. This report will discuss the two methods in detail. Included in the discussion will be descriptions of the setup parameters and calibration techniques for the instrument. A number of test measurements have been performed to compare HENC data with certified historical data. Empty POCs loaded with known sources have also been measured to determine the viability of the technique. A comparison between calorimetry data, historical measurements and HENC data will also be

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Fabrication of high aluminium containing rare-earth doped fiber without core-clad interface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Maiti, Himadri Sekhar; Sen, Ranjan

    2010-06-01

    The unwanted core-clad interface defect generation and related scattering loss in rare-earth doped optical fibers containing Al-oxide is up to now an unsolved problem as it cannot be avoided without modifying fiber design or composition. Here a simple technique is proposed to eliminate the problem without affecting fiber parameters. The method comprises addition of fumed silica in appropriate amount under dispersed condition to the soaking solution containing Al and rare-earth salts during the solution impregnation stage. This facilitates the networking between Al 2O 3 and SiO 2 during sintering. The method leads to an improvement in optical properties of the fibers and enables doping of high concentration of Al-oxide even in presence of GeO 2 in the core.

  6. High-resolution electron microscopy study of synthetic carbonate and aluminum containing apatites.

    PubMed

    Layani, J D; Cuisinier, F J; Steuer, P; Cohen, H; Voegel, J C; Mayer, I

    2000-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-containing calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatites were produced by a precipitation method from aqueous solution with carbonate (0-6.1%) and aluminum (0.1-0.5%) concentrations close to those found in biological materials. Two series of apatites were prepared: one at pH 7.0 and another at pH 9. 0. High-resolution electron microscopy has shown that many of them possess structural defects such as screw dislocations, grain boundaries, and central defects. Samples with high carbonate content and high water and high Al(3+) content had a high amount of structural defects. Accordingly, a sample (7Al1) with a relatively high carbonate content (6.1%) and a sample (7Al6) without carbonate but with a relatively high water (2.0 mol) and Al(3+) content (0. 39%) presented the highest amount of structural defects, 54% and 47%, respectively. A sample (7Al13) with a low level of crystalline water (1 mol) and low carbonate (2.5%) showed a small amount of defects. The presence of water associated with Al(3+) induced a high number of crystals having a central defect with a great similarity to the so-called water layer of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Observed images of all these crystals have shown good correspondence with the computer-simulated image based on the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite, indicating that the addition of Al(3+) and carbonate does not perturb the apatitic structure.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The Visual Motor Integration Test: High Interjudge Reliability, High Potential For Diagnostic Error.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Peggy P.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated scoring agreement among three different training levels of Visual Motor Integration Test (VMI) diagnosticians. Correlational data demonstrated high interexaminer reliabilities; however, there were gross errors in precision after raw scores had been converted into VMI age equivalent scores. (Author/RC)

  9. Evaluation of peristaltic micromixers for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duckjong; Rho, Hoon Suk; Jambovane, Sachin; Shin, Soojeong; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-03-01

    Microfluidic devices based on the multilayer soft lithography allow accurate manipulation of liquids, handling reagents at the sub-nanoliter level, and performing multiple reactions in parallel processors by adapting micromixers. Here, we have experimentally evaluated and compared several designs of micromixers and operating conditions to find design guidelines for the micromixers. We tested circular, triangular, and rectangular mixing loops and measured mixing performance according to the position and the width of the valves that drive nanoliters of fluids in the micrometer scale mixing loop. We found that the rectangular mixer is best for the applications of highly integrated microfluidic platforms in terms of the mixing performance and the space utilization. This study provides an improved understanding of the flow behaviors inside micromixers and design guidelines for micromixers that are critical to build higher order fluidic systems for the complicated parallel bio/chemical processes on a chip.

  10. Monolithic CMOS-MEMS integration for high-g accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Li, Holden; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights work-in-progress towards the conceptualization, simulation, fabrication and initial testing of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) integrated CMOS-MEMS high-g accelerometer for military, munition, fuze and shock measurement applications. Developed on IMEC's SiGe MEMS platform, the MEMS offers a dynamic range of 5,000 g and a bandwidth of 12 kHz. The low noise readout circuit adopts a chopper-stabilization technique implementing the CMOS through the TSMC 0.18 µm process. The device structure employs a fully differential split comb-drive set up with two sets of stators and a rotor all driven separately. Dummy structures acting as protective over-range stops were designed to protect the active components when under impacts well above the designed dynamic range.

  11. An integrated inundation model for highly developed urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, A S; Hsu, M H; Chen, T S; Chang, T J

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this study with various components for simulating the complex flow phenomena in urban drainage basins. The model integrates the HEC-1 model, a 1-D dynamic channel-flow model, a 2-D non-inertia overland-flow model and the SWMM model to reflect the hydraulic processes in areas with different characteristics. The inundation of underground infrastructure during flood is also considered in the model. The typhoon Nari event in 2001, which resulted in severe flood in downtown Taipei, is simulated by the model. The result is compared with the survey records of flooded areas, which reveals the storage effect of underground infrastrucures is significant to the simulation results of highly developed urban areas.

  12. AGILE integration into APC for high mix logic fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatefait, M.; Lam, A.; Le Gratiet, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Morin, V.; Chojnowski, N.; Kocsis, Z.; Smith, I.; Decaunes, J.; Ostrovsky, A.; Monget, C.

    2015-09-01

    mix logic Fab) in term of product and technology portfolio AGILE corrects for up to 120nm of product topography error on process layer with less than 50nm depth of focus Based on tool functionalities delivered by ASML and on high volume manufacturing requirement, AGILE integration is a real challenge. Regarding ST requirements "Automatic AGILE" functionality developed by ASML was not a turnkey solution and a dedicated functionality was needed. A "ST homemade AGILE integration" has been fully developed and implemented within ASML and ST constraints. This paper describes this integration in our Advanced Process Control platform (APC).

  13. Coherent integrated receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klamkin, Jonathan

    Phase modulation can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spurfree dynamic range (SFDR) of microwave photonic links because phase modulation is not limited in input modulation swing and is inherently linear using certain electro-optic devices. Traditional interferometer-based phase demodulators have a sinusoidal response therefore a novel approach is required for achieving linear coherent detection at the receive end of a photonic link employing phase modulation. In this work, a balanced receiver with feedback to a reference tracking phase modulator was developed. With sufficient feedback loop gain, the received signal phase is closely tracked and the phase detection falls within the linear regime of the interferometer response. For stable operation at high frequency the delay of the feedback loop must be kept short, therefore a monolithic approach is required to realize a compact receiver architecture. The monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) developed here consists of a high power balanced uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a compact 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, and multi-quantum well reference phase modulators. This PIC is hybrid integrated with an electronic IC that provides transconductance amplification of the feedback signal for increased loop gain. Novel concepts such as charge compensation, partially depleted absorption, and absorption profile modification were incorporated into the design of the waveguide UTCPDs resulting in record output saturation current and linearity. Both general interference surface ridge (SR) MMI couplers and restricted interference deep ridge (DR) MMI couplers were explored, the latter for reducing the loop delay. Current injection tuning was incorporated into the MMI couplers for fine tuning the output power splitting ratio. The quantum well design of the reference phase modulators was optimized for realizing low Vpi, low insertion loss, low absorption modulation, and improved linearity

  14. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, Georgia Tech's School of Aerospace Engineering was awarded a NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) to address 'Integrated Design and Manufacturing for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)' in its graduate aerospace systems design courses. This report summarizes the results of the five courses incorporated into the Georgia Tech's USRA ADP program. It covers AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering, AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD, AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost, AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One, and AE6352: Aerospace Systems Design Two. AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering was an introductory course addressing the basic principles of concurrent engineering (CE) or integrated product development (IPD). The design of a total system was not the objective of this course. The goal was to understand and define the 'up-front' customer requirements, their decomposition, and determine the value objectives for a complex product, such as the high speed civil transport (HSCT). A generic CE methodology developed at Georgia Tech was used for this purpose. AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost addressed the basic economic issues for an HSCT using a robust design technique, Taguchi's parameter design optimization method (PDOM). An HSCT economic sensitivity assessment was conducted using a Taguchi PDOM approach to address the robustness of the basic HSCT design. AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD permitted students to develop and utilize CAE/CAD/CAM knowledge and skills using CATIA and CADAM as the basic geometric tools. AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One focused on the conceptual design refinement of a baseline HSCT configuration as defined by Boeing, Douglas, and NASA in their system studies. It required the use of NASA's synthesis codes FLOPS and ACSYNT. A criterion called the productivity index (P.I.) was used to evaluate disciplinary sensitivities and provide refinements of the baseline HSCT

  15. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F. |

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Environmental Vibrio spp., isolated in Mozambique, contain a polymorphic group of integrative conjugative elements and class 1 integrons.

    PubMed

    Taviani, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Lazaro, Nivalda; Bani, Stefania; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colwell, Rita R; Colombo, Mauro M

    2008-04-01

    Circulation of mobile genetic elements linked to drug resistance spread was studied in Vibrio strains isolated from surface urban water (river and sea) and shellfish samples in 2002-2003 in Maputo, Mozambique. Class 1 integrons and integrating conjugative elements (ICE) were investigated by PCR and mating experiments in strains of major health interest: 10 Vibrio cholerae, six Vibrio parahaemolyticus, two Vibrio alginolyticus and one Vibrio fluvialis. Resistance to at least two antibiotics (predominantly beta-lactams) was detected in all the strains, with additional resistances to sulfamethoxazole, spectinomycin, streptomycin and/or trimethoprim. Class 1 integrons contributed partially to the expression of drug resistance and were found in five isolates: four V. cholerae (blaP1 cassette, one strain also contained the dfrA15 cassette) and one V. alginolyticus (aadA2 cassette). ICEs, apparently devoid of resistance genes, were found in eight V. cholerae, three V. parahaemolyticus and one V. fluvialis isolates. A wide variability was observed by molecular characterization of ICEs. Five ICEs were included in the SXT/R391 family and seven ICEs were not classified. Our results indicate that the SXT/R391 family and related ICEs comprise a large class of polymorphic genetic elements widely circulating in environmental Vibrio strains in Africa, beside those evidently linked to drug resistance in clinical isolates.

  17. GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.

    1963-07-23

    A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

  18. Silicon-Containing Moieties as Enhancers of Segment and Junction Flexibility in High-Temperature Thermosetting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    All samples were melted, blended, and de-gassed for 30 min. prior to cure in silicone molds under N2, cure schedule for 1 hr at 150 °C followed...Containing Cyanate Esters: Non-isothermal DSC 12 114 kJ/mol Post- cure Tg: 305 °C BADCy 95 kJ/mol Incomplete Cure 117 kJ/mol Post- cure Tg: 250°C...STT3 do not achieve full conversion even when cured at high temperatures, in accord with the shape of the non-isothermal DSC curves STT3

  19. Highly selective deuteration of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles: a flow chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    A simple and efficient flow-based technique is reported for the catalytic deuteration of several model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds which are important building blocks of pharmacologically active materials. A continuous flow reactor was used in combination with on-demand pressure-controlled electrolytic D(2) production. The D(2) source was D(2)O, the consumption of which was very low. The experimental set-up allows the fine-tuning of pressure, temperature, and flow rate so as to determine the optimal conditions for the deuteration reactions. The described procedure lacks most of the drawbacks of the conventional batch deuteration techniques, and additionally is highly selective and reproducible.

  20. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan - Soo; Boncella, James M; Kuiper, David; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  1. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  2. Chromatin-Dependent Repression of the Arabidopsis Floral Integrator Genes Involves Plant Specific PHD-Containing Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants. PMID:25281686

  3. Chromatin-dependent repression of the Arabidopsis floral integrator genes involves plant specific PHD-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants.

  4. Phase composition and elemental partitioning in glass-ceramics containing high-Na/Al high level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Sorokaletova, A. N.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2012-05-01

    Mixtures of surrogates of high level waste with high sodium and aluminum contents and sodium-lithium borosilicate frit were melted in alumina crucibles in a resistive furnace followed by quenching of one portion of the melt and annealing of the residual material in a turned-off furnace. The annealed materials with waste loading of up to 45 wt.% contained minor spinel type phase and trace of nepheline (Na,K)AlSiO4. In the annealed materials contained waste oxides in amount of 50 wt.% and more nepheline and spinel were found to be major and minor phases, respectively. At high waste loadings two extra phases: Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO4) and mixed Na/Cs-aluminosilicate were found in amount of 3-5 vol.% each. The latter phase contains of up to ˜5.7 wt.% SO3 or 0.13 formula units S (Na0.75K0.05Cs0.29Ca0.02Sr0.02Al0.99Fe0.03Si0.76S0.13O4). Sulfur incorporation as S6+ or SO42- ions into crystal lattice may be facilitated in the presence of large-size Cs+ cations. Simplified suggested formula of this phase may be represented as Na0.8Cs0.3AlSi0.8S0.1O3.95. It was also synthesized by sintering of mixture of chemicals at 1300 °C and found to be instable at temperatures higher than 1300 °C.

  5. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  6. Internal performance of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.; Asbury, Scott C.; Mason, Mary L.; Lamb, Milton

    1993-01-01

    The internal performance characteristics of Highly Integrated Deployable Exhaust Nozzles (HIDEN) applicable to advanced short take-off and vertical landing aircraft have been investigated. Four nozzle concepts, designed for fan and core flow installations, were tested with varying contraction ratio and nozzle exit plane shape. In addition, two offtake duct designs, along with several centerbody and blocker geometries were tested to evaluate their effect on the static thrust and flow performance. This investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. A six-component strain-gage balance collected force and moment data, and static pressure, total pressure, and total temperature measurements were also made internal to the model. Room temperature, dry high-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust. The results indicate that the internal performance of these HIDEN concepts is comparable to previously tested nozzle concepts designed for thrust vectoring about a bearing plane. This report presents the configuration design of the HIDEN concepts and the results of the internal performance testing.

  7. A complete high integrity overpressure pipeline protection system

    SciTech Connect

    High, G.; Loth, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    Although most often associated with high-pressure production, a reliable system enabling subsea wells to be produced safely at long tie-back distances through flowlines rated to less than shut-in wellhead pressure offers cost savings for many developments. Previous work has shown that there is a small but finite probability of conventional flow control systems failing to shut off damaging overpressures. In most cases, this will arise from mechanical problems which are more likely causes than electronic failure within the production control system. The proposed system provides a viable means of implementing a pressure specification break through the use of a modular, configurable system comprising four main components. The system is semi-autonomous, with dedicated pressure sensors and high integrity electronics being incorporated to avoid common mode system failures. Routine telemetry and reset capability would be conducted through the electro-hydraulic production control system. The near-term availability of this protection system is an important consideration in justifying the economic viability of many marginal field developments.

  8. Velocity-pressure integrated versus penalty finite element methods for high Reynolds number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang-Wook

    1988-01-01

    Velocity-pressure integrated and consistent penalty finite element computations of high Reynolds number, laminar flows are presented. In both of the methods, the pressure has been interpolated using linear shape functions for a triangular element. The triangular element is contained inside the bi-quadratic isoparametric element. It has been reported previously that the pressure interpolation method, when used in the velocity-pressure integrated method, yielded accurate computational results for high Reynolds number flows. It is shown that use of the same pressure interpolation method in the consistent penalty finite element method yielded accurate velocity and pressure fields which were comparable to those obtained using the velocity-pressure integrated method. Accuracy of the two finite element methods has been demonstrated by comparing the computational results with available experimental data and/or fine-grid finite difference computational results. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are discussed on the basis of accuracy and convergence nature. Example problems considered include a lid-driven cavity flow for Reynolds number of 10,000, a laminar backward-facing step flow, a laminar flow through a nest of cylinders, and a channel flow with an internal blockage. A finite element computer program (NSFLOW/P) for the 2-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is also presented.

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Hydrothermal transformations in an aluminophosphate glass matrix containing simulators of high-level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudintsev, S. V.; Mal'kovsky, V. I.; Mokhov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of aluminophosphate glass with water at 95°C for 35 days results in glass heterogenization and in the appearance of a gel layer and various phases. The leaching rate of elements is low owing to the formation of a protective layer on the glass surface. It is shown that over 80% of uranium leached from the glass matrix occurs as colloids below 450 nm in size characterized by high migration ability in the geological environment. To determine the composition of these colloids is a primary task for further studies. Water vapor is a crystallization factor for glasses. The conditions as such may appear even at early stages of glass storage because of the failure of seals on containers of high-level radioactive wastes. The examination of water resistance of crystallized matrices and determination of the fraction of radionuclide in colloids are also subjects for further studies.

  11. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-05-13

    Although nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present detailed characterization of the NOC constituents of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) samples using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurements combined with MS/MS fragmentation experiments of selected ions were used to assign molecular structures to individual NOC species. Our results indicate that N-heterocyclic alkaloid compounds - species naturally produced by plants and living organisms - comprise a substantial fraction of NOC in BBA samples collected from test burns of five biomass fuels. High abundance of alkaloids in test burns of ponderosa pine - a widespread tree in the western U.S. areas frequently affected by large scale fires - suggests that N-heterocyclic alkaloids in BBA can play a significant role in dry and wet deposition of fixed nitrogen in this region.

