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Sample records for high interfacial adhesionvia

  1. Preparation of pHEMA-CP composites with high interfacial adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2002-12-05

    We report a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of calcium phosphate (CP) with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of crosslinked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. External factors such as the heating rate, the agitation of the mineral stock solution and the duration of the process that affect the outcome of the mineralization were investigated. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral-hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  2. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  3. Engineering High-Energy Interfacial Structures for High-Performance Oxygen-Involving Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunxian; Zheng, Yao; Ran, Jingrun; Xie, Fangxi; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-03-24

    Engineering high-energy interfacial structures for high-performance electrocatalysis is achieved by chemical coupling of active CoO nanoclusters and high-index facet Mn3 O4 nano-octahedrons (hi-Mn3 O4 ). A thorough characterization, including synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure, reveals that strong interactions between both components promote the formation of high-energy interfacial Mn-O-Co species and high oxidation state CoO, from which electrons are drawn by Mn(III) -O present in hi-Mn3 O4 . The CoO/hi-Mn3 O4 demonstrates an excellent catalytic performance over the conventional metal oxide-based electrocatalysts, which is reflected by 1.2 times higher oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity than that of Ru/C and a comparable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity to that of Pt/C as well as a better stability than that of Ru/C (95 % vs. 81 % retained OER activity) and Pt/C (92 % vs. 78 % retained ORR activity after 10 h running) in alkaline electrolyte.

  4. Surface and interfacial chemistry of high-k dielectric and interconnect materials on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Paul Daniel

    Surfaces and interfaces play a critical role in the manufacture and function of silicon based integrated circuits. It is therefore reasonable to study the chemistries at these surfaces and interfaces to improve existing processes and to develop new ones. Model barium strontium titanate high-k dielectric systems have been deposited on ultrathin silicon oxynitride in ultrahigh vacuum. The resulting nanostructures are characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An interfacial reaction between Ba and Sr atoms and SiOxNy was found to create silicates, BaSixOy or SrSi xOy. Inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased silicate formation in both Ba and Sr systems. Furthermore, inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased the penetration of Ba and Sr containing species, such as silicides and silicates. Sputter deposited HfO2 was studied on nitrided and unnitrided Si(100) surfaces. XPS and SIMS were used to verify the presence of interfacial HfSixOy and estimate its relative amount on both nitrided and unnitrided samples. More HfSixOy formed without the SiNx interfacial layer. These interfacial chemistry results are then used to explain the electrical measurements obtained from metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. MOS capacitors with interfacial SiNx exhibit reduced leakage current and increased capacitance. Lastly, surface science techniques were used to develop a processing technique for reducing thin films of copper (II) and copper (I) oxide to copper. Deuterium atoms (D*) and methyl radicals (CH3*) were shown to reduce Cu 2+ and/or Cu1+ to Cu0 within 30 min at a surface temperature of 400 K under a flux of 1 x 1015 atoms/cm2s. Temperature programmed desorption experiments suggest that oxygen leaves the surface as D2O and CO2 for the D* and CH3* treated surfaces, respectively.

  5. Interfacial diffusion in high-temperature deformation of composites: A discrete dislocation plasticity investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishvan, Siamak S.; Pollock, Tresa M.; McMeeking, Robert M.; Deshpande, Vikram S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a discrete dislocation plasticity (DDP) framework to analyse the high temperature deformation of multi-phase materials (composites) comprising a matrix and inclusions. Deformation of the phases is by climb-assisted glide of the dislocations while the particles can also deform due to stress-driven interfacial diffusion. The general framework is used to analyse the uniaxial tensile deformation of a composite comprising elastic particles with dislocation plasticity only present in the matrix phase. When dislocation motion is restricted to only glide within the matrix a strong size effect of the composite strength is predicted with the strength increasing with decreasing unit cell size due to dislocations forming pile-ups against the matrix/particle interface. Interfacial diffusion decreases the composite strength as it enhances the elongation of the elastic particles along the loading direction. When dislocation motion occurs by climb-assisted glide within the matrix the size effect of the strength is reduced as dislocations no longer arrange high energy pile-up structures but rather form lower energy dislocation cell networks. While interfacial diffusion again reduces the composite strength, in contrast to continuum plasticity predictions, the elongation of the particles is almost independent of the interfacial diffusion constant. Rather, in DDP the reduction in composite strength due to interfacial diffusion is a result of changes in the dislocation structures within the matrix and the associated enhanced dislocation climb rates in the matrix.

  6. Highly tunable interfacial adhesion of glass fiber by hybrid multilayers of graphene oxide and aramid nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeongho; Lee, Wonoh; Lee, Eunhee; Min, Sa Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-02-11

    The performance of fiber-reinforced composites is governed not only by the nature of each individual component comprising the composite but also by the interfacial properties between the fiber and the matrix. We present a novel layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for the surface modification of a glass fiber to enhance the interfacial properties between the glass fiber and the epoxy matrix. Solution-processable graphene oxide (GO) and an aramid nanofiber (ANF) were employed as active components for the LbL assembly onto the glass fiber, owing to their abundant functional groups and mechanical properties. We found that the interfacial properties of the glass fibers uniformly coated with GO and ANF multilayers, such as surface free energy and interfacial shear strength, were improved by 23.6% and 39.2%, respectively, compared with those of the bare glass fiber. In addition, the interfacial adhesion interactions between the glass fiber and the epoxy matrix were highly tunable simply by changing the composition and the architecture of layers, taking advantage of the versatility of the LbL assembly.

  7. Substrate-constituted three-liquid-phase system: a green, highly efficient and recoverable platform for interfacial enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Chen, Huayong; Wang, Weifei; Qu, Man; Tang, Qingyun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-08-21

    Highly efficient interfacial enzymatic hydrolysis of oil was achieved in a three-liquid-phase system, wherein the substrate constituted one of the phases. The enlarged interfacial area and relieved product inhibition were responsible for the high catalytic efficiency. Convenient product isolation and the high reusability of the enzyme were also demonstrated.

  8. Interfacial Engineering of Silicon Carbide Nanowire/Cellulose Microcrystal Paper toward High Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yimin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Pan, Guiran; Sun, Jiajia; Hu, Jiantao; Huang, Yun; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-11-16

    Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have attracted much attention, along with the rapid development of electronic devices toward higher speed and better performance. However, high interfacial thermal resistance between fillers and matrix or between fillers and fillers has been one of the primary bottlenecks for the effective thermal conduction in polymer composites. Herein, we report on engineering interfacial structure of silicon carbide nanowire/cellulose microcrystal paper by generating silver nanostructures. We show that silver nanoparticle-deposited silicon carbide nanowires as fillers can effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of the matrix. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the resultant composite paper reaches as high as 34.0 W/m K, which is one order magnitude higher than that of conventional polymer composites. Fitting the measured thermal conductivity with theoretical models qualitatively demonstrates that silver nanoparticles bring the lower interfacial thermal resistances both at silicon carbide nanowire/cellulose microcrystal and silicon carbide nanowire/silicon carbide nanowire interfaces. This interfacial engineering approach provides a powerful tool for sophisticated fabrication of high-performance thermal-management materials.

  9. Effect of CaF2 on Interfacial Phenomena of High Alumina Refractories with Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interfacial phenomena between Al-alloy and industrial grade high alumina refractories containing varying contents of CaF2 at 1250 °C. Interfacial reaction products and phases formed in the heat-treated refractory samples were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while interfacial phenomena including dynamic wetting behavior were analyzed using the sessile drop technique. Refractories containing less than 5 wt pct CaF2 showed good resistance to reactions with the molten alloy, due to the dominance of corundum, and the presence of anorthite at the interface. However, with a further increase in the additive content, a glassy matrix of anorthite with CaF2 was formed. Formation of this phase significantly increased the intensity of reactions resulting in the buildup of an interfacial layer. The study thus revealed the strong catalytic effect of CaF2 on reactions of high alumina refractories with Al-alloy.

  10. High On/Off Ratio Memristive Switching of Manganite/Cuprate Bilayer by Interfacial Magnetoelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xiao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Hernandez-Martin, David; Pérez, Ana; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Liu, Yaohua; te Velthuis, Suzanne G. E.; Freeland, John W.; Shafer, Padraic; Zhu, Chenhui; Varela, Maria; Leon, Carlos; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Santamaria, Jacobo; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-05-27

    Memristive switching serves as the basis for a new generation of electronic devices. Conventional memristors are two-terminal devices in which the current is turned on and off by redistributing point defects, e.g., vacancies. Memristors based on alternative mechanisms have been explored, but achieving both high on/off ratio and low switching energy, as needed in applications, remains a challenge. This paper reports memristive switching in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/PrBa2Cu3O7 bilayers with an on/off ratio greater than 103 and results of density functional theory calculations in terms of which it is concluded that the phenomenon is likely the result of a new type of interfacial magnetoelectricity. More specifically, this study shows that an external electric field induces subtle displacements of the interfacial Mn ions, which switches on/off an interfacial magnetic “dead layer”, resulting in memristive behavior for spin-polarized electron transport across the bilayer. The interfacial nature of the switching entails low energy cost, about of a tenth of atto Joule for writing/erasing a “bit”. To conclude, the results indicate new opportunities for manganite/cuprate systems and other transition metal oxide junctions in memristive applications.

  11. Interfacial Evolution of Cement and Steel in CO2 Dissolved Solution Under High Temperature and High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chengqiang; Peng, Ye; Li, Bing; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Taihe

    2016-09-01

    The experiments were operated for the cylindrical sample (cement/steel) in high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) CO2 environment to simulate surrounding CO2 attack in oil and gas well. The interfacial evolutions between well cement and casing steel were measured, including mechanical property, structure alteration, chemical change and electrochemical character. The interfacial behaviors are attributed to the competition of hydration and degradation of Portland cement. The damage at the interface was faster than the cement bulk deterioration by carbonation. Thus, the interface provided a potential flow leakage pathway for the HTHP gas and fluid in the well, so improving interfacial stability between well cement and casing steel is the key issue to long-term zonal isolation.

  12. High interfacial activity of polymers "grafted through" functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle clusters.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lynn M; Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Edward L; Dong, Jiannan; Roach, Clarissa M; Metaxas, Athena E; Hardy, Clifford D; Larsen, Eric S; Bollinger, Jonathan A; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-09-02

    The mechanism by which polymers, when grafted to inorganic nanoparticles, lower the interfacial tension at the oil-water interface is not well understood, despite the great interest in particle stabilized emulsions and foams. A simple and highly versatile free radical "grafting through" technique was used to bond high organic fractions (by weight) of poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether methacrylate) onto iron oxide clusters, without the need for catalysts. In the resulting ∼1 μm hybrid particles, the inorganic cores and grafting architecture contribute to the high local concentration of grafted polymer chains to the dodecane/water interface to produce low interfacial tensions of only 0.003 w/v % (polymer and particle core). This "critical particle concentration" (CPC) for these hybrid inorganic/polymer amphiphilic particles to lower the interfacial tension by 36 mN/m was over 30-fold lower than the critical micelle concentration of the free polymer (without inorganic cores) to produce nearly the same interfacial tension. The low CPC is favored by the high adsorption energy (∼10(6) kBT) for the large ∼1 μm hybrid particles, the high local polymer concentration on the particles surfaces, and the ability of the deformable hybrid nanocluster cores as well as the polymer chains to conform to the interface. The nanocluster cores also increased the entanglement of the polymer chains in bulk DI water or synthetic seawater, producing a viscosity up to 35,000 cP at 0.01 s(-1), in contrast with only 600 cP for the free polymer. As a consequence of these interfacial and rheological properties, the hybrid particles stabilized oil-in-water emulsions at concentrations as low as 0.01 w/v %, with average drop sizes down to 30 μm. In contrast, the bulk viscosity was low for the free polymer, and it did not stabilize the emulsions. The ability to influence the interfacial activity and rheology of polymers upon grafting them to inorganic particles, including clusters

  13. Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2011-10-01

    The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.

  14. Schlieren High Speed Imaging on Fluid Flow in Liquid Induced by Plasma-driven Interfacial Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janis; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    Effective plasma-based water purification depends heavily on the transport of plasma-derived reactive species from the plasma into the liquid. Plasma interactions at the liquid-gas boundary are known to drive circulation in the bulk liquid. This forced circulation is not well understood. A 2-D plasma- in-liquid water apparatus is currently being investigated as a means to study the plasma-liquid interface to understand not only reactive species flows but to also understand plasma- driven fluid dynamic effects in the bulk fluid. Using Schlieren high speed imaging, plasma-induced density gradients near the interfacial region and into the bulk solution are measured to investigate the nature of these interfacial forces. Plasma-induced flow was also measured using particle imaging velocimetry. NSF CBET 1336375 and DOE DE-SC0001939.

  15. The effects of temperature and light elements on the interfacial tension of liquid iron under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Urakawa, S.; Funakoshi, K.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Nishida, K.; Sakamaki, T.; Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Interfacial tension is one of the most important properties of liquid iron-alloy to control the core formation process in the Earth and planets. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of temperature and light elements (S and P) on the interfation tension of liquid iron under high pressure. In this study, high pressure in-situ measurement of interfacial tension was carried out for the liquid Fe-S and Fe-P alloys using sessile drop method combined with X-ray radiography technique up to 2 GPa and 1923 K. The sessile drop method has been widely used for measurement of surface and interfacial tensions at ambient pressure. The effect of temperature on the interfacial tension for both Fe-S and Fe-P liquids is quite small in the range of measurement (1623 - 1923 K). The interfacial tension of liquid Fe-S decreases linearly from 802 to 112 mN/m with increasing sulphur content of 0 - 40 at%. Thus, sulphur reduces significantly the interfacial tension of liquid iron. On the other hand, phosphorus does not affect to the interfacial tension of liquid iron. These tendencies are in good agreement with the data measured at ambient pressure. Therefore, the behaviour of light elements on the interface at ambient pressure is maintained at least up to 2 GPa and the effect of light elements on the interfacial tension of liquid iron depends on the element species. The shape change of the liquid Fe-S was observed before and after quenching. This suggests that the in-situ measurement at high pressure and temperature is essential in order to obtain the true interfacial tension, i.e. interconnectivity of liquid iron-alloy.

  16. High On/Off Ratio Memristive Switching of Manganite/Cuprate Bilayer by Interfacial Magnetoelectricity

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Xiao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Hernandez-Martin, David; ...

    2016-05-27

    Memristive switching serves as the basis for a new generation of electronic devices. Conventional memristors are two-terminal devices in which the current is turned on and off by redistributing point defects, e.g., vacancies. Memristors based on alternative mechanisms have been explored, but achieving both high on/off ratio and low switching energy, as needed in applications, remains a challenge. This paper reports memristive switching in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/PrBa2Cu3O7 bilayers with an on/off ratio greater than 103 and results of density functional theory calculations in terms of which it is concluded that the phenomenon is likely the result of a new type of interfacialmore » magnetoelectricity. More specifically, this study shows that an external electric field induces subtle displacements of the interfacial Mn ions, which switches on/off an interfacial magnetic “dead layer”, resulting in memristive behavior for spin-polarized electron transport across the bilayer. The interfacial nature of the switching entails low energy cost, about of a tenth of atto Joule for writing/erasing a “bit”. To conclude, the results indicate new opportunities for manganite/cuprate systems and other transition metal oxide junctions in memristive applications.« less

  17. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  18. Effect of Silica on High-Temperature Interfacial Phenomena of Monolithic Refractories with Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to study the interfacial phenomena between monolithic refractories and Al alloy at 1250 °C. Dynamic contact angles of monolithic substrates with varying silica levels were measured using the sessile drop technique, while phases present in the preheated monolithic samples and interfacial reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The contact angles in the Al alloy/silica system were found to change much more rapidly as compared to that of the alloy/alumina system, clearly demonstrating the high wetting tendency of silica. Under the tested conditions, the corundum phase forms at the interface while Mg was found to vaporize from the alloy and accumulate at the bottom of the monolithic substrate. Both these phenomena are shown to influence the intensity of contact angle variations with time and, thereby, the wetting behavior of monolithic substrates. Based on dynamic contact angles and equilibrium calculations, monolithic refractories are further classified into three groups, such that the wetting characteristics of those with compositions in the ranges of 0 to 25 pct, 25 to 45 pct, and >45 pct silica were shown to be dictated by the presence of corundum, mullite, and free silica, respectively, as the predominant phase.

  19. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of interfacial water at single bond limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying

    Hydrogen bond is one of the most important weak interactions in nature and plays an essential role in a broad spectrum of physics, chemistry, biology, energy and material sciences. The conventional methods for studying hydrogen-bonding interaction are all based on spectroscopic or diffraction techniques. However, those techniques have poor spatial resolution and only measure the average properties of many hydrogen bonds, which are susceptible to the structural inhomogeneity and local environments, especially when interfacial systems are concerned. The spatial variation and inter-bond coupling of the hydrogen bonds leads to significant spectral broadening, which prohibits the accurate understanding of the experimental data. In this talk, I will present our recent progress on the development of new-generation scanning probe microscopy/spectroscopy (SPM/S) with unprecedentedly high sensitivity and resolution, for addressing weak inter- and intra-molecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force. Based on a qPlus sensor, we have succeeded to push the real-space study of a prototypical hydrogen-bonded system, i.e. water, down to single bond limit. Combined with state-of-the-arts quantum simulations, we have discovered exotic nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) in interfacial water and revealed the quantum nature of the hydrogen bond from a completely new perspective

  20. Hydrophobic and high adhesive polyaniline layer of rectangular microtubes fabricated by a modified interfacial polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Qu, Yun; Han, Jie

    2016-08-01

    A modified interfacial polymerization of aniline is developed to fabricate hydrophobic and adhesive polyaniline (PANI) layer of rectangular microtubes on the glass substrate. The modified method uses pentanol as an organic medium to dissolve aniline monomer, with the water film of oxidant and surfactant on the glass substrate as water phase. The effects of some synthetic parameters (such as monomer concentration, alcohol molecular structure and surfactant type) on the morphology of PANI layer are studied for better understanding the fabrication of PANI nanostructures on the film. The alcohol molecular structure plays key role for the supermolecular assembly of PANI chains into nanostructures, while the surfactant may direct the array and deposition of these nanostructures on the glass substrate. The formation reason of PANI rectangular sub-microtubes is roughly interpreted according to our previous works. Wettability experiment indicates that the as-prepared PANI layer exhibits excellent hydrophobicity and high adhesive properties to water drop.

  1. Interfacial kinematics and governing mechanisms under the influence of high strain rate impact conditions: Numerical computations of experimental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoelison, R. N.; Sapanathan, T.; Padayodi, E.; Buiron, N.; Rachik, M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the complex interfacial kinematics and governing mechanisms during high speed impact conditions. A robust numerical modelling technique using Eulerian simulations are used to explain the material response of the interface subjected to a high strain rate collision during a magnetic pulse welding. The capability of this model is demonstrated using the predictions of interfacial kinematics and revealing the governing mechanical behaviours. Numerical predictions of wave formation resulted with the upward or downward jetting and complex interfacial mixing governed by wake and vortex instabilities corroborate the experimental observations. Moreover, the prediction of the material ejection during the simulation explains the experimentally observed deposited particles outside the welded region. Formations of internal cavities along the interface is also closely resemble the resulted confined heating at the vicinity of the interface appeared from those wake and vortex instabilities. These results are key features of this simulation that also explains the potential mechanisms in the defects formation at the interface. These results indicate that the Eulerian computation not only has the advantage of predicting the governing mechanisms, but also it offers a non-destructive approach to identify the interfacial defects in an impact welded joint.

  2. Modelling of AlAs/GaAs interfacial structures using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations.

    PubMed

    Robb, Paul D; Finnie, Michael; Craven, Alan J

    2012-07-01

    High angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations were performed on a series of AlAs/GaAs interfacial models using the frozen-phonon multislice method. Three general types of models were considered-perfect, vicinal/sawtooth and diffusion. These were chosen to demonstrate how HAADF image measurements are influenced by different interfacial structures in the technologically important III-V semiconductor system. For each model, interfacial sharpness was calculated as a function of depth and compared to aberration-corrected HAADF experiments of two types of AlAs/GaAs interfaces. The results show that the sharpness measured from HAADF imaging changes in a complicated manner with thickness for complex interfacial structures. For vicinal structures, it was revealed that the type of material that the probe projects through first of all has a significant effect on the measured sharpness. An increase in the vicinal angle was also shown to generate a wider interface in the random step model. The Moison diffusion model produced an increase in the interface width with depth which closely matched the experimental results of the AlAs-on-GaAs interface. In contrast, the interface width decreased as a function of depth in the linear diffusion model. Only in the case of the perfect model was it possible to ascertain the underlying structure directly from HAADF image analysis.

  3. Interfacial nano-biosensing in microfluidic droplets for high-sensitivity detection of low-solubility molecules.

    PubMed

    Dou, Maowei; García, José Mireles; Zhan, Sihui; Li, XiuJun

    2016-02-28

    Taking advantage of the properties of the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of microfluidic droplets, we developed an innovative interfacial nanosensing strategy based on aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide nanosensors in microfluidic droplets for the high-sensitivity one-step detection of 17β-estradiol and other low-solubility molecules, with the detection sensitivity improved by about 3 orders of magnitude compared to conventional systems.

  4. Surface and interfacial engineering of iron oxide nanoplates for highly efficient magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijian; Wu, Changqiang; Liu, Hanyu; Zhu, Xianglong; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Wang, Lirong; Xu, Ye; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-03-24

    Magnetic resonance angiography using gadolinium-based molecular contrast agents suffers from short diagnostic window, relatively low resolution and risk of toxicity. Taking into account the chemical exchange between metal centers and surrounding protons, magnetic nanoparticles with suitable surface and interfacial features may serve as alternative T1 contrast agents. Herein, we report the engineering on surface structure of iron oxide nanoplates to boost T1 contrast ability through synergistic effects between exposed metal-rich Fe3O4(100) facets and embedded Gd2O3 clusters. The nanoplates show prominent T1 contrast in a wide range of magnetic fields with an ultrahigh r1 value up to 61.5 mM(-1) s(-1). Moreover, engineering on nanobio interface through zwitterionic molecules adjusts the in vivo behaviors of nanoplates for highly efficient magnetic resonance angiography with steady-state acquisition window, superhigh resolution in vascular details, and low toxicity. This study provides a powerful tool for sophisticated design of MRI contrast agents for diverse use in bioimaging applications.

  5. Electrical and Structural Characteristics of High-k Gate Dielectrics with Epitaxial Si3N4 Interfacial Layer on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyunjun; Samantaray, Chandan B.; Lee, Taeho; Yeom, Hanwoong; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the electrical and structural characteristics of Gd2O3 gate dielectrics with an epitaxial Si3N4 interfacial layer grown on Si(111) were investigated. Compared with control Gd2O3 gate dielectrics deposited on HF-last treated Si (111), the Gd2O3 gate dielectrics with an epitaxial Si3N4 interfacial layer exhibited excellent electrical characteristics such as low leakage current density and low interface state density. These characteristics are due to a high-quality interfacial layer formation on Si. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to analyze the structures of the gate dielectrics and interfacial layer. High-k gate dielectrics with an epitaxial Si3N4 interfacial layer have considerable potential for future use in sub-0.1 μm metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  6. Tailoring the Interfacial Chemical Interaction for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lijian; Chen, Qi; De Marco, Nicholas; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Chen, Huajun; Sun, Pengyu; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Zhao, Hongxiang; Dong, Shiqi; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-11

    The ionic nature of perovskite photovoltaic materials makes it easy to form various chemical interactions with different functional groups. Here, we demonstrate that interfacial chemical interactions are a critical factor in determining the optoelectronic properties of perovskite solar cells. By depositing different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), we introduce different functional groups onto the SnO2 surface to form various chemical interactions with the perovskite layer. It is observed that the perovskite solar cell device performance shows an opposite trend to that of the energy level alignment theory, which shows that chemical interactions are the predominant factor governing the interfacial optoelectronic properties. Further analysis verifies that proper interfacial interactions can significantly reduce trap state density and facilitate the interfacial charge transfer. Through use of the 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid SAM, the resulting perovskite solar cell exhibits striking improvements to the reach the highest efficiency of 18.8%, which constitutes an ∼10% enhancement compared to those without SAMs. Our work highlights the importance of chemical interactions at perovskite/electrode interfaces and paves the way for further optimizing performances of perovskite solar cells.

  7. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Do; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching.

  8. Improvement in the breakdown endurance of high-κ dielectric by utilizing stacking technology and adding sufficient interfacial layer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chin-Sheng; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in the time-zero dielectric breakdown (TZDB) endurance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with stacking structure of Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si is demonstrated in this work. The misalignment of the conduction paths between two stacking layers is believed to be effective to increase the breakdown field of the devices. Meanwhile, the resistance of the dielectric after breakdown for device with stacking structure would be less than that of without stacking structure due to a higher breakdown field and larger breakdown power. In addition, the role of interfacial layer (IL) in the control of the interface trap density (D it) and device reliability is also analyzed. Device with a thicker IL introduces a higher breakdown field and also a lower D it. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of the samples with different IL thicknesses is provided to confirm that IL is needed for good interfacial property.

  9. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Do; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-07

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching.

  10. Simultaneous achievement of high perpendicular exchange bias and low coercivity by controlling ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfacial magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratsuchi, Yu; Kuroda, Wataru; Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Kotani, Yoshinori; Toyoki, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kohji; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of Pt and Au spacer layers on the perpendicular exchange bias field and coercivity of Pt/Co/(Pt or Au)/Cr2O3/Pt films. When using a Pt-spacer, the perpendicular exchange bias was highly degraded to less than 0.1 erg/cm2, which was about half that of the Au-spacer system. The Au spacer also suppressed the enhancement in coercivity that usually occurs at around room temperature when using Pt. It is suggested that this difference in exchange bias field is due to in-plane interfacial magnetic anisotropy at the Pt/Cr2O3 interface, which cants the interfacial Cr spin from the surface normal and results in degradation in the perpendicular exchange bias.

  11. Effective passivation and high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices using ultra-high-vacuum deposited high- κ dielectrics on Ge without interfacial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, L. K.; Chu, R. L.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, W. C.; Lin, C. A.; Huang, M. L.; Lee, Y. J.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    2010-09-01

    Without using any interfacial passivation layers, high- κ dielectric Y 2O 3, HfO 2, and Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) [GGO], by electron beam evaporation in ultra-high-vacuum (UHV), have been directly deposited on Ge substrate. Comprehensive investigations have been carried out to study the oxide/Ge interfaces chemically, structurally, and electronically: hetero-structures of all the studied oxides on Ge are highly thermally stable with annealing to 500 °C, and their interfaces remain atomically sharp. The electrical analyses have been conducted on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices, i.e. MOS capacitors (MOSCAPs) and MOS field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). Dielectrics constants of the Y 2O 3, HfO 2, and GGO have been extracted to be ˜17, 20, and 13-15, respectively, indicating no interfacial layer formation with 500 °C annealing. A low interfacial density of states ( Dits), as low as 3 × 10 11 cm -2 eV -1, has been achieved for GGO/Ge near mid-gap along with a high Fermi-level movement efficiency as high as 80%. The GGO/Ge pMOSFETs with TiN as the metal gate have yielded very high-performances, in terms of 496 μA/μm, 178 μS/μm, and 389 cm 2/V s in saturation drain current density, maximum transconductance, and effective hole mobility, respectively. The gate width and gate length of the MOSFET are 10 μm and 1 μm.

  12. In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of interfacial reactions of Cu thin films on amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Bo; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Phillipp, Fritz; Jeon, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Chang Kyung

    2006-02-01

    Interfacial reactions of Cu with amorphous silicon (a-Si) in the Cu /a-Si/glass system are studied by in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy at 550°C. Various Cu silicides, such as η-Cu3Si, Cu15Si4, and Cu5Si, and Cu particles are observed. The formation of the Cu particles can be attributed to a heating effect from electron beam irradiation. Around the Cu silicides, crystallization of a-Si occurs. Around the Cu particles, however, crystallization does not occur. Crystallization appears to be enhanced by Cu dissolved in a-Si.

  13. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  14. Effects of surface treating methods of high-strength carbon fibers on interfacial properties of epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quansheng; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of surface treating methods, including electrolysis of anodic oxidation, sizing and heat treatment at 200 °C, on physical and chemical properties of T700 grade high-strength carbon fiber GQ4522. The fiber surface roughness, surface energy and chemical properties were analyzed for different treated carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy, contact angle, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the adopted surface treating methods significantly affect surface roughness, surface energy and active chemical groups of the studied carbon fibers. Electrolysis and sizing can increase the roughness, surface energy and chemical groups on surface, while heat treatment leads to decreases in surface energy and chemical groups due to chemical reaction of sizing. Then, unidirectional epoxy 5228 matrix composite laminates were prepared using different treated GQ4522 fibers, and interlaminar shear strength and flexural property were measured. It is revealed that the composite using electrolysis and sizing-fiber has the strongest interfacial bonding strength, indicating the important roles of the two treating processes on interfacial adhesion. Moreover, the composite using heat-treating fiber has lower mechanical properties, which is attributed to the decrease of chemical bonding between fiber surface and matrix after high temperature treatment of fiber.

  15. High-temperature healing of interfacial voids in GaAs wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, YewChung Sermon; Liu, Po Chun; Feigelson, R. S.; Route, R. K.

    2002-02-01

    Artificial voids were introduced at bonding interfaces to study how processing parameters affected the healing mechanism of interfacial voids in GaAs wafer bonding. These voids were created by placing unpatterned wafers in contact with topographically patterned wafers. During the bonding process, crystallites formed within these voids and corresponded to bonded regions within the voids. Their formation depended strongly on the height of the surface irregularities at the wafer interfaces. When the void depth (h) was ⩾200 nm, most of the crystallites were diamond shaped. The edges of the diamond features were elongated in the <100> direction. On the other hand, when the void depth was small (h⩽70 nm), dendrites grew quickly in the <110> direction.

  16. Electrical characterization of thulium silicate interfacial layers for integration in high-k/metal gate CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio; Hellström, Per-Erik; Henkel, Christoph; Östling, Mikael

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a characterization of the electrical properties of thulium silicate thin films, within the scope of a possible application as IL (interfacial layer) in scaled high-k/metal gate CMOS technology. Silicate formation is investigated over a wide temperature range (500-900 °C) through integration in MOS capacitor structures and analysis of the resulting electrical properties. The results are compared to those obtained from equivalent devices integrating lanthanum silicate interfacial layers. The thulium silicate IL is formed through a gate-last CMOS-compatible process flow, providing IL EOT of 0.1-0.3 nm at low formation temperature and interface state density at flatband condition below 2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The effects of a possible integration in a gate-first process flow with a maximum thermal budget of 1000 °C are also evaluated, achieving an IL EOT of 0.2-0.5 nm, an interface state density at flatband condition ∼1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a reduction in gate leakage current density of one order of magnitude compared to the same stack without IL.

  17. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Longtao; Wang, Pingping; Xiu, Ziyang; Chen, Guoqin; Lin, Xiu; Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui

    2015-08-15

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond{sub (111)}/Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond{sub (100)}/Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond{sub (111)}/ aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond{sub (111)}/aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was analyzed by crystallography theory.

  18. In situ measurement of interfacial tension of Fe-S and Fe-P liquids under high pressure using X-ray radiography and tomography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Urakawa, S.; Funakoshi, K.; Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.; Nishida, K.; Sakamaki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E.

    2009-05-01

    Interfacial tension is one of the most important properties of the liquid iron alloy that controls the core formation process in the early history of the Earth and planets. In this study, we made high-pressure X-ray radiography and micro-tomography measurements to determine the interfacial tension between liquid iron alloys and silicate melt using the sessile drop method. The measured interfacial tension of liquid Fe-S decreased significantly (802-112 mN/m) with increasing sulphur content (0-40 at%) at 1.5 GPa. In contrast, the phosphorus content of Fe had an almost negligible effect on the interfacial tension of liquid iron. These tendencies in the effects of light elements are consistent with those measured at ambient pressure. Our results suggest that the effect of sulphur content on the interfacial tension of liquid Fe-S (690 mN/m reduction with the addition of 40 at% S) is large compared with the effect of temperature (˜273 mN/m reduction with an increase of 200 K). The three-dimensional structure of liquid Fe-S was obtained at ˜2 GPa and 1373-1873 K with a high-pressure tomography technique. The Fe-S droplet was quite homogeneous when evaluated in a slice of the three-dimensional image.

  19. Interfacial dynamics in pressure-driven two-layer laminar channel flow with high viscosity ratios.

    PubMed

    Matar, O K; Lawrence, C J; Sisoev, G M

    2007-05-01

    The large-scale dynamics of an interface separating two immiscible fluids in a channel is studied in the case of large viscosity contrasts. A long-wave analysis in conjunction with the Kármán-Polhausen method to approximate the velocity profile in the less viscous fluid is used to derive a single equation for the interface. This equation accounts for the presence of interfacial stress, capillarity, and viscous retardation as well as inertia in the less viscous fluid layer where the flow is considered to be quasistatic; the equation is shown to reduce to a Benney-type equation and the Kuramoto-Sivashinskiy equation in the relevant limits. The solutions of this equation are parametrized by an initial thickness ratio h0 and a dimensionless parameter S , which measures the relative significance of inertial to capillary forces. A parametric continuation technique is employed, which reveals that nonuniqueness of periodic solutions is possible in certain regions of (h0,S) space. Transient numerical simulations are also reported, whose results demonstrate good agreement with the bifurcation structure obtained from the parametric continuation results.

  20. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization improves oxidative stability and interfacial properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Avila, C; Trujillo, A J

    2016-10-15

    Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (100-300MPa) has great potential for technological, microbiological and nutritional aspects of fluid processing. Its effect on the oxidative stability and interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4% (w/v) of soy protein isolate and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) were studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (15MPa). Emulsions were characterized by particle size, emulsifying activity index, surface protein concentration at the interface and by transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were evaluated in emulsions upon storage. Emulsions with 20% oil treated at 100 and 200MPa exhibited the most oxidative stability due to higher amount of oil and protein surface load at the interface. This manuscript addresses the improvement in oxidative stability in emulsions treated by UHPH when compared to conventional emulsions.

  1. Impact of interfacial high-density water layer on accurate estimation of adsorption free energy by Jarzynski's equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhisen; Wu, Tao; Wang, Qi; Pan, Haihua; Tang, Ruikang

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between proteins/peptides and materials are crucial to research and development in many biomedical engineering fields. The energetics of such interactions are key in the evaluation of new proteins/peptides and materials. Much research has recently focused on the quality of free energy profiles by Jarzynski's equality, a widely used equation in biosystems. In the present work, considerable discrepancies were observed between the results obtained by Jarzynski's equality and those derived by umbrella sampling in biomaterial-water model systems. Detailed analyses confirm that such discrepancies turn up only when the target molecule moves in the high-density water layer on a material surface. Then a hybrid scheme was adopted based on this observation. The agreement between the results of the hybrid scheme and umbrella sampling confirms the former observation, which indicates an approach to a fast and accurate estimation of adsorption free energy for large biomaterial interfacial systems.

  2. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  3. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WATER VAPOR ON THE INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE AIR IN CONTACT WITH Fe20Cr SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Brady, Michael P; Keiser, James R; Cole, David R

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to provide an atomistic view, via molecular dynamic simulation, of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high temperature dry- and (10-40 vol%) wet-air in contact with stainless steels as represented by Fe20Cr. It was found that H2O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal/fluid interface. Comparison of these findings with experimental studies reported in the literature is discussed. Keywords: Fe-Cr alloys, metal-fluid interfacial behavior, wet-air, molecular simulation

  4. Observation of Work Functions, Metallicity, Band Bending, Interfacial Dipoles by EUPS for Characterizing High-k/Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-10

    EUPS (EUV excited photoelectron spectroscopy) is a novel photoelectron spectroscopy technique, in which a sample is excited with 4.86 nm (255 eV), 3-ns pulse EUV light emitted from a laser-produced plasma and the resulting electron spectrum is analyzed with a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer. EUPS gives information of the topmost atoms because the escape depth of photo-electrons excited by 4.86 nm light is only 0.5 nm. EUPS can evaluate band-bending because the peak density of the excitation light on the sample is extremely high, so that bent electronic bands in semiconductors can be flattened. Secondary electron spectra, from which the vacuum level of the material surface can be determined, are obtained very quickly owing to the use of a TOF analyzer, The metal gate related issues are one of the most challenging topics facing CMOS technology. This paper demonstrates EUPS as a powerful method for characterizing high-k/metal interfaces by showing data from direct observations of interfacial dipoles.

  5. Tensile properties and interfacial bonding of multi-layered, high-purity titanium strips fabricated by ARB process.

    PubMed

    Ghafari-Gousheh, Soroush; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2015-11-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing has shown very effective in promotion of mechanical properties of metals and alloys. In this study, the results of investigating mechanical properties and also inter-layer bond performance of accumulative roll bonded high purity titanium (HP-Ti) strips are presented. High purity titanium plates were severely deformed by use of a combination of cold rolling (CR) to a thickness reduction of approximately 87% and then accumulative roll bonding (ARB) for three cycles (N=3) at ambient temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing, and hardness measurements were conducted. The ARB strips exhibited lower tensile strength and ductility in comparison to cold rolled one which can basically be attributed to the poor function of the latest bonds established in the centerlines of the strips. Fractographic examinations revealed the interfacial de-bonding along the centerline between the layers having undergone roll bonding for just one cycle. It was while the interfaces having experienced roll bonding for more cycles showed much higher resistance against delaminating.

  6. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  7. Discovery of secondary metabolites in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization system and its application to high-throughput interfacial screening of antibiotic-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shinobu; Kameda, Arisa; Okanan, Masanori; Sakakibara, Yusuke; Ohashi, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    An extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system, which consists of a hydrophobic organic solvent (an upper phase), a fungal cell-ballooned microsphere layer (a middle phase) and a liquid medium (a lower phase), is a unique interfacial cultivation system for fungi. The fungal cells growing at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases efficiently produce hydrophobic metabolites, which are continuously extracted into the organic phase, and/or hydrophilic metabolites that migrate into the aqueous phase without carbon catabolite repression and product and/or feed-back inhibitions. Application of the system to fermentation of Penicillium multicolor IAM 7153 and Trichoderma atroviride AG2755-5NM398 afforded remarkably different profiles of secondary metabolites in the organic phase compared with those in an aqueous phase in traditional submerged cultivation (SmC). Various hydrophobic metabolites exhibiting unique UV-visible spectra were accumulated into the organic phase. The system was applied to a novel interfacial screening system of antibiotic-producing fungi. Compared with the SmC, the interfacial cultivation system exhibited some interesting and important advantages, such as the higher accumulation of hydrophobic secondary metabolites, the lack of requirement for shaking and troublesome solvent extraction, and the small scale of the vessels (medium, 5 ml; dimethylsilicone oil, 1 ml), as well as the significantly different metabolite profiles. The interfacial screening system yielded a high incidence of antimicrobial activity, with 21.9% of the fungi tested exhibiting antifungal activity against Pichia anomala NBRC 10213. This novel interfacial high-throughput screening approach has the potential to discover new biologically active secondary metabolites even from strains previously found to be unproductive.

  8. Interfacial strength of compression-molded specimens between PMMA powder and PMMA/MMA monomer solution-treated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder.

    PubMed

    Park, K D; Park, J B

    2000-01-01

    The interface between bone cement and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been considered a weak link of cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR). For the improvement of this weak interface, adhesion between the UHMWPE acetabular cup and bone cement made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated in our laboratory. Virgin UHMWPE powders were treated with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and PMMA/MMA solution. The treated UHMWPE powders were then compression-molded with virgin UHMWPE powders or PMMA powders, creating two different interfaces, i. e., treated/virgin UHMWPE powder and treated UHMWPE/PMMA powder. For the present study, the interfacial strengths between PMMA powder and the treated UHMWPE power were investigated following the same protocol previously set. The maximum interfacial strength was 17.0 +/- 0.25MPa with the same molding condition of 166.5 degrees C, 38.7 MPa and l h. In addition to the molding condition, we tested the strengths for the treated UHMWPE powders, which have different ratios between PMMA/MMA solution and MMA-treated UHMWPE powders. Significant differences on the interfacial strengths resulted due to the ratio change; more PMMA in the PMMA/MMA solution-treated UHMWPE powder exhibited higher interfacial strength. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures showed that the interface is composed of three major portions: PMMA powder, UHMWPE, and coated PMMA, indicating strong mechanical interlocking of UHMWPE and PMMA powder matrix and chemical bonding between PMMA powder and the precoated PMMA onto the UHMWPE. In addition, another interfacial strength between PMMA powder, which is equivalent to the outermost part of the cup, and bone cement was investigated. The average strength reached up to 42.4 +/- 3.6 MPa, close to the tensile strength of bone cement itself.