  13. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  14. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; ...

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  15. High resolution melting analysis as a new approach to discriminate gluten-containing cereals.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Costa, Joana; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-11-15

    With this work, it is intended to propose a novel approach based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect wheat and discriminate it from other gluten-containing cereals. The method consisted of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding for the germ agglutinin isolectin A protein (Tri a 18 allergen), using the fluorescent Evagreen dye combined with HRM analysis. The results enabled wheat differentiation from other phylogenetically related cereals, namely barley, rye and oat with high level of confidence. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR approach was proposed, allowing detecting and quantifying wheat down to 20mg/kg in rice flour and 20pg of wheat DNA (∼1.1 DNA copies). Its application was successfully achieved in the analysis of processed foods to verify labelling compliance, being considered as a cost-effective tool for the specific detection of cereals in gluten-free foods.

  16. Three-dimensional porous carbon composites containing high sulfur nanoparticle content for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoxing; Sun, Jinhua; Hou, Wenpeng; Jiang, Shidong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is a promising cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (1,675 mA h g−1); however, its low electrical conductivity and the instability of sulfur-based electrodes limit its practical application. Here we report a facile in situ method for preparing three-dimensional porous graphitic carbon composites containing sulfur nanoparticles (3D S@PGC). With this strategy, the sulfur content of the composites can be tuned to a high level (up to 90 wt%). Because of the high sulfur content, the nanoscale distribution of the sulfur particles, and the covalent bonding between the sulfur and the PGC, the developed 3D S@PGC cathodes exhibit excellent performance, with a high sulfur utilization, high specific capacity (1,382, 1,242 and 1,115 mA h g−1 at 0.5, 1 and 2 C, respectively), long cycling life (small capacity decay of 0.039% per cycle over 1,000 cycles at 2 C) and excellent rate capability at a high charge/discharge current. PMID:26830732

  17. Dimensional stability under wet curing of mortars containing high amounts of nitrates and phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Benard, P.

    2008-10-15

    Investigations were carried out in order to solidify in cement some aqueous streams resulting from nuclear decommissioning processes and characterized by a high salinity (300 g/L), as well as important concentrations of nitrate (150-210 g/L) and phosphate ions (0-50 g/L). Special attention was paid to the influence of these compounds on the dimensional variations under wet curing of simulated solidified waste forms. The length changes of mortars containing nitrate salts only (KNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}) were shown to be governed by a concentration effect which involved osmosis: the higher their concentration in the mixing solution, the higher the swelling. The expansion of mortars containing high amounts of phosphates ({>=} 30 g/L in the mixing solution) was preceded by a shrinkage which increased with the phosphate concentration, and which could be suppressed by seeding the cement used with hydroxyapatite crystals. This transitory shrinkage was attributed to the conversion into hydroxyapatite of a precursor readily precipitated in the cement paste after mixing.

  18. Refolding by high pressure of a toxin containing seven disulfide bonds: bothropstoxin-1 from Bothrops jararacussu.

    PubMed

    Balduino, Keli N; Spencer, Patrick J; Malavasi, Natalia V; Chura-Chambi, Rosa M; Lemke, Laura S; Morganti, Ligia

    2011-07-01

    Aggregation is a serious obstacle for recovery of biologically active heterologous proteins from inclusion bodies (IBs) produced by recombinant bacteria. E. coli transformed with a vector containing the cDNA for Bothropstoxin-1 (BthTx-1) expressed the recombinant product as IBs. In order to obtain the native toxin, insoluble and aggregated protein was refolded using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). IBs were dissolved and refolded (2 kbar, 16 h), and the effects of protein concentration, as well as changes in ratio and concentration of oxido-shuffling reagents, guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), and pH in the refolding buffer, were assayed. A 32% yield (7.6 mg per liter of bacterial culture) in refolding of the native BthTx-1 was obtained using optimal conditions of the refolding buffer (Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 3 mM of a 2:3 ratio of GSH/GSSG, and 1 M GdnHCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that that disaggregation of part of IBs particles occurred upon compression and that the morphology of the remaining IBs, spherical particles, was not substantially altered. Dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of high-pressure refolded BthTx-1 was shown in C2C12 muscle cells.

  19. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  20. Electrochemical Deposition of Azobenzene-Containing Network Films with High-Contrast and Stable Photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruiyang; Zhan, Xuepeng; Yao, Liang; Chen, Qidai; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-04-01

    To fabricate stable photoresponsive films and devices, a cross-linked network that firmly fixes the position of the chromophores is an ideal structure, because aggregation and/or phase separation effects of chromophores in matrix can be effectively restrained in such robust films. Herein, the in situ electrochemical deposition (ED) of azo-based precursors containing multielectroactive carbazole units is utilized to construct highly cross-linked photoresponsive films. 2-(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-7-yl)phenyl)diazene (BFCzAzo) with high solvability in electrolyte solution, high electroactivity, and highly efficient photoresponsive ability is synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction as a kind of ED precursor. A highly cross-linked photoresponsive film is fabricated by ED method using BFCzAzo as ED precursor. The film can be patterned in large area by irradiation with interfering laser beam (355 nm), and the pattern possesses excellent thermal stability and insoluble ability in both organic and inorganic solvents. Excellent reversibility of the nanostructures is demonstrated by irradiation with 550 nm laser beam.

  1. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    SciTech Connect

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  2. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. IV: Development of an indirect correlation between vacuum decay leak measurement and microbial ingress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Muangsiri, W; Schiere, R; Guazzo, D K; Kirsch, L E

    1999-01-01

    The rational development of a physical test method to evaluate the microbial barrier properties of sterile containers necessitates its correlation to microbiological exclusion. This can be accomplished by direct or indirect correlation. In the former, the proposed physical test is directly compared to microbial challenges using appropriate test units that stimulate container leaks at both high and low probabilities of microbial ingress. Previous work has demonstrated the development of a direct correlation using helium leak rate methods and microbial immersion challenges. An indirect correlation can be established by comparing the proposed physical method to well-defined leakage standards that represent various known levels of microbial ingress. Thus the quality assurance properties of a physical test method can be established by comparison to another physical test method that has been previously characterized. This approach has the distinct advantages of being faster, quantitatively rigorous, and less subject to the vicissitudes, of microbial testing. This approach was demonstrated by comparing the helium leak rate method to vacuum decay testing. Additionally it was demonstrated that vacuum decay testing was a fast and reproducible method for detecting leaks of about 1 to 2 mm. Leaks were simulated by affixing micropipettes into glass vials.

  3. Semi-implicit Integration Factor Methods on Sparse Grids for High-Dimensional Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongyong; Chen, Weitao; Nie, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Numerical methods for partial differential equations in high-dimensional spaces are often limited by the curse of dimensionality. Though the sparse grid technique, based on a one-dimensional hierarchical basis through tensor products, is popular for handling challenges such as those associated with spatial discretization, the stability conditions on time step size due to temporal discretization, such as those associated with high-order derivatives in space and stiff reactions, remain. Here, we incorporate the sparse grids with the implicit integration factor method (IIF) that is advantageous in terms of stability conditions for systems containing stiff reactions and diffusions. We combine IIF, in which the reaction is treated implicitly and the diffusion is treated explicitly and exactly, with various sparse grid techniques based on the finite element and finite difference methods and a multi-level combination approach. The overall method is found to be efficient in terms of both storage and computational time for solving a wide range of PDEs in high dimensions. In particular, the IIF with the sparse grid combination technique is flexible and effective in solving systems that may include cross-derivatives and non-constant diffusion coefficients. Extensive numerical simulations in both linear and nonlinear systems in high dimensions, along with applications of diffusive logistic equations and Fokker-Planck equations, demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the new methods, indicating potential broad applications of the sparse grid-based integration factor method. PMID:25897178

  4. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-Jie; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Teng-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  5. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qi-jie; Yang, Dong-xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-fei; Chen, Teng-yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  6. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  7. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  8. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Mccarthy, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop an optimization procedure for high-speed and civil tilt-rotors by coupling all of the necessary disciplines within a closed-loop optimization procedure. Both simplified and comprehensive analysis codes are used for the aerodynamic analyses. The structural properties are calculated using in-house developed algorithms for both isotropic and composite box beam sections. There are four major objectives of this study. (1) Aerodynamic optimization: The effects of blade aerodynamic characteristics on cruise and hover performance of prop-rotor aircraft are investigated using the classical blade element momentum approach with corrections for the high lift capability of rotors/propellers. (2) Coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization: A multilevel hybrid optimization technique is developed for the design of prop-rotor aircraft. The design problem is decomposed into a level for improved aerodynamics with continuous design variables and a level with discrete variables to investigate composite tailoring. The aerodynamic analysis is based on that developed in objective 1 and the structural analysis is performed using an in-house code which models a composite box beam. The results are compared to both a reference rotor and the optimum rotor found in the purely aerodynamic formulation. (3) Multipoint optimization: The multilevel optimization procedure of objective 2 is extended to a multipoint design problem. Hover, cruise, and take-off are the three flight conditions simultaneously maximized. (4) Coupled rotor/wing optimization: Using the comprehensive rotary wing code CAMRAD, an optimization procedure is developed for the coupled rotor/wing performance in high speed tilt-rotor aircraft. The developed procedure contains design variables which define the rotor and wing planforms.

  9. Highly efficient modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) using novel shuttle vectors containing the R6Kgamma origin of replication.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shiaoching; Yang, Xiangdong William; Li, Chenjian; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2002-12-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mediated transgenesis has proven to be a highly reliable way to obtain accurate transgene expression for in vivo studies of gene expression and function. A rate-limiting step in use of this technology to characterize large numbers of genes has been the process with which BACs can be modified by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. We report here a highly efficient method for modifying BACs by using a novel set of shuttle vectors that contain the R6Kgamma origin for DNA replication, the E. coli RecA gene for recombination, and the SacB gene for negative selection. These new vectors greatly increased the ease with which one can clone the shuttle vectors, as well as screen for co-integrated and resolved clones. Furthermore, we simplify the shuttle vector cloning to one step by incorporation of a "built-in" resolution cassette for rapid removal of the unwanted vector sequences. This new system has been used to modify a dozen BACs. It is well suited for efficient production of modified BACs for use in a variety of in vivo studies.

  10. Challenges in graphene integration for high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannazzo, F.; Fisichella, G.; Greco, G.; Roccaforte, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research on graphene (Gr) for high-frequency (RF) devices. After discussing current limitations of lateral Gr RF transistors, novel vertical devices concepts such as the Gr Base Hot Electron Transistor (GBHET) will be introduced and the main challenges in Gr integration within these architectures will be discussed. In particular, a GBHET device based on Gr/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure will be considered. An approach to the fabrication of this heterostructure by transfer of CVD grown Gr on copper to the AlGaN surface will be presented. The morphological and electrical properties of this system have been investigated at nanoscale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). In particular, local current-voltage measurements by the CAFM probe revealed the formation of a Schottky contact with low barrier height (˜0.41 eV) and excellent lateral uniformity between Gr and AlGaN. Basing on the electrical parameters extracted from this characterization, the theoretical performances of a GBHET formed by a metal/Al2O3/Gr/AlGaN/GaN stack have been evaluated.

  11. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  12. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A.; Hunt, Thomas P.; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm2 in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip’s surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications. PMID:20625468

  13. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Hunt, Thomas P; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm(2) in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip's surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications.

  14. High integrity pressure protection systems for production applications

    SciTech Connect

    Langvik, S.; Aarebrot, E.

    1995-12-31

    Through the use of a High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) the flare capacity of a wellhead platform can be reduced to the flowrate required for depressurization. The HIPPS may also be used to reduce the flare capacity of a process plant. By the use of HIPPS, the discharge of hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide due to venting/flaring is reduced. This paper describes the development of HIPPS for the Sleipner B-platform offshore Norway. A 20 inch multiphase pipeline is protected against overpressure by two 20 inch quick acting shut down valves (QSV) installed in series, instead of pressure safety valves. The valves have been qualified for operation in wellstream at a shut-in pressure of 336 bar, and have a closing time of 2 seconds. Each of the QSVs has independent, fail safe instrumentation circuits. A parallel train of QSVs has been installed due to the testing requirements. The estimated saving using HIPPS on SLB was $25 mill. The paper also discuss existing and new applications of the HIPPS.

  15. Adaptive weld control for high-integrity welding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Bradley W.

    Adaptive, closed-loop weld control is necessary to maintain high-integrity, zero-defect welds. Conventional weld control techniques using weld parameter feedback control loops are sufficient to maintain set points, but fall short when confronted with unexpected variations in part/tooling temperature and mechanical structure, weldment material, arc skew angle, or calibration in weld parameter feedback measurement. Modern technology allows closed-loop control utilizing input from real-time weld monitoring sensors and inspection devices. Weld puddle parameters, bead profile parameters, and weld seam position are fed back into the weld control loop which adapts for the weld condition variations and drives them back to a desired state, thereby preventing weld defects or perturbations. Parameters such as arc position relative to the weld seam, puddle symmetry, arc length, weld width, and bead shape can be extracted from sensor imagery and used in closed-loop active weld control. All weld bead and puddle measurements are available for real-time display and statistical process control analysis, after which the data is archived to permanent storage or later retrieval and analysis.

  16. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Berry, Robert; Durfee, Neal; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  18. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-21

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa(-1). The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.

  19. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  20. MODELING THE CORROSION OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS CAM-CRM INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph; McCright, Daniel

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel400. Initially, the containers will be hot and dry due to the heat generated by radioactive decay. However, the temperature will eventually drop to levels where both humid air and aqueous phase corrosion will be possible. As the outer barrier is penetrated, uniform corrosion of the CRM will be possible in exfoliated areas. The possibility for crevice formation between the CAM and CRM will also exist. In the case of either Alloy 625 or C-22, a crevice will have to form before significant penetration of the CRM can occur. Crevice corrosion of the CRMs has been well documented. Lillard and Scully have induced crevice corrosion in Alloy 625 during exposure to artificial sea water. Jones and Wilde have prepared simulated crevice solutions of FeCl{sub 2}, NiCl{sub 2} and CrCl{sub 3}, and measured substantial pH suppression. Asphahani measured the dissolution rates of Alloys 625 and C-22 in such artificial crevice solutions at various temperatures. Others have observed no significant localized attack in less severe environments.

  1. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, M.

    1997-12-09

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design,the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 and C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. Initially, the containers will be hot and dry due to the heat generated by radioactive decay. However, the temperature will eventually drop to levels where both humid air and aqueous phase corrosion will be possible. As the outer barrier is penetrated, uniform corrosion of the CRM will be possible of exfoliated areas. The possibility of crevice formation between the CAM and CRM will also exist. In the case of either Alloy 625 or C-22, a crevice will have to form before significant penetration of the CRM can occur. Crevice corrosion of the CRMs has been well documented.

  2. Preparation of monodisperse aqueous microspheres containing high concentration of l-ascorbic acid by microchannel emulsification.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Nauman; Kobayashi, Isao; Neves, Marcos A; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Nabetani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse aqueous microspheres containing high concentrations of l-ascorbic acid with different concentrations of sodium alginate (Na-ALG) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) were prepared by using microchannel emulsification (MCE). The continuous phase was water-saturated decane containing a 5% (w/w) hydrophobic emulsifier. The flow rate of the continuous phase was maintained at 10 mL h(-1), whereas the pressure applied to the disperse phase was varied between 3 and 25 kPa. The disperse phase optimized for successfully generating aqueous microspheres included 2% (w/w) Na-ALG and 1% (w/w) MgSO4. At a higher MgSO4 concentration, the generated microspheres resulted in coalescence and subsequent bursting. At a lower MgSO4 concentration, unstable and polydisperse microspheres were obtained. The aqueous microspheres generated from the MCs under optimized conditions had a mean particle diameter (dav) of 14-16 µm and a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 8% at the disperse phase pressures of 5-15 kPa.

  3. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  4. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environment (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  5. Effect of galvanic coupling between overpack materials for high-level nuclear waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.S.; Cragnolino, G.A.; Sridhar, N.

    1998-12-31

    The effect of environmental parameters and area ratio on the galvanic protection of Alloy 825 by A516 steel was studied. A simplified model was used to calculate the potential and corrosion current density of the bimetallic couple as a function of the galvanic coupling efficiency. Galvanic corrosion tests were performed to gain confidence in the calculated values. Both the calculations and laboratory testing indicate that, with highly efficient coupling, the potential of the galvanic couple is maintained below the repassivation potential for Alloy 825 in chloride-containing solutions. As a result, the initiation of localized corrosion on Alloy 825 is prevented. The formation of oxides, scales, and corrosion product layers between the barriers is shown to reduce the efficiency of the galvanic couple, which may result in conditions under which the localized corrosion of the inner corrosion resistant barrier can occur.