  9. Achieving high efficiency laminated polymer solar cell with interfacial modified metallic electrode and pressure induced crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Bi, Yu; Huang, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    We report efficient laminated organic photovoltaic device with efficiency approach the optimized device by regular method based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The high efficiency is mainly attributed to the formation of a concrete polymer/metal interface mechanically and electrically by the use of electronic-glue, and using the highly conductive and flexible silver film as anode to reduce photovoltage loss and modifying its work function for efficiency hole extraction by ultraviolet/ozone treatment, and the pressure induced crystallization of PCBM.

  10. Stretchable carbon nanotube/ion-gel supercapacitors with high durability realized through interfacial microroughness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Wonbin; Kim, Woong

    2014-08-27

    A critical problem with stretchable supercapacitors developed to date has been evaporation of a volatile component of their electrolyte, causing failure. In this work, we demonstrated successful use of an ionic-liquid-based nonvolatile gel (ion-gel) electrolyte in carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable supercapacitors. The CNT/ion-gel supercapacitors showed high capacitance retention (96.6%) over 3000 stretch cycles at 20% strain. The high durability against stretch cycles was achieved by introducing microroughness at the interfaces between different materials. The microroughness was produced by the simple process of imprinting the surface microstructure of office paper onto a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate; the surface texture is reproduced in successive current collector and CNT layers. Adhesion between the different layers was strengthened by this roughness and prevented delamination over repeated stretch cycles. The addition of a CNT layer decreased the sensitivity of electrical characteristics to stretching. Moreover, the ion-gel increases the operating voltage window (3 V) and hence the energy density. We believe our demonstration will greatly contribute to the development of flexible and/or stretchable energy-storage devices with high durability.

  11. Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Via Interfacial Modification with Fullerene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Li, Wenhua; Zhang, Xuejuan; Xu, Qian; Liu, Qian; Li, Cuihong; Bo, Zhishan

    2016-02-24

    Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency up to 17.76% are fabricated by modifying the compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) with a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBA) monolayer. High quality CH3NH3PbI3 films can be easily fabricated on PCBA-modified c-TiO2 substrates by a one-step solution processing method. Significant improvements of the device parameters are observed after PCBA modification. A high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.16 V has been achieved, indicating that the PCBA monolayer can act as a hole blocking layer to reduce the trap site density atop the c-TiO2 and the hole recombination at the c-TiO2 /perovskite interface. The enhancement of the fill factor, as well as the partial quenching of the fluorescence of perovskite after modification with PCBA, reveals that the charge extraction is improved.

  12. High-speed AFM images of thermal motion provide stiffness map of interfacial membrane protein moieties.

    PubMed

    Preiner, Johannes; Horner, Andreas; Karner, Andreas; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Pohl, Peter; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2015-01-14

    The flexibilities of extracellular loops determine ligand binding and activation of membrane receptors. Arising from fluctuations in inter- and intraproteinaceous interactions, flexibility manifests in thermal motion. Here we demonstrate that quantitative flexibility values can be extracted from directly imaging the thermal motion of membrane protein moieties using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). Stiffness maps of the main periplasmic loops of single reconstituted water channels (AqpZ, GlpF) revealed the spatial and temporal organization of loop-stabilizing intraproteinaceous H-bonds and salt bridges.

  13. High-Speed AFM Images of Thermal Motion Provide Stiffness Map of Interfacial Membrane Protein Moieties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities of extracellular loops determine ligand binding and activation of membrane receptors. Arising from fluctuations in inter- and intraproteinaceous interactions, flexibility manifests in thermal motion. Here we demonstrate that quantitative flexibility values can be extracted from directly imaging the thermal motion of membrane protein moieties using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). Stiffness maps of the main periplasmic loops of single reconstituted water channels (AqpZ, GlpF) revealed the spatial and temporal organization of loop-stabilizing intraproteinaceous H-bonds and salt bridges. PMID:25516527

  14. Interfacial Engineering of Semiconductor-Superconductor Junctions for High Performance Micro-Coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnarsson, D.; Richardson-Bullock, J. S.; Prest, M. J.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Timofeev, A. V.; Shah, V. A.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Prunnila, M.

    2015-12-01

    The control of electronic and thermal transport through material interfaces is crucial for numerous micro and nanoelectronics applications and quantum devices. Here we report on the engineering of the electro-thermal properties of semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) electronic cooler junctions by a nanoscale insulating tunnel barrier introduced between the Sm and S electrodes. Unexpectedly, such an interface barrier does not increase the junction resistance but strongly reduces the detrimental sub-gap leakage current. These features are key to achieving high cooling power tunnel junction refrigerators, and we demonstrate unparalleled performance in silicon-based Sm-S electron cooler devices with orders of magnitudes improvement in the cooling power in comparison to previous works. By adapting the junctions in strain-engineered silicon coolers we also demonstrate efficient electron temperature reduction from 300 mK to below 100 mK. Investigations on junctions with different interface quality indicate that the previously unexplained sub-gap leakage current is strongly influenced by the Sm-S interface states. These states often dictate the junction electrical resistance through the well-known Fermi level pinning effect and, therefore, superconductivity could be generally used to probe and optimize metal-semiconductor contact behaviour.

  15. Interfacial Engineering of Semiconductor-Superconductor Junctions for High Performance Micro-Coolers.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, D; Richardson-Bullock, J S; Prest, M J; Nguyen, H Q; Timofeev, A V; Shah, V A; Whall, T E; Parker, E H C; Leadley, D R; Myronov, M; Prunnila, M

    2015-12-01

    The control of electronic and thermal transport through material interfaces is crucial for numerous micro and nanoelectronics applications and quantum devices. Here we report on the engineering of the electro-thermal properties of semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) electronic cooler junctions by a nanoscale insulating tunnel barrier introduced between the Sm and S electrodes. Unexpectedly, such an interface barrier does not increase the junction resistance but strongly reduces the detrimental sub-gap leakage current. These features are key to achieving high cooling power tunnel junction refrigerators, and we demonstrate unparalleled performance in silicon-based Sm-S electron cooler devices with orders of magnitudes improvement in the cooling power in comparison to previous works. By adapting the junctions in strain-engineered silicon coolers we also demonstrate efficient electron temperature reduction from 300 mK to below 100 mK. Investigations on junctions with different interface quality indicate that the previously unexplained sub-gap leakage current is strongly influenced by the Sm-S interface states. These states often dictate the junction electrical resistance through the well-known Fermi level pinning effect and, therefore, superconductivity could be generally used to probe and optimize metal-semiconductor contact behaviour.

  16. Interfacial Engineering of Semiconductor–Superconductor Junctions for High Performance Micro-Coolers

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, D.; Richardson-Bullock, J. S.; Prest, M. J.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Timofeev, A. V.; Shah, V. A.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Prunnila, M.

    2015-01-01

    The control of electronic and thermal transport through material interfaces is crucial for numerous micro and nanoelectronics applications and quantum devices. Here we report on the engineering of the electro-thermal properties of semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) electronic cooler junctions by a nanoscale insulating tunnel barrier introduced between the Sm and S electrodes. Unexpectedly, such an interface barrier does not increase the junction resistance but strongly reduces the detrimental sub-gap leakage current. These features are key to achieving high cooling power tunnel junction refrigerators, and we demonstrate unparalleled performance in silicon-based Sm-S electron cooler devices with orders of magnitudes improvement in the cooling power in comparison to previous works. By adapting the junctions in strain-engineered silicon coolers we also demonstrate efficient electron temperature reduction from 300 mK to below 100 mK. Investigations on junctions with different interface quality indicate that the previously unexplained sub-gap leakage current is strongly influenced by the Sm-S interface states. These states often dictate the junction electrical resistance through the well-known Fermi level pinning effect and, therefore, superconductivity could be generally used to probe and optimize metal-semiconductor contact behaviour. PMID:26620423

  17. Potential Impact of Interfacial Bonding Efficiency on High-Burnup Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity during Normal Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impacts of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet pellet and pellet clad interfaces on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) vibration integrity. The FEA simulation results were also validated and benchmarked with reverse bending fatigue test results on surrogate rods consisting of stainless steel (SS) tubes with alumina-pellet inserts. Bending moments (M) are applied to the FEA models to evaluate the system responses of the surrogate rods. From the induced curvature, , the flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI=M/ . The impacts of interfacial bonding efficiency on SNF vibration integrity include the moment carrying capacity distribution between pellets and clad and the impact of cohesion on the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod system. The result also indicates that the immediate consequences of interfacial de-bonding are a load carrying capacity shift from the fuel pellets to the clad and a reduction of the composite rod flexural rigidity. Therefore, the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod and the bending moment bearing capacity between the clad and fuel pellets are strongly dependent on the efficiency of interfacial bonding at the pellet pellet and pellet clad interfaces. The above-noted phenomenon was calibrated and validated by reverse bending fatigue testing using a surrogate rod system.

  18. High kappa Dielectrics on InGaAs and GaN: Growth, Interfacial Structural Studies, and Surface Fermi Level Unpinning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-24

    MOSFETs and GaN MOSFETs without employing interfacial layers and surface chemical pre-treatments. We have achieved many firsts and made great impacts...hold world record high dc performances of InGaAs MOSFETs , including the drain current, peak transconductance, and peak electron mobility in the self...aligned inversion-channel In0.75Ga0.25As and In0.2Ga0.8As MOSFETs using both in-situ MBE-Al2O3/GGO and ex-situ ALD-Al2O3 gate dielectrics. The high

  19. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  20. Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids: flame synthesis, in situ selective modification and highly interfacial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-05-01

    Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids (NHs) and their in situ selective modification on silica faces with the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane molecules have been successfully prepared by a simple, rapid and scalable flame aerosol route. The double-faced NHs perfectly integrate magnetic hematite hemispheres and non-magnetic silica parts into an almost intact nanoparticle as a result of phase segregation during the preparation process. The unique feature allows us to easily manipulate these particles into one-dimensional chain-like nanostructures. On the other hand, in situ selectively modified double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 NHs possess excellent interfacial activities, which can assemble into many interesting architectures, such as interfacial film, magnetic responsive capsules, novel magnetic liquid marbles and so forth. The modified NHs prefer to assemble at the interface of water-oil or oil-water systems. It is believed that the highly interfacial active NHs are not only beneficial for the development of interface reaction in a miniature reactor, but also very promising functional materials for other smart applications.Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids (NHs) and their in situ selective modification on silica faces with the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane molecules have been successfully prepared by a simple, rapid and scalable flame aerosol route. The double-faced NHs perfectly integrate magnetic hematite hemispheres and non-magnetic silica parts into an almost intact nanoparticle as a result of phase segregation during the preparation process. The unique feature allows us to easily manipulate these particles into one-dimensional chain-like nanostructures. On the other hand, in situ selectively modified double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 NHs possess excellent interfacial activities, which can assemble into many interesting architectures, such as interfacial film, magnetic responsive capsules, novel magnetic liquid marbles and so forth. The modified NHs

  1. Exploring the interfacial structure of protein adsorbates and the kinetics of protein adsorption: an in situ high-energy X-ray reflectivity study.

    PubMed

    Evers, Florian; Shokuie, Kaveh; Paulus, Michael; Sternemann, Christian; Czeslik, Claus; Tolan, Metin

    2008-09-16

    The high energy X-ray reflectivity technique has been applied to study the interfacial structure of protein adsorbates and protein adsorption kinetics in situ. For this purpose, the adsorption of lysozyme at the hydrophilic silica-water interface has been chosen as a model system. The structure of adsorbed lysozyme layers was probed for various aqueous solution conditions. The effect of solution pH and lysozyme concentration on the interfacial structure was measured. Monolayer formation was observed for all cases except for the highest concentration. The adsorbed protein layers consist of adsorbed lysozyme molecules with side-on or end-on orientation. By means of time-dependent X-ray reflectivity scans, the time-evolution of adsorbed proteins was monitored as well. The results of this study demonstrate the capabilities of in situ X-ray reflectivity experiments on protein adsorbates. The great advantages of this method are the broad wave vector range available and the high time resolution.

  2. Interfacial bonding enhancement of reel-to-reel selective electrodeposition of copper stabilizer on a multifilamentary second-generation high-temperature superconductor tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xinwei; Li, Wei; Bose, Anima; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2016-10-01

    A reel-to-reel copper selective electrodeposition process over a multifilamentary second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G-HTS) has been demonstrated in our previous work. If the interfacial bonding between the deposited copper layer and the underlying silver overlayer is weak, it might lead to delamination in applications including magnets, motors and generators. In this study, two approaches have been used to improve the copper-silver bonding without the degradation of superconductor performance. The first approach is acidifying the electrolyte by adding sulfuric acid, by which the kinetics of copper electrodeposition is enhanced, resulting in finer microstructure at the copper-silver interface and thus, improved interfacial bonding strength. The second approach consists of blocking the electrolyte outflow at the entrance of the reel-to-reel electroplating cell, by which the occurrence of large copper seeds on the tape caused by the heavy turbulence flow is effectively prevented. With these two improvements together deployed in the process, the peeling strength between the copper and silver layers of the 2G-HTS tape has been improved from <0.3 N to >2 N in 90° peeling and from <0.5 N to >3.0 N in 180° peeling, without any degradation on the superconducting performance.

  3. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  4. Deducing solid liquid interfacial energy from superheating or supercooling: application to H2O at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Strachan, Alejandro; Swift, Damian C.

    2005-04-01

    We present a general method to determine the solid-liquid interfacial energy (γsl) from the maximum supercooling (or superheating), and apply it to the water-ice system. For solid-liquid phase transitions, the nucleation-theory-based systematics of maximum superheating and supercooling relate a dimensionless nucleation barrier to the superheating (supercooling) and heating (cooling) rates. Given superheating (or supercooling) values from either experiments or simulations, γsl can then be deduced from the dimensionless nucleation barrier, equilibrium melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Lennard-Jones system: our predictions of γsl at various pressures are in excellent agreement with independent, direct MD simulations. With this approach, we predict γsl for the water-ice (Ih and III) system using experimental supercooling values in the pressure range of 0-0.3 GPa. The predicted value (28 ± 0.8 mJ m-2) agrees with measurements on H2O-Ih at ambient pressure.

  5. Effective thermal conductivity of metal and non-metal particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance at high volume fraction of nano to macro-sized spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Faroughi, Salah Aldin; Huber, Christian

    2015-02-07

    In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.

  6. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  7. Understanding the interfacial phenomena of a 4.7 V and 55 °C Li-ion battery with Li-rich layered oxide cathode and grap2hite anode and its correlation to high-energy cycling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hieu Quang; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Song, Seung-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Research progress of high-energy performance and interfacial phenomena of Li1.13Mn0.463Ni0.203Co0.203O2 cathode and graphite anode in a 55 °C full-cell under an aggressive charge cut-off voltage to 4.7 V (4.75 V vs. Li/Li+) is reported. Although anodic instability of conventional electrolyte is the critical issue on high-voltage and high-temperature cell operation, interfacial phenomena and the solution to performance improvement have not been reported. Surface spectroscopic evidence revealed that structural degradation of both cathode and anode materials, instability of surface film at cathode, and metal-dissolution from cathode and -deposition at anode, and a rise of interfacial resistance with high-voltage cycling in 55 °C conventional electrolyte are resolved by the formation of a stable surface film with organic/inorganic mixtures at cathode and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at anode using blended additives of fluorinated linear carbonate and vinylene carbonate. As a result, significantly improved cycling stability of 77% capacity retention delivering 227-174 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles is obtained, corresponding to 819-609 Wh per kg of cathode active material. Interfacial stabilization approach would pave the way of controlling the performance and safety, and widening the practical application of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials and high-voltage electrolyte materials in various high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  8. Quasiparticle Interfacial Level Alignment of Highly Hybridized Frontier Levels: H2O on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2015-01-13

    Knowledge of the frontier levels’ alignment prior to photoirradiation is necessary to achieve a complete quantitative description of H2O photocatalysis on TiO2(110). Although H2O on rutile TiO2(110) has been thoroughly studied both experimentally and theoretically, a quantitative value for the energy of the highest H2O occupied levels is still lacking. For experiment, this is due to the H2O levels being obscured by hybridization with TiO2(110) levels in the difference spectra obtained via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). For theory, this is due to inherent difficulties in properly describing many-body effects at the H2O–TiO2(110) interface. Using the projected density of states (DOS) from state-of-the-art quasiparticle (QP) G0W0, we disentangle the adsorbate and surface contributions to the complex UPS spectra of H2O on TiO2(110). We perform this separation as a function of H2O coverage and dissociation on stoichiometric and reduced surfaces. Due to hybridization with the TiO2(110) surface, the H2O 3a1 and 1b1 levels are broadened into several peaks between 5 and 1 eV below the TiO2(110) valence band maximum (VBM). These peaks have both intermolecular and interfacial bonding and antibonding character. We find the highest occupied levels of H2O adsorbed intact and dissociated on stoichiometric TiO2(110) are 1.1 and 0.9 eV below the VBM. We also find a similar energy of 1.1 eV for the highest occupied levels of H2O when adsorbed dissociatively on a bridging O vacancy of the reduced surface. In both cases, these energies are significantly higher (by 0.6 to 2.6 eV) than those estimated from UPS difference spectra, which are inconclusive in this energy region. Finally, we apply self-consistent QPGW (scQPGW1) to obtain the ionization potential of the H2O–TiO2(110) interface.

  9. High-Performance Si/SiOx Nanosphere Anode Material by Multipurpose Interfacial Engineering with Black TiO(2-x).

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhye; Kim, Dae Sik; Yoo, Hyundong; Park, Eunjun; Lim, Young-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2016-02-01

    Silicon oxides (SiOx) have attracted recent attention for their great potential as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries as a result of their high energy density and excellent cycle performance. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of these materials is still impeded by low initial Coulombic efficiency and high production cost associated with a complicated synthesis process. Here, we demonstrate that Si/SiOx nanosphere anode materials show much improved performance enabled by electroconductive black TiO(2-x) coating in terms of reversible capacity, Coulombic efficiency, and thermal reliability. The resulting anode material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g(-1) with an excellent cycle performance of up to 100 cycles. The introduction of a TiO(2-x) layer induces further reduction of the Si species in the SiOx matrix phase, thereby increasing the reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency. Besides the improved electrochemical performance, the TiO(2-x) coating layer plays a key role in improving the thermal reliability of the Si/SiOx nanosphere anode material at the same time. We believe that this multipurpose interfacial engineering approach provides another route toward high-performance Si-based anode materials on a commercial scale.

  10. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  11. Interfacial inhibitors of protein-nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2005-07-01

    This essay develops the paradigm of "Interfacial Inhibitors" (Pommier and Cherfils, TiPS, 2005, 28: 136) for inhibitory drugs beside orthosteric (competitive or non-competitive) and allosteric inhibitors. Interfacial inhibitors bind with high selectivity to a binding site involving two or more macromolecules within macromolecular complexes undergoing conformational changes. Interfacial binding traps (generally reversibly) a transition state of the complex, resulting in kinetic inactivation. The exemplary case of interfacial inhibitor of protein-DNA interface is camptothecin and its clinical derivatives. We will also provide examples generalizing the interfacial inhibitor concept to inhibitors of topoisomerase II (anthracyclines, ellipticines, epipodophyllotoxins), gyrase (quinolones, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin), RNA polymerases (alpha-amanitin and actinomycin D), and ribosomes (antibiotics such as streptomycin, hygromycin B, tetracycline, kirromycin, fusidic acid, thiostrepton, and possibly cycloheximide). We discuss the implications of the interfacial inhibitor concept for drug discovery.

  12. Interfacial bonding stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.

  13. Modulation of organic interfacial spin polarization by interfacial angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Guang-ping; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui; Hu, Gui-chao

    2017-01-01

    Based on ab initio theory, we theoretically investigated the interfacial spin polarization by adsorbing a benzene-dithiolate molecule onto a nickel surface with different interfacial angles. A variable magnitude and even an inversion of the interfacial spin polarization are observed with the increase of the interfacial angle. The orbital analysis shows that the interfacial spin polarization is codetermined by two kinds of orbital hybridization between the molecule and the ferromagnet, the pz-d hybridization and the sp3-d hybridization, which show different dependence on the angle. These results indicate a new way to manipulate the spin polarization at organic spinterface.

  14. Interfacial electronic structure and charge transfer of hybrid graphene quantum dot and graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites: insights into high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zuju; Sa, Rongjian; Li, Qiaohong; Wu, Kechen

    2016-01-14

    New metal-free carbon nanodot/carbon nitride (C3N4) nanocomposites have shown to exhibit high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting. (J. Liu, et al., Science, 2015, 347, 970) However, the mechanism underlying the ultrahigh performance of these nanocomposites and consequently the possibilities for further improvements are not at present clear. In this work, we performed hybrid functional calculations and included long-range dispersion corrections to accurately characterize the interfacial electron coupling of the graphene quantum dot-graphitic carbon nitride composites (Gdot/g-C3N4). The results revealed that the band gap of Gdot/g-C3N4 could be engineered by changing the lateral size of Gdots. In particular, the C24H12/g-C3N4 composites present an ideal band gap of 1.92 eV to harvest a large part of solar light. More interestingly, a type-II heterojunction is formed at the interface of the Gdot/g-C3N4 composites, a desirable feature for enhanced photocatalytic activity. The charge redistribution at the interface leads to strong electron depletion above the Gdot sheet and electron accumulation below the g-C3N4 monolayer, potentially facilitating the separation of H2O oxidation and reduction reactions. Furthermore, we suggested that the photocatalytic performance of the Gdot/g-C3N4 nanocomposites can be further improved by decreasing the thickness of Gdots and tuning the size of Gdots.

  15. Effect of Process Parameters, Casting Thickness, and Alloys on the Interfacial Heat-Transfer Coefficient in the High-Pressure Die-Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Shou-Mei; Liu, Bai-Cheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2008-12-01

    The heat transfer at the metal-die interface is believed to have great influence on the solidification process and cast structure of the high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) process. The present article focused on the effects of process parameters, casting thickness, and alloys on the metal-die interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (IHTC) in the HPDC process. Experiment was carried out on a cold-chamber die-casting machine with two casting alloys AM50 and ADC12. A special casting, namely, “step-shape” casting, was used and cast against a H13 steel die. The IHTC was determined using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Results show that the IHTC is different at different steps and changes as the solidification of the casting proceeds. Process parameters only influence the IHTC in its peak value, and for both AM50 and ADC12 alloys, a greater fast shot velocity leads to a greater IHTC peak value at steps 1 and 2. The initial die surface temperature has a more prominent influence on the IHTC peak values at the thicker steps, especially step 5. Results also show that a closer contact between the casting and die could be achieved when the casting alloy is ADC12 instead of AM50, which consequently leads to a higher IHTC.

  16. Effect of high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment on elimination of interfacial GeO{sub X} layer between ZrO{sub 2} and Ge stack

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen-Shuo; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2011-08-22

    This investigation demonstrates the effect of high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment on the elimination of the interfacial germanium suboxide (GeO{sub X}) layer between ZrO{sub 2} and Ge. The formation of GeO{sub X} interlayer increases the gate-leakage current and worsen the controllability of the gate during deposition or thermal cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment eliminates the interfacial GeO{sub X} layer. The physical mechanism involves the oxidation of non-oxidized Zr with H{sub 2}O and the reduction of GeO{sub X} by H{sub 2}. Treatment with H{sub 2}O reduces the gate-leakage current of a ZrO{sub 2}/Ge capacitor by a factor of 1000.

  17. Systematic study of interfacial reactions induced by metal electrodes in high-k/InGaAs gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Lin, D.; Vais, A.; Alian, A.; Franco, J.; El Kazzi, S.; Mols, Y.; Miyanami, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Collaert, N.; Watanabe, H.; Thean, A.

    2016-10-01

    We systematically studied the effects of metal electrodes on high-k/InGaAs gate stacks and observed that the remote reactions—both oxidation and reduction—at the interface between the high-k dielectrics and InGaAs were thermodynamically initiated by the metal electrodes. Metal electrodes with negative Gibbs free energies (e.g., Pd) resulted in the oxidation of the InGaAs surface during the forming-gas annealing. In contrast, with TiN electrodes, which have a positive Gibbs free energy, the native III-V oxides underwent the reduction between the high-k dielectrics and InGaAs. We demonstrated that the reduction of native III-V oxides by metal electrodes improved the interface quality of the high-k/InGaAs gate stacks and produced an interface trap density (Dit) at the mid-gap with a value as low as 5.2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 with a scaled capacitance-equivalent thickness.

  18. Probing/Manipulating the Interfacial Atomic Bonding between High k Dielectrics and InGaAs for Ultimate CMOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with the precursors as tetrakis[ethylmethylamino] Hafnium (TEMAHf) and water. Samples were kept under ultra-high...probed by synchrotron radiation photoemission. The dielectric film was prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with the precursors as tetrakis...in-situ HfO2 on In0.53Ga0.47As(001)-4x2 probed by synchrotron radiation photoemission. The dielectric film was prepared by atomic layer deposition

  19. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  20. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  1. High-Magnetization FeCo Nanochains with Ultrathin Interfacial Gaps for Broadband Electromagnetic Wave Absorption at Gigahertz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Yixing; Liu, Rongge; Rao, Yi; Rong, Huawei; Qin, Gaowu

    2016-02-10

    Superparamagnetic FeCo nanochains consisting of assembled ∼25 nm nanoparticles and ∼1 nm gaps are synthesized by facial wet-chemical route and exhibit significant electromagnetic absorption at gigahertz. Both the dielectric and magnetic loss factors present dual-resonance behaviors at 2-18 GHz frequencies, originated from the asymmetric architecture of the cubic FeCo particles that assembled in a one-dimensional chain structure. Theoretical analyses uncover that the origins of the enhancement of electromagnetic losses are ascribed to the high magnetization (228 emu/g) and the ultrathin gaps (∼1 nm), which enhances the Snoek limit and induces anisotropic dielectric polarizations, consequently constructing a proper electromagnetic match.

  2. High-Efficiency Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cell Enabling by Integration of Film-Morphology Optimization, Donor Selection, and Interfacial Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Weiping; Yao, Jiannian; Zhan, Chuanlang

    2016-06-22

    Carrier mobility is a vital factor determining the electrical performance of organic solar cells. In this paper we report that a high-efficiency nonfullerene organic solar cell (NF-OSC) with a power conversion efficiency of 6.94 ± 0.27% was obtained by optimizing the hole and electron transportations via following judicious selection of polymer donor and engineering of film-morphology and cathode interlayers: (1) a combination of solvent annealing and solvent vapor annealing optimizes the film morphology and hence both hole and electron mobilities, leading to a trade-off of fill factor and short-circuit current density (Jsc); (2) the judicious selection of polymer donor affords a higher hole and electron mobility, giving a higher Jsc; and (3) engineering the cathode interlayer affords a higher electron mobility, which leads to a significant increase in electrical current generation and ultimately the power conversion efficiency (PCE).

  3. Highly stable phase change material emulsions fabricated by interfacial assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers during phase inversion.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanhee; Han, Dong Wan; Kim, Jin Woong

    2015-03-10

    This study introduced a robust and promising approach to fabricate highly stable phase change material (PCM) emulsions consisting of n-tetradecane as a dispersed phase and a mixture of meso-2,3-butanediol (m-BDO) and water as a continuous phase. We showed that amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) block copolymers assembled to form a flexible but tough polymer membrane at the interface during phase inversion from water-in-oil emulsion to oil-in-water emulsion, thus remarkably improving the emulsion stability. Although the incorporation of m-BDO into the emulsion lowered the phase changing enthalpy, it provided a useful means to elevate the melting temperature of the emulsions near to 15 °C. Interestingly, supercooling was commonly observed in our PCM emulsions. We attributed this to the fact that the PCM molecules confined in submicron-scale droplets could not effectively nucleate to grow molecular crystals. Moreover, the presence of m-BDO in the continuous phase rather dominated the heat emission of the emulsion system during freezing, which made the supercooling more favorable.

  4. High-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells controlled by the thickness of polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interfacial layers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Wang, Gang; Cai, Lun; Ding, Baofu; Zhou, Dachen; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Yujun; Xiang, Jin; Wan, Keming; Chen, Lijia; Alameh, Kamal; Song, Qunliang

    2014-11-21

    In this work, we investigate the effect of the thickness of the polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interface layer on the performance of two types of polymer solar cells based on inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl C61-butryric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 4.18% and 7.40% were achieved at a 5.02 nm thick PEIE interface layer, for the above-mentioned solar cell types, respectively. The optimized PEIE layer provides a strong enough dipole for the best charge collection while maintaining charge tunneling ability. Optical transmittance and atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that all PEIE films have the same high transmittance and smooth surface morphology, ruling out the influence of the PEIE layer on these two parameters. The measured external quantum efficiencies for the devices with thick PEIE layers are quite similar to those of the optimized devices, indicating the poor charge collection ability of thick PEIE layers. The relatively low performance of devices with a PEIE layer of thickness less than 5 nm is the result of a weak dipole and partial coverage of the PEIE layer on ITO.

  5. Curvature dependence of the interfacial heat and mass transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavatskiy, K. S.; Bedeaux, D.

    2014-03-01

    Nucleation is often accompanied by heat transfer between the surroundings and a nucleus of a new phase. The interface between two phases gives an additional resistance to this transfer. For small nuclei the interfacial curvature is high, which affects not only equilibrium quantities such as surface tension, but also the transport properties. In particular, high curvature affects the interfacial resistance to heat and mass transfer. We develop a framework for determining the curvature dependence of the interfacial heat and mass transfer resistances. We determine the interfacial resistances as a function of a curvature. The analysis is performed for a bubble of a one-component fluid and may be extended to various nuclei of multicomponent systems. The curvature dependence of the interfacial resistances is important in modeling transport processes in multiphase systems.

  6. Convection and interfacial mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colinet, P.; Legros, J. C.; Dauby, P. C.; Lebon, G.; Bestehorn, M.; Stephan, P.; Tadrist, L.; Cerisier, P.; Poncelet, D.; Barremaecker, L.

    2005-10-01

    Mass-exchange through fluid interfaces is ubiquitous in many natural and industrial processes. Yet even basic phase-change processes such as evaporation of a pure liquid are not fully understood, in particular when coupled with fluid motions in the vicinity of the phase-change interface, or with microscopic physical phenomena in the vicinity of a triple line (where the interface meets a solid). Nowadays, many industries recognise that this lack of fundamental knowledge is hindering the optimisation of existing processes. Their modelling tools are too dependent on empirical correlations with a limited - and often unknown - range of applicability. In addition to the intrinsic multiscale nature of the phenomena involved in typical industrial processes linked to interfacial mass exchange, their study is highly multi-disciplinary, involving tools and techniques belonging to physical chemistry, chemical engineering, fluid dynamics, non-linear physics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, chemistry and statistical physics. From the experimental point of view, microgravity offers a unique environment to obtain valuable data on phase-change processes, greatly reducing the influence of body forces and allowing the detailed and accurate study of interfacial dynamics. In turn, such improved understanding leads to optimisation of industrial processes and devices involving phase-change, both for space and ground applications.

  7. Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M.; Kennedy, Marian S.; Bahr, David F.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.

  8. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    that leads to splitting (fluid separation). We investigate the interaction of these prominent interfacial instabilities in the absence of gravity, concentrating on harmonically vibrated rectangular containers of fluid. We compare vibroequilibria theory with direct numerical simulations and consider the effect of surfaces waves, which can excite sloshing motion of the vibroequilibria. We systematically investigate the saddle-node bifurcation experienced by a symmetric singly connected vibroequilibria solution, for sufficiently deep containers, as forcing is increased. Beyond this instability, the fluid rapidly separates into (at least) two distinct masses. Pronounced hysteresis is associated with this transition, even in the presence of gravity. The interaction of vibroequilibria and frozen waves is investigated in two-fluid systems. Preparations for a parabolic flight experiment on fluids vibrated at high frequencies are discussed.

  9. Interfacial dislocation motion and interactions in single-crystal superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Raabe, D.; Roters, F.; Arsenlis, A.

    2014-10-01

    The early stage of high-temperature low-stress creep in single-crystal superalloys is characterized by the rapid development of interfacial dislocation networks. Although interfacial motion and dynamic recovery of these dislocation networks have long been expected to control the subsequent creep behavior, direct observation and hence in-depth understanding of such processes has not been achieved. Incorporating recent developments of discrete dislocation dynamics models, we simulate interfacial dislocation motion in the channel structures of single-crystal superalloys, and investigate how interfacial dislocation motion and dynamic recovery are affected by interfacial dislocation interactions and lattice misfit. Different types of dislocation interactions are considered: self, collinear, coplanar, Lomer junction, glissile junction, and Hirth junction. The simulation results show that strong dynamic recovery occurs due to the short-range reactions of collinear annihilation and Lomer junction formation. The misfit stress is found to induce and accelerate dynamic recovery of interfacial dislocation networks involving self-interaction and Hirth junction formation, but slow down the steady interfacial motion of coplanar and glissile junction forming dislocation networks. The insights gained from these simulations on high-temperature low-stress creep of single-crystal superalloys are also discussed.

  10. Mechanobiology of interfacial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Preziosi, L.; Maugin, G. A.

    2013-03-01

    A multiscale analysis integrating biomechanics and mechanobiology is today required for deciphering the crosstalk between biochemistry, geometry and elasticity in living materials. In this paper we derive a unified thermomechanical theory coupling growth processes with mass transport phenomena across boundaries and/or material interfaces. Inside a living system made by two contiguous bodies with varying volumes, an interfacial growth mechanism is considered to force fast but continuous variations of the physical fields inside a narrow volume across the material interface. Such a phenomenon is modelled deriving homogenized surface fields on a growing non-material discontinuity, possibly including a singular edge line. A number of balance laws is derived for imposing the conservation of the thermomechanical properties of the biological system. From thermodynamical arguments we find that the normal displacement of the non-material interface is governed by the jump of a new form of material mechanical-energy flux, also involving the kinetic energies and the mass fluxes. Furthermore, the configurational balance indicates that the surface Eshelby tensor is the tangential stress measure driving the material inhomogeneities on the non-material interface. Accordingly, stress-dependent evolution laws for bulk and interfacial growth processes are derived for both volume and surface fields. The proposed thermomechanical theory is finally applied to three biological system models. The first two examples are focused on stress-free growth problems, concerning the morphogenesis of animal horns and of seashells. The third application finally deals with the stress-driven surface evolution of avascular tumours with heterogeneous structures. The results demonstrate that the proposed theory can successfully model those biological systems where growth and mass transport phenomena interact at different length-scales. Coupling biological, mechanical and geometrical factors, the proposed

  11. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    SciTech Connect

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  12. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  13. Control of Metal/graphite Interfacial Energy Through the Interfacial Segregation of Alloying Additions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    Equilibrium segregation of Ni to the interface of a solid Pb/graphite and Au/graphite was studied using a solid state wetting approach and the crater edge profiling technique on a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). All experiments were performed under ultra high vacuum (UHV) to reduce the effects due to surface adsorption of impurities. For the Pb/graphite system, increasing amounts of Ni ranging from 0 to 0.2wt% Ni added to Pb were found to systematically lower the contact angle for samples equilibrated at 285 ^circC. No significant surface segregation of Ni was observed at the Pb surface. The reduction of the contact angle was therefore attributed entirely to the lowering of the interfacial energy by interfacial adsorption of Ni. The interfacial energy and interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of bulk Ni content. The presence of excess Ni at the interface was also determined using the crater edge profiling technique on the SAM for various bulk concentrations of Ni in Pb. The temperature dependence of the segregation process was also studied using the solid state wetting approach. The contact angle of Pb(Ni)/graphite was found to vary as a function of temperature for a given Ni content. No temperature dependence was observed in the case of pure Pb/graphite. The change in interfacial energy and the interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of temperature from thermodynamic considerations, and from that the enthalpy and the entropy of interfacial segregation were determined. For the Au/graphite system at 850^circC, addition of 15at%Ni to Au caused a reduction of contact angle by 7.8^circ with accompanying reduction in interfacial energy. Ni was found to segregate to both the free Au surface as well as to the Au/graphite interface. In addition C was also found to segregate to the Au surface thus lowering the surface energy. The modified surface energy was considered in the determination of the interfacial energy and interfacial Ni

  14. High Dielectrics on High Carrier Mobility InGaAs Compound Semiconductors and GaN - Growth, Interfacial Structural Studies, and Surface Fermi Level Unpinning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-19

    widely used in the Si industry for high k gate dielectrics deposition. (3) First to demonstrate oxide scaling of MBE-grown GGO on In0.2Ga0.8As to a CET...energy-band parameters at interfaces of high κ atomic- layer -deposited (ALD) oxides on GaAs and InGaAs, and first to achieve inversion-channel GaN...MOS transistors need to be operated with their oxide - III-V interfaces resembling that of SiO2- Si , namely nearly perfect passivation. Through the

  15. Mesoscale Interfacial Dynamics in Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Shashank, Priya

    2009-12-14

    Biphasic composites are the key towards achieving enhanced magnetoelectric response. In order understand the control behavior of the composites and resultant symmetry of the multifunctional product tensors, we need to synthesized model material systems with the following features (i) interface formation through either deposition control or natural decomposition; (ii) a very high interphase-interfacial area, to maximize the ME coupling; and (iii) an equilibrium phase distribution and morphology, resulting in preferred crystallographic orientation relations between phases across the interphase-interfacial boundaries. This thought process guided the experimental evolution in this program. We initiated the research with the co-fired composites approach and then moved on to the thin film laminates deposited through the rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition process

  16. Interfacial Instabilities on a Droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Mehravaran, Kian

    2013-11-01

    The fragmentation of droplets is an essential stage of several natural and industrial applications such as fuel atomization and rain phenomena. In spite of its relatively long history, the mechanism of fragmentation is not clear yet. This is mainly due to small length and time scales as well as the non-linearity of the process. In the present study, two and three-dimensional numerical simulations have been performed to understand the early stages of the fragmentation of an initially spherical droplet. Simulations are performed for high Reynolds and a range of relatively high Weber numbers (shear breakup). To resolve the small-scale instabilities generated over the droplet, a second-order adaptive finite volume/volume of fluids (FV/VOF) method is employed, where the grid resolution is increased with the curvature of the gas-liquid interface as well as the vorticity magnitude. The study is focused on the onset and growth of interfacial instabilities. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (in surface wave formation) and Rayleigh-Taylor instability (in azimuthal transverse modulation) are shown and the obtained results are compared with the linear instability theories for zero and non-zero vorticity layers. Moreover, the analogy between the fragmentation of a single drop and a co-axial liquid jet is discussed. The current results can be used for the further development of the current secondary atomization models.

  17. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Saye, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  18. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saye, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena.

  19. Interfacial Kinetics of High-Al-Containing Ultra-Lightweight Steels with Calcium Silicate-Based Molten Oxides at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi Hyun; Sohn, Il

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics of the high-temperature reaction between high-Al- and -Mn-containing steels and synthesized molten calcium silicate-based fluxes from 1623 K to 1643 K (1350 °C to 1370 °C) was studied. Cylindrical steel rods were rotated in the molten fluxes for 300 to 1200 seconds at various temperatures below the melting point of the steels. The rods were connected to a rheometer, and the initial reaction rates were estimated from the torque variations. The dissolution of the steel into the molten slag was correlated to the variation in torque. The kinetics of the reaction between the rods and the slag estimated from the torque and subsequently from the viscosity were confirmed from the mass balance and from the variation in the chemical compositions of the rods and the molten slags, respectively. The liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient of Al2O3 was calculated to be 1.14 × 10-2 cm/s at 1623 K (1350 °C) and 1.52 × 10-2 cm/s at 1633 K (1360 °C). The kinetics calculated assuming liquid-phase mass transfer control was observed to be similar to the aforementioned kinetics determined from the dynamic viscosity variations. On the basis of dimensionless analysis of the Sherwood number (Sh = 0.05·Re0.65Sc0.31), liquid-phase mass transfer from the metal/flux interface was observed to be the rate-controlling step.