  6. Highly Efficient and Enzymatic Regioselective Undecylenoylation of Gastrodin in 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-Containing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rongling; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Yang, Chunying; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7′-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v), the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7′-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn’t be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin. PMID:25329539

  7. Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  9. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  10. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  11. High-Throughput Construction of Intron-Containing Hairpin RNA Vectors for RNAi in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Gao, XinZheng; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng; Duan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    With the wide use of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene function in plants, a high-throughput system for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs is in great demand. Here, we describe a novel restriction-ligation approach that provides a simple but efficient construction of intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) vectors. The system takes advantage of the type IIs restriction enzyme BsaI and our new plant RNAi vector pRNAi-GG based on the Golden Gate (GG) cloning. This method requires only a single PCR product of the gene of interest flanked with BsaI recognition sequence, which can then be cloned into pRNAi-GG at both sense and antisense orientations simultaneously to form ihpRNA construct. The process, completed in one tube with one restriction-ligation step, produced a recombinant ihpRNA with high efficiency and zero background. We demonstrate the utility of the ihpRNA constructs generated with pRNAi-GG vector for the effective silencing of various individual endogenous and exogenous marker genes as well as two genes simultaneously. This method provides a novel and high-throughput platform for large-scale analysis of plant functional genomics. PMID:22675447

  12. The High Performance of Crystal Water Containing Manganese Birnessite Cathodes for Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwan Woo; Kim, Sangryun; Lee, Soyeon; Salama, Michael; Shterenberg, Ivgeni; Gofer, Yossi; Kim, Joo-Seong; Yang, Eunjeong; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Ju-Sik; Lee, Seok-Soo; Chang, Won-Seok; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Jo, Yong Nam; Jung, Yousung; Aurbach, Doron; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-06-10

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have lately received great attention for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high volumetric capacities, low materials cost, and safe characteristic. However, the bivalency of Mg(2+) ions has made it challenging to find cathode materials operating at high voltages with decent (de)intercalation kinetics. In an effort to overcome this challenge, we adopt an unconventional approach of engaging crystal water in the layered structure of Birnessite MnO2 because the crystal water can effectively screen electrostatic interactions between Mg(2+) ions and the host anions. The crucial role of the crystal water was revealed by directly visualizing its presence and dynamic rearrangement using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Moreover, the importance of lowering desolvation energy penalty at the cathode-electrolyte interface was elucidated by working with water containing nonaqueous electrolytes. In aqueous electrolytes, the decreased interfacial energy penalty by hydration of Mg(2+) allows Birnessite MnO2 to achieve a large reversible capacity (231.1 mAh g(-1)) at high operating voltage (2.8 V vs Mg/Mg(2+)) with excellent cycle life (62.5% retention after 10000 cycles), unveiling the importance of effective charge shielding in the host and facile Mg(2+) ions transfer through the cathode's interface.

  13. Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei

    Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).

  14. Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum-Containing Refractory High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkov, O. N.; Woodward, C.; Miracle, D. B.

    2014-10-01

    A new metallurgical strategy, high-entropy alloying (HEA), was used to explore new composition and phase spaces in the development of new refractory alloys with reduced densities and improved properties. Combining Mo, Ta, and Hf with "low-density" refractory elements (Nb, V, and Zr) and with Ti and Al produced six new refractory HEAs with densities ranging from 6.9 g/cm3 to 9.1 g/cm3. Three alloys have single-phase disordered body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structures and three other alloys contain two bcc nanophases with very close lattice parameters. The alloys have high hardness, in the range from H v = 4.0 GPa to 5.8 GPa, and compression yield strength, σ 0.2 = 1280 MPa to 2035 MPa, depending on the composition. Some of these refractory HEAs show considerably improved high temperature strengths relative to advanced Ni-based superalloys. Compressive ductility of all the alloys is limited at room temperature, but it improves significantly at 800°C and 1000°C.

  15. Characterization of high temperature deposited Ti-containing hydrogenated carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, B.; Meng, W. J.; Evans, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    A detailed structural and mechanical characterization was performed on Ti-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Ti-C:H) thin films deposited at ˜600°C by plasma assisted hybrid chemical/physical vapor deposition. The structural and mechanical characteristics of these specimens were compared to those deposited at the lower temperature of ˜250°C. The results indicated that Ti-C :H consisted of a nanocrystalline TiC phase and a hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) phase, and that Ti atoms were incorporated into Ti-C :H predominantly as B1-TiC. Deposition at ˜600°C promoted TiC precipitation, resulting in little Ti dissolution within the a-C :H matrix. High temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens were found to possess lower modulus and hardness values as compared to low temperature deposited specimens, especially at low Ti compositions. This is rationalized by electron microscopy evidence of increased short and medium range graphitic order within the a-C :H matrix of high temperature deposited Ti-C :H, and supported by additional Raman spectroscopic observations. Heat treatments at 600 °C combined with Raman scattering measurements showed that the a-C :H matrix in high temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens appears to be less structurally sensitive to additional annealing.

  16. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  17. High Sensitivity Planetary Composition Measurements Using Integrating Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. Z.; Retherford, K. D.; Davis, M. W.; Raut, U.; Mandt, K. E.; Mason, J. D.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The desire to understand planetary atmospheres, terrestrial chemistry, or search for potential biological markers often involves optical spectroscopy. We present a new approach to planetary instrumentation based on a novel integrating cavity.

  18. A weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid induces esophageal epithelial apoptosis and impairs integrity in an in vivo perfusion rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Pardon, Nicolas A.; Vicario, Maria; Vanheel, Hanne; Vanuytsel, Tim; Ceulemans, Laurens J.; Vieth, Michael; Jimenez, Marcel; Tack, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired esophageal mucosal integrity may be an important contributor in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Nevertheless, the effect of potentially harmful agents on epithelial integrity is mainly evaluated in vitro for a short period of time and the possible induction of epithelial apoptosis has been neglected. Our objective was to assess the effect of an acidic and weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid (DCA) on the esophageal epithelium in an in vivo rabbit model of esophageal perfusion and to evaluate the role of the epithelial apoptosis. The esophagus of 55 anesthetized rabbits was perfused for 30 min with different solutions at pH 7.2, pH 5.0, pH 1.0, and pH 5.0 containing 200 and 500 μM DCA. Thereafter, animals were euthanized immediately or at 24 or 48 h after the perfusion. Transepithelial electrical resistance, epithelial dilated intercellular spaces, and apoptosis were assessed in Ussing chambers, by transmission electron microscopy, and by TUNEL staining, respectively. No macroscopic or major microscopic alterations were observed after the esophageal perfusions. The acidic and weakly acidic solution containing DCA induced similar long-lasting functional impairment of the epithelial integrity but different ultrastructural morphological changes. Only the solution containing DCA induced epithelial apoptosis in vivo and in vitro in rabbit and human tissue. In contrast to acid, a weakly acidic solution containing DCA induces epithelial apoptosis and a long-lasting impaired mucosal integrity. The presence of apoptotic cells in the esophageal epithelium may be used as a marker of impaired integrity and/or bile reflux exposure. PMID:26797397

  19. Electromagnetic Interactions in High-Speed Integrated Electronic Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Sommerfeld integrals using the fast Fourier transform ," Nat. Radio Science (USNC/URSI) Meeting, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, digest p. 73, Jan...p. 180, Jan. 1989. 3 [12] B. Drachman, M. Cloud, and D. Nyquist, "Accurate evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals using the fast Fourier transform ," to...leads to the transform -domain Hertz potential maintained by currents immersed in the tri-layered environment. The space-domain electric field is recovered

  20. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-01

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa-1. The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present

  1. Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2009-12-01

    Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source.

  2. Depressurization and two-phase flow of water containing high levels of dissolved nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Depressurization of water containing various concentrations of dissolved nitrogen gas was studied. In a nonflow depressurization experiment, water with very high nitrogen content was depressurized at rates from 0.09 to 0.50 MPa per second and a metastable behavior which was a strong function of the depressurization rate was observed. Flow experiments were performed in an axisymmetric, converging diverging nozzle, a two dimensional, converging nozzle with glass sidewalls, and a sharp edge orifice. The converging diverging nozzle exhibited choked flow behavior even at nitrogen concentration levels as low as 4 percent of the saturation level. The flow rates were independent of concentration level. Flow in the two dimensional, converging, visual nozzle appeared to have a sufficient pressure drop at the throat to cause nitrogen to come out of solution, but choking occurred further downstream. The orifice flow motion pictures showed considerable oscillation downstream of the orifice and parallel to the flow. Nitrogen bubbles appeared in the flow at back pressures as high as 3.28 MPa, and the level at which bubbles were no longer visible was a function of nitrogen concentration.

  3. Analysis of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, A.; Smith, J. S.; Laskin, J.

    2009-05-01

    Chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols presents a serious analytical challenge because of the complexity of particulate matter analyte composed of a large number of compounds with a wide range of molecular structures, physico-chemical properties, and reactivity. In this study the chemical composition of the nitrogen containing organic (NOC) constituents of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) samples is characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurements combined with MS/MS fragmentation experiments of selected ions were used to assign molecular structures to individual NOC species. Our results indicate that N-heterocyclic alkaloid compounds - species naturally produced by plants and living organisms - comprise a substantial fraction of NOC in BBA samples collected from test burns of five biomass fuels. High abundance of alkaloids in test burns of ponderosa pine - a widespread tree in the western U.S. areas frequently affected by large scale fires - suggests that N-heterocyclic alkaloids in BBA may play a significant role in dry and wet deposition of fixed nitrogen in this region. Atmospheric processing and chemical transformations of alkaloids in the particulate phase will be discussed.

  4. Interface stability of electrode/Bi-containing relaxor ferroelectric oxide for high-temperature operational capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Kumaragurubaran, Somu; Tsunekawa, Yoshifumi; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Ri, Sung-Gi; Suzuki, Setsu; Oh, Seungjun; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2016-06-01

    The interface stability between electrodes (Pt, TaC, TiC, and RuO2) and a Bi-containing relaxor ferroelectric oxide, BaTiO3-Bi(Mg2/3Nb1/3)O3 (BT-BMN), applied to a high-temperature operational capacitor was investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All the electrodes showed electron filling at the Fermi level after annealing at 400 °C. However, Pt and TaC indicated electrical property degradations due to the thick intermediate layer formation and defect formation of the BT-BMN layer relating to the Bi diffusion into the electrodes. In contrast, TiC inhibited the Bi diffusion and did not show any change in the band alignment after annealing. Furthermore, RuO2 eliminated the defect formation in BT-BMN and showed no change in the band alignment although the Bi diffusion was also observed. These results suggest that the TiC/RuO2/BT-BMN stack structure is a potential candidate for the high-temperature operational capacitor.

  5. Single-Vector, Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccines Against High-Containment Viruses.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Michael A; Geisbert, Thomas W; Mire, Chad E

    2016-01-01

    There are many avenues for making an effective vaccine against viruses. Depending on the virus these can include one of the following: inactivation of whole virions; attenuation of viruses; recombinant viral proteins; non-replication-competent virus particles; or surrogate virus vector systems such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). VSV is a prototypic enveloped animal virus that has been used for over four decades to study virus replication, entry, and assembly due to its ability to replicate to high titers in a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells. The use of reverse genetics to recover infectious and single-cycle replicating VSV from plasmid DNA transfected in cell culture began a revolution in the study of recombinant VSV (rVSV). This platform can be manipulated to study the viral genetic sequences and proteins important in the virus life cycle. Additionally, foreign genes can be inserted between naturally occurring or generated start/stop signals and polyadenylation sites within the VSV genome. VSV has a tolerance for foreign gene expression which has led to numerous rVSVs reported in the literature. Of particular interest are the very effective single-dose rVSV vaccine vectors against high-containment viruses such as filoviruses, henipaviruses, and arenaviruses. Herein we describe the methods for selecting foreign antigenic genes, selecting the location within the VSV genome for insertion, generation of rVSV using reverse genetics, and proper vaccine study designs.

  6. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    PubMed

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire.

  7. Preparation and optimization of glyceryl behenate-based highly porous pellets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Byun, Woojin; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Park, Eun-Seok

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare a highly porous multiparticulate dosage form containing cilostazol for gastroretentive drug delivery. The floating pellets were prepared with glyceryl behenate as a matrix former and camphor as a sublimating agent by extrusion/spheronization and sublimation under vacuum. Granules prepared with sublimation at 60 °C displayed a slower dissolution rate and smoother surface morphology than those prepared at lower temperatures. This was unexpected as the reported melting point of glyceryl behenate is higher than 69 °C. The DSC study revealed that melting began at a lower temperature owing to the multicomponent property of glyceryl behenate, which led to a sintering effect. The prepared pellets were spherical with unimodal size distribution. They also had porous structures with increased porosity, which led to immediate buoyancy. As cilostazol is a hydrophobic drug that has an erosion-based release mechanism, drug release profile was highly correlated with the percentage of disintegrated pellets. Various excipients were added to the glyceryl behenate-based formulation to increase the floating duration. When hydroxyethyl cellulose was added to the glyceryl behenate-based pellets, acceptable dissolution rate and buoyancy were acquired. This system could potentially be used for gastroretentive delivery of various hydrophobic drugs, which was generally considered difficult.

  8. High strain rate superplasticity in an Al-Mg alloy containing scandium

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Shogo; Horita, Zenji; Nemoto, Minoru; Berbon, P.B.; Langdon, T.G.; Furukawa, Minoru

    1998-05-12

    Superplastic forming is a well-established industrial process for the fabrication of complex shapes in sheet metals. It has been suggested that it may be possible to achieve superplasticity at high strain rates in conventional materials by making a substantial reduction in the grain size. This may be achieved by using a process such as equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, where the sample is subjected to intense plastic straining in simple shear, because it is well established that ECA pressing leads to significant grain refinement in large-grained polycrystalline materials down to the submicrometer or even the nanometer level. High strain rate superplasticity (HSR SP) has been widely documented in a range of metal matrix composites, mechanically alloyed materials and in alloys fabricated using powder metallurgy procedures and very recently there was a report of HSR SP in commercial cast Al-based alloys after ECA pressing. The present investigation was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for achieving HSR SP in an Al-3% Mg alloy containing a scandium addition. Scandium was selected for use in this investigation because it is well established that dilute amounts of scandium in the Al-Mg system lead to a considerable enhancement in both the strength and the thermal stability of the material.

  9. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ultra-High Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C K; Lesuer, D R; Goldberg, A; Tsai, H; Sherby, O D

    2006-01-31

    The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs containing silicon and tin as solutes. The thermal expansion of UHCSs with dilute aluminum additions shows no discontinuity in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite transformation temperature. This is the result of a three phase region of ferrite, carbides and austenite. The slope of the expansion curve is higher in the austenite range than in the ferrite range as a result of the dissolution of carbon in austenite with temperature. Processing to achieve a fine grain size in UHCS-Al alloys was principally by hot and warm working (HWW) followed by isothermal warm working (IWW). The high temperature mechanical properties of a UHCS-10Al-1.5C material show nearly Newtonian-viscous behavior at 900 to 1000 C. Tensile elongations of 1200% without failure were achieved in the 1.5%C material. The high oxidation corrosion resistance of the UHCS-10Al materials is described.

  10. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ultra-High Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C K; Lesuer, D R; Goldberg, A; Tsai, H C; Sherby, O D

    2005-10-03

    The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs containing silicon and tin as solutes. The thermal expansion of UHCSs with dilute aluminum additions shows no discontinuity in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite transformation temperature. This is the result of a three phase region of ferrite, carbides and austenite. The slope of the expansion curve is higher in the austenite range than in the ferrite range as a result of the dissolution of carbon in austenite with temperature. Processing to achieve a fine grain size in UHCS-Al alloys was principally by hot and warm working (HWW) followed by isothermal warm working (IWW). The high temperature mechanical properties of a UHCS-10Al-1.5C material show nearly Newtonian-viscous behavior at 900 to 1000 C. Tensile elongations of 1200% without failure were achieved in the 1.5%C material. The high oxidation corrosion resistance of the UHCS-10Al materials is described.

  11. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic α-Galactosyl epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Ganiko, Luciane; Medeiros, Lia C Soares; Miranda, Kildare; Silva, Luiz S; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Almeida, Igor C; Puccia, Rosana

    2011-03-01

    Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic α-linked galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing α-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-α-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal α-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-α-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with α-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying α-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-α-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with α-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after β-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and α-galactosyl epitopes.

  12. HIgh b-value and high Resolution Integrated Diffusion (HIBRID) imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiuyun; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Witzel, Thomas; Huang, Susie Y; Wedeen, Van J; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2017-02-07

    The parameter selection for diffusion MRI experiments is dominated by the "k-q tradeoff" whereby the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images is traded for either high spatial resolution (determined by the maximum k-value collected) or high diffusion sensitivity (effected by b-value or the q vector) but usually not both. Furthermore, different brain regions (such as gray matter and white matter) likely require different tradeoffs between these parameters due to the size of the structures to be visualized or the length-scale of the microstructure being probed. In this case, it might be advantageous to combine information from two scans - a scan with high q but low k (high angular resolution in diffusion but low spatial resolution in the image domain) to provide maximal information about white matter fiber crossing, and one low q but high k (low angular resolution but high spatial resolution) for probing the cortex. In this study, we propose a method, termed HIgh b-value and high Resolution Integrated Diffusion (HIBRID) imaging, for acquiring and combining the information from these two complementary types of scan with the goal of studying diffusion in the cortex without compromising white matter fiber information. The white-gray boundary and pial surface obtained from anatomical scans are incorporated as prior information to guide the fusion. We study the complementary advantages of the fused datasets, and assess the quality of the HIBRID data compared to either alone.

  13. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  14. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  15. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  16. High Performance and Increased Precision Techniques for Feynman Loop Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; de Doncker, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Kapenga, J.; Olagbemi, O.; Yuasa, F.

    2016-10-01

    For the investigation of physics within and beyond the Standard Model, a precise evaluation of higher order corrections in perturbative quantum field theory is required. We have worked on the development of a computational method for Feynman loop integrals with a fully numerical approach. It is based on numerical integration and extrapolation techniques. In this paper, we describe the status and new developments in our techniques for the numerical computation of Feynman loop integrals. Separation of ultra-violet divergences is important for the renormalization procedure. In our analyses, the separation can be done numerically. For 2-loop integrals we have performed the calculations for up to 4-point functions, and for 2-point functions we can handle up to 4- loop integrals. We report the status and accuracy of the computations with detailed numerical comparisons to results in the literature, in order to demonstrate that our method will evolve into an important component of automated systems for the study of higher-order radiative corrections.

  17. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  18. The Agrocybe aegerita mitochondrial genome contains two inverted repeats of the nad4 gene arisen by duplication on both sides of a linear plasmid integration site.

    PubMed

    Ferandon, C; Chatel, S El Kirat; Castandet, B; Castroviejo, M; Barroso, G

    2008-03-01

    The Agrocybe aegerita mitochondrial genome possesses two polB genes with linear plasmid origin. The cloning and sequencing of the regions flanking Aa-polB P1 revealed two large inverted repeats (higher than 2421 nt) separated by a single copy region of 5834 nt. Both repeats contain identical copies of the nad4 gene. The single copy region contains two disrupted genes with plasmid origin Aa-polB P1 and a small ORF homologous to a small gene described in two basidiomycete linear plasmids. The phylogenetic analyses argue in favor of a same plasmid origin for both genes but, surprisingly, these genes were separated by a mitochondrial tRNA-Met. Both strands of the complete region containing the two nad4 inverted copies and the tRNA-Met appear to be transcribed on large polycistronic mRNAs. A model summarizing the events that would have occurred is proposed: (1) capture of the tRNA by the plasmid before its integration in the mtDNA or acquisition of the tRNA gene by recombination after the plasmid integration, (2) integration of the plasmid in the mtDNA, accompanied by a large duplication containing the nad4 gene and (3) erosion of the plasmid sequences by large deletions and mutations.

  19. Highly fluorescent GFPm 2+ -based genome integration-proficient promoter probe vector to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis promoters in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sougata; Narayana, Yeddula; Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2012-01-01

    Study of activity of cloned promoters in slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis during long-term growth conditions in vitro or inside macrophages, requires a genome-integration proficient promoter probe vector, which can be stably maintained even without antibiotics, carrying a substrate-independent, easily scorable and highly sensitive reporter gene. In order to meet this requirement, we constructed pAKMN2, which contains mycobacterial codon-optimized gfp(m) (2+) gene, coding for GFP(m) (2+) of highest fluorescence reported till date, mycobacteriophage L5 attP-int sequence for genome integration, and a multiple cloning site. pAKMN2 showed stable integration and expression of GFP(m) (2+) from M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis genome. Expression of GFP(m) (2+), driven by the cloned minimal promoters of M. tuberculosis cell division gene, ftsZ (MtftsZ), could be detected in the M. tuberculosis/pAKMN2-promoter integrants, growing at exponential phase in defined medium in vitro and inside macrophages. Stable expression from genome-integrated format even without antibiotic, and high sensitivity of detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging, in spite of single copy integration, make pAKMN2 useful for the study of cloned promoters of any mycobacterial species under long-term in vitro growth or stress conditions, or inside macrophages.

  20. Elemental and molecular analysis of metal containing biomolecules using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry: A step towards full integration and simultaneous analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmatakis, Konstantinos; Pergantis, Spiros A.; Anglos, Demetrios

    2016-12-01

    A novel methodology is proposed that combines sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS) with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for analyzing metal-containing biomolecules and complexes. Focusing pulses from a nanosecond laser (Nd:YAG, λ = 1064 nm) in the microdroplet ensemble produced by a pneumatic nebulizer yielded LIBS spectra that enabled highly sensitive detection of several metal ions in aqueous and aqueous methanolic solutions. Based on the calibration curve method, LOD values at the ng/mL level were achieved for Ca (15 ng/mL), Ba (27 ng/mL), Cu (67 ng/mL) and Fe (650 ng/mL) with accuracy > 90%. LIBS measurements were performed for the first time on aerosols of solutions of known biomolecules such as superoxide dismutase and alpha-lactalbumin, which led to the reliable determination of the concentration of Cu and Ca, respectively, both in the range of a few μg/mL. In parallel, the relative molecular mass of the metalloproteins was determined by separate SSI-MS measurements performed using an identical pneumatic nebulizer based sample introduction system. This is a first step towards the ultimate aim of integrating the two analytical techniques by use of a single pneumatic nebulization system for simultaneous sample introduction for both LIBS and SSI-MS. Such a system is expected to greatly enhance our capabilities to simultaneously acquire molecular and atomic data.

  1. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  2. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-03-02

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect.

  3. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect. PMID:28252034

  4. Cellular lightweight concrete containing high-calcium fly ash and natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitchaiyaphum, Khamphee; Sinsiri, Theerawat; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-05-01

    Cellular lightweight concrete (CLC) with the controlled density of approximately 800 kg/m3 was made from a preformed foam, Type-I Portland cement (OPC), fly ash (FA), or natural zeolite (NZ), and its compressive strength, setting time, water absorption, and microstructure of were tested. High-calcium FA and NZ with the median particle sizes of 14.52 and 7.72 μm, respectively, were used to partially replace OPC at 0, 10wt%, 20wt%, and 30wt% of the binder (OPC and pozzolan admixture). A water-to-binder mass ratio (W/B) of 0.5 was used for all mixes. The testing results indicated that CLC containing 10wt% NZ had the highest compressive strength. The replacement of OPC with NZ decreased the total porosity and air void size but increased the capillary porosity of the CLC. The incorporation of a suitable amount of NZ decreased the setting time, total porosity, and pore size of the paste compared with the findings with the same amount of FA. The total porosity and cumulative pore volume decreased, whereas the gel and capillary pores increased as a result of adding both pozzolans at all replacement levels. The water absorption increased as the capillary porosity increased; this effect depended on the volume of air entrained and the type or amount of pozzolan.

  5. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Young; Oh, Min Hwan; Yang, Seung-Hak; Yoon, Tae Han

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min) and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:26104412

  6. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  7. Magnetic Alignment of Microelements Containing Cultured Neuronal Networks for High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kent R; Wang, Yuli; Allbritton, Nancy L; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2015-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) on neurons presents unique difficulties because they are postmitotic, limited in supply, and challenging to harvest from animals or generate from stem cells. These limitations have hindered neurological drug discovery, leaving an unmet need to develop cost-effective technology for HTS using neurons. Traditional screening methods use up to 20,000 neurons per well in 384-well plates. To increase throughput, we use "microraft" arrays, consisting of 1600 square, releasable, paramagnetic, polystyrene microelements (microrafts), each providing a culture surface for 500-700 neurons. These microrafts can be detached from the array and transferred to 384-well plates for HTS; however, they must be centered within wells for automated imaging. Here, we developed a magnet array plate, compatible with HTS fluid-handling systems, to center microrafts within wells. We used finite element analysis to select an effective size of the magnets and confirmed that adjacent magnetic fields do not interfere. We then experimentally tested the plate's centering ability and found a centering efficiency of 100%, compared with 4.35% using a flat magnet. We concluded that microrafts could be centered after settling randomly within the well, overcoming friction, and confirmed these results by centering microrafts containing hippocampal neurons cultured for 8 days.

  8. Synthesis, tailoring and characterization of silica nanoparticles containing a highly stable ruthenium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wencel, D.; Dolan, C.; Barczak, M.; Keyes, T. E.; McDonagh, C.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of sol-gel silica nanoparticles (NPs) derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and from tetraethoxysilane and methyltriethoxysilane (TEOS-MTEOS) in which is encapsulated, an in-house synthesized, stable oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex, ruthenium (II) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline. These NPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The spherical, stable and monodispersed NPs have been prepared using the Stöber method. It was found that the addition of prehydrolyzed MTEOS-based sol prepared in an acidic environment to the reaction mixture containing TEOS NPs synthesized for 6 h produced material with increased porosity when compared to pure silica NPs. Oxygen sensitivity, stability, photobleaching and leaching have been characterized. The hybrid NPs exhibit enhanced O2 sensitivity but a high degree of leaching when compared to pure silica NPs, which have minimum O2 sensitivity and no leaching.

  9. Injured Fluoro-Jade-positive hippocampal neurons contain high levels of zinc after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Helen L; Eidson, Kristine A; Capra, Bridget A; Garcia, Jeanna M; Boone, Deborah R; Hawkins, Bridget E; Uchida, Tatsuo; Dewitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S

    2007-01-05

    Hippocampal damage contributes to cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously showed that Fluoro-Jade, a fluorescent stain that labels injured, degenerating brain neurons, quantifies the extent of hippocampal injury after experimental fluid percussion TBI in rats. Coincidentally, we observed that injured neurons in the rat hippocampus also stained with Newport Green, a fluorescent dye specific for free ionic zinc. Here, we show that, regardless of injury severity or therapeutic intervention, the post-TBI population of injured neurons in rat hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus is indistinguishable, both in numbers and anatomical distribution, from the population of neurons containing high levels of zinc. Treatment with lamotrigine, which inhibits presynaptic release of glutamate and presumably zinc that is co-localized with glutamate, reduced numbers of Fluoro-Jade-positive and Newport Green-positive neurons equally as did treatment with nicardipine, which blocks voltage-gated calcium channels through which zinc enters neurons. To confirm using molecular techniques that Fluoro-Jade and Newport Green-positive neurons are equivalent populations, we isolated total RNA from 25 Fluoro-Jade-positive and 25 Newport Green-positive pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from the CA3 subfield, linearly amplified the mRNA and used quantitative ribonuclease protection analysis to demonstrate similar expression of mRNA for selected TBI-induced genes. Our data suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neurotoxic zinc levels after TBI may reduce hippocampal neuronal injury.

  10. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect.

  11. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P J; Farmer, J C; McCright, R D

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A5 16 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environment (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice. [5]. Haynes International has published corrosion rates of Alloys 625 and C-22 in artificial crevice solutions (5-10 wt. % FeCl,) at various temperatures (25, 50 and 75 C) [6,7]. In this case, the observed rates for Alloy C-22 appear to be due to passive dissolution. It is believed that Alloy C-22 must be at an electrochemical potential above the repassivation potential to initiate localized corrosion.

  12. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; McKay, B. J.; Fan, Z.; Chen, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg2Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al3Mg2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg2Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg2Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al3Mg2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg2Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  13. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Manaktala, H.K. . Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. . Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Biodegradation of high concentration phenol containing heavy metal ions by functional biofilm in bioelectro-reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-gang; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jin-sheng; Huang, Xin; Kong, Xiao-song

    2006-01-01

    Functional microorganisms to high concentration phenol containing Cr6+ and Pb2+ were cultured and biofilm was formed on polypropylene packings in bioelectro-reactor. It was found that the biodegradation capability of such biofilm to phenol changed with the applied voltage. Under the optimal electric field conditions (voltage of 3.0 V, electric field of strength 17.7 V/m and current density of 1.98 A/m2), biodegradation efficiency of phenol aof concentration of 1200 mg/L increased 33% compared to the instance without applying electric field. However, voltage had inverse effect on biodegradation, as microorganisms were killed under strong electric field. Voltage had little effect on heavy ions elimination. Higher absorption rate of Cr6+ and Pb2+ was observed when changing pH from acidic to neutral. The experiment results indicated that, after treatment, 10 L phenol of 2400 mg/L was biodegraded completely within 55 h and concentrations of Cr6+ and Pb2+ dropped to less than 1 mg/L within 12 h and 6 h, from initial values of 50 mg/L and 30 mg/L, respectively.

  15. Dispersion modeling of particulate matter containing hexavalent chromium during high winds in southern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Paolo; Daly, Aaron D; Freedman, Frank R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a scientific methodology (i.e., the combination of different well-established modeling techniques) and its application to a real case scenario of contaminated dust emissions in high winds. This scenario addresses potential air pollution problems at the water treatment plant (WTP) at Qarmat-Ali, Basra, Iraq, during 2003. Workplace practices at the WTP before 2003 resulted in sodium dichromate contamination in the area. Looting at the site in early 2003 also contributed to this contamination. Individuals who were assigned to provide security at the site in 2003 have claimed adverse health effects caused by exposure to dust containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This report presents our modeling study with respect to these claims in relation to (1) amount of Cr(VI) present in the soil, (2) wind erosion episodes, and (3) possible long-term (e.g., annual average) Cr(VI) concentrations inhaled by different people while at the site. Our modeling approach included (1) the analysis of Cr(VI) soil measurements to assess the degree of contamination in different areas of the plant at different times; (2) the use of DUSTRAN model equations to calculate the emission rate of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) during high-wind episodes; (3) the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD modeling system to estimate Cr(VI) concentrations at the site; and (4) the calculation of modeling results in the form of both contour lines of average Cr(VI) concentrations at the site, and specific concentration values for selected individuals, based upon their recollection of their visits to the site.

  16. High-speed water sterilization using silver-containing cellulose membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Terica; Zieba, Maciej; Irusta, Silvia; Sebastián, Víctor; Arruebo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    The removal of bacteria and other pathogenic micro-organisms from drinking water is usually carried out by boiling; however, when this is not a feasible option, a combination of treatment based on filtration and disinfection is recommended. In this work, we produced cellulose filters grafted with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) by covalent attachment of separately prepared Ag nanostructures on thiol- and amine-modified commercially available cellulosic filters. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) all revealed that such modified cellulose membranes contained large amounts of homogeneously dispersed AgNPs, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the aforementioned nanostructures were immobilized on the membrane with a strong and stable covalent bond between the thiol or amine groups and the surface of the Ag nanofillers. This durable and robust covalent attachment facilitated outstanding suppression of the uncontrolled release of the nanostructures from the membranes, even under strong ultrasonication. Those membranes also demonstrated high permeance and antimicrobial activity in excess of 99.9% growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, which was used as a model of gram-negative coliform bacteria. Bacteria percolated throughout the tortuous silver-loaded filters, thus increasing the chances of contact between the Ag nanostructures (wires or nanoparticles) and the passing bacteria. Thus, we anticipate that these filters, with their high antibacterial activity and robustness, can be produced in a cost-effective manner and that they would be capable of producing affordable, clean, and safe drinking water in a short period of time without producing an uncontrolled silver release into the percolated water.

  17. High-speed water sterilization using silver-containing cellulose membranes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Terica; Zieba, Maciej; Irusta, Silvia; Sebastián, Víctor; Arruebo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    The removal of bacteria and other pathogenic micro-organisms from drinking water is usually carried out by boiling; however, when this is not a feasible option, a combination of treatment based on filtration and disinfection is recommended. In this work, we produced cellulose filters grafted with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) by covalent attachment of separately prepared Ag nanostructures on thiol- and amine-modified commercially available cellulosic filters. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) all revealed that such modified cellulose membranes contained large amounts of homogeneously dispersed AgNPs, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the aforementioned nanostructures were immobilized on the membrane with a strong and stable covalent bond between the thiol or amine groups and the surface of the Ag nanofillers. This durable and robust covalent attachment facilitated outstanding suppression of the uncontrolled release of the nanostructures from the membranes, even under strong ultrasonication. Those membranes also demonstrated high permeance and antimicrobial activity in excess of 99.9% growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, which was used as a model of gram-negative coliform bacteria. Bacteria percolated throughout the tortuous silver-loaded filters, thus increasing the chances of contact between the Ag nanostructures (wires or nanoparticles) and the passing bacteria. Thus, we anticipate that these filters, with their high antibacterial activity and robustness, can be produced in a cost-effective manner and that they would be capable of producing affordable, clean, and safe drinking water in a short period of time without producing an uncontrolled silver release into the percolated water.

  18. Educational Technology Integration and High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Tracy Demetrie

    2012-01-01

    Determining if the investment in educational technology will improve student achievement is complicated and multifarious. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of teacher technology integration on student achievement as measured by the Mississippi Subject Area Testing Program (SATP) and to explore the relationship between…

  19. High School Engineering and Technology Education Integration through Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study contextualized the use of the engineering design process by providing descriptions of how each element in a design process was integrated in an eleventh grade industry and engineering systems course. The guiding research question for this inquiry was: How do students engage in the engineering design process in a course where technology…

  20. Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna for High Bandwidth Cubesats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Dorothy; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA) mission will demonstrate a reflectarray antenna that increases downlink data rates for Cube- Sats from the existing baseline rate of 9.6 kilobits per second (kbps) to more than 100 megabits per second (Mbps). The ISARA spacecraft is slated for launch no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  1. A high-speed algorithm for computation of fractional differentiation and fractional integration.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Masataka; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-13

    A high-speed algorithm for computing fractional differentiations and fractional integrations in fractional differential equations is proposed. In this algorithm, the stored data are not the function to be differentiated or integrated but the weighted integrals of the function. The intervals of integration for the memory can be increased without loss of accuracy as the computing time-step n increases. The computing cost varies as n log n, as opposed to n(2) of standard algorithms.