  20. Morphology controlled synthesis of platinum nanoparticles performed on the surface of graphene oxide using a gas-liquid interfacial reaction and its application for high-performance electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wushuang; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-07-21

    In this paper, we report a novel morphology-controlled synthetic method. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles with three kinds of morphology (aggregation-like, cube-like and globular) were grown on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) using a simple gas-liquid interfacial reaction and Pt/GO nanocomposites were obtained successfully. According to the experimental results, the morphology of the Pt nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the reaction temperature with the protection of chitosan. The obtained Pt/GO nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Then the Pt/GO nanocomposites with the three kinds of morphology were all used to fabricate electrochemical sensors. The electrochemical experimental results indicated that compared with various reported electrochemical sensors, the Pt/GO modified sensors in this work exhibit a low detection limit, high sensitivity and an extra wide linear range for the detection of nitrite. In addition, the synthesis of Pt particles based on a gas-liquid interfacial reaction provides a new platform for the controllable synthesis of nanomaterials.

  1. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  2. Interfacial chemistry and structure in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.; Schilling, C.H.

    1990-09-01

    The interfacial chemistry and structure of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) play a major role in the properties of these materials. Fiber-matrix interfaces chemistries are vitally important in the fracture strength, fracture toughness, and fracture resistance of ceramic composites because they influence fiber loading and fiber pullout. Elevated-temperature properties are also linked to the interfacial characteristics through the chemical stability of the interface in corrosive environments and the creep/pullout behavior of the interface. Physical properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity are also dependent on the interface. Fiber-matrix interfaces containing a 1-{mu}m-thick multilayered interface with amorphous and graphitic C to a 1-nm-thick SiO{sub 2} layer can result from sintering operations for some composite systems. Fibers coated with C, BN, C/BC/BN, and Si are also used to produce controlled interface chemistries and structures. Growth interfaces within the matrix resulting from processing of CMCs can also be crucial to the behavior of these materials. Evaluation of the interfacial chemistry and structure of CMCs requires the use of a variety of analytical tools, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. A review of the interfacial chemistry and structure of SiC whisker- and fiber-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC/SiC materials is presented. Where possible, correlations with fracture properties and high-temperature stability are made. 94 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Low interfacial trap density and high-temperature thermal stability in atomic layer deposited single crystal Y2O3/n-GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hsun; Fu, Chien-Hua; Lin, Keng-Yung; Chen, Kuan-Hsiung; Chang, Tsong-Wen; Raynien Kwo, J.; Hong, Minghwei

    2016-08-01

    A low interfacial trap density (D it) of 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 has been achieved with an atomic layer deposited (ALD) single crystal Y2O3 epitaxially on n-GaAs(001), along with a small frequency dispersion of 10.3% (2.6%/decade) at the accumulation region in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves. The D it and frequency dispersion in the C-V curves in this work are the lowest among all of the reported ALD-oxides on n-type GaAs(001). The D it was measured using the conductance-voltage (G-V) and quasi-static C-V (QSCV) methods. Moreover, the heterostructure was thermally stable with rapid annealing at 900 °C under various durations in He and N2, which has not been achieved in the heterostructures of ALD-Al2O3 or HfO2 on GaAs.

  4. Comparison of fluid-fluid interfacial areas measured with X-ray microtomography and interfacial partitioning tracer tests for the same samples: COMPARISON OF FLUID-FLUID INTERFACIAL AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Kieran; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    Two different methods are currently used for measuring interfacial areas between immiscible fluids within 3-D porous media, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Both methods were used in this study to measure nonwetting/wetting interfacial areas for a natural sand. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns that were used for the IPTTs. This is in contrast to prior studies comparing the two methods, for which in all cases different samples were used for the two methods. In addition, the columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate the potential impacts of the tracer solution on fluid configuration and attendant interfacial area. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT are ~5 times larger than the microtomographic-measured values, which is consistent with previous work. Analysis of the image data revealed no significant impact of the tracer solution on NAPL configuration or interfacial area. Other potential sources of error were evaluated, and all were demonstrated to be insignificant. The disparity in measured interfacial areas between the two methods is attributed to the limitation of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness due to resolution constraints.

  5. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of designed β-strand peptides.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Annette F

    2010-12-07

    The structural and surfactant properties of a series of amphipathic β-strand peptides have been studied as a function of pH. Each nine-residue peptide has a framework of hydrophobic proline and phenylalanine amino acid residues, alternating with acidic or basic amino acids to give a sequence closely related to known β-sheet formers. Surface activity, interfacial mechanical properties, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), droplet sizing and zeta potential measurements were used to gain an overview of the peptide behavior as the molecular charge varied from ±4 to 0 with pH. ECD data suggest that the peptides form polyproline-type helices in bulk aqueous solution when highly charged, but may fold to β-hairpins rather than β-sheets when uncharged. In the uncharged state, the peptides adsorb readily at a macroscopic fluid interface to form mechanically strong interfacial films, but tend to give large droplet sizes on emulsification, apparently due to flocculation at a low droplet zeta potential. In contrast, highly charged peptide states gave a low interfacial coverage, but retained good emulsifying activity as judged by droplet size. Best emulsification was generally seen for intermediate charged states of the peptides, possibly representing a compromise between droplet zeta potential and interfacial binding affinity. The emulsifying properties of β-strand peptides have not been previously reported. Understanding the interfacial properties of such peptides is important to their potential development as biosurfactants.

  6. Impact of electrically formed interfacial layer and improved memory characteristics of IrOx/high-κx/W structures containing AlOx, GdOx, HfOx, and TaOx switching materials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Improved switching characteristics were obtained from high-κ oxides AlOx, GdOx, HfOx, and TaOx in IrOx/high-κx/W structures because of a layer that formed at the IrOx/high-κx interface under external positive bias. The surface roughness and morphology of the bottom electrode in these devices were observed by atomic force microscopy. Device size was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. More than 100 repeatable consecutive switching cycles were observed for positive-formatted memory devices compared with that of the negative-formatted devices (only five unstable cycles) because it contained an electrically formed interfacial layer that controlled ‘SET/RESET’ current overshoot. This phenomenon was independent of the switching material in the device. The electrically formed oxygen-rich interfacial layer at the IrOx/high-κx interface improved switching in both via-hole and cross-point structures. The switching mechanism was attributed to filamentary conduction and oxygen ion migration. Using the positive-formatted design approach, cross-point memory in an IrOx/AlOx/W structure was fabricated. This cross-point memory exhibited forming-free, uniform switching for >1,000 consecutive dc cycles with a small voltage/current operation of ±2 V/200 μA and high yield of >95% switchable with a large resistance ratio of >100. These properties make this cross-point memory particularly promising for high-density applications. Furthermore, this memory device also showed multilevel capability with a switching current as low as 10 μA and a RESET current of 137 μA, good pulse read endurance of each level (>105 cycles), and data retention of >104 s at a low current compliance of 50 μA at 85°C. Our improvement of the switching characteristics of this resistive memory device will aid in the design of memory stacks for practical applications. PMID:24011235

  7. Interfacial electronic effects control the reaction selectivity of platinum catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangxu; Xu, Chaofa; Huang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Jinyu; Gu, Lin; Li, Gang; Tang, Zichao; Wu, Binghui; Yang, Huayan; Zhao, Zipeng; Zhou, Zhiyou; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-05-01

    Tuning the electronic structure of heterogeneous metal catalysts has emerged as an effective strategy to optimize their catalytic activities. By preparing ethylenediamine-coated ultrathin platinum nanowires as a model catalyst, here we demonstrate an interfacial electronic effect induced by simple organic modifications to control the selectivity of metal nanocatalysts during catalytic hydrogenation. This we apply to produce thermodynamically unfavourable but industrially important compounds, with ultrathin platinum nanowires exhibiting an unexpectedly high selectivity for the production of N-hydroxylanilines, through the partial hydrogenation of nitroaromatics. Mechanistic studies reveal that the electron donation from ethylenediamine makes the surface of platinum nanowires highly electron rich. During catalysis, such an interfacial electronic effect makes the catalytic surface favour the adsorption of electron-deficient reactants over electron-rich substrates (that is, N-hydroxylanilines), thus preventing full hydrogenation. More importantly, this interfacial electronic effect, achieved through simple organic modifications, may now be used for the optimization of commercial platinum catalysts.

  8. Passivation of GaSb using molecular beam epitaxy Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to achieve low interfacial trap density and high-performance self-aligned inversion-channel p-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, R. L.; Chiang, T. H.; Hsueh, W. J.; Chyi, J. I.; Chen, K. H.; Lin, K. Y.; Hong, M. E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Brown, G. J.; Kwo, J. E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-11-03

    Molecular beam epitaxy deposited rare-earth oxide of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has effectively passivated GaSb, leading to low interfacial trap densities of (1–4) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} across the energy bandgap of GaSb. A high saturation drain current density of 130 μA/μm, a peak transconductance of 90 μS/μm, a low subthreshold slope of 147 mV/decade, and a peak field-effect hole mobility of 200 cm{sup 2}/V-s were obtained in 1 μm-gate-length self-aligned inversion-channel GaSb p-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). In this work, high-κ/GaSb interfacial properties were better in samples with a high substrate temperature of 200 °C than in those with high κ's deposited at room temperature, in terms of the interfacial electrical properties, particularly, the reduction of interfacial trap densities near the conduction band and the MOSFET device performance.

  9. Comparison of fluid-fluid interfacial areas measured with X-ray microtomography and interfacial partitioning tracer tests for the same samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kieran; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    Two different methods are currently used for measuring interfacial areas between immiscible fluids within 3-D porous media, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Both methods were used in this study to measure nonwetting/wetting interfacial areas for a natural sand. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns that were used for the IPTTs. This is in contrast to prior studies comparing the two methods, for which in all cases different samples were used for the two methods. In addition, the columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate the potential impacts of the tracer solution on fluid configuration and attendant interfacial area. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT are ˜5 times larger than the microtomographic-measured values, which is consistent with previous work. Analysis of the image data revealed no significant impact of the tracer solution on NAPL configuration or interfacial area. Other potential sources of error were evaluated, and all were demonstrated to be insignificant. The disparity in measured interfacial areas between the two methods is attributed to the limitation of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness due to resolution constraints.

  10. Simultaneous interfacial rheology and microstructure measurement of densely aggregated particle laden interfaces using a modified double wall ring interfacial rheometer.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2014-08-19

    The study of particle laden interfaces has increased significantly due to the increasing industrial use of particle stabilized foams and Pickering emulsions, whose bulk rheology and stability are highly dependent on particle laden interface's interfacial rheology, which is a function of interfacial microstructure. To understand the physical mechanisms that dictate interfacial rheology of particle laden interfaces requires correlating rheology to microstructure. To achieve this goal, a double wall ring interfacial rheometer has been modified to allow real time, simultaneous interfacial visualization and shear rheology measurements. The development of this tool is outlined, and its ability to provide novel and unique measurements is demonstrated on a sample system. This tool has been used to examine the role of microstructure on the steady shear rheology of densely packed, aggregated particle laden interfaces at three surface concentrations. Through examination of the rheology and analysis of interfacial microstructure response to shear, a transition from shear thinning due to aggregated cluster breakup to yielding at a slip plane within the interface has been identified. Interestingly, it is found that aggregated interfaces transition to yielding well before they reached a jammed state. Furthermore, these systems undergo significant shear induced order when densely packed. These results indicate that the mechanics of these interfaces are not simply jammed or unjammed and that the interfacial rheology relationship with microstructure can give us significant insight into understanding how to engineer particle laden interfaces in the future. By examining both rheology and microstructure, the mechanisms that dictate observed rheology are now understood and can be used to predict and control the rheology of the interface.

  11. A Thermodynamic Study of Dopant Interfacial Segregation Effect on Nanostability and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Longjia

    Nanoparticles, with great surface area and high surface to volume ratio, have been widely applied in many applications due to their unique size related effects. However, this high surface area character of nanoparticles also brings great excess energy to the whole system, making the system unstable and even causing the failure of nanoparticles, especially at higher temperatures. In order to maintain nanocrystalline structure of the materials, nanostability enhancement is of great significance in nanotechnology. It is well known that the global driving force for particles growth is to eliminate the excess energy brought by surface and grain boundary. Therefore, interfacial energetics has a great influence on the nanostability of the materials. And according to previous studies, dopant interfacial segregation could be a potential way to control the interfacial energetics of the nanoparticles and possibly lead to an improved nanostability. Furthermore, the interfacial energetics even can affect mechanical properties of nano-grain ceramic materials based on recent research. The main goals of the present work were to experimentally measure the interfacial energies of nanoparticles as well as nano-grain ceramics, modify the interfacial energetics through dopant segregation effect and engineer the nanostability and mechanical properties of the nanocrystalline materials through interfacial energetics modification. To achieve this goal, Mn cation has been chosen to introduce Mn interfacial segregation on ceria nanoparticles, and La cation has been added to 12 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (12YSZ) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MAO) two-phase nano-grain ceramics to cause La interfacial segregation. Both of the dopant segregation phenomena were directly proved by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). To quantify the dopant segregation effect on the interfacial energies, high-temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry, water adsorption calorimetry and differential

  12. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  13. Mechanics of interfacial composite materials.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Mahadevan, L; Stone, Howard A

    2006-11-21

    Recent experiments and simulations have demonstrated that particle-covered fluid/fluid interfaces can exist in stable nonspherical shapes as a result of the steric jamming of the interfacially trapped particles. The jamming confers the interface with solidlike properties. We provide an experimental and theoretical characterization of the mechanical properties of these armored objects, with attention given to the two-dimensional granular state of the interface. Small inhomogeneous stresses produce a plastic response, while homogeneous stresses produce a weak elastic response. Shear-driven particle-scale rearrangements explain the basic threshold needed to obtain the near-perfect plastic deformation that is observed. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous stress state of the interface is exhibited experimentally by using surfactants to destabilize the particles on the surface. Since the interfacially trapped particles retain their individual characteristics, armored interfaces can be recognized as a kind of composite material with distinct chemical, structural, and mechanical properties.

  14. Elastocapillary-mediated interfacial assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Particles confined to an interface are present in a large number of industrial applications and ubiquitous in cellular biophysics. Interactions mediated by the interface, such as capillary effects in the presence of surface tension, give rise to rafts and aggregates whose structure is ultimately determined by geometric characteristics of these adsorbed particles. A common strategy for assembling interfacial structures relies on exploiting these interactions by tuning particle anisotropy, either by constructing rigid particles with heterogeneous wetting properties or fabricating particles that have a naturally anisotropic shape. Less explored, however, is the scenario where the interface causes the particles to deform. In this talk I will discuss the implications for interfacial assembly using elastocapillary-mediated interactions. The competition between surface energy and elasticity can wrinkle and buckle adsorbed soft particles, leading to complicated (but programmable) aggregates.

  15. Supramolecular interfacial architectures for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fang; Yao, Danfeng; Christensen, Danica; Neumann, Thomas; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    This contribution summarizes some of our efforts in designing, assembling and functionally characterizing supramolecular interfacial architectures for bio-affinity studies and for biosensor development. All the surface interaction studies will be based on the recently introduced novel sensor platforms involving surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) and -microscopy (SPFM). Emphasis will be put on documenting the distance-dependence of fluorescence intensity at the metal-dielectric interface and utilizing this principle to optimize the conformation/orientation of the interfacial supra-molecular sensor coatings. This is exemplified by a number of examples, including a layer-by-layer assembly system, antibody-antigen interactions, oligonucleotide-oligonucleotide, and oligonucleotide-PCR amplicon hybridization. For practical sensing purposes, a three-dimensionally extended surface coating is then employed to overcome the fluorescence quenching problem on a planar matrix. A commercial dextran layer is shown to be an optimized matrix for SPFS, with an example of a protein-binding study.

  16. Anomalous enhancement in interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy through uphill diffusion.

    PubMed

    Das, Tanmay; Kulkarni, Prabhanjan D; Purandare, S C; Barshilia, Harish C; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Chowdhury, Prasanta

    2014-06-17

    We observed interfacial chemical sharpening due to uphill diffusion in post annealed ultrathin multilayer stack of Co and Pt, which leads to enhanced interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This is surprising as these elements are considered as perfectly miscible. This chemical sharpening was confirmed through quantitative energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and intensity distribution of images taken on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic (STEM) mode. This observation demonstrates an evidence of miscibility gap in ultrathin coherent Co/Pt multilayer stacks.

  17. Impact of interfacial misfit dislocation growth mode on highly lattice-mismatched InxGa1-xSb epilayer grown on GaAs substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Sa Hoang; Ha, Minh Thien Huu; Do, Huy Binh; Luc, Quang Ho; Yu, Hung Wei; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-09-01

    Highly lattice-mismatch (over 8%) ternary InxGa1-xSb alloy directly grown on GaAs substrates was demonstrated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The influence of growth parameters, such as growth temperature, indium vapor composition, and V/III ratio, on the film properties was investigated, and it was found that the growth temperature has the strongest effect on the surface morphology and the crystal quality of the InxGa1-xSb epilayer. An optimized growth temperature of ˜590 °C and a V/III ratio of 2.5 were used for the growth of the InxGa1-xSb epilayer on GaAs that displays a lower surface roughness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs exhibit that InxGa1-xSb epilayer growth on GaAs was governed by the interfacial misfit dislocation growth mode. Furthermore, the variation of the intermixing layer thickness at the InxGa1-xSb/GaAs heterointerface was observed. These results provide an information of growing highly lattice-mismatched epitaxial material systems by MOCVD growth process.

  18. Interfacial adsorption and aggregation of amphiphilic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption and aggregation on liquid interfaces of proteins is important in many biological contexts, such as the formation of aerial structures, immune response, and catalysis. Likewise the adsorption of proteins onto interfaces has applications in food technology, drug delivery, and in personal care products. As such there has been much interest in the study of a wide range of biomolecules at liquid interfaces. One class of proteins that has attracted particular attention are hydrophobins, small, fungal proteins with a distinct, amphiphilic surface structure. This makes these proteins highly surface active and they recently attracted much interest. In order to understand their potential applications a microscopic description of their interfacial and self-assembly is necessary and molecular simulation provides a powerful tool for providing this. In this presentation I will describe some recent work using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the interfacial and aggregation behaviour of hydrophobins. Specifically this will present the calculation of their adsorption strength at oil-water and air-water interfaces, investigate the stability of hydrophobin aggregates in solution and their interaction with surfactants.

  19. Meter-long multiblock copolymer microfibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han; Remy, Roddel A.; Deng, Fei; Mackay, Michael E.; Fox, Joseph M.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight multiblock copolymers are synthesized as robust polymer fibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization employing the rapid cycloaddition of s-tetrazines with strained trans-cyclooctenes. When cell-adhesive peptide was incorporated in the tetrazine monomer, the resulting protein-mimetic polymer fibers provide guidance cues for cell attachment and elongation. PMID:25824805

  20. High Brightness Fluorescent White Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Promoted Hole Injection via Reduced Barrier by Interfacial Dipole Imparted from Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide to the Hole Injection Layer PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Syue, Hong-Ren; Hung, Miao-Ken; Chang, Yao-Tang; Lin, Ge-Wei; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Show-An

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrated that introducing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate as a hole transport layer (HTL) on top of chlorinated indium tin oxide (Cl-ITO) anode can lead to a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital level of the HTL (promoting from 5.22 to 5.42 eV) due to the interfacial dipole imparted by the Cl-ITO, which allows barrier-free hole injection to the emitting layer with polyspirobifluorene doped with the yellow emitter rubrene and significantly prevents excitons quenching by residual chlorine radicals on the surface of Cl-ITO. By use of poly[9,9-bis(6'-(18-crown-6)methoxy)hexyl)fluorene] chelating to potassium ion (PFCn6:K(+)) as electron injection layer and air-stable high work function (EΦ) metal aluminum as the cathode, the performance of fluorescent white polymer light-emitting diode (WPLED) achieves the high maximum brightness (Bmax) of 61 523 cd/m(2) and maximum luminance efficiency (ηL, max) of 10.3 cd/A. Replacing PFCn6:K(+)/Al cathode by CsF/Al, the Bmax and ηL, max are promoted to 87 615 cd/m(2) (the record value in WPLED) and 11.1 cd/A, respectively.

  1. Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Glass capillary tube technique measures interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Yields useful data over fairly wide range of interfacial tensions, both for pairs of liquids having equal densities and pairs of liquids having unequal densities. Data on interfacial tensions important in diverse industrial chemical applications, including enhanced extraction of oil; printing; processing foods; and manufacture of paper, emulsions, foams, aerosols, detergents, gel encapsulants, coating materials, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics.

  2. Hierarchical Sheet-on-Sheet ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 Heterostructure with Highly Efficient Photocatalytic H2 production Based on Photoinduced Interfacial Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Liu, Kuichao; Feng, Zhiqing; Bao, Yanan; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-12

    We have realized in-situ growth of ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on the sheet-like g-C3N4 surfaces to construct a "sheet-on-sheet" hierarchical heterostructure. The as-synthesized ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets exhibit remarkably enhancement on the photocatalytic activity for H2 production. This enhanced photoactivity is mainly attributed to the efficient interfacial transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes from g-C3N4 to ZnIn2S4 nanosheets, resulting in the decreased charge recombination on g-C3N4 nanosheets and the increased amount of photoinduced charge carriers in ZnIn2S4 nanosheets. Meanwhile, the increased surface-active-sites and extended light absorption of g-C3N4 nanosheets after the decoration of ZnIn2S4 nanosheets may also play a certain role for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Further investigations by the surface photovoltage spectroscopy and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate that ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets considerable boost the charge transfer efficiency, therefore improve the probability of photoinduced charge carriers to reach the photocatalysts surfaces for highly efficient H2 production.

  3. Hierarchical Sheet-on-Sheet ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 Heterostructure with Highly Efficient Photocatalytic H2 production Based on Photoinduced Interfacial Charge Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Liu, Kuichao; Feng, Zhiqing; Bao, Yanan; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We have realized in-situ growth of ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on the sheet-like g-C3N4 surfaces to construct a “sheet-on-sheet” hierarchical heterostructure. The as-synthesized ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets exhibit remarkably enhancement on the photocatalytic activity for H2 production. This enhanced photoactivity is mainly attributed to the efficient interfacial transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes from g-C3N4 to ZnIn2S4 nanosheets, resulting in the decreased charge recombination on g-C3N4 nanosheets and the increased amount of photoinduced charge carriers in ZnIn2S4 nanosheets. Meanwhile, the increased surface-active-sites and extended light absorption of g-C3N4 nanosheets after the decoration of ZnIn2S4 nanosheets may also play a certain role for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Further investigations by the surface photovoltage spectroscopy and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate that ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets considerable boost the charge transfer efficiency, therefore improve the probability of photoinduced charge carriers to reach the photocatalysts surfaces for highly efficient H2 production. PMID:26753795

  4. Hierarchical Sheet-on-Sheet ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 Heterostructure with Highly Efficient Photocatalytic H2 production Based on Photoinduced Interfacial Charge Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Liu, Kuichao; Feng, Zhiqing; Bao, Yanan; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We have realized in-situ growth of ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on the sheet-like g-C3N4 surfaces to construct a “sheet-on-sheet” hierarchical heterostructure. The as-synthesized ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets exhibit remarkably enhancement on the photocatalytic activity for H2 production. This enhanced photoactivity is mainly attributed to the efficient interfacial transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes from g-C3N4 to ZnIn2S4 nanosheets, resulting in the decreased charge recombination on g-C3N4 nanosheets and the increased amount of photoinduced charge carriers in ZnIn2S4 nanosheets. Meanwhile, the increased surface-active-sites and extended light absorption of g-C3N4 nanosheets after the decoration of ZnIn2S4 nanosheets may also play a certain role for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Further investigations by the surface photovoltage spectroscopy and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate that ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction nanosheets considerable boost the charge transfer efficiency, therefore improve the probability of photoinduced charge carriers to reach the photocatalysts surfaces for highly efficient H2 production.

  5. Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph D; Neeson, Michael J; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2015-09-15

    Pendant drop tensiometry offers a simple and elegant solution to determining surface and interfacial tension - a central parameter in many colloidal systems including emulsions, foams and wetting phenomena. The technique involves the acquisition of a silhouette of an axisymmetric fluid droplet, and iterative fitting of the Young-Laplace equation that balances gravitational deformation of the drop with the restorative interfacial tension. Since the advent of high-quality digital cameras and desktop computers, this process has been automated with high speed and precision. However, despite its beguiling simplicity, there are complications and limitations that accompany pendant drop tensiometry connected with both Bond number (the balance between interfacial tension and gravitational forces) and drop volume. Here, we discuss the process involved with going from a captured experimental image to a fitted interfacial tension value, highlighting pertinent features and limitations along the way. We introduce a new parameter, the Worthington number, Wo, to characterise the measurement precision. A fully functional, open-source acquisition and fitting software is provided to enable the reader to test and develop the technique further.

  6. Ion beam-induced interfacial growth in Si and silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, F.; Nédellec, P.; Ruault, M. O.; Bernas, H.; Lin, X. W.; Boucaud, P.

    1995-12-01

    We review the mechanisms and consequences of ion beam-induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) in the transition metal- or rare earth-implanted {aSi}/{cSi} systems, as determined from in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during irradiation, combined with channeling, high resolution TEM and optical measurements. IBIEC experiments on nm-size crystals confirm previously measured low values of interface roughness in IBIEC. We have performed interfacial growth simulations which indicate that the IBIEC process is, in fact, interface roughness-limited. They also suggest that interfacial growth processes are similar in several respects to surface growth processes, and that they largely determine (i) the growth habit of silicide precipitation, which is dominated by the interfacial energy, (ii) the possibility of trapping a large fraction of the impurities in non-equilibrium sites, leading to significant supersaturation. A consequence of this effect is to allow incorporation of large (over 300-fold supersaturation) Er concentrations in the substitutional sites of the Si lattice, leading to room-temperature photoluminescence (without any oxygen co-implantation). Evidence of a new, thermally induced instability in interfacial growth is presented: it displays both intermittency and very high growth rates, and is strongly affected by ion irradiation.

  7. Dynamics of deeply supercooled interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Jan; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-01-28

    In this review we discuss the relaxation dynamics of glassy and deeply supercooled water in different types of systems. We compare the dynamics of such interfacial water in ordinary aqueous solutions, hard confinements and biological soft materials. In all these types of systems the dielectric relaxation time of the main water process exhibits a dynamic crossover from a high-temperature non-Arrhenius temperature dependence to a low-temperature Arrhenius behavior. Moreover, at large enough water content the low-temperature process is universal and exhibits the same temperature behavior in all types of systems. However, the physical nature of the dynamic crossover is somewhat different for the different types of systems. In ordinary aqueous solutions it is not even a proper dynamic crossover, since the water relaxation decouples from the cooperative α-relaxation of the solution slightly above the glass transition in the same way as all secondary (β) relaxations of glass-forming materials. In hard confinements, the physical origin of the dynamic crossover is not fully clear, but it seems to occur when the cooperative main relaxation of water at high temperatures reaches a temperature where the volume required for its cooperative motion exceeds the size of the geometrically-confined water cluster. Due to this confinement effect the α-like main relaxation of the confined water seems to transform to a more local β-relaxation with decreasing temperature. Since this low-temperature β-relaxation is universal for all systems at high water content it is possible that it can be considered as an intrinsic β-relaxation of supercooled water, including supercooled bulk water. This possibility, together with other findings for deeply supercooled interfacial water, suggests that the most accepted relaxation scenarios for supercooled bulk water have to be altered.

  8. Sinusoidal Forcing of Interfacial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Fayaz; Raghunandan, Aditya; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Fluid transport, in vivo, is accomplished via pumping mechanisms of the heart and lungs, which results in biological fluids being subjected to oscillatory shear. Flow is known to influence biological macromolecules, but predicting the effect of shear is incomplete without also accounting for the influence of complex interfaces ubiquitous throughout the body. Here, we investigated the oscillatory response of the structure of aqueous interfacial films using a cylindrical knife edge viscometer. Vitamin K1 was used as a model monolayer because its behaviour has been thoroughly quantified and it doesn't show any measurable hysteresis. The monolayer was subjected to sinusoidal forcing under varied conditions of surface concentrations, periodic frequencies, and knife edge amplitudes. Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) data was collected using Brewster Angle Microscopy(BAM), revealing the influence of oscillatory interfacial shear stress on the monolayer. Insights were gained as to how the velocity profile dampens at specific distances from the knife edge contact depending on the amplitude, frequency, and concentration of Vitamin K1. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Protein interfacial structure and nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John W.; Perriman, Adam W.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Lin, Jhih-Min

    2009-02-01

    Here we briefly recapitulate the use of X-ray and neutron reflectometry at the air-water interface to find protein structures and thermodynamics at interfaces and test a possibility for understanding those interactions between nanoparticles and proteins which lead to nanoparticle toxicology through entry into living cells. Stable monomolecular protein films have been made at the air-water interface and, with a specially designed vessel, the substrate changed from that which the air-water interfacial film was deposited. This procedure allows interactions, both chemical and physical, between introduced species and the monomolecular film to be studied by reflectometry. The method is briefly illustrated here with some new results on protein-protein interaction between β-casein and κ-casein at the air-water interface using X-rays. These two proteins are an essential component of the structure of milk. In the experiments reported, specific and directional interactions appear to cause different interfacial structures if first, a β-casein monolayer is attacked by a κ-casein solution compared to the reverse. The additional contrast associated with neutrons will be an advantage here. We then show the first results of experiments on the interaction of a β-casein monolayer with a nanoparticle titanium oxide sol, foreshadowing the study of the nanoparticle "corona" thought to be important for nanoparticle-cell wall penetration.

  10. Highly Enhanced Electromechanical Stability of Large-Area Graphene with Increased Interfacial Adhesion Energy by Electrothermal-Direct Transfer for Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jangheon; Kim, Gi Gyu; Kim, Soohyun; Jung, Wonsuk

    2016-09-07

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice structure, has been extensively investigated for research and industrial applications as a promising material with outstanding electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. To fabricate graphene-based devices, graphene transfer to the target substrate with a clean and minimally defective surface is the first step. However, graphene transfer technologies require improvement in terms of uniform transfer with a clean, nonfolded and nontorn area, amount of defects, and electromechanical reliability of the transferred graphene. More specifically, uniform transfer of a large area is a key challenge when graphene is repetitively transferred onto pretransferred layers because the adhesion energy between graphene layers is too low to ensure uniform transfer, although uniform multilayers of graphene have exhibited enhanced electrical and optical properties. In this work, we developed a newly suggested electrothermal-direct (ETD) transfer method for large-area high quality monolayer graphene with less defects and an absence of folding or tearing of the area at the surface. This method delivers uniform multilayer transfer of graphene by repetitive monolayer transfer steps based on high adhesion energy between graphene layers and the target substrate. To investigate the highly enhanced electromechanical stability, we conducted mechanical elastic bending experiments and reliability tests in a highly humid environment. This ETD-transferred graphene is expected to replace commercial transparent electrodes with ETD graphene-based transparent electrodes and devices such as a touch panels with outstanding electromechanical stability.

  11. Interfacial Widths of Conjugated Polymer Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    NCSU; UC Berkeley; UCSB; Advanced Light Source; Garcia, Andres; Yan, Hongping; Sohn, Karen E.; Hexemer, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kramer, Edward J.; Ade, Harald

    2009-08-13

    The interfaces of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) bilayers cast from differential solvents are shown by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) to be very smooth and sharp. The chemical interdiffusion due to casting is limited to less than 0.6 nm, and the interface created is thus nearly 'molecularly' sharp. These results demonstrate for the first time and with high precision that the nonpolar MEH-PPV layer is not much disturbed by casting the CPE layer from a polar solvent. A baseline is established for understanding the role of interfacial structure in determining the performance of CPE-based polymer light-emitting diodes. More broadly, we anticipate further applications of RSoXR as an important tool in achieving a deeper understanding of other multilayer organic optoelectronic devices, including multilayer photovoltaic devices.

  12. High kappa Dielectrics on InGaAs and GaN - Growth, Interfacial Structural Studies, and Surface Fermi Level Unpinning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    devices, e.g. hetero-junction field-effect transistors (HFETs) and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). Compared to conventional high power RF...AlGaN/GaN HFETs, GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect- transistors (MOSFETs) feature lower gate leakage currents, a larger gate voltage sweep range...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  13. Investigation of Ag-TiO2 Interfacial Reaction of Highly Stable Ag Nanowire Transparent Conductive Film with Conformal TiO2 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Hua; Chen, Po-Hsun; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Guan-Hong; Chen, Hsueh-Shih

    2017-03-29

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to coat Ag nanowires (NWs) with a highly uniform and conformal TiO2 layer to improve the stability and sustainability of Ag NW transparent conductive films (TCFs) at high temperatures. The TiO2 layer can be directly deposited on Ag NWs with a surface polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coat that acts a bed for TiO2 seeding in the ALD process. The ALD TiO2 layer significantly enhances the thermal stability at least 100 fold when aged between 200-400 °C and also provides an extra function of violet-blue light filtration for Ag NW TCFs. Investigation into the interaction between TiO2 and Ag reveals that the conformal TiO2 shell could effectively prevent Ag from 1D-to-3D ripening. However, Ag could penetrate the conformal TiO2 shell and form nanocrystals on the TiO2 shell surface when it is aged at 400 °C. According to experimental data and thermodynamic evaluation, the Ag penetration leads to an interlayer composed of mixed Ag-Ag2O-amorphous carbon phases and TiO2-x at the Ag-TiO2 interface, which is thought to be caused by extremely high vapor pressure of Ag at the Ag-TiO2 interface at a higher temperature (e.g., 400 °C).

  14. Interfacial Characterization of Dissimilar Joints Between Al/Mg/Al-Trilayered Clad Sheet to High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macwan, A.; Jiang, X. Q.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace sectors to reduce vehicle weight. Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets are deemed as a promising alternative to improve the corrosion resistance and formability of Mg alloys. The structural application of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets inevitably involves welding and joining in the multi-material vehicle body manufacturing. This study aimed to characterize the bonding interface microstructure of the Al/Mg/Al-clad sheet to high-strength low-alloy steel with and without Zn coating using ultrasonic spot welding at different levels of welding energy. It was observed that the presence of Zn coating improved the bonding at the interface due to the formation of Al-Zn eutectic structure via enhanced diffusion. At a higher level of welding energy, characteristic flow patterns of Zn into Al-clad layer were observed with an extensive penetration mainly along some high angle grain boundaries. The dissimilar joints without Zn coating made at a high welding energy of 800 J failed partially from the Al/Fe weld interface and partially from the Al/Mg clad interface, while the joints with Zn coating failed from the Al/Mg clad interface due to the presence of brittle Al12Mg17 phase.

  15. Evolution of interfacial Fermi level in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/high-κ/TiN gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Adra; Rozen, John; Frank, Martin M.; Ando, Takashi; Cartier, Eduard A.; Kerber, Pranita; Narayanan, Vijay; Haight, Richard

    2015-07-06

    The net charge state was probed of metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks consisting of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As /high-κ dielectric/5 nm TiN, for both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} dielectrics, via investigation of band bending at the InGaAs/high-κ interface. Using pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy, changes to band bending were studied for each sequential layer deposited onto the InGaAs substrate and subsequent annealing up to 600 °C. Two behavioral regions were observed in annealing studies: (1) a lower temperature (<350 °C) region, attributed to changes at the high-κ/TiN interface, and (2) a higher temperature region (> 350 °C), associated with a net positive charge increase within the oxide. These band bending measurements delineate the impact of processing steps inherently inaccessible via capacitance-voltage electrical characterization.

  16. Area-Selective Lift-Off Mechanism Based on Dual-Triggered Interfacial Adhesion Switching: Highly Facile Fabrication of Flexible Nano-Mesh Electrode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seunghee; Han, Hyeuk Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Yim, Soonmin; Sim, Dong Min; Lim, Hunhee; Lee, Jung Hye; Park, Woon Ik; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Kwang Ho; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2017-02-28

    With the recent emergence of flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices, the achievement of sufficient bendability and stretchability of transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) has become an important requirement. Although metal-mesh-based structures have been investigated for TCEs because of their excellent performances, the fabrication of mesh or grid structures with a sub-micron line width is still complex due to the requirements of laborious lithography and pattern transfer steps. Here, we introduce an extremely facile fabrication technique for metal patterns embedded in a flexible substrate based on sub-micron replication and an area-selective delamination (ASD) patterning. The high-yield, area-specific lift-off process is based on the principle of solvent-assisted delamination of deposited metal thin films and a mechanical triggering effect by soft wiping or ultrasonication. Our fabrication process is highly simple, convenient, and cost-effective in that it does not require any lithography/etching steps or sophisticated facilities. Moreover, their outstanding optical and electrical properties (e.g. sheet resistances of 0.43 Ω sq(-1) at 94% transmittance), which are markedly superior to those of other flexible TCEs, are demonstrated. Furthermore, there is no significant change of resistance during over 1,000 repeated bending cycles with a bending radius of 5 mm and for immersing in various solvents such as salt water and organic solvents. Finally, we demonstrate high-performance transparent heaters and flexible touch panels using the fabricated nanomesh electrode, confirming the long-range electrical conduction and reliability of the electrode.

  17. Thermodynamics of interfacial changes in a protein-protein complex.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-03-04

    Recent experiments with biomacromolecular complexes suggest that structural modifications at the interfaces are vital for stability of the complexes and the functions of the biomacromolecules. Although several qualitative aspects about such interfaces are known from structural data, quantification of the interfacial changes is lacking. In this work, we study the thermodynamic changes at the interface in the complex between an enzyme, Nuclease A (NucA), and a specific inhibitor protein, NuiA. We calculate the conformational free energy and conformational entropy costs from histograms of the dihedral angles generated from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the complex and the free proteins. We extract the conformational thermodynamic parameters for changes in the tertiary structure of NuiA. We show that the binding is dominated by the interfacial changes, where the basic residues of NucA and acidic residues of NuiA are highly ordered and stabilized via strong electrostatic interactions. Our results correlate well with known information from structural studies. The tight interfacial structure is reflected in the significant changes in the structure and dynamics of the water molecules at the enzyme-inhibitor interface. The interfacial water molecules contribute significantly to the entropy loss for the overall complexation.

  18. Interfacial tension measurements using MRI drop shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Vogt, S J; Honari, A; Hollingsworth, K G; Sederman, A J; Mitchell, J; Johns, M L

    2014-02-18

    Accurate interfacial tension data for fluid systems such as hydrocarbons and water is essential to many applications such as reservoir oil and gas recovery predictions. Conventional interfacial tension measurement techniques typically use optical images to analyze droplet shapes but require that the continuous-phase fluid be optically transparent and that the fluids are not refractive index matched. Magnetic resonance images obtain contrast between fluids using other mechanisms such as magnetic relaxation weighting, so systems that are impossible to measure with optical methods may be analyzed. In this article, we present high-field (9.4 T) MRI images of various droplets analyzed with axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The resultant interfacial tension data show good agreement with literature data. The method is subsequently demonstrated using both opaque continuous phases and refractive-index-matched fluids. We conclude with a brief consideration of the potential to extrapolate the methodology to lower magnetic fields (0.3 T), featuring more accessible hardware; although droplet imaging is possible, resolution and stability do not currently permit accurate interfacial tension measurements.

  19. Time-Dependent Interfacial Properties and DNAPL Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-03-10

    Interfacial properties play a major role in governing where and how dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) move in the subsurface. Interfacial tension and contact angle measurements were obtained for a simple, single component DNAPL (tetrachloroethene, PCE), complex laboratory DNAPLs (PCE plus Sudan IV dye), and a field DNAPL from the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area DNAPL (PCE, trichloroethene [TCE], and maching oils). Interfacial properties for complex DNAPLs were time-dependent, a phenomenon not observed for PCE alone. Drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves are strongly influenced by interfacial properties. Therefore time-dependence will alter the nature of DNAPL migration and penetration. Results indicate that the time-dependence of PCE with relatively high Sudan IV dye concentrations is comparable to that of the field DNAPL. Previous DNAPL mobility experiments in which the DNAPL was dyed should be reviewed to determine whether time-dependent properties influenced the resutls. Dyes appear to make DNAPL more complex, and therefore a more realistic analog for field DNAPLs than single component DNAPLs.

  20. Identifying mechanisms of interfacial dynamics using single-molecule tracking.

    PubMed

    Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2012-08-28

    The "soft" (i.e., noncovalent) interactions between molecules and surfaces are complex and highly varied (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, and ionic), often leading to heterogeneous interfacial behavior. Heterogeneity can arise either from the spatial variation of the surface/interface itself or from molecular configurations (i.e., conformation, orientation, aggregation state, etc.). By observing the adsorption, diffusion, and desorption of individual fluorescent molecules, single-molecule tracking can characterize these types of heterogeneous interfacial behavior in ways that are inaccessible to traditional ensemble-averaged methods. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity or emission wavelength (in resonance energy transfer experiments) can be used to track the molecular configuration and simultaneously directly relate this to the resulting interfacial mobility or affinity. In this feature article, we review recent advances involving the use of single-molecule tracking to characterize heterogeneous molecule-surface interactions including multiple modes of diffusion and desorption associated with both internal and external molecular configuration, Arrhenius-activated interfacial transport, spatially dependent interactions, and many more.

  1. Bcc crystal-fluid interfacial free energy in Yukawa systems.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, V; Mijailović, A; Achim, C V; Ala-Nissila, T; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J; Löwen, H

    2013-01-28

    We determine the orientation-resolved interfacial free energy between a body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystal and the coexisting fluid for a many-particle system interacting via a Yukawa pair potential. For two different screening strengths, we compare results from molecular dynamics computer simulations, density functional theory, and a phase-field-crystal approach. Simulations predict an almost orientationally isotropic interfacial free energy of 0.12k(B)T/a(2) (with k(B)T denoting the thermal energy and a the mean interparticle spacing), which is independent of the screening strength. This value is in reasonable agreement with our Ramakrishnan-Yussouff density functional calculations, while a high-order fitted phase-field-crystal approach gives about 2-3 times higher interfacial free energies for the Yukawa system. Both field theory approaches also give a considerable anisotropy of the interfacial free energy. Our result implies that, in the Yukawa system, bcc crystal-fluid free energies are a factor of about 3 smaller than face-centered-cubic crystal-fluid free energies.

  2. Identifying Mechanisms of Interfacial Dynamics Using Single-Molecule Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    The “soft” (i.e. non-covalent) interactions between molecules and surfaces are complex and highly-varied (e.g. hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, ionic) often leading to heterogeneous interfacial behavior. Heterogeneity can arise either from spatial variation of the surface/interface itself or from molecular configurations (i.e. conformation, orientation, aggregation state, etc.). By observing adsorption, diffusion, and desorption of individual fluorescent molecules, single-molecule tracking can characterize these types of heterogeneous interfacial behavior in ways that are inaccessible to traditional ensemble-averaged methods. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity or emission wavelength (in resonance energy transfer experiments) can be used to simultaneously track molecular configuration and directly relate this to the resulting interfacial mobility or affinity. In this feature article, we review recent advances involving the use of single-molecule tracking to characterize heterogeneous molecule-surface interactions including: multiple modes of diffusion and desorption associated with both internal and external molecular configuration, Arrhenius activated interfacial transport, spatially dependent interactions, and many more. PMID:22716995

  3. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass, SON68, and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems due to their fundamental and practical significance. Our study shows that if the size of analysis areas is same, the highest sputter rate of argon cluster sputtering can be 2-3 times faster than the highest sputter rates of oxygen or cesium sputtering. More importantly, high quality data and high sputter rates can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering while this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, for deep depth profiling of insulating samples, the measurement efficiency of argon cluster sputtering can be about 6-15 times better than traditional cesium and oxygen sputtering. Moreover, for a SrTiO3/SrCrO3 bi-layer thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate, the true 18O/16O isotopic distribution at the interface is better revealed when using the argon cluster sputtering source. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the measurement efficiency of insulating materials, and thus can expand the application of ToF-SIMS to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin films, and many other potential systems.

  4. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  5. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  6. Perpendicular Orientation Control without Interfacial Treatment of RAFT-Synthesized High-χ Block Copolymer Thin Films with Sub-10 nm Features Prepared via Thermal Annealing.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Ryuichi; Takano, Hiroki; Chandra, Alvin; Yoshimura, Yasunari; Wang, Lei; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yuki; Maeda, Rina; Kihara, Naoko; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Kasahara, Yuusuke; Sato, Hironobu; Seino, Yuriko; Azuma, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Ober, Christopher K; Hayakawa, Teruaki

    2017-03-17

    In this study, a series of perpendicular lamellae-forming poly(polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane methacrylate-block-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)s (PMAPOSS-b-PTFEMAs) was developed based on the bottom-up concept of creating a simple yet effective material by tailoring the chemical properties and molecular composition of the material. The use of silicon (Si)-containing hybrid high-χ block copolymers (BCPs) provides easy access to sub-10 nm feature sizes. However, as the surface free energies (SFEs) of Si-containing polymers are typically vastly lower than organic polymers, this tends to result in the selective segregation of the inorganic block onto the air interface and increased difficulty in controlling the BCP orientation in thin films. Therefore, by balancing the SFEs between the organic and inorganic blocks through the use of poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PTFEMA) on the organic block, a polymer with an SFE similar to Si-containing polymers, orientation control of the BCP domains in thin films becomes much simpler. Herein, perpendicularly oriented BCP thin films with a χeff value of 0.45 were fabricated using simple spin-coating and thermal annealing processes under ambient conditions. The thin films displayed a minimum domain size of L0 = 11 nm, as observed via atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, directed self-assembly (DSA) of the BCP on a topographically prepatterned substrate using the grapho-epitaxy method was used to successfully obtain perpendicularly oriented lamellae with a half pitch size of ca. 8 nm.

  7. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, Brian J.; Pearson, Raymond A.

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  8. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  9. Comparison of Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test and X-ray Microtomography Measurements of Immiscible Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas within the Identical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. C.; McDonald, K.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial area between immiscible fluids in porous media has been demonstrated to be a critical entity for improved understanding, characterization, and simulation of multiphase flow and mass transport in the subsurface. Two general methods are available for measuring interfacial areas for 3-D porous-media systems, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Each method has their associated advantages and disadvantages. A few prior research efforts have conducted comparative analyses of the two methods, which have generally indicated disparities in measured values for natural geomedia. For these studies, however, interfacial areas were measured for separate samples with each method due to method restrictions. Thus, to date, there has been no comparative analysis conducted wherein the two measurement methods were applied to the exact same sample. To address this issue, trichloroethene-water interfacial areas were measured for a system comprising a well-sorted, natural sand (median grain diameter of 0.323 mm) using both X-ray microtomography and IPTTs. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns used to conduct the IPTTs. Columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate potential impacts of the tracer tests on fluid configuration. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT were 4-6 times larger than the microtomography results, which is consistent with previous work. This disparity was attributed to the inability of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness. The results indicate that both methods provide useful measures of interfacial area as long as their limitations are recognized.

  10. Interfacial reactions in titanium-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.M.; Jeng, S.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A study of the interfacial reaction characteristics of SiC fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide and disordered titanium alloy composites has determined that the matrix alloy compositions affect the microstructure and the distribution of the reaction products, as well as the growth kinetics of the reaction zones. The interfacial reaction products in the ordered titanium aluminide composite are more complicated than those in the disordered titanium-alloy composite. The activation energy of the interfacial reaction in the ordered titanium aluminide composite is also higher than that in the disordered titanium alloy composite. Designing an optimum interface is necessary to enhance the reliability and service life at elevated temperatures. 16 refs.

  11. Interfacial Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with a Polymeric Patchy Shell and the Role of Spreading Agents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gold patchy nanoparticles (PPs) were prepared under surfactant-free conditions by functionalization with a binary ligand mixture of polystyrene and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as hydrophobic and hydrophilic ligands, respectively. The interfacial activity of PPs was compared to that of homogeneous hydrophilic nanoparticles (HPs), fully functionalized with PEG, by means of pendant drop tensiometry at water/air and water/decane interfaces. We compared interfacial activities in three different spreading agents: water, water/chloroform, and pure chloroform. We found that the interfacial activity of PPs was close to zero (∼2 mN/m) when the spreading agent was water and increased to ∼14 mN/m when the spreading agent was water/chloroform. When the nanoparticles were deposited with pure chloroform, the interfacial activity reached up to 60 mN/m by compression. In all cases, PPs exhibited higher interfacial activity than HPs, which were not interfacially active, regardless of the spreading agent. The interfacial activity at the water/decane interface was found to be significantly lower than that at the water/air interface because PPs aggregate in decane. Interfacial dilatational rheology showed that PPs form a stronger elastic shell at the pendant drop interface, compared to HPs. The significantly high interfacial activity obtained with PPs in this study highlights the importance of the polymeric patchy shell and the spreading agent. PMID:27656691

  12. Interfacial optimization of fiber-reinforced hydrogel composites for soft fibrous tissue applications.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julianne L; Lowman, Anthony M; VanLandingham, Mark R; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2014-08-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common orthopedic injuries to the human body, yet the current treatment of choice is a partial meniscectomy, which is known to lead to joint degeneration and osteoarthritis. As a result, there is a significant clinical need to develop materials capable of restoring function to the meniscus following an injury. Fiber-reinforced hydrogel composites are particularly suited for replicating the mechanical function of native fibrous tissues due to their ability to mimic the native anisotropic property distribution present. A critical issue with these materials, however, is the potential for the fiber-matrix interfacial properties to severely limit composite performance. In this work, the interfacial properties of an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel are studied. A novel chemical grafting technique, confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is used to improve UHMWPE-PVA interfacial adhesion. Interfacial shear strength is quantified using fiber pull-out tests. Results indicate significantly improved fiber-hydrogel interfacial adhesion after chemical grafting, where chemically grafted samples have an interfacial shear strength of 256.4±64.3kPa compared to 11.5±2.9kPa for untreated samples. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy of fiber surfaces after fiber pull-out reveal cohesive failure within the hydrogel matrix for treated fiber samples, indicating that the UHMWPE-PVA interface has been successfully optimized. Lastly, inter-fiber spacing is observed to have a significant effect on interfacial adhesion. Fibers spaced further apart have significantly higher interfacial shear strengths, which is critical to consider when optimizing composite design. The results in this study are applicable in developing similar chemical grafting techniques and optimizing fiber-matrix interfacial properties for other hydrogel-based composite systems.

  13. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  14. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  15. Recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, P; Hoeben, M A; van der Lans, R G J M; Kwant, G; van der Wielen, L A M

    2002-05-20

    In this article, a qualitative study of the recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning in liquid-liquid biphasic systems is presented. A range of crystallised biomolecules with varying polarities have been chosen such as glycine, phenylglycine and ampicillin. Liquid-liquid biphasic systems in a range of polarity differences were selected such as an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), water-butanol and water-hexanol. The results indicate that interfacial partitioning of crystals occurs even when their density exceeds that of the individual liquid phases. Yet, not all crystals partition to the same extent to the interface to form a stable and thick interphase layer. This indicates some degree of selectivity. From the analysis of these results in relation to the physicochemical properties of the crystals and the liquid phases, a hypothetical mechanism for the interfacial partitioning is deduced. Overall these results support the potential of interfacial partitioning as a large scale separation technology.

  16. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Onuki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, nonpolar, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In zero gravity, the interface is unstable at all long wavelengths in the presence of a field applied across it. It is conjectured that this will cause the binary fluid to break up into domains small enough to be outside the instability condition. The resulting pattern formation, and the effects on the critical properties as the domains approach the correlation length are of acute interest. With direct observation, laser light scattering, and interferometry, the phenomena can be probed to gain further understanding of interfacial instabilities and the pattern formation which results, and dimensional crossover in critical systems as the critical fluctuations in a particular direction are suppressed by external forces.

  17. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  18. Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T.

    1997-12-31

    In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.

  19. Interfacial Engineering for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Fichou, Denis; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-20

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are promising solar-energy-conversion devices, as low-cost alternatives to the prevailing photovoltaic technologies. Compared with molecular dyes, nanocrystalline quantum dot (QD) light absorbers exhibit higher molar extinction coefficients and a tunable photoresponse. However, the power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSCs are generally below 9.5 %, far behind their molecular sensitizer counterparts (up to 13 %). These low PCEs have been attributed to a large free-energy loss during sensitizer regeneration, energy loss during the charge-carrier transport and transfer processes, and inefficient charge separation at the QD/electrolyte interfaces, and various interfacial engineering strategies for enhancing the PCE and cell stability have been reported. Herein, we review recent progress in the interfacial engineering of QDSCs and discuss future prospects for the development of highly efficient and stable QDSCs.

  20. Actuation of interfacial waves in oil-water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyeong; Weheliye, Weheliye; Chinaud, Maxime; Angeli, Panagiota; James Percival Collaboration; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Droplet detachment from interfacial waves in two-phase flows has pulled in noteworthy exploration interest. In order to examine this phenomenon experimentally and empower quantitative estimation, it is important to spatially confine the drop formation. In the present study, a cylinder, located close to the inlet of the test section and perpendicular to the direction of the flow, is placed in a two-phase stratified oil-water pipe flow. The introduction of this cylinder actuated interfacial waves and move from stratified to dispersed flow pattern. High speed visualisation and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement are utilized to investigate the flow pattern maps of the two-phase flow and the velocity fields in the wake of the cylinder, respectively. These results will be compared with previous experimental studies. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.

  1. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    PubMed Central

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics. PMID:26582248

  2. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  3. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    DOE PAGES

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; ...

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growthmore » of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.« less

  4. Sound-induced Interfacial Dynamics in a Microfluidic Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Sze Yi; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-11-01

    Retrieving sound wave by a fluidic means is challenging due to the difficulty in visualizing the very minute sound-induced fluid motion. This work studies the interfacial response of multiphase systems towards fluctuation in the flow. We demonstrate a direct visualization of music in the form of ripples at a microfluidic aqueous-aqueous interface with an ultra-low interfacial tension. The interface shows a passive response to sound of different frequencies with sufficiently precise time resolution, enabling the recording of musical notes and even subsequent reconstruction with high fidelity. This suggests that sensing and transmitting vibrations as tiny as those induced by sound could be realized in low interfacial tension systems. The robust control of the interfacial dynamics could be adopted for droplet and complex-fiber generation.

  5. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  6. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

  7. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  8. Air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated soils: Evaluation of interfacial domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2002-10-01

    A gas-phase miscible-displacement method, using decane as an interfacial tracer, was used to measure air-water interfacial areas for a sand with water contents ranging from ˜2% to 20%. The expected trend of decreasing interfacial areas with increasing water contents was observed. The maximum estimated interfacial area of 19,500 cm-1 appears reasonable given it is smaller than the measured surface area of the porous medium (60,888 cm-1). Comparison of the experimental data presented herein with literature data provided further insight into the characterization of the air-water interface in unsaturated porous media. Specifically, comparison of interfacial areas measured using gas-phase versus aqueous-phase methods indicates that the gas-phase method generally yields larger interfacial areas than the aqueous-phase methods, even when accounting for differences in water content and physical properties of the porous media. The observations are consistent with proposed differences in interfacial accessibility of the aqueous- and gas-phase tracers. Evaluation of the data in light of functional interfacial domains, described herein, yields the hypothesis that aqueous interfacial tracers measure primarily air-water interfaces formed by "capillary water," while gas-phase tracers measure air-water interfaces formed by both capillary and surface-adsorbed (film) water. The gas- and aqueous-phase methods may each provide interfacial area information that is more relevant to specific problems of interest. For example, gas-phase interfacial area measurements may be most relevant to contaminant transport in unsaturated systems, where retention at the air-water interface may be significant. Conversely, the aqueous-phase methods may yield information with direct bearing on multiphase flow processes that are dominated by capillary-phase behavior.

  9. Annealing-induced interfacial toughening using a molecular nanolayer.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Darshan D; Lane, Michael; Zhou, Yu; Singh, Amit P; Nayak, Saroj; Tisch, Ulrike; Eizenberg, Moshe; Ramanath, Ganapathiraman

    2007-05-17

    Self-assembled molecular nanolayers (MNLs) composed of short organic chains and terminated with desired functional groups are attractive for modifying surface properties for a variety of applications. For example, organosilane MNLs are used as lubricants, in nanolithography, for corrosion protection and in the crystallization of biominerals. Recent work has explored uses of MNLs at thin-film interfaces, both as active components in molecular devices, and as passive layers, inhibiting interfacial diffusion, promoting adhesion and toughening brittle nanoporous structures. The relatively low stability of MNLs on surfaces at temperatures above 350-400 degrees C (refs 12, 13), as a result of desorption or degradation, limits the use of surface MNLs in high-temperature applications. Here we harness MNLs at thin-film interfaces at temperatures higher than the MNL desorption temperature to fortify copper-dielectric interfaces relevant to wiring in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Annealing Cu/MNL/SiO2 structures at 400-700 degrees C results in interfaces that are five times tougher than pristine Cu/SiO2 structures, yielding values exceeding approximately 20 J m(-2). Previously, similarly high toughness values have only been obtained using micrometre-thick interfacial layers. Electron spectroscopy of fracture surfaces and density functional theory modelling of molecular stretching and fracture show that toughening arises from thermally activated interfacial siloxane bridging that enables the MNL to be strongly linked to both the adjacent layers at the interface, and suppresses MNL desorption. We anticipate that our findings will open up opportunities for molecular-level tailoring of a variety of interfacial properties, at processing temperatures higher than previously envisaged, for applications where microlayers are not a viable option-such as in nanodevices or in thermally resistant molecular-inorganic hybrid devices.

  10. Interfacial phase-change memory.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Fons, P; Kolobov, A V; Fukaya, T; Krbal, M; Yagi, T; Tominaga, J

    2011-07-03

    Phase-change memory technology relies on the electrical and optical properties of certain materials changing substantially when the atomic structure of the material is altered by heating or some other excitation process. For example, switching the composite Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) alloy from its covalently bonded amorphous phase to its resonantly bonded metastable cubic crystalline phase decreases the resistivity by three orders of magnitude, and also increases reflectivity across the visible spectrum. Moreover, phase-change memory based on GST is scalable, and is therefore a candidate to replace Flash memory for non-volatile data storage applications. The energy needed to switch between the two phases depends on the intrinsic properties of the phase-change material and the device architecture; this energy is usually supplied by laser or electrical pulses. The switching energy for GST can be reduced by limiting the movement of the atoms to a single dimension, thus substantially reducing the entropic losses associated with the phase-change process. In particular, aligning the c-axis of a hexagonal Sb(2)Te(3) layer and the 〈111〉 direction of a cubic GeTe layer in a superlattice structure creates a material in which Ge atoms can switch between octahedral sites and lower-coordination sites at the interface of the superlattice layers. Here we demonstrate GeTe/Sb(2)Te(3) interfacial phase-change memory (IPCM) data storage devices with reduced switching energies, improved write-erase cycle lifetimes and faster switching speeds.

  11. Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzic, Jamie Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

  12. Measuring air-water interfacial areas with X-ray microtomography and interfacial partitioning tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, Mark L; Peng, Sheng; Schnaar, Gregory; Murao, Asami

    2007-03-15

    Air-water interfacial areas as a function of water saturation were measured for a sandy, natural porous medium using two methods, aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer tests and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, interfacial areas measured in a prior study with the gas-phase interfacial partitioning tracer-test method for the same porous medium were included for comparison. For all three methods, total air-water interfacial areas increased with decreasing water saturation. The interfacial areas measured with the tracer-test methods were generally larger than those obtained from microtomography, and the disparity increased as water saturation decreased. The interfacial areas measured by microtomography extrapolated to a value (147 cm(-1)) very similar to the specific solid surface area (151 cm(-1)) calculated using the smooth-sphere assumption, indicating that the method does not characterize the area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity (surface roughness, microporosity). This is consistent with the method resolution of approximately 12 microm. In contrast, the interfacial areas measured with the gas-phase tracer tests approached the N2/BET measured specific solid surface area (56000 cm(-1)), indicating that this method does characterize the interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity. The largest interfacial area measured with the aqueous-phase tracer tests was 224 cm(-1), while the extrapolated maximum interfacial area was approximately 1100 cm(-1). Both of these values are larger than the smooth-sphere specific solid surface area but much smaller than the N2/BET specific solid surface area, which suggests that the method measures a limited portion of the interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity. All three methods provide measures of total (capillary + film) interfacial area, a primary difference being that the film-associated area is a smooth-surface equivalent for the

  13. Quantum interference in an interfacial superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Srijit; Mulazimoglu, Emre; Monteiro, Ana M. R. V. L.; Wölbing, Roman; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Blanter, Ya. M.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Caviglia, Andrea D.

    2016-10-01

    The two-dimensional superconductor that forms at the interface between the complex oxides lanthanum aluminate (LAO) and strontium titanate (STO) has several intriguing properties that set it apart from conventional superconductors. Most notably, an electric field can be used to tune its critical temperature (Tc; ref. 7), revealing a dome-shaped phase diagram reminiscent of high-Tc superconductors. So far, experiments with oxide interfaces have measured quantities that probe only the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter and are not sensitive to its phase. Here, we perform phase-sensitive measurements by realizing the first superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) at the LAO/STO interface. Furthermore, we develop a new paradigm for the creation of superconducting circuit elements, where local gates enable the in situ creation and control of Josephson junctions. These gate-defined SQUIDs are unique in that the entire device is made from a single superconductor with purely electrostatic interfaces between the superconducting reservoir and the weak link. We complement our experiments with numerical simulations and show that the low superfluid density of this interfacial superconductor results in a large, gate-controllable kinetic inductance of the SQUID. Our observation of robust quantum interference opens up a new pathway to understanding the nature of superconductivity at oxide interfaces.

  14. Quantum interference in an interfacial superconductor.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Srijit; Mulazimoglu, Emre; Monteiro, Ana M R V L; Wölbing, Roman; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Blanter, Ya M; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Caviglia, Andrea D

    2016-10-01

    The two-dimensional superconductor that forms at the interface between the complex oxides lanthanum aluminate (LAO) and strontium titanate (STO) has several intriguing properties that set it apart from conventional superconductors. Most notably, an electric field can be used to tune its critical temperature (Tc; ref. 7), revealing a dome-shaped phase diagram reminiscent of high-Tc superconductors. So far, experiments with oxide interfaces have measured quantities that probe only the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter and are not sensitive to its phase. Here, we perform phase-sensitive measurements by realizing the first superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) at the LAO/STO interface. Furthermore, we develop a new paradigm for the creation of superconducting circuit elements, where local gates enable the in situ creation and control of Josephson junctions. These gate-defined SQUIDs are unique in that the entire device is made from a single superconductor with purely electrostatic interfaces between the superconducting reservoir and the weak link. We complement our experiments with numerical simulations and show that the low superfluid density of this interfacial superconductor results in a large, gate-controllable kinetic inductance of the SQUID. Our observation of robust quantum interference opens up a new pathway to understanding the nature of superconductivity at oxide interfaces.

  15. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  16. Relaxations and Interfacial Water Ordering at the Corundum (110) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2010-09-17

    In situ high resolution specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were used to examine relaxations and interfacial water ordering occurring at the corundum (110)-water interface. Sample preparation affected the resulting surface structure. Annealing in air at 1373 K produced a reconstructed surface formed through an apparently ordered aluminum vacancy. The effect of the reconstruction on in-plane periodicity was not determined. The remaining aluminum sites on the surface maintain full coordination by oxygen and the surface was coated with a layer of physically adsorbed water. Ordering of water further from the surface was not observed. Acid etching of this surface and preparing a surface through annealing at 723 K both produced an unreconstructed surface with identical relaxations and water ordering. Relaxations were confined primarily to the top {approx}4 {angstrom} of the surface and were dominated by an increased distribution width of the fully occupied surface aluminum site and outward relaxation of the oxygen surface functional groups. A layer of adsorbed water fully coated the surface and occurred in two distinct sites. Water above this showed signs of layering and indicated that water ordering extended 7-10 {angstrom} from the surface. Relaxations and the arrangement of interfacial water were nearly identical on both the unreconstructed corundum and isostructural hematite (110) surfaces. Comparison to corundum and hematite (012) suggests that the arrangement of interfacial water is primarily controlled by mineral surface structure.

  17. Wettability controls slow immiscible displacement through local interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf; Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Immiscible fluid displacement with average front velocities in the capillary-dominated regime is studied in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell with cylindrical posts. Employing various combinations of fluids and wall materials allows us to cover a range of advancing contact angles 46∘≤θa≤180∘ of the invading fluid in our experiments. In parallel, we study the displacement process in particle-based simulations that account for wall wettability. Considering the same arrangement of posts in experiments and simulation, we find a consistent crossover between stable interfacial displacement at θa≲80∘ and capillary fingering at high contact angles θa≳120∘ . The position of the crossover is quantified through the evolution of the interface length and the final saturation of the displaced fluid. A statistical analysis of the local displacement processes demonstrates that the shape evolution of the fluid front is governed by local instabilities as proposed by Cieplak and Robbins for a quasistatic interfacial displacement [Cieplak and Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2042 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2042]. The regime of stable front advances coincides with a corresponding region of contact angles where cooperative interfacial instabilities prevail. Capillary fingering, however, is observed only for large θa, where noncooperative instabilities dominate the invasion process.

  18. Dynamic film and interfacial tensions in emulsion and foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.H.; Koczo, K.; Wasan, D.T.

    1997-03-01

    In concentrated fluid dispersions the liquid films are under dynamic conditions during film rupture or drainage. Aqueous foam films stabilized with sodium decylsulfonate and aqueous emulsion films stabilized with the nonionic Brij 58 surfactant were formed at the tip of a capillary and the film tension was measured under static and dynamic conditions. In the stress relaxation experiments the response of the film tension to a sudden film area expansion was studied. These experiments also allowed the direct measurement of the Gibbs film elasticity. In the dynamic film tension experiments, the film area was continuously increased by a constant rate and the dynamic film tension was monitored. The measured film tensions were compared with the interfacial tensions of the respective single air/water and oil/water interfaces, which were measured using the same radius of curvature, relative expansion, and expansion rate as in the film studies. It was found that under dynamic conditions the film tension is higher than twice the single interfacial tension (IFT) and a mechanism was suggested to explain the difference. When the film, initially at equilibrium, is expanded and the interfacial area increases, a substantial surfactant depletion occurs inside the film. As a result, the surfactant can be supplied only from the adjoining meniscus (Plateau border) by surface diffusion, and the film tension is controlled by the diffusion and adsorption of surfactant in the meniscus. The results have important implications for the stability and rheology of foams and emulsions with high dispersed phase ratios (polyhedral structure).

  19. Modelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Phu; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane; Heidarpour, Amin

    2016-11-01

    Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses.

  20. Liquid/Liquid interfacial polymerization to grow single crystalline nanoneedles of various conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Nuraje, Nurxat; Su, Kai; Yang, Nan-Loh; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Single crystalline nanoneedles of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) were synthesized using an interfacial polymerization for the first time. The interfacial crystallization of conductive polymers at the liquid/liquid interface allowed PANI and PPY polymers to form single crystalline nanocrystals in a rice-like shape in the dimensions of 63 nm x 12 nm for PANI and 70 nm x 20 nm for PPY. Those crystalline nanoneedles displayed a fast conductance switching in the time scale of milliseconds. An important growth condition necessary to yield highly crystalline conductive polymers was the extended crystallization time at the liquid/liquid interfaces to increase the degree of crystallization. As compared to other interfacial polymerization methods, lower concentrations of monomer and oxidant solutions were employed to further extend the crystallization time. While other interfacial growth of conducting polymers yielded noncrystalline polymer fibers, our interfacial method produced single crystalline nanocrystals of conductive polymers. We recently reported the liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis of conducting PEDOT nanocrystals; however, this liquid/liquid interfacial method needs to be extended to other conductive polymer nanocrystal syntheses in order to demonstrate that our technique could be applied as the general fabrication procedure for the single crystalline conducting polymer growth. In this report, we showed that the liquid/liquid interfacial crystallization could yield PANI nanocrystals and PPY nanocrystals, other important conductive polymers, in addition to PEDOT nanocrystals. The resulting crystalline polymers have a fast conductance switching time between the insulating and conducting states on the order of milliseconds. This technique will be useful to synthesize conducting polymers via oxidative coupling processes in a single crystal state, which is extremely difficult to achieve by other synthetic methods.

  1. On the hierarchy of interfacial dislocation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Olson, G. B.

    1985-04-01

    Many different types of dislocations have been defined in dislocation models for grain boundaries and interphase boundaries. It is emphasized that there is no unique dislocation model for a boundary, and that the formal dislocation content depends upon the choice of the lattice correspondence relating the adjoining lattices. However, it is concluded that no problems of real physical significance arise from this lack of uniqueness. “Best≓, or most useful, descriptions often exist, and these are discussed. A hierarchy consisting of four different types of interfacial dislocations may be distinguished, which is useful in describing the dislocation content of interfaces. These entities are termed: (1) primary interfacial dislocations; (2) secondary interfacial dislocations; (3) coherency interfacial dislocations; and (4) translational interfacial dislocations. While there may be a lack of agreement on terminology in the literature, it is believed that these dislocation types are distinguishable and play unique roles in useful dislocation models for interfaces. Detailed descriptions of these dislocation types are given, and actual examples in real interfaces are presented. It is concluded that dislocation descriptions of interface structures become of purely formal significance in the limit of fully incoherent interfaces since the cores are then delocalized. The utility of various dislocation descriptions therefore depends on the degree to which various types of local coherency exist.

  2. Monte Carlo investigation of how interfacial magnetic couplings affect blocking temperature distributions in exchange bias bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhoutellier, G.; Ledue, D.; Patte, R.; Baltz, V.

    2016-11-01

    Exchange bias in ferromagnetic (F)/antiferromagnetic (AF) bilayers is a function of both the bulk properties of the AF layer and the interfacial properties determining the effective interfacial couplings between the F and AF layers. The distinction between bulk and interface can be clearly revealed in blocking temperature distributions, where AF grain volume distribution results in a high-temperature peak while disordered interfacial magnetic phases produce a low-temperature contribution. However, the coupling conditions producing such bimodal blocking temperature distributions remain to be specified. In this article, we use a granular model which accounts for the disordered interfacial phases by considering small magnetic grains (SGs) with weaker anisotropy and coupling with the F grains at the F/AF interface. The SG are included in the AF material. The coupling conditions producing bimodal blocking temperature distributions were determined. Then, using Monte Carlo simulations, these conditions were validated and the effect of interfacial F-SG coupling on distributions was investigated. We next determined how the ratio between F-SG and F-AF couplings could be used to estimate the surface coverage of the disordered interfacial phases from experimental data.

  3. Interfacial jumps and pressure bursts during fluid displacement in interacting irregular capillaries.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani

    2012-07-01

    The macroscopically regular motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media often results from numerous pore scale interfacial jumps and associated pressure fluctuations. Such rapid pore scale dynamics defy postulated slow viscous energy dissipation and may shape phase entrapment and subsequent macroscopic transport properties. Certain displacement characteristics are predictable from percolation theory; however, insights into rapid interfacial dynamics require mechanistic models for hydraulically interacting pores such as found along fluid displacement fronts. A model for hydraulically coupled sinusoidal capillaries was used to analyze stick-jump interfacial motions with a significant inertial component absent in Darcy-based description of fluid front displacement. High-speed camera provided measurements of rapid interfacial dynamics in sintered glass beads cell during drainage. Interfacial velocities exceeding 50 times mean front velocity were observed in good agreement with model predictions for a pair of sinusoidal capillaries. In addition to characteristic pinning-jumping behavior, interfacial dynamics were sensitive to initial positions within pores at the onset of a jump. Even for a pair of sinusoidal capillaries, minute variations in pore geometry and boundary conditions yield rich behavior of motions, highlighting challenges and potential new insights offered by consideration of pore scale mechanisms in macroscopic description of fluid displacement fronts in porous media.

  4. Ordered mesoporous silica prepared by quiescent interfacial growth method - effects of reaction chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acidic interfacial growth can provide a number of industrially important mesoporous silica morphologies including fibers, spheres, and other rich shapes. Studying the reaction chemistry under quiescent (no mixing) conditions is important for understanding and for the production of the desired shapes. The focus of this work is to understand the effect of a number of previously untested conditions: acid type (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4), acid content, silica precursor type (TBOS and TEOS), and surfactant type (CTAB, Tween 20, and Tween 80) on the shape and structure of products formed under quiescent two-phase interfacial configuration. Results show that the quiescent growth is typically slow due to the absence of mixing. The whole process of product formation and pore structuring becomes limited by the slow interfacial diffusion of silica source. TBOS-CTAB-HCl was the typical combination to produce fibers with high order in the interfacial region. The use of other acids (HNO3 and H2SO4), a less hydrophobic silica source (TEOS), and/or a neutral surfactant (Tweens) facilitate diffusion and homogenous supply of silica source into the bulk phase and give spheres and gyroids with low mesoporous order. The results suggest two distinct regions for silica growth (interfacial region and bulk region) in which the rate of solvent evaporation and local concentration affect the speed and dimension of growth. A combined mechanism for the interfacial bulk growth of mesoporous silica under quiescent conditions is proposed. PMID:24237719

  5. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  6. Measurement and Estimation of Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Areas for Several Natural Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural porous media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten porous media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given porous medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.

  7. Ordered mesoporous silica prepared by quiescent interfacial growth method - effects of reaction chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsyouri, Hatem M.; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba A.; Alassali, Ayah; Lin, Jerry YS

    2013-11-01

    Acidic interfacial growth can provide a number of industrially important mesoporous silica morphologies including fibers, spheres, and other rich shapes. Studying the reaction chemistry under quiescent (no mixing) conditions is important for understanding and for the production of the desired shapes. The focus of this work is to understand the effect of a number of previously untested conditions: acid type (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4), acid content, silica precursor type (TBOS and TEOS), and surfactant type (CTAB, Tween 20, and Tween 80) on the shape and structure of products formed under quiescent two-phase interfacial configuration. Results show that the quiescent growth is typically slow due to the absence of mixing. The whole process of product formation and pore structuring becomes limited by the slow interfacial diffusion of silica source. TBOS-CTAB-HCl was the typical combination to produce fibers with high order in the interfacial region. The use of other acids (HNO3 and H2SO4), a less hydrophobic silica source (TEOS), and/or a neutral surfactant (Tweens) facilitate diffusion and homogenous supply of silica source into the bulk phase and give spheres and gyroids with low mesoporous order. The results suggest two distinct regions for silica growth (interfacial region and bulk region) in which the rate of solvent evaporation and local concentration affect the speed and dimension of growth. A combined mechanism for the interfacial bulk growth of mesoporous silica under quiescent conditions is proposed.

  8. Interfacial phenomena in hard-rod fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundyak, K. Y.

    2004-05-01

    the isotropic-nematic (IN) coexistence and may induce (suppress) a demixing of the high-density nematic phase into two nematic phases of different composition (N1 and N2). Studies of their interfaces show an increase of the surface tension with fractionation at the IN interface, and complete wetting of the IN2 interface by the N1 phase upon approach of the triple point coexistence. In all explored cases bulk and interfacial properties of the nonadditive mixtures exhibit a surprising similarity with the properties of additive mixtures of larger diameter ratio. In Chapter VI we consider properties of a monodisperse hard-rod fluid in contact with the single wall (W). Studies of surface properties of a fluid of Onsager hard rods represent significant numerical difficulties, therefore we consider a simpler model fluid of hard rods with a restricted number of allowed orientations. Within this model, known as the Zwanzig model, we explore the thermodynamic properties of a fluid of monodisperse hard rods in contact with a model substrate represented by a hard wall with a short-ranged attractive or repulsive ``tail''. The attraction enhances the orientational ordering near the wall in both isotropic and nematic phases, and shifts the transition from uniaxial (U) to biaxial (B) symmetry in the isotropic surface layer to lower chemical potentials, whereas the wetting properties of the substrate remain similar to those of the pure hard wall. The soft repulsion reduces the density in the surface layer, which leads to the shift (or even suppression) of the UB transition, and strong modification of wetting properties. At the WI interface one always finds the wetting transition at sufficiently large repulsion, whereas a drying transition at the WN interface is observed only for sufficiently long-ranged potentials. In Chapter VII we explore some limitations of models of hard-rod fluids with a finite number of allowed orientations. Within Onsager's second virial theory we construct

  9. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  10. Magneto-ionic control of interfacial magnetism.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Uwe; Yao, Lide; Tan, Aik Jun; Agrawal, Parnika; Emori, Satoru; Tuller, Harry L; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Beach, Geoffrey S D

    2015-02-01

    In metal/oxide heterostructures, rich chemical, electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties can emerge from interfacial chemistry and structure. The possibility to dynamically control interface characteristics with an electric field paves the way towards voltage control of these properties in solid-state devices. Here, we show that electrical switching of the interfacial oxidation state allows for voltage control of magnetic properties to an extent never before achieved through conventional magneto-electric coupling mechanisms. We directly observe in situ voltage-driven O(2-) migration in a Co/metal-oxide bilayer, which we use to toggle the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy by >0.75 erg cm(-2) at just 2 V. We exploit the thermally activated nature of ion migration to markedly increase the switching efficiency and to demonstrate reversible patterning of magnetic properties through local activation of ionic migration. These results suggest a path towards voltage-programmable materials based on solid-state switching of interface oxygen chemistry.

  11. Interfacial Shear Rheology of Coffee Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läuger, Jörg; Heyer, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Both oscillatory and rotational measurements on the film formation process and on interfacial rheological properties of the final film of coffee samples with different concentrations are presented. As higher the concentration as faster the film formation process is, whereas the concentration does not have a large effect on the visco-elastic properties of the final films. Two geometries, a biconical geometry and a Du Noüy ring have been employed. The presented results show that interfacial shear rheology allows detailed investigations on coffee films. Although with a Du Noüy ring it is possible to measure the qualitative behavior and relative differences only the biconical geometry is sensitive enough to test weak films and to reveal real absolute values for the interfacial shear rheological quantities.

  12. Magneto-ionic control of interfacial magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Uwe; Yao, Lide; Tan, Aik Jun; Agrawal, Parnika; Emori, Satoru; Tuller, Harry L.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2015-02-01

    In metal/oxide heterostructures, rich chemical, electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties can emerge from interfacial chemistry and structure. The possibility to dynamically control interface characteristics with an electric field paves the way towards voltage control of these properties in solid-state devices. Here, we show that electrical switching of the interfacial oxidation state allows for voltage control of magnetic properties to an extent never before achieved through conventional magneto-electric coupling mechanisms. We directly observe in situ voltage-driven O2- migration in a Co/metal-oxide bilayer, which we use to toggle the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy by >0.75 erg cm-2 at just 2 V. We exploit the thermally activated nature of ion migration to markedly increase the switching efficiency and to demonstrate reversible patterning of magnetic properties through local activation of ionic migration. These results suggest a path towards voltage-programmable materials based on solid-state switching of interface oxygen chemistry.

  13. Mephisto: Interfacial Destabilization in Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favier, J. J.; Malmejac, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The destabilizing mechanisms at a solidification interface were studied to obtain information on the kinetics and morphologies in the transient and steady state, and to separate the influences of liquid phase instabilities from interfacial instabilities. A differential seebeck voltage measurements technique was developed to provide a continuous record of the solid-liquid interface temperature as the solidification rate is varied to determine the kinetic coefficients. Signal processing and noise suppression techniques allow nonovolt precision which corresponds to mK accuracy for the interfacial temperature.