  2. High-sensitivity Leak-testing Method with High-Resolution Integration Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Senda, Hidemi

    A high-resolution leak-testing method named HR (High-Resolution) Integration Technique has been developed for MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) sensors such as a vibrating angular-rate sensor housed in a vacuum package. Procedures of the method to obtain high leak-rate resolution were as follows. A package filled with helium gas was kept in a small accumulation chamber to accumulate helium gas leaking from the package. After the accumulation, the accumulated helium gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer in a short period of time, and the flux of the helium gas was measured by the mass spectrometer as a transient phenomenon. The leak-rate of the package was calculated from the detected transient waveform of the mass spectrometer and the accumulation time of the helium gas in the accumulation chamber. Because the density of the helium gas in the vacuum chamber increased and the accumulated helium gas was measured in a very short period of time with the mass spectrometer, the peak strength of the transient waveform became high and the signal to noise ratio was much improved. The detectable leak-rate resolution of the technique reached 1×10-15 (Pa·m3/s). This resolution is 103 times superior to that of the conventional helium vacuum integration method. The accuracy of the measuring system was verified with a standard helium gas leak source. The results were well matched between theoretical calculation based on the leak-rate of the source and the experimental results within only 2% error.

  3. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad

    2017-01-01

    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  4. High-Temperature SiC Power Module with Integrated SiC Gate Drivers for Future High-Density Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Mr. Bret; Cole, Mr. Zach; Passmore, Mr. Brandon; Mcnutt, Tyler; Lostetter, Dr. Alex; Ericson, Milton Nance; Frank, Steven; Britton Jr, Charles L; Marlino, Laura D; Mantooth, Alan; Francis, Matt; Lamichhane, Ranjan; Shepherd, Paul; Glover, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature capable intelligent power module that contains SiC power devices and SiC gate driver integrated circuits (ICs). The high-temperature capability of the SiC gate driver ICs allows for them to be packaged into the power module and be located physically close to the power devices. This provides a distinct advantage by reducing the gate driver loop inductance, which promotes high frequency operation, while also reducing the overall volume of the system through higher levels of integration. The power module was tested in a bridgeless-boost converter (Fig. 1) to determine the performance of the module in a system level application. The converter was operated with a switching frequency of 200 kHz with a peak output power of approximately 5 kW. The peak efficiency was found to be 97.5% at 2.9 kW.

  5. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous gene

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2007-03-20

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  6. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  7. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2000-08-22

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  8. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  9. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  10. Early Integration of Palliative Care for Children with High-Risk Cancer and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Erica C; Friebert, Sarah; Baker, Justin N

    2016-04-01

    Despite increasing data to support pediatric palliative care (PPC) as an integral component of high-quality care for children with life-threatening conditions and their families, timely integration of PPC is offered inconsistently to children with high-risk cancer. In this review, we summarize the growing body of literature in support of early integration of PPC for children with high-risk cancer and their families, advocating that PPC principles and resources are imperative to holistic cancer-directed care and rooted in evidence-based medicine. Finally, we offer possible strategies for optimizing integration of PPC into holistic cancer care for children and families.

  11. High-performance spider webs: integrating biomechanics, ecology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Aaron M T; Blackledge, Todd A; Madin, Joshua S; Herberstein, Marie E

    2011-04-06

    Spider silks exhibit remarkable properties, surpassing most natural and synthetic materials in both strength and toughness. Orb-web spider dragline silk is the focus of intense research by material scientists attempting to mimic these naturally produced fibres. However, biomechanical research on spider silks is often removed from the context of web ecology and spider foraging behaviour. Similarly, evolutionary and ecological research on spiders rarely considers the significance of silk properties. Here, we highlight the critical need to integrate biomechanical and ecological perspectives on spider silks to generate a better understanding of (i) how silk biomechanics and web architectures interacted to influence spider web evolution along different structural pathways, and (ii) how silks function in an ecological context, which may identify novel silk applications. An integrative, mechanistic approach to understanding silk and web function, as well as the selective pressures driving their evolution, will help uncover the potential impacts of environmental change and species invasions (of both spiders and prey) on spider success. Integrating these fields will also allow us to take advantage of the remarkable properties of spider silks, expanding the range of possible silk applications from single threads to two- and three-dimensional thread networks.

  12. High-performance spider webs: integrating biomechanics, ecology and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Aaron M. T.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Madin, Joshua S.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2011-01-01

    Spider silks exhibit remarkable properties, surpassing most natural and synthetic materials in both strength and toughness. Orb-web spider dragline silk is the focus of intense research by material scientists attempting to mimic these naturally produced fibres. However, biomechanical research on spider silks is often removed from the context of web ecology and spider foraging behaviour. Similarly, evolutionary and ecological research on spiders rarely considers the significance of silk properties. Here, we highlight the critical need to integrate biomechanical and ecological perspectives on spider silks to generate a better understanding of (i) how silk biomechanics and web architectures interacted to influence spider web evolution along different structural pathways, and (ii) how silks function in an ecological context, which may identify novel silk applications. An integrative, mechanistic approach to understanding silk and web function, as well as the selective pressures driving their evolution, will help uncover the potential impacts of environmental change and species invasions (of both spiders and prey) on spider success. Integrating these fields will also allow us to take advantage of the remarkable properties of spider silks, expanding the range of possible silk applications from single threads to two- and three-dimensional thread networks. PMID:21036911

  13. High efficacy of gemifloxacin-containing therapy in Helicobacter Pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625

  14. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present

  15. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  16. Retrospective Perceptions of Graduates of a Self-Contained Program in Taiwan for High School Students Talented in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Enyi; Moon, Sidney M.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective qualitative study was designed to investigate perceptions of the learning experiences of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-talented male students who were in a self-contained, single-gender, gifted program in a selective high school in Taiwan. Twenty-four graduates of the high school's gifted program…

  17. Integrated seal for high-temperature electrochemical device

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides electrochemical device structures having integrated seals, and methods of fabricating them. According to various embodiments the structures include a thin, supported electrolyte film with the electrolyte sealed to the support. The perimeter of the support is self-sealed during fabrication. The perimeter can then be independently sealed to a manifold or other device, e.g., via an external seal. According to various embodiments, the external seal does not contact the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the restrictions on the sealing method and materials imposed by sealing against the electrolyte.

  18. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  19. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-09-30

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  20. Integrating pharmacology topics in high school biology and chemistry classes improves performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Halpin, Myra J.

    2003-11-01

    Although numerous programs have been developed for Grade Kindergarten through 12 science education, evaluation has been difficult owing to the inherent problems conducting controlled experiments in the typical classroom. Using a rigorous experimental design, we developed and tested a novel program containing a series of pharmacology modules (e.g., drug abuse) to help high school students learn basic principles in biology and chemistry. High school biology and chemistry teachers were recruited for the study and they attended a 1-week workshop to learn how to integrate pharmacology into their teaching. Working with university pharmacology faculty, they also developed classroom activities. The following year, teachers field-tested the pharmacology modules in their classrooms. Students in classrooms using the pharmacology topics scored significantly higher on a multiple choice test of basic biology and chemistry concepts compared with controls. Very large effect sizes (up to 1.27 standard deviations) were obtained when teachers used as many as four modules. In addition, biology students increased performance on chemistry questions and chemistry students increased performance on biology questions. Substantial gains in achievement may be made when high school students are taught science using topics that are interesting and relevant to their own lives.

  1. Peak radiated power measurement of the DOE Mark II container tag with integrated ST-676 sensor radio frequency identification device.

    SciTech Connect

    Jursich, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The total peak radiated power of the Department of Energy Mark II container tag was measured in the electromagnetic reverberation chamber facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The tag's radio frequency content was also evaluated for possible emissions outside the intentional transmit frequency band. No spurious emissions of any significance were found, and the radiated power conformed to the manufacturer's specifications.

  2. Mechanical characteristics and microstructure of weld joint of high-temperature martensitic steel containing 9% Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Ya. E.; Belyakov, A. N.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and mechanical characteristics of a weld joint of 10Kh9K3V2MFBR steel (0.097 C, 0.17.Si, 0.54 Mn, 8.75 Cr, 0.21 Ni, 0.51 Mo, 0.07 Nb, 0.23 V, 0.004 N, 0.003 B, 1.6 W, 0.15 Cu, and Fe for balance, wt %) have been studied; the joint was produced by hand welding in an argon atmosphere using 03Kh20N45M7G6B welding wire (0.3 C, 20 Cr, 45 Ni, 7 Mo, 6 Mn, and 1 Nb, wt %). The weld joint is divided into the zone of the base metal, a thermal effect zone, which consists of zones that contain fine and coarse original austenitic grains, and the zone of seam metal. It has been shown that the weld joint of 10Kh9K3V2MFBR steel possesses high strength characteristics at the room temperature under static loading and a satisfactorily impact toughness, which has the minimum value of 30 J/cm2 in the zone of the seam metal and does not depend on the temperature. With a decrease in the temperature from the room temperature to 253 K, a ductile-brittle transition occurs in the thermal effect zone. Creep tests carried out at the temperature of 923 K have shown that the long-term strength of the weld seam is lower than that of the base material in the entire stress range being tested. At stresses of 140 MPa or higher, the acceleration of creep in the weld seam is observed, while at low stresses of about 120 MPa, the rates of creep in the weld seam and in the base metal remain similar until the transition to the stage of accelerated fracture occurs. The difference in the values of the long-term strength is due to premature fracture, which occurs in the thermal effect zone with the finegrained structure.

  3. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental composite containing high aspect-ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are to investigate the properties of high aspect-ratio hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers and the reinforcing effect of such fibers on bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental resins (without silica microparticle filler) and dental composites (with silica microparticle filler) with various mass fractions (loading rates). Methods HAP nanofibers were synthesized using a wet-chemical method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of the HAP nanofibers reinforced dental resins without any microsized filler and dental composites with silica microparticle filler was tested and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistically analysis of acquired data. The morphology of fracture surface of tested dental composite samples was examined by SEM. Results The HAP nanofibers with aspect-ratios of 600 to 800 can be successfully fabricated with a simple wet-chemical method in aqueous solution. Impregnation of small mass fractions of the HAP nanofibers (5 wt% or 10 wt%) into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins or impregnation of small mass fractions of the HAP nanofibers (2 wt% or 3 wt%) into the dental composites can substantially improve the biaxial flexural strength of the resulting dental resins and composites. A percolation threshold of HAP nanofibers, beyond which more nanofibers will no longer further increase the mechanical properties of dental composites containing HAP nanofibers, was observed for the dental composites with or without silica microparticle filler. Our mechanical testing and fractographic analysis indicated that the relatively good dispersion of HAP nanofibers at low mass fraction is the key reason for the significantly improved biaxial flexural strength, while higher mass fraction of HAP nanofibers tends to lead to bundles that cannot effectively

  4. Representative Source Terms and the Influence of Reactor Attributes on Functional Containment in Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Petti; Hans Gougar; Dick Hobbins; Pete Lowry

    2013-11-01

    Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs) offer a high degree of passive safety. The low power density of the reactor and the high heat capacity of the graphite core result in slow transients that do not challenge the integrity of the robust TRISO fuel. Another benefit of this fuel form and the surrounding graphite is their superior ability to retain fission products under all anticipated normal and off-normal conditions, which limits reactor accident source terms to very low values. In this paper, we develop estimates of the source term for a generic MHTGR to illustrate the performance of the radionuclide barriers that comprise the MHTGR functional containment. We also examine the influence of initial fuel quality, fuel performance/failure, reactor outlet temperature, and retention outside of the reactor core on the resultant source term to the environment.

  5. Autonomous Preference-Aware Information Services Integration for High Response in Integrated Faded Information Field Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.

  6. Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2007-10-02

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  7. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1993-01-01

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  8. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1993-08-31

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1,800 C and 30 PSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  9. Integrating Earning College Credit in High School into Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    Earning college credit in high school matters to students and parents. Students who earn college credits by taking a college-level course while in high school are more likely to enter college and succeed. Through these experiences, students become familiar with college expectations, academic behaviors, and habits of mind; get a head start on…

  10. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  11. Studies of Corrosion Resistant Materials Being Considered for High-Level Nuclear Waste Containment in Yucca Mountain Relevant Environments

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.; Ilevbare, G.; Estill, J.; Rebak, R.

    2001-12-09

    Containment of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified forms of high level nuclear waste require use of materials that are highly corrosion resistant to all of the anticipated environmental scenarios that can occur in a geological repository. Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is proposed for the corrosion resistant outer barrier of a two-layer waste package container at the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. A range of water compositions that may contact the outer barrier is under consideration, and a testing program is underway to characterize the forms of corrosion and to quantify the corrosion rates. Results from the testing support models for long term prediction of the performance of the container. Results obtained to date indicate a very low general corrosion rate for Alloy 22 and very high resistance to all forms of localized and environmentally assisted cracking in environments tested to date.

  12. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  13. Coumarin-Containing Polymers for High Density Non-Linear Optical Data Storage.

    PubMed

    Gindre, Denis; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Krupka, Oksana; Evrard, Marie; Champigny, Emilie; Sallé, Marc

    2016-01-26

    Optical data storage was performed with various thin polymer films containing coumarin-based derivatives and by using femtosecond laser pulses as well as two-photon absorption processes. Exploring the photodimerization attribute of coumarin derivatives and using appropriate irradiation wavelengths, recording/erasing processes could be carried out in the same area. Second harmonic generation microscopy was used to read the stored information.

  14. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  15. Highly integrated digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Haering, E. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine/airframe control systems. This system is being used on the F-15 airplane. An integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine stall margin mode are implemented into the system. The adaptive stall margin mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the engine stall margin are continuously computed; the excess stall margin is used to uptrim the engine for more thrust. The integrated flightpath management mode optimizes the flightpath and throttle setting to reach a desired flight condition. The increase in thrust and the improvement in airplane performance is discussed.

  16. Microfluidic chip integrating high throughput continuous-flow PCR and DNA hybridization for bacteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiran; Shao, Ning; Jing, Wenwen; Tao, Shengce; Liu, Sixiu; Sui, Guodong

    2014-05-01

    Rapid identification of clinical pathogens is the initial and essential step for antimicrobial therapy. Herein, we successfully developed a microfluidic device which combines high-throughput continuous-flow PCR and DNA hybridization for the detection of various bacterial pathogens. Universal primers were designed based on the conserved regions of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA), and specific probes were designed from a variable region of 16S rDNA within the amplicon sequences. In the chip operation, after the continuous flow PCR was achieved in the first microfluidic chip, the product was directly introduced into a hybridization chip integrated with microarray containing the immobilized DNA probes. The target-probe hybridization was completed within 1h at 55 °C, and fluorescence signals were obtained as the readout. The presented device is simple, versatile and with less sample consumption compared with traditional instruments. It can perform high-throughput bacteria detections continuously in a single assay, which makes it a promising platform for clinical bacteria identifications.

  17. Comparison of permanganate preoxidation and preozonation on algae containing water: cell integrity, characteristics, and chlorinated disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengchao; Ma, Jun; Fang, Jingyun; Guan, Yinghong; Yue, Siyang; Li, Xuchun; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-17

    Aqueous suspensions of Microcystis aeruginosa were preoxidized with either ozone or permanganate and then subjected to chlorination under conditions simulating drinking water purification. The impacts of the two oxidants on the algal cells and on the subsequent production of dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproducts were investigated. Preozonation dramatically increased disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination, especially the formation of haloaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes. Preoxidation with permanganate had much less effect on disinfection byproduct formation. Preozonation destroyed algal cell walls and cell membranes to release intracellular organic matter (IOM), and less than 2.0% integrated cells were left after preozonation with the dosage as low as 0.4 mg/L. Preoxidation with permanganate mainly released organic matter adsorbed on the cells' surface without causing any damage to the cells' integrity, so the increase in byproduct formation was much less. More organic nitrogen and lower molecular weight precursors were produced in a dissolved phase after preozonation than permanganate preoxidation, which contributes to the significant increase of disinfection byproducts after preozonation. The results suggest that permanganate is a better choice than ozone for controlling algae derived pollutants and disinfection byproducts.

  18. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  19. Disclosing the parameters leading to high productivity of retroviral producer cells lines: evaluating random vs. targeted integration.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Vanessa Sofia; Tomás, Hélio A; Alici, Evren; Carrondo, Manuel J C T; Coroadinha, Ana Sofia

    2017-03-16

    Gammaretrovirus and lentivirus are the preferred viral vectors to genetically modify T- and NK- cells to be used in immune-cell therapies. The transduction efficiency of hematopoietic and T cells is more efficient using Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) pseudotyping. In this context gammaretroviral vector producer cells offer competitive higher titers than transient lentiviral vectors productions. The main aim of this work was to identify the key parameters governing GalV pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector productivity in stable producer cells using a retroviral vector expression cassette enabling positive (facilitating cell enrichment) and negative cell selection (allowing cell elimination). The retroviral vector contains a thymidine kinase suicide gene fused with an Ouabain-resistant Na+K+-ATPase gene, a potential safer and faster marker. The establishment of retroviral vector producer cells is traditionally performed by randomly integrating the retroviral vector expression cassette codifying the transgene. More recently recombinase mediated cassette exchange methodologies have been introduced to achieve targeted integration. Herein we compared random and targeted integration of the retroviral vector transgene construct. Two retroviral producer cell lines, 293 OuaS and 293 FlexOuaS, were generated using random and targeted integration, respectively, producing high titers (in the order of 107 IP.mL-1). Results showed that the retroviral vector transgene cassette is the key retroviral vector component determining the viral titers notwithstanding, single copy integration is sufficient to provide high titers. The expression levels of the three retroviral constructs (gag-pol, GaLV env and retroviral vector transgene) were analyzed. Although gag-pol and GaLV env gene expression levels should surpass a minimal threshold, we found that relatively modest expression levels of these two expression cassettes are required. Their levels of expression should not be maximized. We

  20. Highly-integrated lab-on-chip system for point-of-care multiparameter analysis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Soeren; Nestler, Jörg; Otto, Thomas; Wegener, Michael; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Michel, Dirk; Wunderlich, Kai; Palzer, Silke; Sohn, Kai; Weber, Achim; Burgard, Matthias; Grzesiak, Andrzej; Teichert, Andreas; Brandenburg, Albrecht; Koger, Birgit; Albers, Jörg; Nebling, Eric; Bier, Frank F

    2012-02-07

    A novel innovative approach towards a marketable lab-on-chip system for point-of-care in vitro diagnostics is reported. In a consortium of seven Fraunhofer Institutes a lab-on-chip system called "Fraunhofer ivD-platform" has been established which opens up the possibility for an on-site analysis at low costs. The system features a high degree of modularity and integration. Modularity allows the adaption of common and established assay types of various formats. Integration lets the system move from the laboratory to the point-of-need. By making use of the microarray format the lab-on-chip system also addresses new trends in biomedicine. Research topics such as personalized medicine or companion diagnostics show that multiparameter analyses are an added value for diagnostics, therapy as well as therapy control. These goals are addressed with a low-cost and self-contained cartridge, since reagents, microfluidic actuators and various sensors are integrated within the cartridge. In combination with a fully automated instrumentation (read-out and processing unit) a diagnostic assay can be performed in about 15 min. Via a user-friendly interface the read-out unit itself performs the assay protocol, data acquisition and data analysis. So far, example assays for nucleic acids (detection of different pathogens) and protein markers (such as CRP and PSA) have been established using an electrochemical read-out based on redoxcycling or an optical read-out based on total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF). It could be shown that the assay performance within the cartridge is similar to that found for the same assay in a microtiter plate. Furthermore, recent developments are the integration of sample preparation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip. Hence, the instrument is capable of providing heating-and-cooling cycles necessary for DNA-amplification. In addition to scientific aspects also the production of such a lab-on-chip system was part of the development since

  1. Mobile self-splicing group I introns from the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: highly efficient homing of an exogenous intron containing its own promoter.

    PubMed

    Odom, O W; Holloway, S P; Deshpande, N N; Lee, J; Herrin, D L

    2001-05-01

    Introns 2 and 4 of the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts (Cr.psbA2 and Cr.psbA4, respectively) contain large free-standing open reading frames (ORFs). We used transformation of an intronless-psbA strain (IL) to test whether these introns undergo homing. Each intron, plus short exon sequences, was cloned into a chloroplast expression vector in both orientations and then cotransformed into IL along with a spectinomycin resistance marker (16S rrn). For Cr.psbA2, the sense construct gave nearly 100% cointegration of the intron whereas the antisense construct gave 0%, consistent with homing. For Cr.psbA4, however, both orientations produced highly efficient cointegration of the intron. Efficient cointegration of Cr.psbA4 also occurred when the intron was introduced as a restriction fragment lacking any known promoter. Deletion of most of the ORF, however, abolished cointegration of the intron, consistent with homing. The Cr.psbA4 constructs also contained a 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea resistance marker in exon 5, which was always present when the intron integrated, thus demonstrating exon coconversion. Remarkably, primary selection for this marker gave >100-fold more transformants (>10,000/microgram of DNA) than did the spectinomycin resistance marker. A trans homing assay was developed for Cr.psbA4; the ORF-minus intron integrated when the ORF was cotransformed on a separate plasmid. This assay was used to identify an intronic region between bp -88 and -194 (relative to the ORF) that stimulated homing and contained a possible bacterial (-10, -35)-type promoter. Primer extension analysis detected a transcript that could originate from this promoter. Thus, this mobile, self-splicing intron also contains its own promoter for ORF expression. The implications of these results for horizontal intron transfer and organelle transformation are discussed.

  2. High density hexagonal boron nitride prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1992-01-01

    Boron nitride powder with less than or equal to the oxygen content of starting powder (down to 0.5% or less) is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce hexagonal boron nitride with a bulk density greater than 2.0 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.21 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical stability of ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing atmospheres at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical stability of several ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing environments was analyzed with thermodynamic considerations in mind. Equilibrium calculations were made as a function of temperature, moisture content, and total system pressure. The following ceramic materials were considered in this study: SiC, Si3N4, SiO2, Al2O3, mullite, ZrO2, Y2O3, CaO, MgO, BeO, TiB2, TiC, HfC, and ZrC. On the basis of purely thermodynamic arguments, upper temperature limits are suggested for each material for long-term use in H2-containing atmospheres.

  4. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  5. Investigation on high temperature vapor pressure of UO 2 containing simulated fission-product elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Ohtsubo, A.; Ishii, T.

    1984-06-01

    During the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), the temperature of the fuel would rise above 3000 K. The experimental data concerning the saturated fuel vapor pressure are necessary for the analysis of the HCDA. In this study, the UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn was used to simulate the irradiated fuel in the FBR. The saturated vapor pressure of pure UO 2 and UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn at 3000 to 5000 K was measured dynamically with a pulse laser and a torsion pendulum. The surface of a specimen on the pendulum was heated to eject vapor by the injection of a giant pulse ruby laser beam. The pressure of the ejected vapor was measured by both the maximum rotation angle of the pendulum and the duration of vapor ejection. The saturated vapor pressure was theoretically calculated by using the ejected vapor pressure. The surface temperature of the specimen was estimated from the irradiated energy density measured with a laser energy meter. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 at 3640 to 5880 K measured in this study was near the extrapolated value of Ackermann's low temperature data. The vapor pressure of UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag or Sn was higher than that of UO 2. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 and a solid fission products system was calculated by using these experimental data.

  6. A Partnership across Boundaries: Arts Integration in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Alice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about innovative high school curricula that engage students through the study of visual art in conjunction with critical study of history and social movements. Just as historians place a premium on locating and interpreting events in time, the visual arts are centered on getting an idea across in a visual form,…

  7. Integrating Multimedia Technology in a High School EFL Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayora, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a Technologically Enhanced Language Learning program in Venezuela and how it helped improve high school EFL instruction. The author presents six challenges of teaching EFL and describes the context for the program. The author then provides a rationale for using multimedia in language teaching, based on theoretical frameworks.…

  8. The sorting sequence of the peroxisomal integral membrane protein PMP47 is contained within a short hydrophilic loop

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    No targeting sequence for peroxisomal integral membrane proteins has yet been identified. We have previously shown that a region of 67 amino acids is necessary to target Pmp47, a protein that spans the membrane six times, to peroxisomes. This region comprises two membrane spans and the intervening loop. We now demonstrate that the 20 amino acid loop, which is predicted to face the matrix, is both necessary and sufficient for peroxisomal targeting. Sufficiency was demonstrated with both chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and green fluorescent protein as carriers. There is a cluster of basic amino acids in the middle of the loop that we predict protrudes from the membrane surface into the matrix by a flanking stem structure. We show that the targeting signal is composed of this basic cluster and a block of amino acids immediately down-stream from it. PMID:8609161

  9. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  10. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  11. Response to "Exploring the Influence of the ROC Integrated High School Program"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Scott Caspell's article "Exploring the Influence of the ROC Integrated High School Program." The author states that Caspell picked an excellent time frame to interview former students as they had participated in the integrated program between 10 and 13 years ago. Ideally, then,…

  12. Scientific Design of a High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Ground based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems and specialized science cameras are now capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets. We present the scientific design for a high contrast integral field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. This lenslet based integral field spectrograph will be implemented into the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, called SCExAO.

  13. Containment Care Units for Managing Patients With Highly Hazardous Infectious Diseases: A Concept Whose Time Has Come.

    PubMed

    Kortepeter, Mark G; Kwon, Elena H; Hewlett, Angela L; Smith, Philip W; Cieslak, Theodore J

    2016-10-15

    The concept of containment care for patients with highly hazardous infectious diseases originated in conjunction with the development of sophisticated biosafety level 4 laboratories at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in the late 1960s. Over time, the original containment facility served as a model for the development of other facilities in the United States at government and academic centers. The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 brought the issue of containment care into the mainstream and led to the development of such capabilities at strategic points around the country. We describe the original concepts behind development of such facilities, how the concept and acceptance has evolved over time, and how the guidelines for managing patients infected with viral hemorrhagic fevers have evolved as new information has been learned about protecting medical care providers from highly hazardous infectious pathogens.

  14. Meandered-line antenna with integrated high-impedance surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, Michael A.

    2010-09-01

    A reduced-volume antenna composed of a meandered-line dipole antenna over a finite-width, high-impedance surface is presented. The structure is novel in that the high-impedance surface is implemented with four Sievenpiper via-mushroom unit cells, whose area is optimized to match the meandered-line dipole antenna. The result is an antenna similar in performance to patch antenna but one fourth the area that can be deployed directly on the surface of a conductor. Simulations demonstrate a 3.5 cm ({lambda}/4) square antenna with a bandwidth of 4% and a gain of 4.8 dBi at 2.5 GHz.

  15. High pressure ratio cryocooler with integral expander and heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunkleton, J. A.; Smith, J. L., Jr.; Iwasa, Y.

    A new 1 W, 4.2 K cryocooler is under development that is intended to miniaturize helium temperature refrigeration systems using a high-pressure-ratio Collins-type cycle. The configuration resulted from optimization studies of a saturated vapor compression (SCV) cycle that employs miniature parallel-plate heat exchangers. The basic configuration is a long displacer in a close-fitting, thin-walled cylinder. The displacer-to-cylinder gap is the high-pressure passage of the heat exchanger, and the low-pressure passage is formed by a thin tube over the OD of the cylinder. A solenoid-operated inlet valve admits 40 atm helium to the displacer-to-cylinder gap at room temperature, while the solenoid-operated exhaust valve operates at 4 atm. The single-stage cryocooler produces 1 W of refrigeration at 40 K without precooling and at 20 K with liquid nitrogen precooling.

  16. High-Speed Quantum Key Distribution Using Photonic Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    time [6, 7, 8, 9], energy-time [10], and orbital angular momentum (OAM) [11, 12, 13]. Dispersive optics QKD (DO-QKD) is a high-dimensional QKD...and orbital angular momentum (OAM). Because we desired a protocol that is maximally compatible with modern-day fiber communications systems, we focused...connections to implement SNSPD detectors on-chip, as recently successfully demonstrated by our team. In addition, the wavelength-division- multiplexed

  17. Integrating Reconfigurable Hardware-Based Grid for High Performance Computing

    PubMed Central

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  18. High-fat diets containing different amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated acids modulate adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different...

  19. Products containing microorganisms as a tool in integrated pest management and the rules of their market placement in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Products containing microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) can be used in plant production as an intervention as well as a prevention method for pest control. Their utilisation is strictly in line with the principles of integrated pest management, provided that they are effective and safe. The rules of registration of microorganisms for crop production in the European Union differ, depending on whether they are placed on the market as plant protection products or not. For over 20 years, uniform rules for registration of plant protection products have been in force. Currently, 36 microorganisms marked up to the strain are approved for use in pest control in the Community. The decision concerning market placement of plant protection products containing approved microorganisms is issued for each member state separately. The approaches to market placement of other products with microorganisms differ within the EU, ranging from a complete lack of requirements to long and costly registration procedures.

  20. Triptycene-Based Chiral Macrocyclic Hosts for Highly Enantioselective Recognition of Chiral Guests Containing a Trimethylamino Group.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Wu; Li, Peng-Fei; Meng, Zheng; Wang, Han-Xiao; Han, Ying; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2016-04-18

    A new class of chiral macrocyclic arene composed of three chiral 2,6-dihydroxyltriptycene subunits bridged by methylene groups was designed and synthesized. Structural studies showed that the macrocyclic molecule adopts a hex-nut-like structure with a helical chiral cavity and highly fixed conformation. Efficient resolution was achieved through the introduction of chiral auxiliaries to give a couple of enantiopure macrocycles, which exhibited high enantioselectivity towards three pairs of chiral compounds containing a trimethylamino group.

  1. High-Rate Oxygen Reduction in Mixed Nonaqueous Electrolyte Containing Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng D.; Yang X.; Qu D.

    2011-12-02

    A mixed nonaqueous electrolyte that contains acetonitrile and propylene carbonate (PC) was found to be suitable for a LiO2 battery with a metallic Li anode. Both the concentration and diffusion coefficient for the dissolved O2 are significantly higher in the mixed electrolyte than those in the pure PC electrolyte. A powder microelectrode was used to investigate the O2 solubility and diffusion coefficient. A 10 mA?cm-2 discharge rate on a gas-diffusion electrode is demonstrated by using the mixed electrolyte in a LiO2 cell.

  2. High voltage capability electrical coils insulated with materials containing SF.sub.6 gas

    DOEpatents

    Lanoue, Thomas J.; Zeise, Clarence L.; Wagenaar, Loren; Westervelt, Dean C.

    1988-01-01

    A coil is made having a plurality of layers of adjacent metal conductor windings subject to voltage stress, where the windings have insulation therebetween containing a small number of minute disposed throughout its cross-section, where the voids are voids filled with SF.sub.6 gas to substitute for air or other gaseous materials in from about 60% to about 95% of the cross-sectional void volume in the insulation, thus incorporating an amount of SF.sub.6 gas in the cross-section of the insulation effective to substantially increase corona inception voltages.

  3. High sensitivity detection of NO2 employing off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy coupled with multiple line integrated spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gottipaty N.; Karpf, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    We report on the development of a new sensor for NO2 with ultrahigh sensitivity of detection. This has been accomplished by combining off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) (which can provide large path lengths of the order of several km in a small volume cell) with multiple line integrated absorption spectroscopy (MLIAS) (where we integrate the absorption spectra over a large number of rotational-vibrational transitions of the molecular species to further improve the sensitivity). Employing an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser operating in the 1601 - 1670 cm-1 range and a high-finesse optical cavity, the absorption spectra of NO2 over 100 transitions in the R-band have been recorded. From the observed linear relationship between the integrated absorption vs. concentration of NO2, we report an effective sensitivity of detection of 10 ppt for NO2. To the best of our knowledge, this is among the most sensitive levels of detection of NO2 to date. A sensitive sensor for the detection of NO2 will be helpful to monitor the ambient air quality, combustion emissions from the automobiles, power plants, aircraft and for the detection of nitrate based explosives (which are commonly used in improvised explosives (IEDs)). Additionally such a sensor would be valuable for the study of complex chemical reactions that undergo in the atmosphere resulting in the formation of photochemical smog, tropospheric ozone and acid rain.

  4. Integrated High Accuracy Portable Metrology for Large Scale Structural Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaas, Andrej; Richardson, Paul; Burguete, Richard; Harris, Linden

    2014-06-01

    As the performance and accuracy of analysis tools increases bespoke solutions are more regularly being requested to perform high-accuracy measurement on structural tests to validate these methods. These can include optical methods and full-field techniques in place of the more traditional point measurements. As each test is unique it presents its own individual challenges.In this paper two recent, large scale tests performed by Airbus, will be presented and the metrology solutions that were identified for them will be discussed.

  5. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  6. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance Pipeline...

  7. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance Pipeline...