  14. Solid solution directionally solidified eutectics: Model systems for structure-property relationships in interfacial fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    The next generation of high temperature materials for application in aerospace and power generation systems will be required to withstand temperatures well in excess of 1200°C, often in oxidizing atmospheres. Oxide-oxide directionally solidified eutectics (DSE's) have shown promise as high temperature ceramic materials, only to be limited by their lack of fracture toughness at room temperature. In the case of DSE oxide materials, the interfacial fracture behavior has been blamed for the poor performance in the past and is the subject of interest in this work. In this thesis, the solid solution, directionally solidified quaternary eutectic (SS-DSE), Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO), is developed as a model system for the study of interfacial fracture in oxide-oxide DSE's. A variety of structural and mechanical characterization techniques are applied to investigate structure-property relationships for interfacial fracture behavior. The optical floating zone technique was employed for growing both the eutectic crystals and their single crystal counterparts, Co1-x NixO. Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO) was shown to possess the necessary structural elements to serve as a model system for interfacial fracture. Lamellar microstructures were observed for all compositions. The crystallographic relationships between phases evolved as a model solid solution. Interdiffusion of chemical species was minimal, allowing the layers to treated independently. The core of this thesis is dedicated to studying the nature of interfacial fracture behavior in oxide eutectics. This study is motivated by the novel observation of extensive interfacial delamination for the system CoO/ZrO 2(CaO). A transition from interfacial delamination to interfacial penetration is observed for compositions of Co1-xNixO/ZrO 2(CaO) with x > 0.2. The residual stress state in these materials was investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction-based techniques. The role of plasticity in interfacial fracture was explored using a

  15. The interfacial chemistry of organic materials on commercial glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Joy

    The hydrolytic stability of glass is dependent on its composition. Glasses are exposed to water during their processing and in many applications; therefore, their surface or interface with other materials must withstand hydrolytic attack. Multi-component silicate glasses are widely used but have been the least studied. In coatings-based applications, these glasses come in contact with organosilanes and organic molecules where the adsorption may be affected by surface water. For example, the influence of glass composition on the wet strength of a glass/polymer composite material is unclear, but it is presumed to be driven by the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial chemistry. Organosilanes are critical for increasing the performance of composite materials in humid environments but the precise manner by which the improvement occurs has not been verified. The current school of thought is that the application of silane coatings on a multi-component glass surface transforms the chemically heterogeneous surface into a homogenous and hydrolytically stable surface. In this study, multi-component silicate glass surfaces were silanized by both aqueous and non-aqueous methods. The effect of glass composition and surface hydration on silane coverage was quantified by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The monolayer-level adsorption results showed that the low-sodium content glasses had greater coverage than a high-sodium content glass in dry conditions in contrast to an equivalent coverage in wet conditions. The hydrolytically-stable coverage on multi-component silicate glass surfaces by both silanization methods was found to be sub-monolayer. A thin film model in conjunction with XPS and Infrared Spectroscopy was used to probe the interfacial region of a fiberglass insulation material containing a sodium-rich multi-component silicate glass and an acrylate resin binder. Upon the application of the aqueous binder, the leaching of sodium from the glass promoted

  16. INTERFACIAL AREA TRANSPORT AND REGIME TRANSITION IN COMBINATORIAL CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Seugjin Kim

    2011-01-28

    . This study investigates the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows and flow configurations in two-phase flow. The study shows that the elbows make a significant effect on the transport characteristics of two-phase flow, which includes the changes in interfacial structures, bubble interaction mechanisms and flow regime transition. The effect of the elbows is characterized for global and local two-phase flow parameters. The global two-phase flow parameters include two-phase pressure, interfacial structures and flow regime transition. In order to characterize the frictional pressure drop and minor loss across the vertical elbows, pressure measurements are obtained across the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. A high speed camera is employed to perform extensive flow visualization studies across the elbows in vertical upward, horizontal and vertical downward sections and modified flow regime maps are proposed. It is found that modified flow regime maps immediately downstream of the vertical upward elbow deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime map. A qualitative assessment of the counter-current flow limitation characteristics specific to the current experimental facility is performed. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters such as: void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency. The local measurements are obtained for six different flow conditions at ten measurement locations along axial direction of the test section. Both the vertical-upward and vertical-downward elbows have a significant impact on bubble distribution, resulting in, a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the tube cross-section and migration of bubbles towards the inside of the

  17. Surface Interaction of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Droplets with Interfacially Active Asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen; Zhang, Ling; Xie, Lei; Lu, Xi; Liu, Qingxia; He, Jiajun; Mantilla, Cesar A; Van den Berg, Frans G A; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-02-07

    Adsorption of interfacially active components at the water/oil interface plays critical roles in determining the properties and behaviors of emulsion droplets. In this study, the droplet probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was applied, for the first time, to quantitatively study the interaction mechanism between water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets with interfacially adsorbed asphaltenes. The behaviors and stability of W/O emulsion droplets were demonstrated to be significantly influenced by the asphaltene concentration of organic solution where the emulsions were aged, aging time, force load, contact time, and solvent type. Bare water droplets could readily coalesce with each other in oil (i.e., toluene), while interfacially adsorbed asphaltenes could sterically inhibit droplet coalescence and induce interfacial adhesion during separation of the water droplets. For low asphaltene concentration cases, the adhesion increased with increasing asphaltene concentration (≤100 mg/L), but it significantly decreased at relatively high asphaltene concentration (e.g., 500 mg/L). Experiments in Heptol (i.e., mixture of toluene and heptane) showed that the addition of a poor solvent for asphaltenes (e.g., heptane) could enhance the interfacial adhesion between emulsion droplets at relatively low asphaltene concentration but could weaken the adhesion at relatively high asphaltene concentration. This work has quantified the interactions between W/O emulsion droplets with interfacially adsorbed asphaltenes, and the results provide useful implications into the stabilization mechanisms of W/O emulsions in oil production. The methodology in this work can be readily extended to other W/O emulsion systems with interfacially active components.

  18. The Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment - Interfacial Flow Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Internal heat transfer coefficient of the CVB correlated to the presence of the interfacial flow region. Competition between capillary and Marangoni flow caused Flooding and not a Dry-out region. Interfacial flow region growth is arrested at higher power inputs. 1D heat model confirms the presence of interfacial flow region. 1D heat model confirms the arresting phenomena of interfacial flow region Visual observations are essential to understanding.

  19. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, A. E.; Sinha, S. K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  20. Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid Crystalline Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    investigation supported by this grant moved beyond past studies of interfacial and colloidal phenomena involving isotropic liquids to explore and understand a...2010 20-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 liquid crystals, interfacial phenomena, colloids , amphiphiles

  1. Interfacial & colloidal aspects of lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Wilde, P J; Chu, B S

    2011-06-09

    Amongst the main issues challenging the food manufacturing sector, health and nutrition are becoming increasingly important. Global concerns such as obesity, the ageing population and food security will have to be addressed. Food security is not just about assuring food supply, but is also about optimising nutritional delivery from the food that is available [1]. Therefore one challenge is to optimise the health benefits from the lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Colloid scientists have an affinity for lipids because they are water insoluble, however this presents a challenge to the digestive system, which has to convert them to structures that are less insoluble so they are available for uptake. Despite this, the human digestive system is remarkably effective at digesting and absorbing most lipids. This is primarily driven through maximising energy intake, as lipids possess the highest calorific value, which was a survival trait to survive times of famine, but is now an underlying cause of obesity in developed countries with high food availability. The critical region here is the lipid-water interface, where the key reactions take place to solubilise lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Digestive lipases have to adsorb to the oil water interface in order to hydrolyse triacylglycerols into fatty acids and mono glycerides, which accumulate at the interface [2], and inhibit lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase, which is responsible for the majority of lipid hydrolysis, also requires the action of bile salts and colipase to function effectively. Bile salts both aid the adsorption of co-lipase and lipase, and help solubilise the lipolysis products which have accumulated at the interface, into mixed micelles composing bile salts and a range of other lipids, to facilitate transport to the gut mucosal surface prior to uptake and absorption. The process can be affected by the lipid type, as shorter chain, fatty acids are more easily absorbed, whereas the uptake of longer

  2. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    established estimates are compared with numerical solutions of the equations which in turn suggest an optimal upper bound for the radius of the absorbing ball. A scaling argument is used to explain this, and a general conjecture is made based on extensive computations. We also carry out a complete study of the nonlinear behavior of competing physical mechanisms: long wave instability above a critical Reynolds number, short wave damping due to surface tension and intermediate growth due to the electric field. Through a combination of analysis and extensive numerical experiments, we elucidate parameter regimes that support non-uniform travelling waves, time-periodic travelling waves and complex nonlinear dynamics including chaotic interfacial oscillations. It is established that a sufficiently high electric field will drive the system to chaotic oscillations, even when the Reynolds number is smaller than the critical value below which the non-electrified problem is linearly stable. A particular case of this is Stokes flow, which is known to be stable for this class of problems (an analogous statement holds for horizontally supported films also). Our theoretical results indicate that such highly stable flows can be rendered unstable by using electric fields. This opens the way for possible heat and mass transfer applications which can benefit significantly from interfacial oscillations and interfacial turbulence. For the case of a horizontal plane, a weakly nonlinear theory is not possible due to the absence of the shear flow generated by the gravitational force along the plate when the latter is inclined. We study the fully nonlinear equation, which in this case is asymptotically correct and is obtained at the leading order. The model equation describes both overlying and hanging films - in the former case gravity is stabilizing while in the latter it is destabilizing. The numerical and theoretical analysis of the fully nonlinear evolution is complicated by the fact that the

  3. Detrimental effect of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Peong-Hwa; Lee, Seo-Won E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr; Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Kyung-Jin E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr

    2015-11-16

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ferromagnet/heavy metal bilayers is recently of considerable interest as it offers an efficient control of domain walls and the stabilization of magnetic skyrmions. However, its effect on the performance of perpendicular spin transfer torque memory has not been explored yet. We show based on numerical studies that the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction decreases the thermal energy barrier while increases the switching current. As high thermal energy barrier as well as low switching current is required for the commercialization of spin torque memory, our results suggest that the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction should be minimized for spin torque memory applications.

  4. An excellent candidate for largely reducing interfacial thermal resistance: a nano-confined mass graded interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanguang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing extremely low interfacial thermal resistance has long been the task of many researchers in the area of nano-scale heat transfer, in particular pertaining to improve heat dissipation performance in electronic cooling. While it is well known and documented that confining a macroscopic third layer between two dissimilar materials usually increases the overall interfacial thermal resistance, no research has realized the fundamental decrease in resistance so far. By performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the overall interfacial thermal resistance can be reduced by 6 fold by confining mass graded materials with thickness of the order of nanometers. As comparison we also studied the thermal transport across the perfectly abrupt interface and the widely used alloyed (rough) interface, which shows an opposing and significantly large increase in the overall thermal resistance. With the help of frequency dependent interfacial thermal conductance and wave packet dynamics simulation, different mechanisms governing the heat transfer across these three types of interfaces are identified. It is found that for the rough interface there are two different regimes of interfacial heat transfer, which originates from the competition between phonon scattering and the thickness of the interface. The mechanism of dramatically improved interfacial heat transfer across the nano-confined mass graded interface resides in the minor phonon reflection when the phonons first reach the mass graded area and the rare occurrence of phonon scattering in the subsequent interior region. The phonons are found to be gradually truncated by the geometric interfaces and can travel through the mass graded layer with a high transmission coefficient, benefited from the small mass mismatch between two neighboring layers in the interfacial region. Our findings provide deep insight into the phonon transport across nano-confined mass graded layers and also offer significant

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure dependence of the water-acid gas interfacial tensions.

    PubMed

    Biscay, F; Ghoufi, A; Lachet, V; Malfreyt, P

    2009-10-29

    We report two-phase Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the binary water-acid gas mixtures at high temperature and high pressure. Simulations are performed in the Np(N)AT ensemble in order to reproduce the pressure dependence of the interfacial tensions of the water-CO(2) and water-H(2)S mixtures. The interfacial tension of the binary water-CO(2) mixture is determined from 5 to 45 MPa along the isotherm T = 383 K. Water-H(2)S interfacial tensions are computed along one supercritical isotherm (T = 393 K) in a pressure range of 1-15 MPa. The temperature and pressure conditions investigated here by the MC simulations are typical of the geological storage conditions of these acid gases. The coexisting densities and the compositions of the water-rich and acid-gas-rich phases are compared with experiments and with data calculated from Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations.

  6. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  7. Ordered mesoporous materials based on interfacial assembly and engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yue, Qin; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-10-04

    Ordered mesoporous materials have inspired prominent research interest due to their unique properties and functionalities and potential applications in adsorption, separation, catalysis, sensors, drug delivery, energy conversion and storage, and so on. Thanks to continuous efforts over the past two decades, great achievements have been made in the synthesis and structural characterization of mesoporous materials. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in preparing ordered mesoporous materials from the viewpoint of interfacial assembly and engineering. Five interfacial assembly and synthesis are comprehensively highlighted, including liquid-solid interfacial assembly, gas-liquid interfacial assembly, liquid-liquid interfacial assembly, gas-solid interfacial synthesis, and solid-solid interfacial synthesis, basics about their synthesis pathways, princples and interface engineering strategies.

  8. Interfacial shear rheology of DPPC under physiologically relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Eline; Vermant, Jan

    2014-01-07

    Lipids, and phosphatidylcholines in particular, are major components in cell membranes and in human lung surfactant. Their ability to encapsulate or form stable layers suggests a significant role of the interfacial rheological properties. In the present work we focus on the surface rheological properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Literature results are confusing and even contradictory; viscosity values have been reported differ by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, even both purely viscous and gel-like behaviours have been described. Assessing the literature critically, a limited experimental window has been explored correctly, which however does not yet include conditions relevant for the physiological state of DPPC in vivo. A complete temperature and surface pressure analysis of the interfacial shear rheology of DPPC is performed, showing that the monolayer behaves as a viscoelastic liquid with a domain structure. At low frequencies and for a thermally structured monolayer, the interaction of the molecules within the domains can be probed. The low frequency limit of the complex viscosity is measured over a wide range of temperatures and surface pressures. The effects of temperature and surface pressure on the low frequency viscosity can be analysed in terms of the effects of free molecular area. However, at higher frequencies or following a preshear at high shear rates, elasticity becomes important; most probably elasticity due to defects at the edge of the domains in the layer is probed. Preshearing refines the structure and induces more defects. As a result, disagreeing interfacial rheology results in various publications might be due to different pre-treatments of the interface. The obtained dataset and scaling laws enable us to describe the surface viscosity, and its dependence under physiological conditions of DPPC. The implications on functioning of lung surfactants and lung surfactant replacements will be discussed.

  9. Interfacial sciences in unconventional petroleum production: from fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Lin, Feng; Li, Xingang; Sui, Hong; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-08-07

    With the ever increasing demand for energy to meet the needs of growth in population and improvement in the living standards in particular in developing countries, the abundant unconventional oil reserves (about 70% of total world oil), such as heavy oil, oil/tar sands and shale oil, are playing an increasingly important role in securing global energy supply. Compared with the conventional reserves unconventional oil reserves are characterized by extremely high viscosity and density, combined with complex chemistry. As a result, petroleum production from unconventional oil reserves is much more difficult and costly with more serious environmental impacts. As a key underpinning science, understanding the interfacial phenomena involved in unconventional petroleum production, such as oil liberation from host rocks, oil-water emulsions and demulsification, is critical for developing novel processes to improve oil production while reducing GHG emission and other environmental impacts at a lower operating cost. In the past decade, significant efforts and advances have been made in applying the principles of interfacial sciences to better understand complex unconventional oil-systems, while many environmental and production challenges remain. In this critical review, the recent research findings and progress in the interfacial sciences related to unconventional petroleum production are critically reviewed. In particular, the chemistry of unconventional oils, liberation mechanisms of oil from host rocks and mechanisms of emulsion stability and destabilization in unconventional oil production systems are discussed in detail. This review also seeks to summarize the current state-of-the-art characterization techniques and brings forward the challenges and opportunities for future research in this important field of physical chemistry and petroleum.

  10. Direct observation of interfacial Au atoms on TiO₂ in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenpei; Sivaramakrishnan, Shankar; Wen, Jianguo; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2015-04-08

    Interfacial atoms, which result from interactions between the metal nanoparticles and support, have a large impact on the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. However, they are difficult to observe; the lack of knowledge has been a major obstacle toward unraveling their role in chemical transformations. Here we report conclusive evidence of interfacial Au atoms formed on the rutile (TiO2) (110) surfaces by activation using high-temperature (∼500 °C) annealing in air. Three-dimensional imaging was performed using depth-sectioning enabled by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the interface between Au nanocrystals and TiO2 (110) surfaces consists of a single atomic layer with Au atoms embedded inside Ti-O. The number of interfacial Au atoms is estimated from ∼1-8 in an interfacial atomic column. Direct impact of interfacial Au atoms is observed on an enhanced Au-TiO2 interaction and the reduction of surface TiO2; both are critical to Au catalysis.

  11. Modified Class II open sandwich restorations: evaluation of interfacial adaptation and influence of different restorative techniques.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid E; van Dijken, Jan W V; Hörstedt, Per

    2002-06-01

    The sandwich technique with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) has been proposed to relieve the contraction stresses of direct resin composite (RC) restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial adaptation to enamel and dentin of modified Class II open RMGIC/RC sandwich restorations and the influence of different light curing techniques and matrix bands. Forty box-shaped Class II fillings were placed in vivo in premolars scheduled for extraction after one month. In groups I and II, a metal matrix was used; RC was inserted with horizontal (group I) and diagonal (group II) increments and cured with indirect/direct light. Group III was performed as group II, but a transparent matrix was used. Group IV was as group II, but with a separating liner between RMGIC and RC. Group V was a closed sandwich restoration. Interfacial quality was studied using SEM replica technique. Gap-free interfacial adaptation to enamel was observed for RMGIC in 70%, for RC in 70% and to dentin for RMGIC in 81%, for RC in 56%. No significant differences were seen between the experimental groups. At the cervical margins, RMGIC showed significantly better adaptation to enamel than RC, 74% and 42%, respectively. In conclusion, the investigated restorations showed a high percentage of gap-free interfacial adaptation in vivo. Interfacial adaptation to dentin and to cervical enamel was significantly better for RMGIC than for RC.

  12. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  13. In Situ STEM-EELS observation of nanoscale interfacial phenomena in all-solid-state batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Ziying; Xin, Huolin L.; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; ...

    2016-05-03

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode–solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Usingmore » a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. Here, these findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.« less

  14. In Situ STEM-EELS Observation of Nanoscale Interfacial Phenomena in All-Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziying; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Xin, Huolin L; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-06-08

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode-solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Using a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. These findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.

  15. In Situ STEM-EELS observation of nanoscale interfacial phenomena in all-solid-state batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziying; Xin, Huolin L.; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-05-03

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode–solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Using a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. Here, these findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.

  16. Interfacial structures of LaAlO3 films on Si(100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. B.; Liu, Z. G.; Shi, G. H.; Ling, H. Q.; Zhou, H. W.; Wang, X. P.; Nguyen, B. Y.

    This paper investigates the interfacial characteristics of LaAlO3 (LAO) and LaAlOxNy (LAON) films deposited directly on silicon substrates by the pulsed-laser deposition technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) pictures indicate that an interfacial reaction between LAO and Si often exists. The interfacial layer thickness of LAO films deposited in a nitrogen ambient atmosphere is smaller than that of LAO films deposited in an oxygen ambient atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used to study the composition of the interfacial layer. The shift of the La 3d photoelectron peak to a higher binding energy compared to LaAlO3, the shift of the Al 2p peak to a higher binding energy compared to LaAlO3, the shift of the Si 2p peak to a lower binding energy compared to SiO2 and the intermediate location of the O 1s peak compared to LaAlO3 and SiO2 indicate the existence of a La-Al-Si-O bonding structure, which was also proved by the AES depth profile of LAO films. It can be concluded that the interfacial layer is not simply SiO2 but a compound of La-Al-Si-O.

  17. Role of interface structure and interfacial defects in oxide scale growth

    SciTech Connect

    Pieraggi, B.; Rapp, R.A.; Hirth, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    Recent studies of the structure and dynamics of solid-solid interfaces have provided some understanding about the role of the scale-metal interface in the growth of reaction product scales on pure metals. The action of interfacial defects (misfit dislocations, misorientation dislocations and disconnections) in the creation and annihilation of the point defects supporting the diffusional growth of scales is considered. Anion point defects (vacancies/interstitials) supporting scale growth by anion diffusion are annihilated/created by the climb of misorientation dislocations or disconnections in the scale at the interface. For scale growth by cation diffusion, cation point defects (vacancies/interstitials) can be annihilated/created by the climb of interfacial misfit or misorientation dislocations in the metal. Because of their necessarily high density, in most cases, the dominant climb of misfit dislocations would be favored. The blocking of interfacial reaction steps can be a means to retard the scaling kinetics and to alter the fundamental scaling mode. For instance, the interfacial segregation of large reactive element ions can point the interface dislocations, an action which poisons the usual interfacial reaction step. Such considerations are consistent with the well-known phenomena ascribed to the reactive element effect (REE).

  18. Ionic Liquids as the MOFs/Polymer Interfacial Binder for Efficient Membrane Separation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rijia; Ge, Lei; Diao, Hui; Rudolph, Victor; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2016-11-23

    Obtaining strong interfacial affinity between filler and polymer is critical to the preparation of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with high separation efficiency. However, it is still a challenge for micron-sized metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to achieve excellent compatibility and defect-free interface with polymer matrix. Thin layer of ionic liquid (IL) was immobilized on micron-sized HKUST-1 to eliminate the interfacial nonselective voids in MMMs with minimized free ionic liquid (IL) in polymer matrix, and then the obtained IL decorated HKUST-1 was incorporated into 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride-2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,3-phenyldiamine (6FDA-Durene) to fabricate MMMs. Acting as a filler/polymer interfacial binder, the favorable MOF/IL and IL/polymer interaction can facilitate the enhancement of MOF/polymer affinity. Compared to MMM with only HKUST-1 incorporation, MMM with IL decorated HKUST-1 succeeded in restricting the formation of nonselective interfacial voids, leading to an increment in CO2 selectivity. The IL decoration method can be an effective approach to eliminate interfacial voids in MMMs, extending the filler selection to a wide range of large-sized fillers.

  19. Application of nanoindentation testing to study of the interfacial transition zone in steel fiber reinforced mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaohui Jacobsen, Stefan; He Jianying; Zhang Zhiliang; Lee, Siaw Foon; Lein, Hilde Lea

    2009-08-15

    The characteristics of the profiles of elastic modulus and hardness of the steel fiber-matrix and fiber-matrix-aggregate interfacial zones in steel fiber reinforced mortars have been investigated by using nanoindentation and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), where two sets of parameters, i.e. water/binder ratio and content of silica fume were considered. Different interfacial bond conditions in the interfacial transition zones (ITZ) are discussed. For sample without silica fume, efficient interfacial bonds across the steel fiber-matrix and fiber-matrix-aggregate interfaces are shown in low water/binder ratio mortar; while in high water/binder ratio mortar, due to the discontinuous bleeding voids underneath the fiber, the fiber-matrix bond is not very good. On the other hand, for sample with silica fume, the addition of 10% silica fume leads to no distinct presence of weak ITZ in the steel fiber-matrix interface; but the effect of the silica fume on the steel fiber-matrix-aggregate interfacial zone is not obvious due to voids in the vicinity of steel fiber.

  20. Finite-size effects on molecular dynamics interfacial thermal-resistance predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2014-08-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the role of finite size effects on the determination of interfacial thermal resistance between two solids characterized by high phonon mean free paths. In particular, we will show that a direct, heat source-sink method leads to strong size effect, associated with ballistic phonon transport to and from, and specular reflections at the simulation domain boundary. Lack of proper account for these effects can lead to incorrect predictions about the role of interfacial bonding and structure on interfacial thermal resistance. We also show that the finite size effect can be dramatically reduced by introduction of rough external boundaries leading to diffuse phonon scattering, as explicitly demonstrated by phonon wave-packet simulations. Finally, we demonstrate that when careful considerations are given to the effects associated with the finite heat capacity of the simulation domains and phonon scattering from the external surfaces, a size-independent interfacial resistance can be properly extracted from the time integral of the correlation function of heat power across the interface. Our work demonstrates that reliable and consistent values of the interfacial thermal resistance can be obtained by equilibrium and nonequilibrium methods with a relatively small computational cost.

  1. Interfacial geometry dictates cancer cell tumorigenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmin; Abdeen, Amr A.; Wycislo, Kathryn L.; Fan, Timothy M.; Kilian, Kristopher A.

    2016-08-01

    Within the heterogeneous architecture of tumour tissue there exists an elusive population of stem-like cells that are implicated in both recurrence and metastasis. Here, by using engineered extracellular matrices, we show that geometric features at the perimeter of tumour tissue will prime a population of cells with a stem-cell-like phenotype. These cells show characteristics of cancer stem cells in vitro, as well as enhanced tumorigenicity in murine models of primary tumour growth and pulmonary metastases. We also show that interfacial geometry modulates cell shape, adhesion through integrin α5β1, MAPK and STAT activity, and initiation of pluripotency signalling. Our results for several human cancer cell lines suggest that interfacial geometry triggers a general mechanism for the regulation of cancer-cell state. Similar to how a growing tumour can co-opt normal soluble signalling pathways, our findings demonstrate how cancer can also exploit geometry to orchestrate oncogenesis.

  2. Scaling for interfacial tensions near critical endpoints.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Shun-Yong; Fisher, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Parametric scaling representations are obtained and studied for the asymptotic behavior of interfacial tensions in the full neighborhood of a fluid (or Ising-type) critical endpoint, i.e., as a function both of temperature and of density/order parameter or chemical potential/ordering field. Accurate nonclassical critical exponents and reliable estimates for the universal amplitude ratios are included naturally on the basis of the "extended de Gennes-Fisher" local-functional theory. Serious defects in previous scaling treatments are rectified and complete wetting behavior is represented; however, quantitatively small, but unphysical residual nonanalyticities on the wetting side of the critical isotherm are smoothed out "manually." Comparisons with the limited available observations are presented elsewhere but the theory invites new, searching experiments and simulations, e.g., for the vapor-liquid interfacial tension on the two sides of the critical endpoint isotherm for which an amplitude ratio -3.25+/-0.05 is predicted.

  3. Interfacial thermodynamics of micro heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.W. ); Peterson, G.P. )

    1995-02-01

    Successful analysis and modeling of micro heat pipes requires a complete understanding of the vapor-liquid interface. A thermodynamic model of the vapor-liquid interface in micro heat pipes has been formulated that includes axial pressure and temperature differences, changes in local interfacial curvature, Marangoni effects, and the disjoining pressure. Relationships were developed for the interfacial mass flux in an extended meniscus, the heat transfer rate in the intrinsic meniscus, the 'thermocapillary' heat-pipe limitation, as well as the nonevaporating superheated liquid film thickness that exists between adjacent menisci and occurs during liquid dry out in the evaporator. These relationships can be used to define quantitative restrictions and/or requirements necessary for proper operation of micro heat pipes. They also provide fundamental insight into the critical mechanisms required for proper heat pipe operation. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The contact area dependent interfacial thermal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenhan; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the contact area on the interfacial thermal conductance σ are investigated using the atomic Green’s function method. Different from the prediction of the heat diffusion transport model, we obtain an interesting result that the interfacial thermal conductance per unit area Λ is positively dependent on the contact area as the area varies from a few atoms to several square nanometers. Through calculating the phonon transmission function, it is uncovered that the phonon transmission per unit area increases with the increased contact area. This is attributed to that each atom has more neighboring atoms in the counterpart of the interface with the increased contact area, which provides more channels for phonon transport.

  5. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  6. Recent Advances in Colloidal and Interfacial Phenomena Involving Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yiqun; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes recent advances in several areas of research involving the interfacial ordering of liquid crystals (LCs). The first advance revolves around the ordering of LCs at bio/chemically functionalized surfaces. Whereas the majority of past studies of surface-induced ordering of LCs have involved surfaces of solids that present a limited diversity of chemical functional groups (surfaces at which van der Waals forces dominate surface-induced ordering), recent studies have moved to investigate the ordering of LCs on chemically complex surfaces. For example, surfaces decorated with biomolecules (e.g. oligopeptides and proteins) and transition metal ions have been investigated, leading to an understanding of the roles that metal-ligand coordination interactions, electrical double-layers, acid-base interactions, and hydrogen bonding can have on the interfacial ordering of LCs. The opportunity to create chemically-responsive LCs capable of undergoing ordering transitions in the presence of targeted molecular events (e.g., ligand exchange around a metal center) has emerged from these fundamental studies. A second advance has focused on investigations of the ordering of LCs at interfaces with immiscible isotropic fluids, particularly water. In contrast to prior studies of surface-induced ordering of LCs on solid surfaces, LC- aqueous interfaces are deformable and molecules at these interfaces exhibit high levels of mobility and thus can reorganize in response to changes in interfacial environment. A range of fundamental investigations involving these LC-aqueous interfaces have revealed that (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of assemblies formed from biomolecular interactions can be reported by surface-driven ordering transitions in the LCs, (ii) the interfacial phase behaviour of molecules and colloids can be coupled to (and manipulated via) the ordering (and nematic elasticity) of LCs, and (iii) confinement of LCs leads to unanticipated size

  7. Characterization of interfacial waves in horizontal core-annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico F.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we characterize interfacial waves in horizontal core annular flow (CAF) of fuel-oil and water. Experimental studies on CAF were performed in an acrylic pipe of 15.5mm internal diameter, and the time evolution of the oil-water interface shape was recorded with a high speed camera for a range of different flow-rates of oil (Qo) and water (Qw). The power spectrum of the interface shape shows a range of notable features. First, there is negligible energy in wavenumbers larger than 2 π / a , where a is the thickness of the annulus. Second, for high Qo /Qw , there is no single dominant wavelength, as the flow in the confined annulus does not allow formation of a preferred mode. Third, for lower Qo /Qw , a dominant mode arises at a wavenumber of 2 π / a . We also observe that the power spectrum of the interface shape depends weakly on Qw, and strongly on Qo, perhaps because the net shear rate in the annulus appears to depend weakly on Qw as well. We also attempt to build a general empirical model for CAF by relating the interfacial stress (calculated via the mean pressure gradient) to the flow rate in the annulus, the annular thickness and the core velocity. Authors are thankful to Orica Mining Services (Australia) for the financial support.

  8. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C A F; Walker, F J; Ahn, C H; Ismail-Beigi, S

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  9. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  10. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  11. Magnetoelectric Coupling Induced by Interfacial Orbital Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Mao, Haijun; Wu, Huaqiang; Li, Fan; Peng, Jingjing; Wang, Guangyue; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Reversible orbital reconstruction driven by ferroelectric polarization modulates the magnetic performance of model ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures without onerous limitations. Mn-d(x2-y2) orbital occupancy and related interfacial exotic magnetic states are enhanced and weakened by negative and positive electric fields, respectively, filling the missing member-orbital in the mechanism of magnetoelectric coupling and advancing the application of orbitals to microelectronics.

  12. Effects of Impurities on Alumina-Niobium InterfacialMicrostructures

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Sugar, Joshua D.; Gronsky, Ronald; Glaeser,Andreas M.

    2005-06-20

    Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the interfacial microstructural effects of impurities in alumina substrates used to fabricate alumina-niobium interfaces via liquid-film-assisted joining. Three types of alumina were used: undoped high-purity single-crystal sapphire; a high-purity, high-strength polycrystalline alumina; and a lower-purity, lower-strength polycrystalline alumina. Interfaces formed between niobium and both the sapphire and high-purity polycrystalline alumina were free of detectable levels of impurities. In the lower-purity alumina, niobium silicides were observed at the alumina-niobium interface and on alumina grain boundaries near the interface. These silicides formed in small-grained regions of the alumina and were found to grow from the interface into the alumina along grain boundaries. Smaller silicide precipitates found on grain boundaries are believed to form upon cooling from the bonding temperature.

  13. Ultralow Interfacial Tension Measurement through Jetting/Dripping Transition.

    PubMed

    Moiré, Marie; Peysson, Yannick; Herzhaft, Benjamin; Pannacci, Nicolas; Gallaire, François; Augello, Laura; Dalmazzone, Christine; Colin, Annie

    2017-03-14

    In this paper, we present a dynamic microfluidic tensiometer able to perform measurements over more than four decades and which is suitable for high throughput experimentations. This tensiometer is able to withstand hard conditions such as high pressure, high temperature, high salinity, and crude oil. It is made of two coaxial capillaries in which two immiscible fluids are injected. Depending on the flow rate of each phase, either droplets or jetting will be obtained. The transition between these two regimes relies on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. This transition can be theoretically computed thanks to a linear analysis based on the convective and absolute instabilities theory. From this model, the interfacial tension between the two phases can be calculated.

  14. Transient optical diffraction of GaN/aqueous interfaces: Interfacial carrier mobility dependence on surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Hoang Q.; Pollock, Kevin L.; Cuk, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    While charge transport and surface reactivity have thus far been treated as independent phenomena, the interfacial carrier mobility could be highly dependent on reaction intermediates that carry localized charge and can hop from site to site along the surface. Here, we demonstrate the use of surface sensitive transient optical grating spectroscopy to measure this lateral, interfacial carrier diffusivity at surfaces with different reactivity. We find that for n-GaN, for which substantial charge transfer occurs during equilibration with the water oxidation reaction, the interfacial hole diffusivity increases from air by a factor greater than two under 0.1 M HBr and 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolytes.

  15. Understanding controls on interfacial wetting at epitaxial graphene: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of interfacial water with graphitic carbon at the atomic scale is studied as a function of the hydrophobicity of epitaxial graphene. High resolution x-ray reflectivity shows that the graphene-water contact angle is controlled by the average graphene thickness, due to the fraction of the film surface expressed as the epitaxial buffer layer whose contact angle (contact angle {Theta}{sub c} = 73{sup o}) is substantially smaller than that of multilayer graphene ({Theta}{sub c} = 93{sup o}). Classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the reduced contact angle of the buffer layer is due to both its epitaxy with the SiC substrate and the presence of interfacial defects. This insight clarifies the relationship between interfacial water structure and hydrophobicity, in general, and suggests new routes to control interface properties of epitaxial graphene.

  16. Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, T.

    2009-05-15

    Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we have succeeded in creating the static and stable gas (plasmas)-liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field using a direct current discharge under a low gas pressure condition. It is clarified that the ionic liquid works as a nonmetal liquid electrode, and furthermore, a secondary electron emission coefficient of the ionic liquid is larger than that of conventional metal electrodes. The plasma potential structure of the gas-liquid interfacial region, and resultant interactions between the plasma and the ionic liquid are revealed by changing a polarity of the electrode in the ionic liquid. By utilizing the ionic liquid as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma region are found to be irradiated to the ionic liquid. This ion irradiation causes physical and chemical reactions at the gas-liquid interfacial region without the vaporization of the ionic liquid.

  17. Interfacial Properties of a Hydrophobic Dye in the Tetrachloroethylene-Water-Glass Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-02-23

    Interfacial effects play an important role in governing multiphase fluid behavior in porous media. Strongly hydrophobic organic dyes, used in many experimental studies to facilitate visual observation of the phase distributions, have generally been implicitly assumed to have no influence on the interfacial properties of the various phases in porous media. Sudan IV is the most commonly used dye for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in laboratory experiments. It has also been used in at least one field experiment. The effects of this dye on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-water-glass system were investigated to test the assumption that the dye does not effect the interfacial properties and therefore PCE mobility. The results indicate that the dye does indeed change the interfacial relationships.The effect of the dye on the interfacial relationships is a complex function of the dye concentration, the solid phase composition, and the dynamic rate of new interface formation. The dye caused a slight (<10 percent) increase in interfacial tension at low concentrations (<0.1 g/L) and high rates of new interface formation. The dye reduced interfacial tension between PCE and water at low rates of new interface formation for all dye concentrations tested (0.00508 to 5.08 g/L). At the highest dye concentration, the PCE-water interfacial tension was significantly reduced regardless of the rate of new interface formation. The apparent interfacial tension increase at low dye concentrations is suspected to be an artifact of a low measured IFT value for the undyed PCE caused by leaching of rubber o-rings by the PCE prior to testing in the final drop-volume configuration.In addition to reducing interfacial tension, the dye was found to significantly alter the wetting relationship between PCE and water on a glass surface at and above the range of reported dye concentrations cited in the literature (1.1 to 1.7 g/L). The wetting relationship was rendered neutral from a water-wet initial

  18. Effect of interfacial interactions on the thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance in tungsten–graphene layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.

    2014-09-01

    Graphene film was deposited by microwave plasma assisted deposition on polished oxygen free high conductivity copper foils. Tungsten–graphene layered film was formed by deposition of tungsten film by magnetron sputtering on the graphene covered copper foils. Tungsten film was also deposited directly on copper foil without graphene as the intermediate film. The tungsten–graphene–copper samples were heated at different temperatures up to 900 °C in argon atmosphere to form an interfacial tungsten carbide film. Tungsten film deposited on thicker graphene platelets dispersed on silicon wafer was also heated at 900 °C to identify the formation of tungsten carbide film by reaction of tungsten with graphene platelets. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that tungsten carbide film formed at the interface upon heating only above 650 °C. Transient thermoreflectance signal from the tungsten film surface on the samples was collected and modeled using one-dimensional heat equation. The experimental and modeled results showed that the presence of graphene at the interface reduced the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity and the interfacial thermal conductance of the layer structure. Heating at 650 and 900 °C in argon further reduced the cross-plane thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance as a result of formation nanocrystalline tungsten carbide at the interface leading to separation and formation of voids. The present results emphasize that interfacial interactions between graphene and carbide forming bcc and hcp elements will reduce the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity in composites.

  19. Investigation of interfacial rheology & foam stability.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn M.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-05-01

    The rheology at gas-liquid interfaces strongly influences the stability and dynamics of foams and emulsions. Several experimental techniques are employed to characterize the rheology at liquid-gas interfaces with an emphasis on the non-Newtonian behavior of surfactant-laden interfaces. The focus is to relate the interfacial rheology to the foamability and foam stability of various aqueous systems. An interfacial stress rheometer (ISR) is used to measure the steady and dynamic rheology by applying an external magnetic field to actuate a magnetic needle suspended at the interface. Results are compared with those from a double wall ring attachment to a rotational rheometer (TA Instruments AR-G2). Micro-interfacial rheology (MIR) is also performed using optical tweezers to manipulate suspended microparticle probes at the interface to investigate the steady and dynamic rheology. Additionally, a surface dilatational rheometer (SDR) is used to periodically oscillate the volume of a pendant drop or buoyant bubble. Applying the Young-Laplace equation to the drop shape, a time-dependent surface tension can be calculated and used to determine the effective dilatational viscosity of an interface. Using the ISR, double wall ring, SDR, and MIR, a wide range of sensitivity in surface forces (fN to nN) can be explored as each experimental method has different sensitivities. Measurements will be compared to foam stability.

  20. Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A.

    2010-03-11

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

  1. Interfacial tension and interfacial profiles: an equation-of-state approach.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2003-11-15

    A quasi-thermodynamic approach of inhomogeneous systems is used for modeling the fluid-fluid interface. It is based on the recently introduced QCHB (quasi-chemical hydrogen bonding) equation-of-state model of fluids and their mixtures, which is used for the estimation of the Helmholtz free energy density difference, Deltapsi(0), between the system with interface and another system of the same constitution but without interface. Consistent expressions for the interfacial tension and interfacial profiles for various properties are presented. The interfacial tension is proportional to the integral of Deltapsi(0) along the full height of the system, the proportionality constant being equal to 1, when no density gradient contributions are taken into consideration, 2, when the Cahn-Hilliard approximation is adopted, and 4, when the full density gradient contributions are taken into consideration. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated surface tensions. Extension of the approach to mixtures is examined along with the associated problems for the numerical calculations of the interfacial profiles. A new equation is derived for the chemical potentials in the interfacial region, which facilitates very much the calculation of the composition profiles across the interface.

  2. Temperature-activated interfacial friction damping in carbon nanotube polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Jonghwan; Zhang, Wei; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2006-02-01

    Effect of temperature on interfacial sliding in single-walled carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites is investigated experimentally. We show that interfacial slip at the tube-polymer interfaces can be activated at relatively low dynamic strain levels ( approximately 0.35%) by raising temperature to approximately 90 degrees C. We attribute this to increased mobility of the polymer chain backbones at elevated temperatures and thermal relaxation of the radial compressive stresses at the tube-polymer interfaces. These results show the potential of polymer nanocomposites as high-temperature damping materials for vibration and acoustic suppression in a variety of dynamic systems.

  3. TFB:TPDSi2 interfacial layer usable in organic photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Iobin J [Evanston, IL; Hains, Alexander W [Evanston, IL

    2011-02-15

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode; an active organic layer comprising an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material; and an interfacial layer formed between the anode and active organic layer, where the interfacial layer comprises a hole-transporting polymer characterized with a hole-mobility higher than that of the electron-donating organic material in the active organic layer, and a small molecule that has a high hole-mobility and is capable of crosslinking on contact with air.

  4. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-lun; Onuki, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In this paper, the flat interface of a marginally polar binary fluid mixture is stressed by a perpendicular alternating electric field and the resulting instability is characterized by the critical electric field E(sub c) and the pattern observed. The character of the surface dynamics at the onset of instability is found to be strongly dependent on the frequency f of the field applied. The plot of E(sub c) vs. f for a fixed temperature shows a sigmoidal shape, whose low and high frequency limits are well described by a power-law relationship, E(sub c) = epsilon(exp zeta) with zeta = 0.35 and zeta = 0.08, respectively. The low-limit exponent compares well with the value zeta = 4 for a system of conducting and non-conducting fluids. On the other hand, the high-limit exponent coincides with what was first predicted by Onuki. The instability manifests itself as the conducting phase penetrates the non-conducting phase. As the frequency increases, the shape of the pattern changes from an array of bifurcating strings to an array of column-like (or rod-like) protrusions, each of which spans the space between the plane interface and one of the electrodes. For an extremely high frequency, the disturbance quickly grows into a parabolic cone pointing toward the upper plate. As a result, the interface itself changes its shape from that of a plane to that of a high sloping pyramid.

  5. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  6. Interfacial Symmetry Control of Emergent Ferromagnetism at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Grutter, A J; Vailionis, A; Borchers, J A; Kirby, B J; Flint, C L; He, C; Arenholz, E; Suzuki, Y

    2016-09-14

    The emergence of complex new ground states at interfaces has been identified as one of the most promising routes to highly tunable nanoscale materials. Despite recent progress, isolating and controlling the underlying mechanisms behind these emergent properties remains among the most challenging materials physics problems to date. In particular, generating ferromagnetism localized at the interface of two nonferromagnetic materials is of fundamental and technological interest. Moreover, the ability to turn the ferromagnetism on and off would shed light on the origin of such emergent phenomena and is promising for spintronic applications. We demonstrate that ferromagnetism confined within one unit cell at the interface of CaRuO3 and CaMnO3 can be switched on and off by changing the symmetry of the oxygen octahedra connectivity at the boundary. Interfaces that are symmetry-matched across the boundary exhibit interfacial CaMnO3 ferromagnetism while the ferromagnetism at symmetry-mismatched interfaces is suppressed. We attribute the suppression of ferromagnetic order to a reduction in charge transfer at symmetry-mismatched interfaces, where frustrated bonding weakens the orbital overlap. Thus, interfacial symmetry is a new route to control emergent ferromagnetism in materials such as CaMnO3 that exhibit antiferromagnetism in bulk form.

  7. Drop impact on liquid film: dynamics of interfacial gas layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K.; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Drop impacting liquid film is commonly observed in many processes including inkjet printing and thermal sprays. Owing to the resistance from the interfacial gas layer trapped between the drop and film surface, impact may not always result in coalescence; and as such investigating the behavior of the interfacial gas layer is important to understand the transition between bouncing and merging outcomes. The gas layer is, however, not easily optically accessible due to its microscopic scale and curved interfaces. We report the measurement of this critical gas layer thickness between two liquid surfaces using high-speed color interferometry capable of measuring micron and submicron thicknesses. The complete gas layer dynamics for the bouncing cases can be divided into two stages: the approaching stage when the drop squeezes the gas layer at the beginning of the impact, and the rebounding stage when the drop retracts and rebounds from the liquid film. The approaching stage is found to be similar across wide range of conditions studied. However, for the rebounding stage, with increase of liquid film thickness, the evolution of gas layer changes dramatically, displaying a non-monotonic behavior. Such dynamics is analyzed in lights of various competing timescales.

  8. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz) aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE) generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N)-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution) and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  9. Influence of interfacial rheology on stabilization of the tear film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamla, M. Saad; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2014-11-01

    The tear film that protecting the ocular surface is a complex, thin film comprised of a collection of proteins and lipids that come together to provide a number of important functions. Of particular interest in this presentation is meibum, an insoluble layer that is spread from glands lining our eyelids. Past work has focussed on the role of this layer in reducing evaporation, although conflicting evidence on its ability to reduce evaporative loss has been published. We present here the beneficial effects that are derived through the interfacial viscoelasticity of the meibomian lipid film. This is a duplex film is comprised of a rich mixture of phospholipids, long chain fatty esters, and cholesterol esters. Using interfacial rheology measurements, meibum has been shown to be highly viscoelastic. By measuring the drainage and dewetting dynamics of thin aqueous films from hemispherical surfaces where those films are laden with insoluble layers of lipids at controlled surface pressure, we offer evidence that these layers strongly stabilize the films because of their ability to support surface shearing stresses. This alternative view of the role of meibum can help explain the origin of meibomian gland dysfunction, or dry eye disease, where improper compositions of this lipid mixture do not offer the proper mechanical resistance to breakage and dewetting of the tear film.

  10. Plasmonic Imaging of the Interfacial Potential Distribution on Bipolar Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Meisam; Fang, Yimin; Li, Meng; Jiang, Yingyan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar electrochemistry is based on the gradient distribution of free-electron density along an electrically isolated electrode, which causes a positive electrode potential at one end and a negative potential at the other, allowing for wide applications in analytical chemistry and materials science. To take full advantage of its wireless and high-throughput features, various types of optical probes, such as pH indicators and fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence reagents, have often been used to indirectly monitor the interfacial electron transfer through chromogenic or fluorogenic reactions. Herein, we report the first probe-free imaging approach that can directly visualize the distribution of the interfacial potential in bipolar electrodes, providing essential information for the validation and development of the theory and applications of bipolar electrochemistry. This approach is based on the sensitive dependence of surface plasmon resonance imaging on the local electron density in the electrode, which enables the direct mapping of potential with a spatial resolution close to the optical diffraction limit, a temporal resolution of 50 ms, and a sensitivity of 10 mV. In addition, in contrast to previous optical readouts that relied on faradaic reactions, the present work achieved the impedance-based measurements under non-faradaic conditions. It is anticipated that this technique will greatly expand the application of bipolar electrochemistry as a platform for chemical and biosensing.

  11. Molecular and Interfacial Calculations of Iron(II) Light Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Fredin, Lisa A; Wärnmark, Kenneth; Sundström, Villy; Persson, Petter

    2016-04-07

    Iron-carbene complexes show considerable promise as earth-abundant light-harvesters, and adsorption onto nanostructured TiO2 is a crucial step for developing solar energy applications. Intrinsic electron injection capabilities of such promising Fe(II) N-heterocyclic complexes (Fe-NHC) to TiO2 are calculated here, and found to correlate well with recent experimental findings of highly efficient interfacial injection. First, we examine the special bonding characteristics of Fe-NHC light harvesters. The excited-state surfaces are examined using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to explore relaxed excited-state properties. Finally, by relaxing an Fe-NHC adsorbed on a TiO2 nanocluster, we show favorable injection properties in terms of interfacial energy level alignment and electronic coupling suitable for efficient electron injection of excited electrons from the Fe complex into the TiO2 conduction band on ∼100 fs time scales.

  12. Microfluidic destabilization of viscous stratifications: Interfacial waves and droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Cubaud, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic two-fluid flows with large differences in viscosity are experimentally investigated to examine the role of fluid properties on hydrodynamic destabilization processes at the small scale. Two- and three-layer flow configurations are systematically studied in straight square microchannels using miscible and immiscible fluid pairs. We focus our attention on symmetric three-layer stratifications with a fast central stream made of low-viscosity fluid and a slow sheath flow composed of high-viscosity fluid. We quantify the influence of the capillary and the Reynolds numbers on the formation and evolution of droplets and wavy stratifications. Several functional relationships are developed for the morphology and dynamics of droplets and interfacial waves including size, celerity and frequency. In the wavy stratification regime, the formation and entrainment of thin viscous ligaments from wave crests display a rich variety of dynamics either in the presence or in the absence of interfacial tension between liquids. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).

  13. Interfacial electrofluidics in confined systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Biao; Groenewold, Jan; Zhou, Min; Hayes, Robert A.; Zhou, Guofu (G. F.)

    2016-05-01

    Electrofluidics is a versatile principle that can be used for high speed actuation of liquid interfaces. In most of the applications, the fundamental mechanism of electro-capillary instability plays a crucial role, yet it’s potential richness in confined fluidic layers has not been well addressed. Electrofluidic displays which are comprised of thin pixelated colored films in a range of architectures are excellent systems for studying such phenomena. In this study we show theoretically and experimentally that confinement leads to the generation of a cascade of voltage dependent modes as a result of the electro-capillary instability. In the course of reconciling theory with our experimental data we have observed a number of previously unreported phenomena such as a significant induction time (several milliseconds) prior to film rupture as well as a rupture location not corresponding to the minimum electric field strength in the case of the standard convex water/oil interface used in working devices. These findings are broadly applicable to a wide range of switchable electrofluidic applications and devices having confined liquid films.

  14. Interfacial electrofluidics in confined systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Biao; Groenewold, Jan; Zhou, Min; Hayes, Robert A.; Zhou, Guofu (G.F.)

    2016-01-01

    Electrofluidics is a versatile principle that can be used for high speed actuation of liquid interfaces. In most of the applications, the fundamental mechanism of electro-capillary instability plays a crucial role, yet it’s potential richness in confined fluidic layers has not been well addressed. Electrofluidic displays which are comprised of thin pixelated colored films in a range of architectures are excellent systems for studying such phenomena. In this study we show theoretically and experimentally that confinement leads to the generation of a cascade of voltage dependent modes as a result of the electro-capillary instability. In the course of reconciling theory with our experimental data we have observed a number of previously unreported phenomena such as a significant induction time (several milliseconds) prior to film rupture as well as a rupture location not corresponding to the minimum electric field strength in the case of the standard convex water/oil interface used in working devices. These findings are broadly applicable to a wide range of switchable electrofluidic applications and devices having confined liquid films. PMID:27221211

  15. Characterization of interfacial solvent in protein complexes and contribution of wet spots to the interface description.

    PubMed

    Teyra, Joan; Pisabarro, M T

    2007-06-01

    Water networks in protein interfaces can complement direct interactions contributing significantly to molecular recognition, function, and stability of protein association. Thus, water can be seen as an extension or addition of protein structural features, which may add plenty of information to protein interfacial definition. However, solvent is frequently neglected in protein interaction studies. Analysis of the interfacial information contained in the PDB is essential to achieve more accurate descriptions of protein interfaces. With this aim, we have used the SCOWLP database (http://www.scowlp.org) and applied computational geometry methods to extract and analyze interfacial information of a high-resolution nonredundant dataset of 176 protein complexes containing obligate and transient interfaces. We have identified all interfacial residues and characterized them in terms of temperature factors, secondary structure, residue composition, and pairing preferences to understand their contribution to the interface description. We have paid special attention to water-bridged residues; focusing on those that interact only mediated by a water molecule called wet spots. Our results show that 40.1% of the interfacial residues are interacting through water and that wet spots represent a 14.5% of the total, emphasizing the importance of the inclusion of solvent in protein interaction studies, and the contribution of wet spots to interfacial description. Wet spots present similar characteristics to residues binding buried water molecules in the core or cavities of proteins; being preferably located in nonregular secondary structures and establishing hydrogen bonds by their main-chains. We observe that obligate and transient interfaces present a comparable amount of solvent. Moreover, the role of solvent in both complex types differs according to the different nature of their interfaces. The information obtained in our studies will assist in the process of accomplishing more

  16. Functionalization enhancement on interfacial shear strength between graphene and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yikuang; Duan, Fangli; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-11-01

    Pull-out processes were simulated to investigate the interfacial mechanical properties between the functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) and polyethylene (PE) matrix by using molecular dynamics simulation with ReaxFF reactive force field. The interfacial structure of polymer and the interfacial interaction in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems were also analyzed to reveal the enhancement mechanism of interfacial shear strength. We observed the insertion of functional groups into polymer layer in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems. During the pull-out process, some interfacial chains were attached on the FGS and pulled out from the polymer matrix. The behavior of these pulled out chains was further analyzed to clarify the different traction action of functional groups applied on them. The results show that the traction effect of functional groups on the pulled-out chains is agreement with their enhancement influence on the interfacial shear strength of the FGS/PE systems. They both are basically dominated by the size of functional groups, suggesting the enhancement mechanism of mechanical interlocking. However, interfacial binding strength also exhibits an obvious influence on the interfacial shear properties of the hybrid system. Our simulation show that geometric constrains at the interface is the principal contributor to the enhancement of interfacial shear strength in the FGS/PE systems, which could be further strengthened by the wrinkled morphology of graphene in experiments.

  17. Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; ...

    2014-08-24

    In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.

  18. Interfacial properties of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint; Tsige, Mesfin; Borodin, Oleg; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2008-06-01

    The liquid-vapor interfacial properties of semifluorinated linear alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1(CH2)m-1CH3 are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The chemical composition and the conformation of the molecules at the interface are identified and correlated with the interfacial energies. A modified form of the Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom (OPLS-AA) force field of Jorgensen and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 6638 (1984); 118, 11225 (1996); J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4118 (2001)], which includes specific dihedral terms for H-F blocks-and corrections to the H-F nonbonded interaction, is used together with a new version of the exp-6 force field developed in this work. Both force fields yield good agreement with the available experimental liquid density and surface tension data as well as each other over significant temperature ranges and for a variety of chain lengths and compositions. The interfacial regions of semifluorinated alkanes are found to be rich in fluorinated groups compared to hydrogenated groups, an effect that decreases with increasing temperature but is independent of the fractional length of the fluorinated segments. The proliferation of fluorine at the surface substantially lowers the surface tension of the diblock copolymers, yielding values near those of perfluorinated alkanes and distinct from those of protonated alkanes of the same chain length. With decreasing temperatures within the liquid state, chains are found to preferentially align perpendicular to the interface, as previously seen.

  19. Interfacial Molecular Searching Using Forager Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserud, Jon H.; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2016-03-01

    Many biological and technological systems employ efficient non-Brownian intermittent search strategies where localized searches alternate with long flights. Coincidentally, molecular species exhibit intermittent behavior at the solid-liquid interface, where periods of slow motion are punctuated by fast flights through the liquid phase. Single-molecule tracking was used here to observe the interfacial search process of DNA for complementary DNA. Measured search times were qualitatively consistent with an intermittent-flight model, and ˜10 times faster than equivalent Brownian searches, suggesting that molecular searches for reactive sites benefit from similar efficiencies as biological organisms.

  20. Interfacial supersaturation, secondary nucleation, and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Wu, Jenn-Fang; Rousseau, Ronald W.

    1992-02-01

    A theory describing the source of nuclei in secondary nucleation is presented and used to rationalize experimental data from the literature, some of which had appeared to be conflicting. The theory rests on a model in which an adsorption layer consisting of clusters of growth units of varying size is formed on the surface of growing crystals. The existence of the layer is related to the two-resistance model of crystal growth; by varying system conditions, the relative importance of the two resistances is altered and thereby changes the interfacial supersaturation even though overall supersaturation remains constant. Interracial supersaturation and contact energy determine kinetics in a system dominated by contact nucleation.

  1. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun Song, Yanlin

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and Γ, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and Γ, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  2. Dynamic interfacial behavior of viscoelastic aqueous hyaluronic acid: effects of molecular weight, concentration and interfacial velocity.

    PubMed

    Vorvolakos, Katherine; Coburn, James C; Saylor, David M

    2014-04-07

    An aqueous hyaluronic acid (HA(aq)) pericellular coat, when mediating the tactile aspect of cellular contact inhibition, has three tasks: interface formation, mechanical signal transmission and interface separation. To quantify the interfacial adhesive behavior of HA(aq), we induce simultaneous interface formation and separation between HA(aq) and a model hydrophobic, hysteretic Si-SAM surface. While surface tension γ remains essentially constant, interface formation and separation depend greatly on concentration (5 ≤ C ≤ 30 mg mL(-1)), molecular weight (6 ≤ MW ≤ 2000 kDa) and interfacial velocity (0 ≤ V ≤ 3 mm s(-1)), each of which affect shear elastic and loss moduli G′ and G′′, respectively. Viscoelasticity dictates the mode of interfacial motion: wetting-dewetting, capillary necking, or rolling. Wetting-dewetting is quantified using advancing and receding contact angles θ(A) and θ(R), and the hysteresis between them, yielding data landscapes for each C above the [MW, V] plane. The landscape sizes, shapes, and curvatures disclose the interplay, between surface tension and viscoelasticity, which governs interfacial dynamics. Gel point coordinates modulus G and angular frequency ω appear to predict wetting-dewetting (G < 75 ω0.2), capillary necking (75 ω0.2 < G < 200 ω0.075) or rolling (G > 200ω0.075). Dominantly dissipative HA(aq) sticks to itself and distorts irreversibly before separating, while dominantly elastic HA(aq) makes contact and separates with only minor, reversible distortion. We propose the dimensionless number (G′V)/(ω(r)γ), varying from 10(-5) to 10(3) in this work, as a tool to predict the mode of interface formation-separation by relating interfacial kinetics with bulk viscoelasticity. Cellular contact inhibition may be thus aided or compromised by physiological or interventional shifts in [C, MW, V], and thus in (G′V)/(ω(r)γ), which affect both mechanotransduction and interfacial dynamics. These observations

  3. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kejing; Wang, Menglei; Wu, Junqing; Qian, Kun; Sun, Jie; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-05-12

    The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF) composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  4. The interfacial strength of carbon nanofiber epoxy composite using single fiber pullout experiments.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M P; Sharma, A; Desai, A V; Haque, M A; Bakis, C E; Wang, K W

    2009-07-22

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are extensively researched as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites for their multifunctionality, light weight and high strength. However, it is the interface between the nanofiber and the matrix that dictates the overall properties of the nanocomposite. The current trend is to measure elastic properties of the bulk nanocomposite and then compare them with theoretical models to extract the information on the interfacial strength. The ideal experiment is single fiber pullout from the matrix because it directly measures the interfacial strength. However, the technique is difficult to apply to nanocomposites because of the small size of the fibers and the requirement for high resolution force and displacement sensing. We present an experimental technique for measuring the interfacial strength of nanofiber-reinforced composites using the single fiber pullout technique and demonstrate the technique for a carbon nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composite. The experiment is performed in situ in a scanning electron microscope and the interfacial strength for the epoxy composite was measured to be 170 MPa.

  5. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kejing; Wang, Menglei; Wu, Junqing; Qian, Kun; Sun, Jie; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF) composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials. PMID:28335217

  6. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY AND INTERFACIAL PARTITIONING TRACER TEST MEASUREMENTS OF NAPL-WATER INTERFACIAL AREAS

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Janousek, Hilary; Murao, Asami; Schnaar, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial areas between an immiscible organic liquid (NAPL) and water were measured for two natural porous media using two methods, aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer tests and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The interfacial areas measured with the tracer tests were similar to previously reported values obtained with the method. The values were, however, significantly larger than those obtained from microtomography. Analysis of microtomography data collected before and after introduction of the interfacial tracer solution indicated that the surfactant tracer had minimal impact on fluid-phase configuration and interfacial areas under conditions associated with typical laboratory application. The disparity between the tracer-test and microtomography values is attributed primarily to the inability of the microtomography method to resolve interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity. This hypothesis is consistent with results recently reported for a comparison of microtomographic analysis and interfacial tracer tests conducted for an air-water system. The tracer-test method provides a measure of effective, total (capillary and film) interfacial area, whereas microtomography can be used to determine separately both capillary-associated and film-associated interfacial areas. Both methods appear to provide useful information for given applications. A key to their effective use is recognizing the specific nature of the information provided by each, as well as associated limitations. PMID:23678204

  7. Model colloid system for interfacial sorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salipante, Paul; Hudson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Adsorption kinetics of nanometer scale molecules, such as proteins at interfaces, is usually determined through measurements of surface coverage. Their small size limits the ability to directly observe individual molecule behavior. To better understand the behavior of nanometer size molecules and the effect on interfacial kinetics, we use micron size colloids with a weak interfacial interaction potential as a model system. Thus, the interaction strength is comparable to many nanoscale systems (less than 10 kBT). The colloid-interface interaction potential is tuned using a combination of depletion, electrostatic, and gravitational forces. The colloids transition between an entropically trapped adsorbed state and a desorbed state through Brownian motion. Observations are made using an LED-based Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) setup. The observed adsorption and desorption rates are compared theoretical predictions based on the measured interaction potential and near wall particle diffusivity. This experimental system also allows for the study of more complex dynamics such as nonspherical colloids and collective effects at higher concentrations.

  8. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  9. Enhancing interfacial magnetization with a ferroelectric

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, Tricia L.; Herklotz, Andreas; Lauter, Valeria; ...

    2016-11-21

    Ferroelectric control of interfacial magnetism has attracted much attention. However, the coupling of these two functionalities has not been understood well at the atomic scale. The lack of scientific progress is mainly due to the limited characterization methods by which the interface’s magnetic properties can be probed at an atomic level. In this paper, we use polarized neutron reflectometry to probe the evolution of the magnetic moment at interfaces in ferroelectric/strongly correlated oxide [PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3(PZT/LSMO)] heterostructures. We find that the magnetization at the surfaces and interfaces of our LSMO films without PZT are always deteriorated and such magnetic deterioration can bemore » greatly improved by interfacing with a strongly polar PZT film. Magnetoelectric coupling of magnetism and ferroelectric polarization was observed within a couple of nanometers of the interface via an increase in the LSMO surface magnetization to 4.0μB/f.u., a value nearly 70% higher than the surface magnetization of our LSMO film without interfacing with a ferroelectric layer. We attribute this behavior to hole depletion driven by the ferroelectric polarization. Finally, these compelling results not only probe the presence of nanoscale magnetic suppression and its control by ferroelectrics, but also emphasize the importance of utilizing probing techniques that can distinguish between bulk and interfacial phenomena.« less

  10. Enhancing interfacial magnetization with a ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Tricia L.; Herklotz, Andreas; Lauter, Valeria; Freeland, John W.; Nichols, John; Guo, Er-Jia; Lee, Shinbuhm; Ward, T. Zac; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-11-01

    Ferroelectric control of interfacial magnetism has attracted much attention. However, the coupling of these two functionalities has not been understood well at the atomic scale. The lack of scientific progress is mainly due to the limited characterization methods by which the interface's magnetic properties can be probed at an atomic level. Here, we use polarized neutron reflectometry to probe the evolution of the magnetic moment at interfaces in ferroelectric/strongly correlated oxide [PbZ r0.2T i0.8O3/L a0.8S r0.2Mn O3(PZT /LSMO ) ] heterostructures. We find that the magnetization at the surfaces and interfaces of our LSMO films without PZT are always deteriorated and such magnetic deterioration can be greatly improved by interfacing with a strongly polar PZT film. Magnetoelectric coupling of magnetism and ferroelectric polarization was observed within a couple of nanometers of the interface via an increase in the LSMO surface magnetization to 4.0 μB/f .u . , a value nearly 70% higher than the surface magnetization of our LSMO film without interfacing with a ferroelectric layer. We attribute this behavior to hole depletion driven by the ferroelectric polarization. These compelling results not only probe the presence of nanoscale magnetic suppression and its control by ferroelectrics, but also emphasize the importance of utilizing probing techniques that can distinguish between bulk and interfacial phenomena.

  11. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rustwick, Bryce A.

    2005-01-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  12. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  13. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  14. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; ...

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  15. Review of interfacial layer's effect on thermal conductivity in nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotia, Ankit; Borkakoti, Sheeba; Deval, Piyush; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2017-01-01

    An ordered liquid layer around the particle-liquid interface is called as interfacial layer. It has been observed that interfacial layer is an essential parameter for determining the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The review attempts to summarize the prominent articles related to interfacial layer effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. First section of the paper discusses about various experimental approaches used to describe the effect of interfacial layer. Second section deals with about the mathematical models and assumed values regarding the thickness of interfacial layer by several authors. A review of previous works featuring mathematical investigations and experimental approaches seem to be suggesting that, interfacial layer have dominating effect on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Third section of the paper deals with various mathematical models available in open literature for interfacial layer thermal conductivity. In the last section, models for effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids considering the interfacial layer and percentage deviations in the predictions of mathematical models have been discussed.

  16. Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchamgam, Sashidhar S.

    The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures the thickness, contact angle and curvature profiles of ultrathin films, drops and curved menisci. In particular, the technique was used to emphasize measurements for thicknesses, delta < 100 nm, while studying delta < 2.5 mum. Using the "reflectivity technique", we studied fluid flow and heat transfer in a wickless, miniature heat pipe, a device which will be a very effective passive heat exchanger in a microgravity environment. The heat pipe is based on the Vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble (VCVB) concept. The broad objective was to increase the efficiency of the miniature heat pipe by enhancing the liquid flow towards the hotter region. This was achieved by understanding and manipulating the wetting and spreading characteristics of the liquid on the solid surface. By using a binary mixture (98% pentane and 2% octane by volume) instead of either pure pentane or octane, we were able to achieve a significant increase in the microscale phase change heat transfer. The experimental work was supported by numerical studies to understand the physics of the system at microscopic scale. In addition, using the reflectivity technique, we enhanced our understanding of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region. Experiments included flow instabilities in HFE-7000 meniscus on quartz (System S1), the spreading of a pentane (System S2 and S3), octane (System S4) and binary mixture menisci (System S5) during evaporation. The main objectives of the work are to present a new experimental technique, new observations, new data

  17. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  19. Vibrational characteristics of FRP-bonded concrete interfacial defects in a low frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tin Kei; Lau, Denvid

    2014-04-01

    As externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is a critical load-bearing component of strengthened or retrofitted civil infrastructures, the betterment of structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology for such composites is imperative. Henceforth the vibrational characteristics of near surface interfacial defects involving delamination and trapped air pockets at the FRP-concrete interface are investigated in this study using a finite element approach. Intuitively, due to its lower interfacial stiffness compared with an intact interface, a damaged region is expected to have a set of resonance frequencies different from an intact region when excited by acoustic waves. It has been observed that, when excited acoustically, both the vibrational amplitudes and frequency peaks in the response spectrum of the defects demonstrate a significant deviation from an intact FRP-bonded region. For a thin sheet of FRP bonded to concrete with sizable interfacial defects, the fundamental mode under free vibration is shown to be relatively low, in the order of kHz. Due to the low resonance frequencies of the defects, the use of low-cost equipment for interfacial defect detection via response spectrum analysis is highly feasible.

  20. Open, microfluidic flow cell for studies of interfacial processes at gas-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Khanh C; Malakhov, Dmitry; Momsen, William E; Brockman, Howard L

    2006-03-01

    Interfacial processes involving peripheral proteins depend on the composition and packing density of the interfacial lipid molecules. As a biological membrane model, lipid monolayers at the gas-liquid interface allow independent control of these parameters. However, measuring protein adsorption to monolayers has been difficult. To aid in this and other studies of the interfacial processes, we have developed an open, microfluidic flow cell with which surface physical properties can be controlled and monitored in well-defined lipid monolayers while varying aqueous-phase composition. Using this apparatus, we implement a recently described fluorescence method (Momsen, W. E.; Mizuno, N. K.; Lowe, M. E.; Brockman, H. L. Anal. Biochem. 2005, 346, 139-49) to characterize the adsorption/desorption of glucagon to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol monolayers at 27 mN/m. Analysis of the data gives reasonable and self-consistent results for kinetic and thermodynamic constants. Varying the packing density of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol does not alter the extent of glucagon adsorption, but comparable measurements with 1-steaoryl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine show a critical dependence. Because it allows a high degree of control of both lipid monolayer properties and aqueous-phase composition, this microfluidic flow cell should find wide applicability in many areas of research into interfacial processes.

  1. Improved Interfacial Bonding in Magnesium/Aluminum Overcasting Systems by Aluminum Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqing; Luo, Alan A.

    2014-12-01

    "Overcasting" technique is used to produce bimetallic magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al) structures where lightweight Mg can be cast onto solid Al substrates. An inherent difficulty in creating strong Mg/Al interfacial bonding is the natural oxide film on the solid Al surfaces, which reduces the wettability between molten Mg and Al substrates during the casting process. In the paper, an "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment has been developed to disrupt the oxide film on a dilute Al-0.08 wt pct Ga alloy, improving the metallurgical bonding between molten Mg and Al substrates in the bimetallic experiments carried out in a high-vacuum test apparatus. The test results provided valuable information of the interfacial phenomena of the Mg/Al bimetallic samples. The results show significantly improved metallurgical bonding in the bimetallic samples with "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment and Ga alloying. It is recommended to adjust the pre-heating temperature and time of the Al substrates and the Mg melt temperature to control the interfacial reactions for optimum interfacial properties in the actual overcasting processes.

  2. Interfacial potential approach for Ag/ZnO (0001) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Quan; Shen, Jiang; Qian, Ping; Chen, Nan-Xian

    2014-12-01

    Systematic approaches are presented to extract the interfacial potentials from the ab initio adhesive energy of the interface system by using the Chen—Möbius inversion method. We focus on the interface structure of the metal (111)/ZnO (0001) in this work. The interfacial potentials of Ag—Zn and Ag—O are obtained. These potentials can be used to solve some problems about Ag/ZnO interfacial structure. Three metastable interfacial structures are investigated in order to check these potentials. Using the interfacial potentials we study the procedure of interface fracture in the Ag/ZnO (0001) interface and discuss the change of the energy, stress, and atomic structures in tensile process. The result indicates that the exact misfit dislocation reduces the total energy and softens the fracture process. Meanwhile, the formation and mobility of the vacancy near the interface are observed.

  3. Thermodynamics, interfacial pressure isotherms and dilational rheology of mixed protein-surfactant adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Krägel, J; Miller, R

    2016-07-01

    Proteins and their mixtures with surfactants are widely used in many applications. The knowledge of their solution bulk behavior and its impact on the properties of interfacial layers made great progress in the recent years. Different mechanisms apply to the formation process of protein/surfactant complexes for ionic and non-ionic surfactants, which are governed mainly by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The surface activity of these complexes is often remarkably different from that of the individual protein and has to be considered in respective theoretical models. At very low protein concentration, small amounts of added surfactants can change the surface activity of proteins remarkably, even though no strongly interfacial active complexes are observed. Also small added amounts of non-ionic surfactants change the surface activity of proteins in the range of small bulk concentrations or surface coverages. The modeling of the equilibrium adsorption behavior of proteins and their mixtures with surfactants has reached a rather high level. These models are suitable also to describe the high frequency limits of the dilational viscoelasticity of the interfacial layers. Depending on the nature of the protein/surfactant interactions and the changes in the interfacial layer composition rather complex dilational viscoelasticities can be observed and described by the available models. The differences in the interfacial behavior, often observed in literature for studies using different experimental methods, are at least partially explained by a depletion of proteins, surfactants and their complexes in the range of low concentrations. A correction of these depletion effects typically provides good agreement between the data obtained with different methods, such as drop and bubble profile tensiometry.

  4. Correlating interfacial properties with stress transfer in SMA composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, G.E.; Jonnalagadda, K.; Sottos, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires have been proposed as large strain actuators for use in smart structures. SMA wires can be embedded in a host material to alter the stiffness or modal response and provide vibration control. The interaction between the embedded SMA and the host material is critical to applications requiring transfer of loads or strain from the wire to the host. Paine, Jones and Rogers have asserted the importance of interfacial adhesion between embedded SMA wires and the host material. When the SMA wires are actuated, large shear strains are generated at the SMA/host interface. The stronger the interface, the greater the transfer of strain from the actuator to the host material. Although there has been a significant amount of research dedicated to characterizing and modeling the response of SMA alone, little work has been done to understand the behavior of embedded SMA wires. Maximum displacement, load transfer and repeatability of actuation of the embedded wire are particularly critical in assessing the effects of the host material. This work continues to investigate the interaction between SMA wires and a host polymer matrix. High resolution photoelasticity was utilized to study the internal stresses induced during actuation of an embedded shape memory alloy wire in a polymer matrix. The influence of several wire surface treatments on the resulting stresses and load transfer was investigated. Four different surface treatments were considered: untreated, acid etched, hand sanded and sandblasted. Pull-out data indicated that sandblasting of wires increased the SMA/polymer interfacial bond strength while hand sanding and acid cleaning actually decreased the bond strength. Wires with greater adhesion (sandblasted) resulted in higher stresses induced in the polymer while those with lower adhesion transferred less load. Overall, properties of the SMA/polymer interface were shown to significantly affect the performance of the embedded SMA actuator.

  5. Role of a nucleation layer in suppressing interfacial pitting in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballal, A. K.; Salamanca-Riba, L.; Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Green, L.; Fuller, B. K.

    1993-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the role of a low temperature nucleation layer on the interfacial properties of InAs epilayers grown on (100) semi-insulating InP substrates using a two-step metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. Cross-sectional and plan-view transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on InAs films of nearly equal total film thicknesses but for different thicknesses of a nucleation layer of InAs deposited at low temperature on the substrate. Our studies show that thermal etchpits are created at the interface between the InAs film, and the InP substrate for thin nucleation layer thicknesses. This is because the low temperature nucleation layer of InAs does not cover completely the surface of the InP substrate. Hence, when the temperature is raised to deposit the bulk of the InAs film, severe thermal pitting is observed at the interface. These thermal etchpits are sources of threading dislocations. To obtain high quality InAs films and suppress interfacial pitting there is an optimum thickness of the nucleation layer. Also, our studies show that there is a relationship between the density of defects in the film and the thickness of the nucleation layer. This in turn relates to the variation of the electronic properties of the InAs films. We have observed that for all nucleation layer thicknesses, the density of threading dislocations is higher close to the interface than at the free surface of the film.

  6. Oscillatory interfacial instability between miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, Valentina; Gaponenko, Yuri; Mialdun, Aliaksandr; Torregrosa, Marita; Yasnou, Viktar

    Interfacial instabilities occurring between two fluids are of fundamental interest in fluid dynamics, biological systems and engineering applications such as liquid storage, solvent extraction, oil recovery and mixing. Horizontal vibrations applied to stratified layers of immiscible liquids may generate spatially periodic waving of the interface, stationary in the reference frame of the vibrated cell, referred to as a "frozen wave". We present experimental evidence that frozen wave instability exists between two ordinary miscible liquids of similar densities and viscosities. At the experiments and at the numerical model, two superimposed layers of ordinary liquids, water-alcohol of different concentrations, are placed in a closed cavity in a gravitationally stable configuration. The density and viscosity of these fluids are somewhat similar. Similar to the immiscible fluids this instability has a threshold. When the value of forcing is increased the amplitudes of perturbations grow continuously displaying a saw-tooth structure. The decrease of gravity drastically changes the structure of frozen waves.

  7. Attempt to control the interfacial strength

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.

    1997-11-01

    Composites consisting of a B2 iron aluminide matrix and 40 vol.% of TiB{sub 2} particles were processed by liquid phase sintering. In order to encourage segregation of B or Ti at the FeAl/TiB{sub 2} interfaces, the iron aluminide matrix was microalloyed with B or Ti, respectively. Additions of Ti degraded the mechanical properties. However, for composites microalloyed with B, room temperature flexure tests show slight increases in the maximum strength (from 1250 to 1380 MPa) and the fracture toughness. Interfacial segregation of B may have contributed to this result. Significantly improved processing of the composites would be required in order to verify the effect of B conclusively. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mapping interfacial excess in atom probe data.

    PubMed

    Felfer, Peter; Scherrer, Barbara; Demeulemeester, Jelle; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Using modern wide-angle atom probes, it is possible to acquire atomic scale 3D data containing 1000 s of nm(2) of interfaces. It is therefore possible to probe the distribution of segregated species across these interfaces. Here, we present techniques that allow the production of models for interfacial excess (IE) mapping and discuss the underlying considerations and sampling statistics. We also show, how the same principles can be used to achieve thickness mapping of thin films. We demonstrate the effectiveness on example applications, including the analysis of segregation to a phase boundary in stainless steel, segregation to a metal-ceramic interface and the assessment of thickness variations of the gate oxide in a fin-FET.

  9. An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara-Rajan, K.; Bestick, A.; Rowe, G. I.; Klute, G. K.; Ledoux, W. R.; Wang, H. C.; Mamishev, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a capacitive sensor that measures interfacial forces in prostheses and is promising for other biomedical applications. These sensors can be integrated into prosthetic devices to measure both normal and shear stress simultaneously, allowing for the study of prosthetic limb fit, and ultimately for the ability to better adapt prosthetics to individual users. A sensing cell with a 1.0 cm2 spatial resolution and a measurement range of 0-220 kPa of shear and 0-2 MPa of pressure was constructed. The cell was load tested and found to be capable of isolating the applied shear and pressure forces. This paper discusses the construction of the prototype, the mechanical and electrode design, fabrication and characterization. The work presented is aimed at creating a class of adaptive prosthetic interfaces using a capacitive sensor.

  10. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  11. Enhancing interfacial magnetization with a ferroelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Tricia L.; Herklotz, Andreas; Lauter, Valeria; Freeland, John W.; Nichols, John; Guo, Er-Jia; Lee, Shinbuhm; Ward, T. Zac; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-11-21

    Ferroelectric control of interfacial magnetism has attracted much attention. However, the coupling of these two functionalities has not been understood well at the atomic scale. The lack of scientific progress is mainly due to the limited characterization methods by which the interface’s magnetic properties can be probed at an atomic level. In this paper, we use polarized neutron reflectometry to probe the evolution of the magnetic moment at interfaces in ferroelectric/strongly correlated oxide [PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3(PZT/LSMO)] heterostructures. We find that the magnetization at the surfaces and interfaces of our LSMO films without PZT are always deteriorated and such magnetic deterioration can be greatly improved by interfacing with a strongly polar PZT film. Magnetoelectric coupling of magnetism and ferroelectric polarization was observed within a couple of nanometers of the interface via an increase in the LSMO surface magnetization to 4.0μB/f.u., a value nearly 70% higher than the surface magnetization of our LSMO film without interfacing with a ferroelectric layer. We attribute this behavior to hole depletion driven by the ferroelectric polarization. Finally, these compelling results not only probe the presence of nanoscale magnetic suppression and its control by ferroelectrics, but also emphasize the importance of utilizing probing techniques that can distinguish between bulk and interfacial phenomena.

  12. Interfacial design and structure of protein/polymer films on oxidized AlGaN surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Samit K.; Wu, Hao-Hsuan; Kwak, Kwang J.; Casal, Patricia; Nicholson, Theodore R., III; Wen, Xuejin; Anisha, R.; Bhushan, Bharat; Berger, Paul R.; Lu, Wu; Brillson, Leonard J.; Lee, Stephen Craig

    2011-01-01

    Protein detection using biologically or immunologically modified field-effect transistors (bio/immunoFETs) depends on the nanoscale structure of the polymer/protein film at sensor interfaces (Bhushan 2010 Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 3rd edn (Heidelberg: Springer); Gupta et al 2010 The effect of interface modification on bioFET sensitivity, submitted). AlGaN-based HFETs (heterojunction FETs) are attractive platforms for many protein sensing applications due to their electrical stability in high osmolarity aqueous environments and favourable current drive capabilities. However, interfacial polymer/protein films on AlGaN, though critical to HFET protein sensor function, have not yet been fully characterized. These interfacial films are typically comprised of protein-polymer films, in which analyte-specific receptors are tethered to the sensing surface with a heterobifunctional linker molecule (often a silane molecule). Here we provide insight into the structure and tribology of silane interfaces composed of one of two different silane monomers deposited on oxidized AlGaN, and other metal oxide surfaces. We demonstrate distinct morphologies and wear properties for the interfacial films, attributable to the specific chemistries of the silane monomers used in the films. For each specific silane monomer, film morphologies and wear are broadly consistent on multiple oxide surfaces. Differences in interfacial film morphology also drive improvements in sensitivity of the underlying HFET (coincident with, though not necessarily caused by, differences in interfacial film thickness). We present a testable model of the hypothetical differential interfacial depth distribution of protein analytes on FET sensor interfaces with distinct morphologies. Empirical validation of this model may rationalize the actual behaviour of planar immunoFETs, which has been shown to be contrary to expectations of bio/immunoFET behaviour prevalent in the literature for the last 20 years

  13. A nanoscale study of charge extraction in organic solar cells: the impact of interfacial molecular configurations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Ching; Wu, Fu-Chiao; Yen, Chia-Te; Chang, Jay; Chou, Wei-Yang; Gilbert Chang, Shih-Hui; Cheng, Horng-Long

    2015-01-07

    In the optimization of organic solar cells (OSCs), a key problem lies in the maximization of charge carriers from the active layer to the electrodes. Hence, this study focused on the interfacial molecular configurations in efficient OSC charge extraction by theoretical investigations and experiments, including small molecule-based bilayer-heterojunction (sm-BLHJ) and polymer-based bulk-heterojunction (p-BHJ) OSCs. We first examined a well-defined sm-BLHJ model system of OSC composed of p-type pentacene, an n-type perylene derivative, and a nanogroove-structured poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (NS-PEDOT) hole extraction layer. The OSC with NS-PEDOT shows a 230% increment in the short circuit current density compared with that of the conventional planar PEDOT layer. Our theoretical calculations indicated that small variations in the microscopic intermolecular interaction among these interfacial configurations could induce significant differences in charge extraction efficiency. Experimentally, different interfacial configurations were generated between the photo-active layer and the nanostructured charge extraction layer with periodic nanogroove structures. In addition to pentacene, poly(3-hexylthiophene), the most commonly used electron-donor material system in p-BHJ OSCs was also explored in terms of its possible use as a photo-active layer. Local conductive atomic force microscopy was used to measure the nanoscale charge extraction efficiency at different locations within the nanogroove, thus highlighting the importance of interfacial molecular configurations in efficient charge extraction. This study enriches understanding regarding the optimization of the photovoltaic properties of several types of OSCs by conducting appropriate interfacial engineering based on organic/polymer molecular orientations. The ultimate power conversion efficiency beyond at least 15% is highly expected when the best state-of-the-art p-BHJ OSCs are combined with present arguments.