  8. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  9. P13, an Integral Membrane Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is C-Terminally Processed and Contains Surface-Exposed Domains

    PubMed Central

    Noppa, Laila; Östberg, Yngve; Lavrinovicha, Marija; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate antigens present on the bacterial surface of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that may be involved in pathogenesis, we characterized a protein, P13, with an apparent molecular mass of 13 kDa. The protein was immunogenic and was expressed in large amounts during in vitro cultivation compared to other known antigens. An immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays indicated that P13 is surface exposed. The deduced sequence of the P13 peptide revealed a possible signal peptidase type I cleavage site, and computer analysis predicted that P13 is an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane-spanning domains. Mass spectrometry, in vitro translation, and N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing analyses indicated that P13 was posttranslationally processed at both ends and modified by an unknown mechanism. Furthermore, p13 belongs to a gene family with five additional members in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The p13 gene is located on the linear chromosome of the bacterium, in contrast to five paralogous genes, which are located on extrachromosomal plasmids. The size of the p13 transcript was consistent with a monocistronic transcript. This new gene family may be involved in functions that are specific for this spirochete and its pathogenesis. PMID:11292755

  10. The thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius contains an unusually short, highly reduced dolichyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ziqiang; Meyer, Benjamin H; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Eichler, Jerry

    2011-10-01

    Polyprenoids, polymers containing varied numbers of isoprene subunits, serve numerous roles in biology. In Eukarya, dolichyl phosphate, a phosphorylated polyprenol bearing a saturated α-end isoprene subunit, serves as the glycan carrier during N-glycosylation, namely that post-translational modification whereby glycans are covalently linked to select asparagine residues of a target protein. As in Eukarya, N-glycosylation in Archaea also relies on phosphorylated dolichol. In this report, LC-ESI/MS/MS was employed to identify a novel dolichyl phosphate (DolP) in the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The unusually short S. acidocaldarius DolP presents a degree of saturation not previously reported. S. acidocaldarius DolP contains not only the saturated α- and ω-end isoprene subunits observed in other archaeal DolPs, but also up to five saturated intra-chain isoprene subunits. The corresponding dolichol and hexose-charged DolP species were also detected. The results of the present study offer valuable information on the biogenesis and potential properties of this unique DolP. Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanism of α-isoprene unit reduction in S. acidocaldarius dolichol may facilitate the identification of the alternative, as yet unknown polyprenol reductase in Eukarya.

  11. Applications of Nanoparticle-Containing Plasmas for High-Order Harmonic Generation of Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, Rashid A.

    The use of nanoparticles for efficient conversion of the wavelength of ultrashort laser toward the deep UV spectral range through harmonic generation is an attractive application of cluster-containing plasmas. Note that earlier observations of HHG in nanoparticles were limited by using the exotic gas clusters formed during fast cooling of atomic flow from the gas jets 1-4. One can assume the difficulties in definition of the structure of such clusters and the ratio between nanoparticles and atoms/ions in the gas flow. The characterization of gas phase cluster production was currently improved using the sophisticated techniques (e.g., a control of nanoparticle mass and spatial distribution, see the review 5). In the meantime, the plasma nanoparticle HHG has demonstrated some advantages over gas cluster HHG 6. The application of commercially available nanopowders allowed for precisely defining the sizes and structure of these clusters in the plume. The laser ablation technique made possible the predictable manipulation of plasma characteristics, which led to the creation of laser plumes containing mainly nanoparticles with known spatial structure. The latter allows the application of such plumes in nonlinear optics, X-ray emission of clusters, deposition of nanoparticles with fixed parameters on the substrates for semiconductor industry, production of nanostructured and nanocomposite films, etc.

  12. Analytical investigation of legal high products containing Salvia divinorum traded in smartshops and internet.

    PubMed

    Xavier Moreira, Fernando; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2014-09-01

    Lately, the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been considered a popular recreational product among adolescents, being legally sold in several countries in "smartshops" and in internet websites. Sellers frequently omit the safety information about the plant, encouraging its use for recreational purposes, without providing adequate qualitative and quantitative details. The principal hallucinogenic compound of the plant, salvinorin A, alongside with three other isomeric compounds, salvinorin B, C and D were evaluated in 10 products containing S. divinorum. These products were obtained in smartshops and from internet websites, and contained concentrated extracts of salvinorin A, with potencies labeled between "5x" and "60x". For that purpose a simple and rapid extraction protocol and a GC-MS methodology were developed and applied to the purchased samples. The analysis of S. divinorum samples allowed the identification of four salvinorins, salvinorin A being the most prevalent hallucinogen. In the tested samples, there were several unreliable data provided to consumers. Frequently, there was no information on salvinorin A concentration, but when it existed, it generally did not correspond to the true amount present in products. On the other hand, the concentration of salvinorin A in each product far exceeded the amount needed to produce hallucinogenic effects.

  13. CWICOM: A Highly Integrated & Innovative CCSDS Image Compression ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Vitulli, Raffaele

    2013-08-01

    The space market is more and more demanding in terms of on image compression performances. The earth observation satellites instrument resolution, the agility and the swath are continuously increasing. It multiplies by 10 the volume of picture acquired on one orbit. In parallel, the satellites size and mass are decreasing, requiring innovative electronic technologies reducing size, mass and power consumption. Astrium, leader on the market of the combined solutions for compression and memory for space application, has developed a new image compression ASIC which is presented in this paper. CWICOM is a high performance and innovative image compression ASIC developed by Astrium in the frame of the ESA contract n°22011/08/NLL/LvH. The objective of this ESA contract is to develop a radiation hardened ASIC that implements the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 Standard for Image Data Compression, that has a SpaceWire interface for configuring and controlling the device, and that is compatible with Sentinel-2 interface and with similar Earth Observation missions. CWICOM stands for CCSDS Wavelet Image COMpression ASIC. It is a large dynamic, large image and very high speed image compression ASIC potentially relevant for compression of any 2D image with bi-dimensional data correlation such as Earth observation, scientific data compression… The paper presents some of the main aspects of the CWICOM development, such as the algorithm and specification, the innovative memory organization, the validation approach and the status of the project.

  14. High integrity GPS/INS filter for precise relative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.

    A GPS/INS filter design for absolute and relative state estimation is discussed. The GPS code and Doppler measurements are used for absolute state estimation while the GPS carrier phase and Doppler measurements are used for relative state estimation. Real-time results obtained from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation and actual F-18 flight tests are presented. To ensure accurate state estimation, the observability of the GPS/INS system is analyzed analytically when the system is at rest and during maneuvers. The system observability enhancement during two different maneuvers is discussed. Simulation results illustrating the observability of the system during the different stages of the GPS/INS system operation are also presented. To allow successful use of the high-accuracy carrier phase measurements, two methods for resolving GPS integer ambiguity are introduced. The first combines an efficient method for obtaining the admissible integer ambiguity hypotheses within a probabilistic volume with an integer hypothesis testing method to reduce the convergence time with high probability to the GPS carrier phase integers. The second GPS integer ambiguity resolution method is based on a log-formulation of the Multiple Hypothesis Wald Sequential Probability Test (MHWSPT). The computational time requirement of the latter method is shown to be smaller than the former method. Real-time results are presented to show the performance of the two methods introduced.

  15. An integrated CMOS high data rate transceiver for video applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaping, Liang; Dazhi, Che; Cheng, Liang; Lingling, Sun

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a 5 GHz CMOS radio frequency (RF) transceiver built with 0.18 μm RF-CMOS technology by using a proprietary protocol, which combines the new IEEE 802.11n features such as multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO) technology with other wireless technologies to provide high data rate robust real-time high definition television (HDTV) distribution within a home environment. The RF frequencies cover from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz: the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Each RF channel bandwidth is 20 MHz. The transceiver utilizes a direct up transmitter and low-IF receiver architecture. A dual-quadrature direct up conversion mixer is used that achieves better than 35 dB image rejection without any on chip calibration. The measurement shows a 6 dB typical receiver noise figure and a better than 33 dB transmitter error vector magnitude (EVM) at -3 dBm output power.

  16. Sulfur transformations in pilot-scale constructed wetland treating high sulfate-containing contaminated groundwater: a stable isotope assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Jeschke, Christina; Dong, Renjie; Paschke, Heidrun; Kuschk, Peter; Knöller, Kay

    2011-12-15

    Current understanding of the dynamics of sulfur compounds inside constructed wetlands is still insufficient to allow a full description of processes involved in sulfur cycling. Experiments in a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating high sulfate-containing contaminated groundwater were carried out. Application of stable isotope approach combined with hydro-chemical investigations was performed to evaluate the sulfur transformations. In general, under inflow concentration of about 283 mg/L sulfate sulfur, sulfate removal was found to be about 21% with a specific removal rate of 1.75 g/m(2)·d. The presence of sulfide and elemental sulfur in pore water about 17.3 mg/L and 8.5 mg/L, respectively, indicated simultaneously bacterial sulfate reduction and re-oxidation. 70% of the removed sulfate was calculated to be immobilized inside the wetland bed. The significant enrichment of (34)S and (18)O in dissolved sulfate (δ(34)S up to 16‰, compared to average of 5.9‰ in the inflow, and δ(18)O up to 13‰, compared to average of 6.9‰ in the inflow) was observed clearly correlated to the decrease of sulfate loads along the flow path through experimental wetland bed. This enrichment also demonstrated the occurrence of bacterial sulfate reduction as well as demonstrated by the presence of sulfide in the pore water. Moreover, the integral approach shows that bacterial sulfate reduction is not the sole process controlling the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate in the pore water. The calculated apparent enrichment factor (ɛ = -22‰) for sulfur isotopes from the δ(34)S vs. sulfate mass loss was significantly smaller than required to produce the observed difference in δ(34)S between sulfate and sulfide. It indicated some potential processes superimposing bacterial sulfate reduction, such as direct re-oxidation of sulfide to sulfate by oxygen released from plant roots and/or bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur. Furthermore

  17. A high density genetic linkage map for rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) containing 47,839 SNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density SNP arrays have become the tool of choice for QTL mapping, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. More recently, high-density linkage maps generated by SNP array data have proven to be crucial for the accurate assembly of scaffolds and contigs in whole-genome sequencing ...

  18. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  19. Isolation of synaptic junctional complexes of high structural integrity from rat brain

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    A new method has been developed for isolating synaptic junctional complexes (SJC) of high structural integrity. The major step in the isolation involves homogenization of a synaptosomal membrane (SM) fraction in a biphasic system consisting of Freon 113 and an aqueous phase containing 0.2% Triton X-100. Well-preserved SJCs, along with membrane vesicles, were recovered in the aqueous phase after low-speed centrifugation of the homogenate. The membranes were subsequently separated from the SJCs by centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. The purity and identity of subcellular fractions were monitored by thin sectioning electron microscopy, using specific and nonspecific staining methods. From the electron microscope studies we conclude that SJCs and their components occupy about 65% of the area covered by structures in this fraction. The assay of enzyme activities indicates that homogenization in Triton-Freon and subsequent steps of the isolation procedure affect the activities of Na, K-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase, and acid phosphatase to different extents, but do not cause total inactivation. Electrophoresis of the SJC-enriched fraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels has demonstrated that a polypeptide which co-migrates with tubulin is the major component in this fraction, and that a polypeptide co-migrating with actin is also present. PMID:186464

  20. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Weigel, Scott Jeffrey; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  1. Preparation of highly dispersed core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Kanda, Takashi; Shibata, Hirobumi; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Abe, Masahiko

    2006-04-19

    Core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle were prepared. Ag nanoparticles were prepared using the reduction of silver nitrate with hydrazine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as protective agent. The sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used to prepare core/shell-type titania nanocapsules with CTAB-coated Ag nanoparticles as the core. TEM observations revealed that the size of the core (Ag particle) and the thickness of the shell (titania) of the core/shell particles obtained are about 10 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. In addition, the nanocapsules were found to be dispersed in the medium as individual particles without aggregation. Moreover, titania coating caused the surface plasmon absorption of Ag nanoparticles to shift toward the longer wavelength side.

  2. The processing of simulated high-level radioactive waste sludges containing nitrites and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Hutson, N.D.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of formic acid with simulated alkaline sludge containing mercury and nitrite was studied in an engineering-scale facility. Quantification of offgas production was performed, with the major offgases being CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. A small amount of CO was also found. The NO{sub x} was scrubbed in the offgas condenser and formed very acidic solutions of nitrous and nitric acids. These acids dissolved mercury that was stripped from the sludge. However, the overall efficiency of mercury stripping was greater than expected, and the final mercury concentration in the sludge was lower than expected. The NO{sub x} in the offgas also caused large temperature rises in the offgas system due to the exothermic reaction of NO with O{sub 2}. This temperature rise had a detrimental effect on the performance of the Formic Acid Vent Condenser, such that redesign is being contemplated. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals.

  4. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  5. Replacement of Ni by Mn in High-Ni-Containing Austenitic Cast Steels used for Turbo-Charger Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seungmun; Jo, Yong Hee; Jeon, Changwoo; Choi, Won-Mi; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Oh, Yong-Jun; Kim, Gi-Yong; Jang, Seongsik; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-02-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of austenitic cast steels fabricated by replacing Ni by Mn in a 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel were investigated. In a steel where 8 wt pct Ni was replaced by 9.2 wt pct of Mn, 17.4 and 9.8 pct of ferrite existed in equilibrium phase diagrams and actual microstructures, respectively, because a role of Mn as an austenite stabilizer decreased, and led to deterioration of high-temperature properties. When 2 to 6 wt pct Ni was replaced by 2.3 to 6.9 wt pct Mn, high-temperature properties were comparable to those of the 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel because ferrites were absent, which indicated the successful replacement of 6 wt pct Ni by Mn, with cost reduction of 27 pct.

  6. Occurrence of High Catalase-containing Acinetobacter in Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, K. B.; Derecho, I.; La Duc, M. T.; Vaishampayan, P.; Venkateswaran, K. J.; Mogul, R.

    2010-04-01

    In summary, the measurement of high catalase specific activity values for spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter strains is potentially the result of adaptation towards the harsh conditions of the clean rooms and assembly process.

  7. Structural integrity evaluation of high activity moderator system evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.K.

    1994-05-01

    The High Activity Moderator (HAM) system is wanted in a batch mode in which the evaporator tank is filled with 70{degrees}F cold moderator (D{sub 2}O) every 4 hours. This operation induces thermal shock to the wall of the tank. Thermal and structural analyses are performed to evaluate the impact of this thermal shock on the 220{degrees}F hot evaporator tank walls. Conservative thermal models are analyzed. Case 1 analyzes a 4 in. wide strip of D{sub 2}O running down the tank walls during the filling process and Case 2 analyzes the tank being filled instantly with 70{degrees}F D{sub 2}O. It is found that Case 1 results in larger temperature gradients are then input into the structural model for calculating the thermal stresses. The structural analysis shows that the maximum stress intensity due to combined pressure and thermal loading is about 17240 psi which is well below the yield stress (21000 psi) of the evaporator tank wall material, stainless steel 304L. The fatigue life is evaluated in accordance with the criteria given in ASME Code, Section VIII. It is found that at the stress level of 17240 psi plus any residual stresses that might be present at the welded attachments to the tank wall, the fatigue life is about 4{times}10{sup 6} cycles. If the evaporator tank is filled every 4 hours, the tank fatigue life is well above the anticipated batch operation period of 2 years.

  8. Integrated high-order surface diffraction gratings for diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotarev, V V; Leshko, A Yu; Pikhtin, N A; Slipchenko, S O; Sokolova, Z N; Lubyanskiy, Ya V; Voronkova, N V; Tarasov, I S

    2015-12-31

    High-order surface diffraction gratings acting as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in mesa stripe semiconductor lasers (λ = 1030 nm) have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Higher order interfering radiation modes (IRMs), which propagate off the plane of the waveguide, have been shown to have a crucial effect on the reflection and transmission spectra of the DBR. The decrease in the reflectivity of the DBR in response to the increase in the diffraction efficiency of these modes may reach 80% and more. According to theoretical analysis results, the intensity of the higher order IRMs is determined by the geometry of the DBR groove profile. Experimental data demonstrate that the noncavity modes are responsible for parasitic light leakage losses in the laser cavity. It has been shown that, in the case of nonoptimal geometry of the grating groove profile, the overall external differential quantum efficiency of the parasitic laser emission may exceed 45%, which is more than half of the laser output power. The optimal geometry of the DBR groove profile is trapezoidal, with the smallest possible lower base. Experimental evidence has been presented that this geometry considerably reduces the power of the higher order IRMs and minimises the parasitic light leakage loss. (lasers)

  9. Origin and characterization of fly ashes from cellulose industries containing high proportions of free lime and anhydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, A.; Eggenberger, U.; Peters, T.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ashes from cellulose industries originate from different internal waste combustion processes. Because they contain considerable amounts of free lime and anhydrite, they are potential secondary raw materials for the production of building products. The source of the CaO is a Ca-bisulfite-sludge originating from the cellulose extraction process. The CaO/anhydrite ratio in this lime-sulfate fly ash depends on the extent of sulphur reduction by organic carbon during the combustion process. A second type of Al-bearing ash contains additionally lowly reactive calcium silicates and highly reactive calcium aluminate phases originating from combusted paper sludge containing kaolinite. Both ashes show a reduced reactivity compared to commercial lime as it is used for the production of autoclaved aerated concrete. The reduced activity is related to the coated surfaces of the CaO and elevated sulfate and alkali contents.

  10. The active gene that encodes human High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1) contains introns and maps to chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, S.; Finelli, P.; Rocchi, M.