  14. Interfacial bonding and electronic structure of GaN/GaAs interface: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruyue; Zhang, Zhaofu; Wang, Changhong; Li, Haobo; Dong, Hong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Weichao; Xie, Xinjian

    2015-04-07

    Understanding of GaN interfacing with GaAs is crucial for GaN to be an effective interfacial layer between high-k oxides and III-V materials with the application in high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices. Utilizing first principles calculations, here, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the GaN/GaAs interface with respect to the interfacial nitrogen contents. The decrease of interfacial N contents leads to more Ga dangling bonds and As-As dimers. At the N-rich limit, the interface with N concentration of 87.5% shows the most stability. Furthermore, a strong band offsets dependence on the interfacial N concentration is also observed. The valance band offset of N7 with hybrid functional calculation is 0.51 eV. The electronic structure analysis shows that significant interface states exist in all the GaN/GaAs models with various N contents, which originate from the interfacial dangling bonds and some unsaturated Ga and N atoms. These large amounts of gap states result in Fermi level pinning and essentially degrade the device performance.

  15. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications.

  16. Effects of organic ligands, electrostatic and magnetic interactions in formation of colloidal and interfacial inorganic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Khomutov, G B; Koksharov, Yu A

    2006-09-25

    anisotropic nanostructures with unique morphologies, in particularly those characterized by very high surface/volume ratio, high effective perimeter, and labyrinth-like structure. In a case of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in colloids specific magnetic dipolar interactions can result in formation of chains, rings and more complex nanoparticulate structures or separated highly anisotropic nanoparticles. Theoretical considerations indicate to the importance of system dimensionality in relation to the energy balance which determines specific features of structure organization in planar charged metallic and magnetic nanostructures. For example, a requirement of Coulomb energy minimum, the possibility of free electron redistribution and strengthened attractive interactions between particles in metallic nanostructures can explain formation of very branchy systems with extremely high "effective perimeter". The obtained experimental and literature data show that system dimensionality, organic ligand nature along with electrostatic and magnetic interactions are most important factors of morphological control of chemically synthesized inorganic nanomaterials. The understanding and appropriate exploitation of these factors can be useful for further developments of efficient nanofabrication techniques based on colloidal and interfacial synthetic methods.

  17. Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Nai-Shang; Okada, Makoto; Prakash, Vikas

    2004-09-01

    The present paper describes results of plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments conducted to study time-resolved growth of molten metal films during dry metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. By employing tribo-pairs comprising hard tool-steel against relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 aluminum alloys, interfacial friction stress ranging from 100 to 400 MPa and slip speeds of approximately 100 m/ s have been generated. These relatively high levels of friction stress combined with high slip-speeds generate conditions conducive for interfacial temperatures to approach the melting point of the lower melt point metal (Al alloy) comprising the tribo-pair. A Lagrangian finite element code is developed to understand the evolution of the thermo-mechanical fields and their relationship to the observed slip response. The code accounts for dynamic effects, heat conduction, contact with friction, and full thermo-mechanical coupling. At temperatures below the melting point the material is described as an isotropic thermally softening elastic-viscoplastic solid. For material elements with temperatures in excess of the melt point a purely Newtonian fluid constitutive model is employed. The results of the hybrid experimental-computational study provides new insights into the thermoelastic-plastic interactions during high speed metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. During the early part of frictional slip the coefficient of kinetic friction is observed to decrease with increasing slip velocity. During the later part transition in interfacial slip occurs from dry metal-on-metal sliding to the formation of molten Al films at the tribo-pair interface. Under these conditions the interfacial resistance approaches the shear strength of the molten aluminum alloy under normal pressures of approximately 1- 3 GPa and shear strain rates of ˜10 7 s-1. The results of the study indicate that under these extreme conditions molten

  18. Interfacial effects in oxide-polymer laminar composite thin film dielectrics for capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Pratyush

    Continuous increase in the density of active components on microelectronic chip/circuit board requires development of new capacitors with smaller size, weight and cost. Miniaturization in the size of capacitors demands development of high energy density dielectric materials, which are the core of parallel plate capacitors. Nano composite dielectrics comprising high polarizibility oxide fillers randomly dispersed in high breakdown strength polymer matrix are considered as a potential high energy density materials for capacitor applications. Large interfacial volume, generated due to introduction of nano fillers in polymer matrix, might have significant positive contribution towards energy storage in nano composites. However, percolation issues associated with nano fillers and generation of large interfacial volume in nano composites, where complex electric field distribution overlaps with interfacialy modified polymer lead to unclear understanding of polymer-filler interfacial interactions in nano composites. Hence, in the current work laminar composite double layered dielectric structures, which provide relatively simple local field distribution at the interface and ideal series connectivity between oxide and polymer, are used as a model system to understand polymer-oxide interfacial interactions. Interfacial effects are reported for both low permittivity (SiO2-Parylene C) and medium permittivity (ZrO2-P(VDF-TrFE)) laminar composite dielectrics. Pyrolytic vapor decomposition polymerization process was used to grow Parylene C thin films on gold and thermally grown SiO2 surfaces. Enhancement in crystallite dimension with post deposition annealing treatments of Parylene C thin films was found to reduce dielectric loss tangent and hence enhance its dielectric properties. Electric field and temperature dependant leakage current analysis suggested hopping as dominant conduction mechanism in Parylene C thin films. Parylene C thin films in laminar composites showed

  19. Tunable interfacial properties of epitaxial graphene on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chendong; Hu, Hao; Yang, Rong; Lu, Hongliang; Cai, Jinming; Du, Shixuan; Liu, Feng; Gao, H.-J.

    2010-02-01

    We report on tuning interfacial properties of epitaxially-grown graphenes with different kinds of metal substrates based on scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and density functional theory calculations. Three kinds of metal substrates, Ni(111), Pt(111), and Ru(0001), show different interactions with the epitaxially grown graphene at the interfaces. The different interfacial interaction making graphene n-type and p-type doped, leads to the polarity change of the thermoelectric property of the graphene/metal systems. These findings may give further insights to the interfacial interactions in the graphene/metal systems and promote the use of graphene-based heterostructures in devices.

  20. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    1995-08-01

    Continuous fiber ceramic composites mechanical behavior are influenced by the bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  1. Interfacial micromechanics in fibrous composites: design, evaluation, and models.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given.

  2. Particle-laden interfaces: direct calculation of interfacial stress from a discrete particle simulation of a pendant drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in several multiphase flow technologies, and plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of particle-laden drops. A fundamental question is how the particles modify the effective mechanical properties of the interface. Using a fast Eulerian-Lagrangian model for interfacial colloids, we have simulated a pendant drop whose surface is covered with spherical particles having short-range repulsion. The interface curvature induces non-uniform and anisotropic interfacial stresses, which we calculate by an interfacial extension of the Irving-Kirkwood formula. The isotropic component of this stress, related to the effective surface tension, is in good agreement with that calculated by fitting the drop shape to the Young-Laplace equation. The anisotropic component, related to the interfacial shear elasticity, is highly non uniform: small at the drop apex, significant along the drop sides. The reduction in surface tension can be substantial even below maximum surface packing. We illustrate this point by simulating phase-coarsening of a two-phase mixture in which the presence of interfacial particles ``freezes'' the coarsening process, for surface coverage well below maximum packing This work is supported by the EU through the Marie Curie Grant FLOWMAT (618335).

  3. Competitive adsorption of surfactants and hydrophilic silica particles at the oil-water interface: interfacial tension and contact angle studies.

    PubMed

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2012-07-01

    The effect of surfactants' type and concentration on the interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of hydrophilic silica particles was investigated. Silica particles have been shown to have an antagonistic effect on interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of both W/O and O/W surfactants. Silica particles, combined with W/O surfactant, have no effect on interfacial tension, which is only dictated by the surfactant concentration, while they strongly affect interfacial tension when combined with O/W surfactants. At low O/W surfactant, both particles and surfactant are adsorbed at the interface, modifying the interface structure. At higher concentration, interfacial tension is only dictated by the surfactant. By increasing the surfactant concentration, the contact angle that a drop of aqueous phase assumes on a glass substrate placed in oil media decreases or increases depending on whether the surfactant is of W/O or O/W type, respectively. This is due to the modification of the wettability of the glass by the oil or water induced by the surfactants. Regardless of the surfactant's type, the contact angle profile was dictated by both particles and surfactant at low surfactant concentration, whereas it is dictated by the surfactant only at high concentration.

  4. Nanomechanical Sensing of Biological Interfacial Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wenjian

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. Cellulase is an enzyme capable of converting insoluble cellulose into soluble sugars. Cellulosic biofuel produced from such fermentable simple sugars is a promising substitute as an energy source. However, its economic feasibility is limited by the low efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulase. Cellulose is insoluble and resistant to enzymatic degradation, not only because the beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds are strong covalent bonds, but also because cellulose microfibrils are packed into tightly bound, crystalline lattices. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulase involves three steps--initial binding, decrystallization, and hydrolytic cleavage. Currently, the mechanism for the decrystallization has not yet been elucidated, though it is speculated to be the rate-limiting step of the overall enzymatic activity. The major technical challenge limiting the understanding of the decrystallization is the lack of an effective experimental approach capable of examining the decrystallization, an interfacial enzymatic activity on solid substrates. The work presented develops a nanomechanical sensing approach to investigate both the decrystallization and enzymatic hydrolytic cleavage of cellulose. The first experimental evidence of the decrystallization is obtained by comparing the results from native cellulase and non-hydrolytic cellulase. Surface topography has been applied to examine the activities of native cellulase and non-hydrolytic cellulase on cellulose substrate. The study demonstrates additional experimental evidence of the decrystallization in the hydrolysis of cellulose. By combining simulation and monitoring technology, the current study also investigates the structural changes of cellulose at a molecular level. In particular, the study employs cellulose nanoparticles with a bilayer structure on mica sheets. By comparing results from a molecular dynamic simulation and the distance

  5. First-Principles Study of Interfacial Boundaries in Ni-Ni3AL (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    yield stress, creep , fatigue) of these alloys is strongly influenced by the manner in which dislocations interact with the pre- cipitates and the...based superalloy (DD6). This particular alloy contains 2 wt.% Re, an element not present in Rene-88DT, which is known to improve high-temperature creep ...are used to estimate the interfacial excess free energies (IEFEs) and composition and long -range order profiles of these defects as a function of

  6. Interfacial reaction control and its mechanism of AlN epitaxial films grown on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Liu, Zuolian; Wang, Haiyan; Wen, Lei; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-quality AlN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by effective control of the interfacial reactions between AlN films and Si substrates. The surface morphology, crystalline quality and interfacial property of as-grown AlN/Si hetero-interfaces obtained by PLD have been systemically studied. It is found that the amorphous SiAlN interfacial layer is formed during high temperature growth, which is ascribed to the serious interfacial reactions between Si atoms diffused from the substrates and the AlN plasmas produced by the pulsed laser when ablating the AlN target during the high temperature growth. On the contrary, abrupt and sharp AlN/Si hetero-interfaces can be achieved by effectively controlling the interfacial reactions at suitable growth temperature. The mechanisms for the evolution of interfacial layer from the amorphous SiAlN layer to the abrupt and sharp AlN/Si hetero-interfaces by PLD are hence proposed. This work of obtaining the abrupt interfaces and the flat surfaces for AlN films grown by PLD is of paramount importance for the application of high-quality AlN-based devices on Si substrates. PMID:26089026

  7. Final Project Report for "Interfacial Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes”

    SciTech Connect

    Cumings, John

    2016-04-15

    This report describes an ongoing project to comprehensively study the interfacial thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of carbon nanotubes. It includes a list of publications, personnel supported, the overall approach, accomplishments and future plans.

  8. Interfacial patterns in magnetorheological fluids: Azimuthal field-induced structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo O.; Lira, Sérgio A.; Miranda, José A.

    2015-08-01

    Despite their practical and academic relevance, studies of interfacial pattern formation in confined magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been largely overlooked in the literature. In this work, we present a contribution to this soft matter research topic and investigate the emergence of interfacial instabilities when an inviscid, initially circular bubble of a Newtonian fluid is surrounded by a MR fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell apparatus. An externally applied, in-plane azimuthal magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire induces interfacial disturbances at the two-fluid interface, and pattern-forming structures arise. Linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theory, and a vortex sheet approach are used to access early linear and intermediate nonlinear time regimes, as well as to determine stationary interfacial shapes at fully nonlinear stages.

  9. Microcapsule Buckling Triggered by Compression-Induced Interfacial Phase Change.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Andrew Roy; Parker, Richard M; Groombridge, Alexander S; Maestro, Armando; Coulston, Roger J; Hegemann, Jonas; Kierfeld, Jan; Scherman, Oren A; Abell, Chris

    2016-10-04

    There is an emerging trend towards the fabrication of microcapsules at liquid interfaces. In order to control the parameters of such capsules, the interfacial processes governing their formation must be understood. Here, poly(vinyl alcohol) films are assembled at the interface of water-in-oil microfluidic droplets. The polymer is cross-linked using cucurbit[8]uril ternary supramolecular complexes. It is shown that compression-induced phase change causes the onset of buckling in the interfacial film. On evaporative compression, the interfacial film both increases in density and thickens, until it reaches a critical density and a phase change occurs. We show that this increase in density can be simply related to the film Poisson ratio and area compression. This description captures fundamentals of many compressive interfacial phase changes and can also explain the observation of a fixed thickness-to-radius ratio at buckling, (T/R)buck.

  10. Interfacial-layers-free Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge MOS Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, K. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Tung, L. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2008-03-01

    High κ dielectric Ga2O3(Gd2O3) films were deposited directly on Ge by Molecular-Beam-Epitaxy without the employment of GeON interfacial layer. Excellent electrical properties, such as a high κ value of 14.5, a low leakage current density of only 3x10-9 A/cm^2 at Vfb+1V, and well-behaved CV characteristics, were demonstrated, even being subjected to a 500^oC annealing in N2 ambient for 5 min. An abrupt Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge interface without any interfacial layer was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed XPS studies indicate that the oxide/Ge interface consists of mainly Ge-O-Gd bonding, distinctly different from that of native oxide. Furthermore, the 500^oC annealing did not change the chemical bonding, implying a great thermodynamic stability of the hetero-structure. The outstanding electrical and thermodynamic properties qualified Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as a promising dielectric for Ge and proved the GeON interfacial layer to be unnecessary.

  11. First-principles study of the interfacial adhesion between Si O2 and Mo Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D. E.; Carter, Emily A.

    2005-10-01

    Upon oxidation, a silica scale forms on MoSi2 , a potential high-temperature coating material for metals. This silica scale protects MoSi2 against high-temperature corrosive gases or liquids. We use periodic density functional theory to examine the interface between SiO2 and MoSi2 . The interfacial bonding is localized, as evidenced by an adhesion energy that changes only slightly with the thickness of the SiO2 layer. Moreover, the adhesion energy displays a relatively large (0.40J/m2) variation with the relative lateral position of the SiO2 and MoSi2 lattices due to changes in Si-O bonding across the interface. The most stable interfacial structure yields an ideal work of adhesion of 5.75J/m2 within the local density approximation ( 5.02J/m2 within the generalized-gradient approximation) to electron exchange and correlation, indicating extremely strong adhesion. Local densities of states and electron density difference plots demonstrate that the interfacial Si-O bonds are covalent in character. Mo-O interactions are not found in the SiO2/MoSi2 interface investigated here. Our work predicts that the SiO2 scale strongly adheres to MoSi2 , and further supports the potential of MoSi2 as a high-temperature structural material and coating.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  13. Interfacial activation of Candida antarctica lipase B: combined evidence from experiment and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zisis, Themistoklis; Freddolino, Peter L.; Turunen, Petri; van Teeseling, Muriel C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Lipase immobilization is frequently used for altering the catalytic properties of these industrially used enzymes. Many lipases bind strongly to hydrophobic surfaces where they undergo interfacial activation. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB), one of the most commonly used biocatalysts, is frequently discussed as an atypical lipase lacking interfacial activation. Here we show that CalB displays an enhanced catalytic rate for large, bulky substrates when adsorbed to a hydrophobic interface composed of densely packed alkyl chains. We attribute this increased activity of more than 7-fold to a conformational change that yields a more open active site. This hypothesis is supported by molecular dynamics simulations that show a high mobility for a small ‘lid’ (helix α5) close to the active site. Molecular docking calculations confirm that a highly open conformation of this helix is required for binding large, bulky substrates and that this conformation is favored in a hydrophobic environment. Taken together, our combined approach provides clear evidence for the interfacial activation of CalB on highly hydrophobic surfaces. In contrast to other lipases, however, the conformational change only affects large, bulky substrates, leading to the conclusion that CalB acts like an esterase for small substrates and as a lipase for substrates with large alcohol substituents. PMID:26346632

  14. Interfacial Behavior of Polymers: Using Interfaces to Manipulate Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-02-26

    The self-assembly of block copolymers into arrays of nanoscopic domains with areal densities approaching 10 terbit/in2 offer tremendous promise for the fabrication of ultrahigh density storage devices, batteries and other energy relevant devices. Interfacial interactions play a key role in dictating the orientation and ordering of these self-assembling materials. We have investigated the use of preferential and neutral solvents to overcome interfacial interactions and to rapid accelerate the dynamics of these materials, since the high molecular weight of the polymers significantly slows diffusion processes. Using a tailor-made chamber, we have introduced solvent vapor annealing (SVA) where solvent with a well-defined vapor pressures sells the copolymer film, enabling control over the solvent content in the film and, therefore, the thermodynamics governing the microphase separation of the copolymer, the interactions with the substrate and air interfaces and the dynamics. This tailor-made chamber also allows us to perform in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering studies where the copolymer films can be characterized on the nanoscopic level over macroscopic distances. The methodologies developed in our laboratories are now used in numerous laboratories world-wide. We have found that arrays of block copolymer microdomains with perfect orientational order can be achieved over macroscopic areas using the SVA processes but the translational order is perturbed during the film drying process. As the copolymer film is swollen, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces a frustration to the ordering of the microdomains. After equilibrium is achieved, when the swollen films are brought very close to the ordering transition, near perfect ordering is achieved. However, upon removal of the solvent, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces translational disorder. We have investigated the influence of the rate of solvent removal and have found that

  15. Interfacial functionalization and engineering of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang

    The intense research interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely fueled by the unique properties of nanoscale materials. In this dissertation, the research efforts are focused on surface functionalization and interfacial engineering of functional nanoparticles in the preparation of patchy nanoparticles (e.g., Janus nanoparticles and Neapolitan nanoparticles) such that the nanoparticle structures and properties may be manipulated to an unprecedented level of sophistication. Experimentally, Janus nanoparticles were prepared by an interfacial engineering method where one hemisphere of the originally hydrophobic nanoparticles was replaced with hydrophilic ligands at the air|liquid or solid|liquid interface. The amphiphilic surface characters of the Janus nanoparticles were verified by contact angle measurements, as compared to those of the bulk-exchange counterparts where the two types of ligands were distributed rather homogeneously on the nanoparticle surface. In a further study, a mercapto derivative of diacetylene was used as the hydrophilic ligands to prepare Janus nanoparticles by using hydrophobic hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles as the starting materials. Exposure to UV irradiation led to effective covalent cross-linking between the diacetylene moieties of neighboring ligands and hence marked enhancement of the structural integrity of the Janus nanoparticles, which was attributable to the impeded surface diffusion of the thiol ligands on the nanoparticle surface, as manifested in fluorescence measurements of aged nanoparticles. More complicated bimetallic AgAu Janus nanoparticles were prepared by interfacial galvanic exchange reactions of a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of 1-hexanethiolate-passivated silver nanoparticles on a glass slide with gold(I)-mercaptopropanediol complex in a water/ethanol solution. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution not only of the organic capping ligands on the nanoparticle surface but

  16. Interfacial properties of stanene-metal contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Pan, Feng; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Pan, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiuying; Li, Jingzhen; Zhang, Han; Lu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Recently, two-dimensional buckled honeycomb stanene has been manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy growth. Free-standing stanene is predicted to have a sizable opened band gap of 100 meV at the Dirac point due to spin-orbit coupling (SOC), resulting in many fascinating properties such as quantum spin Hall effect, quantum anomalous Hall effect, and quantum valley Hall effect. In the first time, we systematically study the interfacial properties of stanene-metal interfaces (metals = Ag, Au, Cu, Al, Pd, Pt, Ir, and Ni) by using ab initio electronic structure calculations considering the SOC effects. The honeycomb structure of stanene is preserved on the metal supports, but the buckling height is changed. The buckling of stanene on the Au, Al, Ag, and Cu metal supports is higher than that of free-standing stanene. By contrast, a planar graphene-like structure is stabilized for stanene on the Ir, Pd, Pt, and Ni metal supports. The band structure of stanene is destroyed on all the metal supports, accompanied by a metallization of stanene because the covalent bonds between stanene and the metal supports are formed and the structure of stanene is distorted. Besides, no tunneling barrier exists between stanene and the metal supports. Therefore, stanene and the eight metals form a good vertical Ohmic contact.

  17. Interfacial Layer Optimization in Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litofsky, Joshua; Lafalce, Evan; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on benchmark π - conjugated polymer polythiophene and electron acceptor PCBM are made up of a sandwich-like structure of multifunctional layers. Interfacial layers (IL) facilitate charge transport between the charge generation layer and the electrodes and enhance charge extraction. Optimizing the IL thus provides one mean of maximizing the efficiency of OPVs. Various electron transport layers such as ZnO and LiF were used, and hole transport layers included PEDOT:PSS and V2O5. Two different device architectures were explored: conventional structure with ITO serving as an anode and inverted structure when ITO acts as a cathode. Using various deposition techniques, we worked to optimize IL thickness and film formation methods. By analyzing device shunt and series resistances using a standard diode equation, we were able to identify the optimal parameters for device performance. The combination of thin IL with electrodes of appropriate work function yielded much better results compared to the control device with no IL. We can use these results and techniques to further optimize future OPV devices based on other novel material systems. This work was supported by the NSF REU grant # DMR-1263066: REU Site in Applied Physics at USF.

  18. Design principles of interfacial thermal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos; Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zhang, Jingjie; Le, Nam; Norris, Pamela; Ghosh, Avik

    We explore fundamental principles to design the thermal conductance across solid interfaces by changing the composition and disorder of an intermediate matching layer. In absence of phonon-phonon interactions, the layer addition involves two competing effects that influence the conductance. The layer can act as an impedance matching 'bridge' to increase the mode-averaged phonon transmission. However, it also reduces the relevant modes that conserve their momenta transverse to the interface, so that the net result depends on features such as the overlap of conserving modes and the dispersivity of the transverse subbands. Moving into the interacting anharmonic regime, we find that the added layer aids conductance when the decreased resistances at the contact-layer boundaries compensate for the layer resistance. In fact, we show that the maximum conductance corresponds to an exact matching of the two separate contact-layer resistances. For instance, if we vary just the atomic mass across layers, then maximum conductance happens when the intervening layer mass is the geometric mean of the contact masses. We conjecture that the best interfacial layer is one that is compositionally graded into many geometric means - in other words, an exponential variation in thermal impedance.

  19. Microfluidic Dynamic Interfacial Tensiometry (μDIT).

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Quentin; Vrignon, Jérémy; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-05-07

    We designed, developed and characterized a microfluidic method for the measurement of surfactant adsorption kinetics via interfacial tensiometry on a microfluidic chip. The principle of the measurement is based on the deformability of droplets as a response to hydrodynamic forcing through a series of microfluidic expansions. We focus our analysis on one perfluoro surfactant molecule of practical interest for droplet-based microfluidic applications. We show that although the adsorption kinetics is much faster than the kinetics of the corresponding pendant drop experiment, our droplet-based microfluidic system has a sufficient time resolution to obtain quantitative measurement at the sub-second time-scale on nanoliter droplet volumes, leading to both a gain by a factor of ∼10 in time resolution and a downscaling of the measurement volumes by a factor of ∼1000 compared to standard techniques. Our approach provides new insight into the adsorption of surfactant molecules at liquid-liquid interfaces in a confined environment, relevant to emulsification, encapsulation and foaming, and the ability to measure adsorption and desorption rate constants.

  20. Protein packing defects "heat up" interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Sierra, María Belén; Accordino, Sebastián R; Rodriguez-Fris, J Ariel; Morini, Marcela A; Appignanesi, Gustavo A; Fernández Stigliano, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Ligands must displace water molecules from their corresponding protein surface binding site during association. Thus, protein binding sites are expected to be surrounded by non-tightly-bound, easily removable water molecules. In turn, the existence of packing defects at protein binding sites has been also established. At such structural motifs, named dehydrons, the protein backbone is exposed to the solvent since the intramolecular interactions are incompletely wrapped by non-polar groups. Hence, dehydrons are sticky since they depend on additional intermolecular wrapping in order to properly protect the structure from water attack. Thus, a picture of protein binding is emerging wherein binding sites should be both dehydrons rich and surrounded by easily removable water. In this work we shall indeed confirm such a link between structure and dynamics by showing the existence of a firm correlation between the degree of underwrapping of the protein chain and the mobility of the corresponding hydration water molecules. In other words, we shall show that protein packing defects promote their local dehydration, thus producing a region of "hot" interfacial water which might be easily removed by a ligand upon association.

  1. Interfacial phenomena in gas hydrate systems.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Koh, Carolyn A

    2016-03-21

    Gas hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds, where molecular cages of water trap lighter species under specific thermodynamic conditions. Hydrates play an essential role in global energy systems, as both a hinderance when formed in traditional fuel production and a substantial resource when formed by nature. In both traditional and unconventional fuel production, hydrates share interfaces with a tremendous diversity of materials, including hydrocarbons, aqueous solutions, and inorganic solids. This article presents a state-of-the-art understanding of hydrate interfacial thermodynamics and growth kinetics, and the physiochemical controls that may be exerted on both. Specific attention is paid to the molecular structure and interactions of water, guest molecules, and hetero-molecules (e.g., surfactants) near the interface. Gas hydrate nucleation and growth mechanics are also presented, based on studies using a combination of molecular modeling, vibrational spectroscopy, and X-ray and neutron diffraction. The fundamental physical and chemical knowledge and methods presented in this review may be of value in probing parallel systems of crystal growth in solid inclusion compounds, crystal growth modifiers, emulsion stabilization, and reactive particle flow in solid slurries.

  2. Interfacial Engineering for Low-Density Graphene Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0192 Interfacial engineering for low- density graphene nanocomposites Micah Green TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Final Report 07/23...98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 14-07-2014 Final April 2011 - March 2014 Interfacial engineering for low- density graphene nanocomposites and... alcohol films and electrospun fibers. The addition of pristine graphene showed substantial increases in strength and modulus at low graphene loading

  3. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  4. Surfactant adsorption and interfacial tension investigations on cyclopentane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Olcott, Kyle; Pfeiffer, Kristopher; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2013-02-26

    Gas hydrates represent an unconventional methane resource and a production/safety risk to traditional oil and gas flowlines. In both systems, hydrate may share interfaces with both aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. To accurately model macroscopic properties, such as relative permeability in unconventional systems or dispersion viscosity in traditional systems, knowledge of hydrate interfacial properties is required. This work presents hydrate cohesive force results measured on a micromechanical force apparatus, and complementary water-hydrocarbon interfacial tension data. By combining a revised cohesive force model with experimental data, two interfacial properties of cyclopentane hydrate were estimated: hydrate-water and hydrate-cyclopentane interfacial tension values at 0.32 ± 0.05 mN/m and 47 ± 5 mN/m, respectively. These fundamental physiochemical properties have not been estimated or measured for cyclopentane hydrate to date. The addition of surfactants in the cyclopentane phase significantly reduced the cyclopentane hydrate cohesive force; we hypothesize this behavior to be the result of surfactant adsorption on the hydrate-oil interface. Surface excess quantities were estimated for hydrate-oil and water-oil interfaces using four carboxylic and sulfonic acids. The results suggest the density of adsorbed surfactant may be 2× larger for the hydrate-oil interface than the water-oil interface. Additionally, hydrate-oil interfacial tension was observed to begin decreasing from the baseline value at significantly lower surfactant concentrations (1-3 orders of magnitude) than those for the water-oil interfacial tension.

  5. Interfacial and transport properties of nanoconstrained inorganic and organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocherlakota, Lakshmi Suhasini

    Nanoscale constraints impact the material properties of both organic and inorganic systems. The systems specifically studied here are (i) nanoconstrained polymeric systems, poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) relevant to gas separation membranes (ii) Zwitterionic polymers poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)(pSBMA), poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) brushes critical for reducing bio-fouling (iii) Surface properties of N-layer graphene sheets. Interfacial constraints in ultrathin poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes yielded gas permeabilities and CO2/helium selectivities that exceed bulk PTMSP membrane transport properties by up to three-fold for membranes of submicrometer thickness. Indicative of a free volume increase, a molecular energetic mobility analysis (involving intrinsic friction analysis) revealed enhanced methyl side group mobilities in thin PTMSP membranes with maximum permeation, compared to bulk films. Aging studies conducted over the timescales relevant to the conducted experiments signify that the free volume states in the thin film membranes are highly unstable in the presence of sorbing gases such as CO2. To maintain this high free volume configuration of polymer while improving the temporal stability an "inverse" architecture to conventional polymer nanocomposites was investigated, in which the polymer phase of PTMSP and PEO were interfacially and dimensionally constrained in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. While with this architecture the benefits of nanocomposite and ultrathin film membranes of PTMSP could be reproduced and improved upon, also the temporal stability could be enhanced substantially. The PEO-AAO nanocomposite membranes also revealed improved gas selectivity properties of CO2 over helium. In the thermal transition studies of zwitterionic pSBMA brushes a reversible critical transition temperature of 60

  6. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  7. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  8. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  9. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  10. On the Role of Interfacial Reaction in the Wetting in Metallic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ping; Huang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-05-01

    Chemical reaction and formation of intermetallic compounds at the interface are widely believed to have a beneficial effect on the wetting in metallic systems. However, we demonstrated in this study that it might be an erroneous or at least imperfect viewpoint, which is misled by the presence of native oxide film of metals. Using a dispensed sessile drop technique together with substrate pre-annealing treatment in high vacuum, we found that the wetting of clean Cu, Ni and Fe surfaces by clean Sn droplets is almost independent of interfacial reaction; whereas, for oxidized surfaces, the interfacial reaction plays a significant role in the wetting through the disruption of the oxide film covering the liquid or/and solid surface(s), making their intimate contact possible.

  11. Interfacial magnetic anisotropy of Co90Zr10 on Pt layer.

    PubMed

    Kil, Joon Pyo; Bae, Gi Yeol; Suh, Dong Ik; Choi, Won Joon; Noh, Jae Sung; Park, Wanjun

    2014-11-01

    Spin Transfer Torque (STT) is of great interest in data writing scheme for the Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) using Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ). Scalability for high density memory requires ferromagnetic electrodes having the perpendicular magnetic easy axis. We investigated CoZr as the ferromagnetic electrode. It is observed that interfacial magnetic anisotropy is preferred perpendicular to the plane with thickness dependence on the interfaces with Pt layer. The anisotropy energy (K(u)) with thickness dependence shows a change of magnetic-easy-axis direction from perpendicular to in-plane around 1.2 nm of CoZr. The interfacial anisotropy (K(i)) as the directly related parameters to switching and thermal stability, are estimated as 1.64 erg/cm2 from CoZr/Pt multilayered system.

  12. Interfacial reactions between sapphire and silver-copper-titanium thin film filler metal

    SciTech Connect

    Suenaga, Seiichi; Nakahashi, Masako; Maruyama, Miho; Fukasawa, Takayuki

    1997-02-01

    Wetting and brazing studies of sputtering-deposited, submicrometer thin film filler metal in an Ag-Cu-Ti/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system were performed. The interfacial reaction layer between the filler metal and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated. It is possible to make a brazing joint even with a reaction layer of less than 100 nm thickness. Different types of interfacial reaction layers were observed when the Ti content in the filler metal was varied. The Cu-Ti-O system compounds were observed in the samples with high wetting capabilities, but not in the sample with low wetting characteristics. It was found that these compounds are substances that promote effective brazing.

  13. Interfacial Shear Strength of Cast and Directionally Solidified Nial-Sapphire Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Asthana, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating intermetallic NiAl-sapphire fiber composites by casting and zone directional solidification has been examined. The fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths measured using a fiber push-out technique in both cast and directionally solidified composites are greater than the strengths reported for composites fabricated by powder cloth process using organic binders. Microscopic examination of fibers extracted from cast, directionally solidified (DS), and thermally cycled composites, and the high values of interfacial shear strengths suggest that the fiber-matrix interface does not degrade due to casting and directional solidification. Sapphire fibers do not pin grain boundaries during directional solidification, suggesting that this technique can be used to fabricate sapphire fiber reinforced NiAl composites with single crystal matrices.

  14. Fabrication of interfacial functionalized porous polymer monolith and its adsorption properties of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiaxi; Du, Zhongjie; Zou, Wei; Li, Hangquan; Zhang, Chen

    2014-07-15

    The interfacial functionalized poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) porous monolith was fabricated and applied as a novel porous adsorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)). PGMA porous material with highly interconnected pore network was prepared by concentrated emulsion polymerization template. Then polyacrylic acid (PAA) was grafted onto the interface of the porous monolith by the reaction between the epoxy group on PGMA and a carboxyl group on PAA. Finally, the porous monolith was interfacial functionalized by rich amount of carboxyl groups and could adsorb copper ions effectively. The chemical structure and porous morphology of the porous monolith were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the effects of pore size distribution, pH value, co-existing ions, contacting time, and initial concentrations of copper ions on the adsorption capacity of the porous adsorbents were studied.

  15. A Deterministic Interfacial Cyclic Oxidation Spalling Model. Part 1; Model Development and Parametric Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2002-01-01

    An equation has been developed to model the iterative scale growth and spalling process that occurs during cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials. Parabolic scale growth and spalling of a constant surface area fraction have been assumed. Interfacial spallation of the only the thickest segments was also postulated. This simplicity allowed for representation by a simple deterministic summation series. Inputs are the parabolic growth rate constant, the spall area fraction, oxide stoichiometry, and cycle duration. Outputs include the net weight change behavior, as well as the total amount of oxygen and metal consumed, the total amount of oxide spalled, and the mass fraction of oxide spalled. The outputs all follow typical well-behaved trends with the inputs and are in good agreement with previous interfacial models.

  16. Core–Shell Nanoparticle Coating as an Interfacial Layer for Dendrite-Free Lithium Metal Anodes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lithium metal based batteries represent a major challenge and opportunity in enabling a variety of devices requiring high-energy-density storage. However, dendritic lithium growth has limited the practical application of lithium metal anodes. Here we report a nanoporous, flexible and electrochemically stable coating of silica@poly(methyl methacrylate) (SiO2@PMMA) core–shell nanospheres as an interfacial layer on lithium metal anode. This interfacial layer is capable of inhibiting Li dendrite growth while sustaining ionic flux through it, which is attributed to the nanoscaled pores formed among the nanospheres. Enhanced Coulombic efficiencies during lithium charge/discharge cycles have been achieved at various current densities and areal capacities. PMID:28280780

  17. Nucleation mediated interfacial precipitation for architectural perovskite films with enhanced photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Yang, Songwang; Lei, Lei; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-16

    Perovskite films are a promising candidate for future highly efficient and low-cost solar cells. The long diffusion length of charge carriers in the perovskite film makes its architecture fabrication seem unnecessary, while the rapid crystallization process increases the difficulty in its architecture fabrication. Here we show the fabrication of perovskite architectures through a nucleation mediated interfacial precipitation method with the proper immiscible anti-solvent. Consecutively evolved architectures from tri-layer porous films to bilayer dense films are obtained. The interfacial precipitation provides the possibility of controlling the crystallization process of perovskite films, while the secondary nucleation is the origin of the porous architecture. The nucleation mediation can be a novel bottom-up approach to fabricate architectural perovskite films. The tri-layer architectural perovskite film exhibits excellent light absorption in the range of 500-800 nm and good photovoltaic performance with 8.2% enhancement in efficiency compared with the bilayer film for the corresponding solar cells.

  18. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. • 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. • SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  19. Interfacial double layer mediated electrochemical growth of thin-walled platinum nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiu; Kim, Sang Min; Cho, Sanghyun; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Liu, Lichun; Park, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates that thin-walled platinum nanotubes can be readily synthesized by controlling the interfacial double layer in alumina nanochannels. The gradient distribution of ions in nanochannels enables the creation of Pt nanotubes with walls as thin as 5 nm at the top end when using a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) under the influence of an electric potential in nanochannels. The highly efficient formation of thin-walled Pt nanotubes is a result of the concentration gradient of {{{{PtCl}}}6}2- and a thick double layer, which was caused by the low concentration of Pt precursors and the enhanced surface charge density induced by protonated PVP steric adsorption. This well-controlled synthesis reveals that the interfacial double layer is a useful tool to tailor the structure of nanomaterials in a nanoscale space, and holds promise in the construction of more complex functional nanostructures.

  20. Evolutionary design of interfacial phase change van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kalikka, Janne; Zhou, Xilin; Behera, Jitendra; Nannicini, Giacomo; Simpson, Robert E

    2016-10-27

    We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge2Sb2Te5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 and Ge1Sb2Te4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb2Te3-GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability. The structures predicted by the algorithm agree well with experimental measurements on highly oriented, and single crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 samples. By analysing the evolutionary algorithm optimised structures, we show that diffusive atomic switching is probable by Ge atoms undergoing a transition at the van der Waals interface from layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 to Ge1Sb2Te4 thus producing two blocks of Ge2Sb2Te5. Evolutionary methods present an efficient approach to explore the enormous multi-dimensional design parameter space of van der Waals bonded heterostructure superlattices.

  1. Growth of interfacial perturbations driven by blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric; Shvarts, Dov; Drake, R. Paul

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities play important roles in a variety of high-energy-density physics flows, including problems in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. While classical Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable interfacial flows are relatively well understood, less is known about interactions of blast waves with interfaces. Using a new 2D high-order Discontinuous Galerkin multifluid hydro code, we simulate the interaction of a blast, modeled as a shock followed by a finite-length rarefaction, with a single-mode, perturbed interface separating heavy and light fluids. This model allows us to control, independently, the shock strength, rarefaction strength and length. Starting the blast in the heavy material gives rise to an RT-unstable configuration (driven by the rarefaction). Our findings indicate that the time-evolution of the perturbation growth can be described as a succession of three phases corresponding to different mechanisms (linear RM, combined decompression and RT with time-varying Atwood number and acceleration, and circulation-driven), which we will explain in detail and relate to the blast properties. Supported in part by LLNL under subcontract B614207 to DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Bulk flow coupled to a viscous interfacial film sheared by a rotating knife edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of the interfacial properties of highly viscous biofilms, such as DPPC (the primary component of lung surfactant), present on the surface of liquids (bulk phase) continues to attract significant attention. Most measurement techniques rely on shearing the interfacial film and quantifying its viscous response in terms of a surface (excess) viscosity at the air-liquid interface. The knife edge viscometer offers a significant advantage over other approaches used to study highly viscous films as the film is directly sheared by a rotating knife edge in direct contact with the film. However, accurately quantifying the viscous response is non-trivial and involves accounting for the coupled interfacial and bulk phase flows. Here, we examine the nature of the viscous response of water insoluble DPPC films sheared in a knife edge viscometer over a range of surface packing, and its influence on the strength of the coupled bulk flow. Experimental results, obtained via Particle Image Velocimetry in the bulk and at the surface (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), are compared with numerical flow predictions to quantify the coupling across hydrodynamic flow regimes, from the Stokes flow limit to regimes where flow inertia is significant. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Tuning the Interfacial Thermal Conductance between Polystyrene and Sapphire by Controlling the Interfacial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Sun, Fangyuan; Tian, Xia; Zhu, Jie; Ma, Yongmei; Tang, Dawei; Wang, Fosong

    2015-10-28

    In polymer-based electric microdevices, thermal transport across polymer/ceramic interface is essential for heat dissipation, which limits the improvement of the device performance and lifetime. In this work, four sets of polystyrene (PS) thin films/sapphire samples were prepared with different interface adhesion values, which was achieved by changing the rotation speeds in the spin-coating process. The interfacial thermal conductance (ITC) between the PS films and the sapphire were measured by time domain thermoreflectance method, and the interfacial adhesion between the PS films and the sapphire, as measured by a scratch tester, was found to increase with the rotation speed from 2000 to 8000 rpm. The ITC shows a similar dependence on the rotation speed, increasing up to a 3-fold from 7.0 ± 1.4 to 21.0 ± 4.2 MW/(m(2) K). This study demonstrates the role of spin-coating rotation speed in thermal transport across the polymer/ceramic interfaces, evoking a much simpler mechanical method for tuning this type of ITC. The findings of enhancement of the ITC of polymer/ceramic interface can shed some light on the thermal management and reliability of macro- and microelectronics, where polymeric and hybrid organic-inorganic nano films are employed.