    1996-07-15

    The human genome contains a large number of sequences related to the cDNA for High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1), which so far has hampered the cloning and mapping of the active HMG1 gene. We show that the human HMG1 gene contains introns, while the HMG1-related sequences do not and most likely are retrotransposed pseudogenes. We identified eight YACs from the ICI and CEPH libraries that contain the human HMG1 gene. The HMG1 gene is similar in structure to the previously characterized murine homologue and maps to human chromosome 13 and q12, as determined by in situ hybridization. The mouse Hmg1 gene maps to the telomeric region of murine Chromosome 5, which is syntenic to the human 13q12 band. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  12. Infection and integration of high-risk human papillomavirus in HPV-associated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Li, Fan; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Min-zhong; Huang, Yulu; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2015-04-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been associated with many human cancers in clinical studies. Integration of HPV into the human genome is a suspected etiological factor in the induction of some HPV-associated cancers. The characteristics of HPV integration in certain HPV-integrated cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, ten HPV-associated carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for the presence, genotype, and integration status of HPV by nested polymerase chain reaction. The HPV genome did not insert in the genome of a mammary cancer cell line (MCF7), adrenal neuroblastoma cell line (NH-6), or three esophageal carcinoma cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE450 and KYSE140). HPV type 18 DNA did infect cell lines of tongue cancer (Tca83), hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), and lung carcinoma (A549), but the HPV type 18 genes were not transcribed into mRNA. However, HPV type 18 integrated into the genomes of the esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and EC109, and the integration sites for both cell lines were in loci 8q24, which is a gene desert area adjacent to fragile sites. We speculate that HPV transcripts are more likely to integrate near highly susceptible fragile sites. This study suggests that HPV integration is still a significant issue that needs to be fully examined and can possibly be used as individualized biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HPV-related cancers.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay

  14. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  15. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  16. Polymersomes containing a hydrogel network for high stability and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Do-Hoon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Weitz, David A

    2013-01-14

    Capillary microfluidic devices are used to prepare monodisperse polymersomes consisting of a hydrogel core and a bilayer membrane of amphiphilic diblock-copolymers. To make polymersomes, water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion drops are prepared as templates through single-step emulsification in a capillary microfluidic device. The amphiphile-laden middle oil phase of the double-emulsion drop dewets from the surface of the innermost water drop, which contains hydrogel prepolymers; this dewetting leads to the formation of a bilayer membrane. Subsequently, the oil phase completely separates from the innermost water drop, leaving a polymersome. Upon UV illumination of the polymersome, the prepolymers encapsulated within the interior are crosslinked, forming a hydrogel core. The hydrogel network within the polymersomes facilitates sustained release of the encapsulated materials and increases the stability of the polymersomes through the formation of a scaffold to support the bilayer. In addition, this approach provides a facile method to make monodisperse hydrogel particles directly dispersed in water.

  17. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, E.

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B2O3, FeS, Fe3O4 and FeSO4.

  18. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  19. Crystallizing highly-likely subspaces that contain an unknown quantum state of light

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yong Siah; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Mikhalychev, Alexander; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    In continuous-variable tomography, with finite data and limited computation resources, reconstruction of a quantum state of light is performed on a finite-dimensional subspace. In principle, the data themselves encode all information about the relevant subspace that physically contains the state. We provide a straightforward and numerically feasible procedure to uniquely determine the appropriate reconstruction subspace by extracting this information directly from the data for any given unknown quantum state of light and measurement scheme. This procedure makes use of the celebrated statistical principle of maximum likelihood, along with other validation tools, to grow an appropriate seed subspace into the optimal reconstruction subspace, much like the nucleation of a seed into a crystal. Apart from using the available measurement data, no other assumptions about the source or preconceived parametric model subspaces are invoked. This ensures that no spurious reconstruction artifacts are present in state reconstruction as a result of inappropriate choices of the reconstruction subspace. The procedure can be understood as the maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum subspaces, which is an analog to, and fully compatible with that for quantum states. PMID:27905511

  20. Tight regulation, modulation, and high-level expression by vectors containing the arabinose PBAD promoter.

    PubMed

    Guzman, L M; Belin, D; Carson, M J; Beckwith, J

    1995-07-01

    We have constructed a series of plasmid vectors (pBAD vectors) containing the PBAD promoter of the araBAD (arabinose) operon and the gene encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter, araC. Using the phoA gene and phoA fusions to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be 1,200-fold, compared with 50-fold for PTAC-based vectors. phoA expression can be modulated over a wide range of inducer (arabinose) concentrations and reduced to extremely low levels by the presence of glucose, which represses expression. Also, the kinetics of induction and repression are very rapid and significantly affected by the ara allele in the host strain. Thus, the use of this system which can be efficiently and rapidly turned on and off allows the study of important aspects of bacterial physiology in a very simple manner and without changes of temperature. We have exploited the tight regulation of the PBAD promoter to study the phenotypes of null mutations of essential genes and explored the use of pBAD vectors as an expression system.

  1. Crystallizing highly-likely subspaces that contain an unknown quantum state of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Yong Siah; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Mikhalychev, Alexander; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    In continuous-variable tomography, with finite data and limited computation resources, reconstruction of a quantum state of light is performed on a finite-dimensional subspace. In principle, the data themselves encode all information about the relevant subspace that physically contains the state. We provide a straightforward and numerically feasible procedure to uniquely determine the appropriate reconstruction subspace by extracting this information directly from the data for any given unknown quantum state of light and measurement scheme. This procedure makes use of the celebrated statistical principle of maximum likelihood, along with other validation tools, to grow an appropriate seed subspace into the optimal reconstruction subspace, much like the nucleation of a seed into a crystal. Apart from using the available measurement data, no other assumptions about the source or preconceived parametric model subspaces are invoked. This ensures that no spurious reconstruction artifacts are present in state reconstruction as a result of inappropriate choices of the reconstruction subspace. The procedure can be understood as the maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum subspaces, which is an analog to, and fully compatible with that for quantum states.

  2. Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilty, Florentine M.; Arnold, Myrtha; Hilbe, Monika; Teleki, Alexandra; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Ehrensperger, Felix; Hurrell, Richard F.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2010-05-01

    Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe/Zn compounds (specific surface area ~190 m2 g-1) made by scalable flame aerosol technology have in vivo iron bioavailability in rats comparable to FeSO4 and cause less colour change in reactive food matrices than conventional iron fortificants. The addition of Zn to FePO4 and Mg to Fe/Zn oxide increases Fe absorption from the compounds, and doping with Mg also improves their colour. After feeding rats with nanostructured iron-containing compounds, no stainable Fe was detected in their gut wall, gut-associated lymphatics or other tissues, suggesting no adverse effects. Nanosizing of poorly water-soluble Fe compounds sharply increases their absorption and nutritional value.

  3. Cluster formula of Fe-containing Monel alloys with high corrosion-resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baozeng; Gu Junjie; Wang Qing; Ji Chunjun; Wang Yingmin; Qiang Jianbing; Dong Chuang

    2012-06-15

    The cluster-plus-glue-atom model is applied in the composition interpretation of Monel alloys. This model considers ideal atomic nearest neighbor configurations among the constituent elements and has been used in understanding compositions of complex alloys like quasicrystals, amorphous alloys, and cupronickels. According to this model, any structure can be expressed by cluster formula [cluster](glue atom){sub x}, x denoting the number of glue atoms matching one cluster. According to this model, two groups of experimental composition series [Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub x} and [Fe{sub y}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub 5} were designed which fell close to conventional Fe-containing Monel alloys. The designed alloys after solution treatment plus water quenching, are monolithic FCC Ni-based solid solutions. Among them, the [Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub 5} alloy has the highest corrosion resistance in simulated sea water, and its performance is superior to that of industrial Monel 400 alloy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable solid solution model is proposed using our 'cluster-plus-glue-atom model'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model is used to develop Monel corrosion resistant alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single FCC structure is easily retained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloys show good corrosion properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work contributes to the general understanding of engineering alloys.

  4. Highly Luminescent Salts Containing Well-Shielded Lanthanide-Centered Complex Anions and Bulky Imidazolium Countercations

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Si-Fu; Lorbeer, Chantal; Wang, Xinjiao; Ghosh, Pushpal; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-09-02

    Four salts containing imidazolium cations and europium(III)- or terbium(III)-centered complex anions have been successfully synthesized from an ethanol/H2O solution. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that these compounds have a common formula of [R][Ln(DETCAP)4] [R = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (C2mim), Ln = Eu (1) and Tb (2); R = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C4mim), Ln = Eu (3) and Tb (4); DETCAP = diethyl-2,2,2-trichloroacetylphosphoramidate], in which the lanthanide centers are chelated by four chelating pseudo-β-diketonate ligands (DETCAP)-, forming the respective complex anions. Their thermal behaviors and stabilities were also investigated to study the role of the length of the side chain in the cations. Fluorescence measurements at both room temperature and liquid-nitrogen temperature show that these materials show intense characteristic europium(III) or terbium(III) emissions and have long decay times. Their overall quantum yields were determined to be in the range of 30–49%.

  5. Crosslinked redox polymer enzyme electrodes containing carbon nanotubes for high and stable glucose oxidation current.

    PubMed

    MacAodha, Domhnall; Ferrer, Maria Luisa; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2012-11-14

    Co-immobilisation approaches for preparation of glucose-oxidising films of [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(poly-vinylimidazole)(10)Cl] and glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes are compared. Electrodes prepared by crosslinking using glutaraldehyde vapour, without and with a NaBH(4) reduction, provide higher glucose oxidation current than those prepared using a well-established diepoxide method. Addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes to the film deposition solutions produces an enhanced glucose oxidation current density of 5 mA cm(-2) at 0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl, whilst improving the operational stability of the current signal. Carbon nanotube, glutaraldehyde vapour crosslinked, films on electrodes, reduced by NaBH(4), retain 77% of initial catalytic current over 24 hours of continuous amperometric testing in a 37 °C, 50 mM phosphate buffer solution containing 150 mM NaCl and 100 mM glucose. Potential application of this approach to implantable enzymatic biofuel cells is demonstrated by production of glucose oxidation currents, under pseudo-physiological conditions, using mediating films with lower redox potentials.

  6. Highly cytotoxic bioconjugated gold(I) complexes with cysteine-containing dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Marzo, Isabel; Cativiela, Carlos; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2015-07-27

    Several gold(I) complexes with cysteine-containing dipeptides have been prepared starting from cystine by coupling different amino acids and using several orthogonal protections. The first step is the reaction of cystine, where the sulfur centre is protected as disulfide, with Boc2 O in order to protect the amino group, followed by coupling of an amino acid ester; finally the disulfide bridge is broken with mercaptoethanol to afford the dipeptide derivative. Further reaction with [AuCl(PPh3 )] gives the gold-dipeptide-phosphine species. Starting from these formally gold(I) thiolate-dipeptide phosphine complexes with the general formula [Au(SR)(PR3 )] different structural modifications, such as change in the type of the amino protecting group, the type of phosphine, the number of gold(I) atoms per molecule, or the use of a non-proteinogenic conformationally restricted amino acid ester, were introduced in order to evaluate their influence in the biological activity of the final complexes. The cytotoxic activity, in vitro, of these complexes was evaluated against different tumour human cell lines (A549, MiaPaca2 and Jurkat). The complexes show an outstanding cytotoxic activity with IC50 values in the very low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationship studies from the complexes open the possibility of designing more potent and promising gold(I) anticancer agents.

  7. Method for critical software event execution reliability in high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, M.E.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on a method called SEER, which provides a high level of confidence that critical software driven event execution sequences faithfully exceute in the face of transient computer architecture failures in both normal and abnormal operating environments.

  8. Intergranular fracture in irradiated Inconel X-750 containing very high concentrations of helium and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Colin D.; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Walters, Lori; Wright, Mike; Cole, James I.; Madden, James; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, it has been observed that Inconel X-750 spacers in CANDU reactors exhibits lower ductility with reduced load carrying capacity following irradiation in a reactor environment. The fracture behaviour of ex-service material was also found to be entirely intergranular at high doses. The thermalized flux spectrum in a CANDU reactor leads to transmutation of 58Ni to 59Ni. The 59Ni itself has unusually high thermal neutron reaction cross-sections of the type: (n, γ), (n, p), and (n, α). The latter two reactions, in particular, contribute to a significant enhancement of the atomic displacements in addition to creating high concentrations of hydrogen and helium within the material. Microstructural examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have confirmed the presence of helium bubbles in the matrix and aligned along grain boundaries and matrix-precipitate interfaces. Helium bubble size and density are found to be highly dependent on the irradiation temperature and material microstructure; the bubbles are larger within grain boundary precipitates. TEM specimens extracted from fracture surfaces and crack tips provide information that is consistent with crack propagation along grain boundaries due to the presence of He bubbles.

  9. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  10. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  11. Cadmium in smoke particulates of regular and filter cigarettes containing low and high cadmium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Reid, C.M.; Hoffman, D.; Adams, J.D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-03-01

    In the work reported, filter and nonfilter cigarettes were prepared from high-cadmium tobacco grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil or a low-cadmium tobacco grown on untreated soil alone. These were smoked by machine to determine the effectiveness of the cigarette filters in possibly reducing the quantities of cadmium in the mainstream smoke particulates.

  12. Analysis of Thermal Process of Low-and High-Acid Foods in Semirigid Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    should be thermoformed from a high temperature melting polymer or coextruded set of polymers. Among the suitable candidates are: polypropylene...foamed polypropylene. This may be best provided as a preformed and filled separate compartment insert designed to minimize heat transfer. Thermoforming

  13. Online Processing of Sentences Containing Noun Modification in Young Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Prendergast, Luke A.; Kidd, Evan; Baker, Emma; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is variability in the language of children with autism, even those who are high functioning. However, little is known about how they process language structures in real time, including how they handle potential ambiguity, and whether they follow referential constraints. Previous research with older autism spectrum disorder (ASD)…

  14. Catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recyclable and reusable heterogeneous diarylammonium catalysts are highly effective in catalyzing the esterification of the free fatty acid (FFA) present in greases to methyl esters to reduce the FFA content from 12-40 wt% to 0.5 – 1 wt%. The resulting ester-glyceride mixture (pretreated grease) co...

  15. Structurally divergent histone H1 variants in chromosomes containing highly condensed interphase chromatin.

    PubMed

    Schulze, E; Nagel, S; Gavenis, K; Grossbach, U

    1994-12-01

    Condensed and late-replicating interphase chromatin in the Dipertan insect Chironomus contains a divergent type of histone H1 with an inserted KAP-KAP repeat that is conserved in single H1 variants of Caenorhabditis elegans and Volvox carteri. H1 peptides comprising the insertion interact specifically with DNA. The Chironomid Glyptotendipes exhibits a corresponding correlation between the presence of condensed chromosome sections and the appearance of a divergent H1 subtype. The centromere regions and other sections of Glyptotendipes barbipes chromosomes are inaccessible to immunodecoration by anti-H2B and anti-H1 antibodies one of which is known to recognize nine different epitopes in all domains of the H1 molecule. Microelectrophoresis of the histones from manually isolated unfixed centromeres revealed the presence of H1 and core histones. H1 genes of G. barpipes were sequenced and found to belong to two groups. H1 II and H1 III are rather similar but differ remarkably from H1 I. About 30% of the deduced amino acid residues were found to be unique to H1 I. Most conspicuous is the insertion, SPAKSPGR, in H1 I that is lacking in H1 II and H1 III and at its position gives rise to the sequence repeat SPAKSPAKSPGR. The homologous H1 I gene in Glyptotendipes salinus encodes the very similar repeat TPAKSPAKSPGR. Both sequences are structurally related to the KAPKAP repeat in H1 I-1 specific for condensed chromosome sites in Chironomus and to the SPKKSPKK repeat in sea urchin sperm H1, lie at almost the same distance from the central globular domain, and could interact with linker DNA in packaging condensed chromatin.

  16. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    PubMed Central

    Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI). PMID:28239294

  17. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Konrad H; Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI).

  18. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  19. Formation of Highly Thermostable Copper-Containing Energetic Coordination Polymers Based on Oxidized Triaminoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Long; Cohen, Adva; Petrutik, Natan; Shlomovich, Avital; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Gozin, Michael

    2016-08-24

    A series of novel highly thermostable energetic coordination polymers (ECPs), with promising mechanical sensitivity properties, were prepared by an in situ oxidation-coordination reaction of triaminoguanidine hydrochloride with copper nitrate in aqueous solution. The molecular structures and properties of these ECPs could be tuned, by varying the ratios and concentrations of the starting materials. Our ECPs exhibit remarkable thermostability (>390 °C) and very low sensitivity to impact (Im > 98 J). The best-performing material (ECP-5) has a calculated detonation velocity of 8969 m·s(-1) and a decomposition peak temperature of 396.9 °C, demonstrating an outstanding balance between two inherently contradicting properties: high detonation performance and very low sensitivity.

  20. Spiral Flux Compression Generator (FCG) Based Self-Contained Pulsed High Voltage Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    electric There is an oltage source our view, th development diameter spira decreases in F output deterior energy source design with diameter 50 m...agnetic field. substantially or size, which e dimension implementa he electric str ally the spiral CG with a co D SELF- netic Resear e Enterpris...s d r h d d n B. FCG S Three m primary e high- volta The prim batteries DC volta across th pulsed ca surge in t connected explosive source