  4. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  5. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    DOE PAGES

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2014-07-25

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface.more » The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical

  6. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-25

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  7. Extraction of net interfacial polarization charge from Al{sub 0.54}In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.34}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Matthew A.; Gupta, Geetak; Wienecke, Steven; Muqtadir, Azim A.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2014-11-14

    Al{sub x}In{sub y}Ga{sub (1-x-y)}N materials show promise for use in GaN-based heterojunction devices. The growth of these materials has developed to the point where they are beginning to see implementation in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and light emitting diodes. However, the electrical properties of these materials are still poorly understood, especially as related to the net polarization charge at the AlInGaN/GaN interface (Q{sub π}(net)). All theoretical calculations of Q{sub π}(net) share the same weakness: dependence upon polarization bowing parameters, which describe the deviation in Q{sub π}(net) from Vegard's law. In this study, direct analysis of Q{sub π}(net) for Al{sub 0.54}In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.34}N/GaN HEMTs is reported as extracted from C-V, I-V, and Hall measurements performed on samples grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. An average value for Q{sub π}(net) is calculated to be 2.015 × 10{sup −6} C/cm{sup 2}, with just 6.5% variation between measurement techniques.

  8. Interfacial thermal degradation in inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbank, William; Hirsch, Lionel; Wantz, Guillaume; Chambon, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    The efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells is constantly improving; however, the lifetime of the devices still requires significant improvement if the potential of OPV is to be realised. In this study, several series of inverted OPV were fabricated and thermally aged in the dark in an inert atmosphere. It was demonstrated that all of the devices undergo short circuit current-driven degradation, which is assigned to morphology changes in the active layer. In addition, a previously unreported, open circuit voltage-driven degradation mechanism was observed that is highly material specific and interfacial in origin. This mechanism was specifically observed in devices containing MoO3 and silver as hole transporting layers and electrode materials, respectively. Devices with this combination were among the worst performing devices with respect to thermal ageing. The physical origins of this mechanism were explored by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and atomic force microscopy and an increase in roughness with thermal ageing was observed that may be partially responsible for the ageing mechanism.

  9. Toughening mechanisms in interfacially modified HDPE/thermoplastic starch blends.

    PubMed

    Taguet, Aurélie; Bureau, Martin N; Huneault, Michel A; Favis, Basil D

    2014-12-19

    The mechanical behavior of polymer blends containing 80 wt% of HDPE and 20 wt% of TPS and compatibilized with HDPE-g-MA grafted copolymer was investigated. Unmodified HDPE/TPS blends exhibit high fracture resistance, however, the interfacial modification of those blends by addition of HDPE-g-MA leads to a dramatic drop in fracture resistance. The compatibilization of HDPE/TPS blends increases the surface area of TPS particles by decreasing their size. It was postulated that the addition of HDPE-g-MA induces a reaction between maleic anhydride and hydroxyl groups of the glycerol leading to a decrease of the glycerol content in the TPS phase. This phenomenon increases the stiffness of the modified TPS particles and stiffer TPS particles leading to an important reduction in toughness and plastic deformation, as measured by the EWF method. It is shown that the main toughening mechanism in HDPE/TPS blends is shear-yielding. This article demonstrates that stiff, low diameter TPS particles reduce shear band formation and consequently decrease the resistance to crack propagation.

  10. Interfacial bond strength of electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings on metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Ruys, A J; Swain, M V; Kim, S H; Milthorpe, B K; Sorrell, C C

    1999-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were deposited onto substrates of metal biomaterials (Ti, Ti6Al4V, and 316L stainless steel) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Only ultra-high surface area HAp powder, prepared by the metathesis method 10Ca(NO3)2 + 6(NH4)2HPO4 + 8NH4OH), could produce dense coatings when sintered at 875-1000degreesC. Single EPD coatings cracked during sintering owing to the 15-18% sintering shrinkage, but the HAp did not decompose. The use of dual coatings (coat, sinter, coat, sinter) resolved the cracking problem. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) inspection revealed that the second coating filled in the "valleys" in the cracks of the first coating. The interfacial shear strength of the dual coatings was found, by ASTM F1044-87, to be approximately 12 MPa on a titanium substrate and approximately 22 MPa on 316L stainless steel, comparing quite favorably with the 34 MPa benchmark (the shear strength of bovine cortical bone was found to be 34 MPa). Stainless steel gave the better result since -316L (20.5 microm mK(-1)) > alpha-HAp (approximately 14 microm mK(-1)), resulting in residual compressive stresses in the coating, whereas alpha-titanium (approximately 10.3 microm mK(-1)) < alpha-HAp, resulting in residual tensile stresses in the coating.

  11. Nucleation at surfaces: the importance of interfacial energy.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Gerard, D E; Nancollas, G H

    1999-11-01

    The nucleation and growth of stone-forming minerals on the surfaces of other crystalline phases, cellular material, and immobilized macromolecules must be important in the formation of stones in the urinary tract. The nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals were studied using the constant composition kinetics technique, in solution supersaturated with respect to COM (sigmaCOM = 1.44). The solid phases during the reaction were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human serum albumin was found to nucleate COM crystals when immobilized on hydroxyapatite (HAP) surfaces. The induction period for nucleation of COM on HAP surfaces preadsorbed with albumin significantly decreased to about 65 min from about 230 min for pure HAP particles. The initial growth rate of COM on pure HAP particles, Rm approximately/= 0.56 X 10(-7) mol/min per m2, was slower than that for HAP surfaces preadsorbed with albumin, 2.14 x 10(-7) mol/min per m2. The surface properties were characterized using contact angle measurements by sessile drop and thin layer wicking. The thermodynamic results suggested that surfaces with high Lewis base parameter values (gamma-) and low interfacial tension with water (gammaSL) are more effective in the nucleation and growth of crystal phases.

  12. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  13. Phonon impedance matching: minimizing interfacial thermal resistance of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos; Zhang, Jingjie; Ghosh, Avik

    2014-03-01

    The challenge to minimize interfacial thermal resistance is to allow a broad band spectrum of phonons, with non-linear dispersion and well defined translational and rotational symmetries, to cross the interface. We explain how to minimize this resistance using a frequency dependent broadening matrix that generalizes the notion of acoustic impedance to the whole phonon spectrum including symmetries. We show how to ``match'' two given materials by joining them with a single atomic layer, with a multilayer material and with a graded superlattice. Atomic layer ``matching'' requires a layer with a mass close to the arithmetic mean (or spring constant close to the harmonic mean) to favor high frequency phonon transmission. For multilayer ``matching,'' we want a material with a broadening close to the geometric mean to maximize transmission peaks. For graded superlattices, a continuous sequence of geometric means translates to an exponentially varying broadening that generates a wide-band antireflection coating for both the coherent and incoherent limits. Our results are supported by ``first principles'' calculations of thermal conductance for GaAs / Gax Al1 - x As / AlAs thin films using the Non-Equilibrium Greens Function formalism coupled with Density Functional Perturbation Theory. NSF-CAREER (QMHP 1028883), NSF-IDR (CBET 1134311), XSEDE.

  14. From nanodroplets by the ouzo effect to interfacial nanolenses.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuhua; Xu, Chenglong; Hughes, Timothy C; Zhang, Xuehua

    2014-10-21

    Polymerizing nanodroplets at solid-liquid interfaces is a facile solution-based approach to the functionalization of large surface areas with polymeric lens-shaped nanostructures. In this work, we have applied a one-pot approach to obtain polymeric nanolenses with controlled sizes and densities. We take advantage of the formation mechanism by the direct adsorption of nanodroplets from a surfactant-free microemulsion onto an immersed hydrophobic substrate. The interfacial nanodroplets were photopolymerized to produce polymeric nanolenses on the substrate surface. The surfactant-free microemulsion of the monomer nanodroplets was obtained through the spontaneous emulsification (i.e., ouzo effect) in the tertiary system of ethanol, water, and precusor monomer. The size of nanolenses on the surface was adjusted by the nanodroplet size, following a linear relationship with the ratio of the components in the microemulsion. This simple approach is applicable to produce nanolenses over the entire surface area or on any specific area at will by depositing a drop of the microemulsion. Possessing high optical transparency, the resulting substrates may have potential application as functional biomedical supporting materials or effective light-harvesting coatings.

  15. Interfacial thermal degradation in inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbank, William; Hirsch, Lionel; Wantz, Guillaume; Chambon, Sylvain

    2015-12-28

    The efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells is constantly improving; however, the lifetime of the devices still requires significant improvement if the potential of OPV is to be realised. In this study, several series of inverted OPV were fabricated and thermally aged in the dark in an inert atmosphere. It was demonstrated that all of the devices undergo short circuit current-driven degradation, which is assigned to morphology changes in the active layer. In addition, a previously unreported, open circuit voltage-driven degradation mechanism was observed that is highly material specific and interfacial in origin. This mechanism was specifically observed in devices containing MoO{sub 3} and silver as hole transporting layers and electrode materials, respectively. Devices with this combination were among the worst performing devices with respect to thermal ageing. The physical origins of this mechanism were explored by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and atomic force microscopy and an increase in roughness with thermal ageing was observed that may be partially responsible for the ageing mechanism.

  16. Interfacial Catalysis: The Mechanism of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David L.; White, Steven P.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Yuan, Wei; Gelb, Michael H.; Sigler, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical description of the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) can now be inferred with confidence from three high-resolution x-ray crystal structures. The first is the structure of the PLA2 from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) in a complex with a phosphonate transition-state analogue. This enzyme is typical of a large, well-studied homologous family of PLA2s. The second is a similar complex with the evolutionarily distant bee-venom PLA2. The third structure is the uninhibited PLA2 from Chinese cobra venom. Despite the different molecular architectures of the cobra and bee-venom PLA2s, the transition-state analogue interacts in a nearly identical way with the catalytic machinery of both enzymes. The disposition of the fatty-acid side chains suggests a common access route of the substrate from its position in the lipid aggregate to its productive interaction with the active site. Comparison of the cobra-venom complex with the uninhibited enzyme indicates that optimal binding and catalysis at the lipid-water interface is due to facilitated substrate diffusion from the interfacial binding surface to the catalytic site rather than an allosteric change in the enzyme’s structure. However, a second bound calcium ion changes its position upon the binding of the transition-state analogue, suggesting a mechanism for augmenting the critical electrophile. PMID:2274785

  17. Metal/oxide interfacial effects on the selective oxidation of primary alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guofeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongjia; Liu, Qingfei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhang, Yi; Niu, Zhiqiang; Mao, Junjie; Bao, Xinhe; Hu, Peijun; Li, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    A main obstacle in the rational development of heterogeneous catalysts is the difficulty in identifying active sites. Here we show metal/oxide interfacial sites are highly active for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and other industrially important primary alcohols on a range of metals and oxides combinations. Scanning tunnelling microscopy together with density functional theory calculations on FeO/Pt(111) reveals that benzyl alcohol enriches preferentially at the oxygen-terminated FeO/Pt(111) interface and undergoes readily O-H and C-H dissociations with the aid of interfacial oxygen, which is also validated in the model study of Cu2O/Ag(111). We demonstrate that the interfacial effects are independent of metal or oxide sizes and the way by which the interfaces were constructed. It inspires us to inversely support nano-oxides on micro-metals to make the structure more stable against sintering while the number of active sites is not sacrificed. The catalyst lifetime, by taking the inverse design, is thereby significantly prolonged.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of interfacial wave generation in turbulent gas-liquid flows in horizontal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bryce; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad

    2014-11-01

    For gas-liquid flows through pipes and channels, a flow regime (referred to as slug flow) may occur when waves form at the interface of a stratified flow and grow until they bridge the pipe diameter trapping large elongated gas bubbles within the liquid. Slug formation is often accompanied by strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions, wave breaking, and gas entrainment. This work numerically investigates the fully nonlinear interfacial evolution of a two-phase density/viscosity stratified flow through a horizontal channel. A Navier-Stokes flow solver coupled with a conservative volume-of-fluid algorithm is use to carry out high resolution three-dimensional simulations of a turbulent gas flowing over laminar (or turbulent) liquid layers. The analysis of such flows over a range of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers permits the characterization of the interfacial stresses and turbulent flow statistics allowing for the development of physics-based models that approximate the coupled interfacial-turbulent interactions and supplement the heuristic models built into existing industrial slug simulators.

  19. Interfacial Effects on Lithium Superoxide Disproportionation in Li-O₂ Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Dengyun; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean; Lu, Jun; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Yang, Wenge; Gao, Jing; Indacochea, Ernesto; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2015-02-11

    During the cycling of Li-O₂ batteries the discharge process gives rise to dynamically evolving agglomerates composed of lithium-oxygen nanostructures; however, little is known about their composition. In this paper, we present results for a Li-O₂ battery based on an activated carbon cathode that indicate interfacial effects can suppress disproportionation of a LiO₂ component in the discharge product. High-intensity X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements are first used to show that there is a LiO₂ component along with Li₂O₂ in the discharge product. The stability of the discharge product was then probed by investigating the dependence of the charge potential and Raman intensity of the superoxide peak with time. The results indicate that the LiO₂ component can be stable for possibly up to days when an electrolyte is left on the surface of the discharged cathode. Density functional calculations on amorphous LiO₂ reveal that the disproportionation process will be slower at an electrolyte/LiO₂ interface compared to a vacuum/LiO₂ interface. The combined experimental and theoretical results provide new insight into how interfacial effects can stabilize LiO₂ and suggest that these interfacial effects may play an important role in the charge and discharge chemistries of a Li-O₂ battery.

  20. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  1. The effects of interfacial potential on antimicrobial propensity of ZnO nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Saleem, Mohammed; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Jha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The work investigates the role of interfacial potential in defining antimicrobial propensity of ZnO nanoparticle (ZnONP) against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. ZnONPs with positive and negative surface potential are tested against different bacteria with varying surface potentials, ranging −14.7 to −23.6 mV. Chemically synthesized ZnONPs with positive surface potential show very high antimicrobial propensity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 50 and 100 μg/mL for Gram negative and positive bacterium, respectively. On other hand, ZnONPs of the same size but with negative surface potential show insignificant antimicrobial propensity against the studied bacteria. Unlike the positively charged nanoparticles, neither Zn2+ ion nor negatively charged ZnONP shows any significant inhibition in growth or morphology of the bacterium. Potential neutralization and colony forming unit studies together proved adverse effect of the resultant nano-bacterial interfacial potential on bacterial viability. Thus, ZnONP with positive surface potential upon interaction with negative surface potential of bacterial membrane enhances production of the reactive oxygen species and exerts mechanical stress on the membrane, resulting in the membrane depolarization. Our results show that the antimicrobial propensity of metal oxide nanoparticle mainly depends upon the interfacial potential, the potential resulting upon interaction of nanoparticle surface with bacterial membrane. PMID:25873247

  2. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  3. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  4. Influence of chemical reaction decreasing interfacial tension on immiscible viscous fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Reiko; Fujimura, Masanari; Yuichiro, Nagatsu

    2016-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of chemical reaction on immiscible viscous fingering (VF). In the present study, we use a chemical reaction producing a surfactant leading to a decrease in interfacial tension. In our experiment, a more viscous paraffin oil containing linoleic acid is displaced by a less viscous NaOHaq in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. We have found the influence of the reaction on the VF pattern depends on the displacement flow rate. At low flow rate, the reaction makes the fingers narrower. On the other hand, at intermediate flow rate, the reaction makes the fingers wider. At high flow rate, there is little influence of the reaction. These results can be interpreted as follows; when the reaction rate is much faster than the flow rate, interfacial tension is decreased uniformly over the interface. As a result, more finger-splitting occur and the fingers become narrower. When the reaction rate and flow rate are competing, the interfacial tension gradient is formed along the interface. As a result, Marangoni convection is produced, which leads to wider fingers. When the flow rate is much faster than the reaction rate, little reaction occurs during the formation of VF. As a result, the reaction does not influence on VF pattern.

  5. Spatio-temporal evolution of interfacial instabilities in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Valluri, Prashant; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    Vertical gas-liquid flows are characteristic for process engineering and widely employed in various technical applications. However, the dynamic behaviour of the liquid interface in such flows is still not fully understood. We focus in our work on characterising the interfacial instability as well as associated interfacial waves in vertical laminar-laminar gas-liquid flows over a wide range of parameters covering different flow regimes, i.e. counter-current, zero-interface velocity (loading) and partial-to-full liquid flow reversal (flooding). High-resolution direct numerical simulations using the TPLS flow solver (http://sourceforge.net/projects/tpls/) reveal the existence of weakly nonlinear interfacial waves, which are in good agreement with Stuart-Landau theory. These waves travel down- or upstream, depending on the flow regime. Furthermore, spatio-temporal linear stability analysis indicates the occurrence of absolute instability within the investigated parameter range. DNS is used to analyse this feature in more detail whereby agreement with linear theory has been established.

  6. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  7. Metal/oxide interfacial effects on the selective oxidation of primary alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guofeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongjia; Liu, Qingfei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhang, Yi; Niu, Zhiqiang; Mao, Junjie; Bao, Xinhe; Hu, Peijun; Li, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    A main obstacle in the rational development of heterogeneous catalysts is the difficulty in identifying active sites. Here we show metal/oxide interfacial sites are highly active for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and other industrially important primary alcohols on a range of metals and oxides combinations. Scanning tunnelling microscopy together with density functional theory calculations on FeO/Pt(111) reveals that benzyl alcohol enriches preferentially at the oxygen-terminated FeO/Pt(111) interface and undergoes readily O–H and C–H dissociations with the aid of interfacial oxygen, which is also validated in the model study of Cu2O/Ag(111). We demonstrate that the interfacial effects are independent of metal or oxide sizes and the way by which the interfaces were constructed. It inspires us to inversely support nano-oxides on micro-metals to make the structure more stable against sintering while the number of active sites is not sacrificed. The catalyst lifetime, by taking the inverse design, is thereby significantly prolonged. PMID:28098146

  8. Some Aspects of Interfacial Phenomena in Steelmaking and Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. J.; Viswanathan, N. N.; Muhmood, L.; Kapilashrami, E.; Seetharaman, S.

    2016-08-01

    Unique experiments were designed to study the surface phenomena in steelmaking reactions. The concept of surface sulfide capacities and an understanding of the surface accumulation of surface-active species, based on experimental results, are presented. In order to understand the flow phenomenon at slag/metal interface, experiments were designed to measure the interfacial velocity of S on the surface of an iron drop immersed in an aluminosilicate slag using the X-ray sessile drop method. The oscillation of the iron drop in the slag due to the change in the surface concentration of sulfur at the slag-metal interface was monitored by X-ray imaging. From the observations, the interfacial velocity of sulfur was evaluated. Similar experiments were performed to measure the interfacial velocity of oxygen at the interface as well as the impact of oxygen potential on the interfacial velocity of sulfur. The interfacial shear viscosity and the dilatational modulus were also evaluated. In a study of the wetting of alumina base by iron drop at constant oxygen pressure under isothermal condition, the contact angle was found to be decreased with the progress of the reaction leading to the formation of hercynite as an intermediate layer creating non-wetting conditions. In the case of silica substrate, an intermediate liquid fayalite layer was formed.

  9. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    1996-11-01

    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.

  10. Effects of coating thickness and interfacial roughness on cracking and delamination strength of WC-Co coating measured by ring compression test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masahiko; Nazul, Mahmoud; Itti, Takeshi; Akebono, Hiroyuki; Sugeta, Atsushi; Mitani, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    The effects of coating thickness and interfacial roughness on the interfacial fracture toughness of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) coatings were evaluated using a ring compression test. WC-Co powder was sprayed on steel (JIS:SS400) rings by a high-velocity air- fuel method in coatings with various thicknesses and values of interfacial roughness. The ring compression test was carried out, and the cracking and delamination behavior of the coatings was observed using charge-coupled-device cameras. The results showed that cracking perpendicular to the loading direction occurred in the coatings during the ring compression test, and the cracking strength obtained from the ring compression test decreased slightly with increasing coating thickness, but was independent of the interfacial roughness. Upon further increase of the compression load, the coatings delaminated from the substrate. The interfacial fracture toughness calculated from the delamination of the coatings during the ring compression test decreased with increasing coating thickness and increased with increasing interfacial roughness.

  11. The role of electrostatic interactions in protease surface diffusion and the consequence for interfacial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Feller, Bob E; Kellis, James T; Cascão-Pereira, Luis G; Robertson, Channing R; Frank, Curtis W

    2010-12-21

    This study examines the influence of electrostatic interactions on enzyme surface diffusion and the contribution of diffusion to interfacial biocatalysis. Surface diffusion, adsorption, and reaction were investigated on an immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) multilayer substrate over a range of solution ionic strength values. Interfacial charge of the enzyme and substrate surface was maintained by performing the measurements at a fixed pH; therefore, electrostatic interactions were manipulated by changing the ionic strength. The interfacial processes were investigated using a combination of techniques: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy. We used an enzyme charge ladder with a net charge ranging from -2 to +4 with respect to the parent to systematically probe the contribution of electrostatics in interfacial enzyme biocatalysis on a charged substrate. The correlation between reaction rate and adsorption was determined for each charge variant within the ladder, each of which displayed a maximum rate at an intermediate surface concentration. Both the maximum reaction rate and adsorption value at which this maximum rate occurs increased in magnitude for the more positive variants. In addition, the specific enzyme activity increased as the level of adsorption decreased, and for the lowest adsorption values, the specific enzyme activity was enhanced compared to the trend at higher surface concentrations. At a fixed level of adsorption, the specific enzyme activity increased with positive enzyme charge; however, this effect offers diminishing returns as the enzyme becomes more highly charged. We examined the effect of electrostatic interactions on surface diffusion. As the binding affinity was reduced by increasing the solution ionic strength, thus weakening electrostatic interaction, the rate of surface diffusion increased considerably. The enhancement in specific activity achieved at

  12. Silicon-wall interfacial free energy via thermodynamics integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wan; Pan, Heng

    2016-11-01

    We compute the interfacial free energy of a silicon system in contact with flat and structured walls by molecular dynamics simulation. The thermodynamics integration method, previously applied to Lennard-Jones potentials [R. Benjamin and J. Horbach, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044707 (2012)], has been extended and implemented in Tersoff potentials with two-body and three-body interactions taken into consideration. The thermodynamic integration scheme includes two steps. In the first step, the bulk Tersoff system is reversibly transformed to a state where it interacts with a structureless flat wall, and in a second step, the flat structureless wall is reversibly transformed into an atomistic SiO2 wall. Interfacial energies for liquid silicon-wall interfaces and crystal silicon-wall interfaces have been calculated. The calculated interfacial energies have been employed to predict the nucleation mechanisms in a slab of liquid silicon confined by two walls and compared with MD simulation results.

  13. Quantitative morphological characterization of bicontinuous Pickering emulsions via interfacial curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Matthew; Stratford, Kevin; Thijssen, Job H. J.

    Bicontinuous Pickering emulsions (bijels) are a physically interesting class of soft materials with many potential applications including catalysis, microfluidics and tissue engineering. They are created by arresting the spinodal decomposition of a partially-miscible liquid with a (jammed) layer of interfacial colloids. Porosity $L$ (average interfacial separation) of the bijel is controlled by varying the radius ($r$) and volume fraction ($\\phi$) of the colloids ($L \\propto r/\\phi$). However, to optimize the bijel structure with respect to other parameters, e.g. quench rate, characterizing by $L$ alone is insufficient. Hence, we have used confocal microscopy and X-ray CT to characterize a range of bijels in terms of local and area-averaged interfacial curvatures. In addition, the curvatures of bijels have been monitored as a function of time, which has revealed an intriguing evolution up to 60 minutes after bijel formation, contrary to previous understanding.

  14. Fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion in natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, L. Q. N.; Yuan, X. W.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Fuentes, C.; van Vuure, A. W.; Verpoest, I.

    2015-04-01

    The interface between natural fibers and thermoplastic matrices is studied, in which fiber-matrix wetting analysis and interfacial adhesion are investigated to obtain a systematic understanding of the interface. In wetting analysis, the surface energies of the fibers and the matrices are estimated using their contact angles in test liquids. Work of adhesion is calculated for each composite system. For the interface tests, transverse three point bending tests (3PBT) on unidirectional (UD) composites are performed to measure interfacial strength. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization on the fibers is also carried out to obtain more information about the surface chemistry of the fibers. UD composites are examined to explore the correlation between the fiber-matrix interface and the final properties of the composites. The results suggest that the higher interfacial adhesion of the treated fiber composites compared to untreated fiber composites can be attributed to higher fiber-matrix physico-chemical interaction corresponding with the work of adhesion.

  15. Interfacial waves generated by electrowetting-driven contact line motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yunhee; Shin, Bongsu; Bae, Jungmok; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    The contact angle of a liquid-fluid interface can be effectively modulated by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technology. Rapid movement of the contact line can be achieved by swift changes of voltage at the electrodes, which can give rise to interfacial waves under the strong influence of surface tension. Here we experimentally demonstrate EWOD-driven interfacial waves of overlapping liquids and compare their wavelength and decay length with the theoretical results obtained by a perturbation analysis. Our theory also allows us to predict the temporal evolution of the interfacial profiles in either rectangular or cylindrical containers, as driven by slipping contact lines. This work builds a theoretical framework to understand and predict the dynamics of capillary waves of a liquid-liquid interface driven by EWOD, which has practical implications on optofluidic devices used to guide light.

  16. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios; Ho, Thomas; Cole, David

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

  17. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  18. Nonequilibrium Interfacial Tension in Simple and Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truzzolillo, Domenico; Mora, Serge; Dupas, Christelle; Cipelletti, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Interfacial tension between immiscible phases is a well-known phenomenon, which manifests itself in everyday life, from the shape of droplets and foam bubbles to the capillary rise of sap in plants or the locomotion of insects on a water surface. More than a century ago, Korteweg generalized this notion by arguing that stresses at the interface between two miscible fluids act transiently as an effective, nonequilibrium interfacial tension, before homogenization is eventually reached. In spite of its relevance in fields as diverse as geosciences, polymer physics, multiphase flows, and fluid removal, experiments and theoretical works on the interfacial tension of miscible systems are still scarce, and mostly restricted to molecular fluids. This leaves crucial questions unanswered, concerning the very existence of the effective interfacial tension, its stabilizing or destabilizing character, and its dependence on the fluid's composition and concentration gradients. We present an extensive set of measurements on miscible complex fluids that demonstrate the existence and the stabilizing character of the effective interfacial tension, unveil new regimes beyond Korteweg's predictions, and quantify its dependence on the nature of the fluids and the composition gradient at the interface. We introduce a simple yet general model that rationalizes nonequilibrium interfacial stresses to arbitrary mixtures, beyond Korteweg's small gradient regime, and show that the model captures remarkably well both our new measurements and literature data on molecular and polymer fluids. Finally, we briefly discuss the relevance of our model to a variety of interface-driven problems, from phase separation to fracture, which are not adequately captured by current approaches based on the assumption of small gradients.

  19. Interfacial Stability in a Two-Layer Benard Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko Renardy Technical Summary Report #2814 April 1985 I cti- Work Unit Number 2 - Physical Mathematics...34•"• -••’-’• ^ ••’••• VI , •• W -•- • •- ’•"• INTERFACIAL STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko Renardy I. INTRODUCTION Two layers of fluids are...Subtltl») INTERFACIAL STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM 7. AUTMORf.; Yuriko Renardy »• PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

  20. The ensemble switch method for computing interfacial tensions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter

    2015-04-14

    We present a systematic thermodynamic integration approach to compute interfacial tensions for solid-liquid interfaces, which is based on the ensemble switch method. Applying Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques, we obtain results for hard spheres, which are in agreement with previous computations. The case of solid-liquid interfaces in a variant of the effective Asakura-Oosawa model and of liquid-vapor interfaces in the Lennard-Jones model are discussed as well. We demonstrate that a thorough finite-size analysis of the simulation data is required to obtain precise results for the interfacial tension.

  1. Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-04-06

    The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.

  2. The ensemble switch method for computing interfacial tensions.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter

    2015-04-14

    We present a systematic thermodynamic integration approach to compute interfacial tensions for solid-liquid interfaces, which is based on the ensemble switch method. Applying Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques, we obtain results for hard spheres, which are in agreement with previous computations. The case of solid-liquid interfaces in a variant of the effective Asakura-Oosawa model and of liquid-vapor interfaces in the Lennard-Jones model are discussed as well. We demonstrate that a thorough finite-size analysis of the simulation data is required to obtain precise results for the interfacial tension.

  3. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  4. Blind Prediction of Interfacial Water Positions in CAPRI

    PubMed Central

    Moal, Iain H.; Bates, Paul A.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S.J.; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jiménez-García, Brian; Grosdidier, Solène; Solernou, Albert; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Kilambi, Krishna Praneeth; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C.; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W.; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Pierce, Brian G.; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J.; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the CAPRI (Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and Im2 immunity protein (CAPRI target 47), were invited to predict the positions of interfacial water molecules using the method of their choice. The predictions – 20 groups submitted a total of 195 models – were assessed by measuring the recall fraction of water-mediated protein contacts. Of the 176 high or medium quality docking models – a very good docking performance per se – only 44% had a recall fraction above 0.3, and a mere 6% above 0.5. The actual water positions were in general predicted to an accuracy level no better than 1.5 Å, and even in good models about half of the contacts represented false positives. This notwithstanding, three hotspot interface water positions were quite well predicted, and so was one of the water positions that is believed to stabilize the loop that confers specificity in these complexes. Overall the best interface water predictions was achieved by groups that also produced high quality docking models, indicating that accurate modelling of the protein portion is a determinant factor. The use of established molecular mechanics force fields, coupled to sampling and optimization procedures also seemed to confer an advantage. Insights gained from this analysis should help improve the prediction of protein-water interactions and their role in stabilizing protein complexes. PMID:24155158

  5. The importance of experimental design on measurement of dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial rheology in diffusion-limited surfactant systems

    DOE PAGES

    Reichert, Matthew D.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Brooks, Carlton F.; ...

    2014-09-24

    Pendant bubble and drop devices are invaluable tools in understanding surfactant behavior at fluid–fluid interfaces. The simple instrumentation and analysis are used widely to determine adsorption isotherms, transport parameters, and interfacial rheology. However, much of the analysis performed is developed for planar interfaces. Moreover, the application of a planar analysis to drops and bubbles (curved interfaces) can lead to erroneous and unphysical results. We revisit this analysis for a well-studied surfactant system at air–water interfaces over a wide range of curvatures as applied to both expansion/contraction experiments and interfacial elasticity measurements. The impact of curvature and transport on measured propertiesmore » is quantified and compared to other scaling relationships in the literature. Our results provide tools to design interfacial experiments for accurate determination of isotherm, transport and elastic properties.« less

  6. The importance of experimental design on measurement of dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial rheology in diffusion-limited surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichert, Matthew D.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Brooks, Carlton F.; Grillet, Anne M.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Walker, Lynn M.

    2014-09-24

    Pendant bubble and drop devices are invaluable tools in understanding surfactant behavior at fluid–fluid interfaces. The simple instrumentation and analysis are used widely to determine adsorption isotherms, transport parameters, and interfacial rheology. However, much of the analysis performed is developed for planar interfaces. Moreover, the application of a planar analysis to drops and bubbles (curved interfaces) can lead to erroneous and unphysical results. We revisit this analysis for a well-studied surfactant system at air–water interfaces over a wide range of curvatures as applied to both expansion/contraction experiments and interfacial elasticity measurements. The impact of curvature and transport on measured properties is quantified and compared to other scaling relationships in the literature. Our results provide tools to design interfacial experiments for accurate determination of isotherm, transport and elastic properties.

  7. Specific effects of Ca(2+) ions and molecular structure of β-lactoglobulin interfacial layers that drive macroscopic foam stability.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Björn; Schulze-Zachau, Felix; Nagel, Eva; Engelhardt, Kathrin; Stoyanov, Stefan; Gochev, Georgi; Khristov, Khr; Mileva, Elena; Exerowa, Dotchi; Miller, Reinhard; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-06

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) adsorption layers at air-water interfaces were studied in situ with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), tensiometry, surface dilatational rheology and ellipsometry as a function of bulk Ca(2+) concentration. The relation between the interfacial molecular structure of adsorbed BLG and the interactions with the supporting electrolyte is additionally addressed on higher length scales along the foam hierarchy - from the ubiquitous air-water interface through thin foam films to macroscopic foam. For concentrations <1 mM, a strong decrease in SFG intensity from O-H stretching bands and a slight increase in layer thickness and surface pressure are observed. A further increase in Ca(2+) concentrations above 1 mM causes an apparent change in the polarity of aromatic C-H stretching vibrations from interfacial BLG which we associate to a charge reversal at the interface. Foam film measurements show formation of common black films at Ca(2+) concentrations above 1 mM due to considerable decrease of the stabilizing electrostatic disjoining pressure. These observations also correlate with a minimum in macroscopic foam stability. For concentrations >30 mM Ca(2+), micrographs of foam films show clear signatures of aggregates which tend to increase the stability of foam films. Here, the interfacial layers have a higher surface dilatational elasticity. In fact, macroscopic foams formed from BLG dilutions with high Ca(2+) concentrations where aggregates and interfacial layers with higher elasticity are found, showed the highest stability with much smaller bubble sizes.

  8. Influence of string-like cooperative atomic motion on surface diffusion in the (110) interfacial region of crystalline Ni

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Ying; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-01-01

    Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the “simple” case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, Tm. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials. PMID:25725748

  9. Influence of string-like cooperative atomic motion on surface diffusion in the (110) interfacial region of crystalline Ni.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Ying; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-02-28

    Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the "simple" case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, Tm. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials.

  10. Interfacial rheology: an overview of measuring techniques and its role in dispersions and electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Rošic, Romana; Baumgartner, Saša; Kocbek, Petra

    2012-06-01

    Interfacial rheological properties have yet to be thoroughly explored. Only recently, methods have been introduced that provide sufficient sensitivity to reliably determine viscoelastic interfacial properties. In general, interfacial rheology describes the relationship between the deformation of an interface and the stresses exerted on it. Due to the variety in deformations of the interfacial layer (shear and expansions or compressions), the field of interfacial rheology is divided into the subcategories of shear and dilatational rheology. While shear rheology is primarily linked to the long-term stability of dispersions, dilatational rheology provides information regarding short-term stability. Interfacial rheological characteristics become relevant in systems with large interfacial areas, such as emulsions and foams, and in processes that lead to a large increase in the interfacial area, such as electrospinning of nanofibers.

  11. Formation of Lamellar Pores for Splats via Interfacial or Sub-interfacial Delamination at Chemically Bonded Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

    2017-02-01

    To comprehensively understand the formation mechanism of lamellar pores in splats, the delamination morphologies and crack patterns of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and lanthanum zirconia splats were examined. Results showed that both types of splats grew epitaxially on well-polished YSZ substrates, evidently confirming the formation of chemical bonding between splats and substrate. However, the interfacial or sub-interfacial delamination was observed in all kinds of splats in this study. Residual vertical cracks passing through delaminated domains (on bare substrate) were also observed, which clearly indicated that transverse delamination followed vertical cracking. Mechanical analysis about delamination was addressed, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Interfacial preferential dissolution on silicon carbide particulate/aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, H.Y.; Zhu, R.Z.

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies on corrosion of discontinuously reinforced aluminum alloy composites have assumed that the role of the reinforcement-matrix interface is merely as a preferable site for pitting. In this work, the interfacial preferential dissolution (IPD) occurring on silicon carbide particulate/aluminum (SiC{sub p}/Al) composites in a medium of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied. IPD was quite distinct from pitting. IPD occurred on the composites with either a pure aluminum matrix or an aluminum alloy Al 2024 (UNS A92024) matrix, whether they were fabricated by a cast process or by a powder metallurgy process. In the light of elastoplastic mechanics, the width of the plastically deformed zone around SiC particles (created by the contraction misfit between SiC particles and the matrix during quenching) was deduced to be 0.5 D, where D is the diameter of the SiC particles. This was in agreement with the measured width of the IPD region (0.3 D to 0.4 D). It was concluded that IPD was caused by the poor integrity of the surface oxide film upon the plastically deformed zone near the interface and was independent of the chemical, metallurgical, and galvanic coupling factors around the interface, if any. A copper-deposition experiment indicated this poor integrity. IPD caused increased dissolution at SiC clusters and uniform corrosion for the composites with high SiC content. Moreover, IPD and pitting suppressed each other by a means of cathodic protection.

  13. Mechanism of interfacial layer suppression after performing surface Al(CH3)3 pretreatment during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Chi; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Wei; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei; Wang, Li-Kang

    2006-11-01

    During atomic layer deposition of high permittivity (high-k) metal oxide gate dielectrics, an interfacial layer (IL) containing SiOx between high-k dielectric and Si substrate is almost unavoidable. However, an Al(CH3)3 (TMA) pretreatment for 3600s on H-terminated silicon surface can effectively reduce the interfacial layer from 1.7to0.5nm during atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide. Interestingly, the surface TMA pretreatment increases the thickness of the initial IL during atomic layer deposition, but it greatly suppresses the final IL after 35 growth cycles. A reasonable mechanism is proposed based on the steric hindrance effect cofunctioning with the interfacial Al catalyzing effect.

  14. Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.

  15. Biomineralization mechanisms: a kinetics and interfacial energy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nancollas, George H.; Wu, Wenju

    2000-04-01

    The calcium phosphates and oxalates are among the most frequently encountered biomineral phases and numerous kinetics studies have been made of their crystallization and dissolution in supersaturated and undersaturated solutions, respectively. These have focused mainly on parameters such as solution composition, ionic strength, pH, temperature, and solid surface characteristics. There is considerable interest in extending such studies to solutions more closely simulating the biological milieu. The constant composition method is especially useful for investigating the mechanisms of these reactions, and in the present work, the interfacial tensions between water and each of these surfaces have been calculated from measured contact angles using surface tension component theory. Values for the calcium phosphate phases such as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), hydroxyapatite (HAP), and fluorapatite (FAP) may be compared with data calculated from dissolution kinetics experiments invoking different reaction mechanisms. Agreement between the directly measured interfacial energies and those calculated from the kinetics experiments provides valuable corroborative information about individual growth and dissolution mechanisms. For the calcium phosphates, the much smaller interfacial tensions of OCP and DCPD in contact with water as compared with those of HAP and FAP support the suggestion that the former phases are precursors in HAP and FAP biomineralization. The ability of a surface to nucleate mineral phases is closely related to the magnitude of the interfacial energies. Constant composition studies have also shown that HAP is an effective nucleator of calcium oxalate monohydrate, both of which are frequently observed in renal stones.

  16. The Hydrophobic Effect in Solute Partitioning and Interfacial Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Meyer B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the partitioning of hydrophobic solutes between water and nonpolar solvents provide estimates for the energy cost of creating hydrophobic-water contacts. This energy is a factor of three lower than the work of adhesion derived from interfacial tension measurements. This discrepancy noted by Tanford in 1979 is widely viewed as a serious challenge to our understanding of hydrophobic interactions. However, the interfacial energy of a water-alkane interface depends on chain length. A simple analysis of published data shows that the loss of rotational freedom of an alkane chain at an interface accounts quantitatively for the length-dependent contribution to interfacial tension, leaving a length-independent contribution very close to the free energy of transfer per unit of solvent accessible surface area. This analysis thus clarifies the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and interfacial tension measurements of hydrophobic interaction energy. Alkanes do not loose rotational freedom when transferred between two different liquid phases but they do at an interface. This reconciles the difference between microscopic and macroscopic measurements. Like the partitioning free energy, the work of adhesion also has a large entropy and small enthalpy at 20 oC.

  17. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2016-09-01

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  18. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  19. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  20. Photon Upconversion Through Tb(3+) -Mediated Interfacial Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Weifeng; Han, Sanyang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-28

    A strategy of interfacial energy transfer upconversion is demonstrated through the use of a terbium (Tb(3+) ) dopant as energy donor or energy migrator in core-shell-structured nanocrystals. This mechanistic investigation presents a new pathway for photon upconversion, and, more importantly, contributes to the better control of energy transfer at the nanometer length scale.

  1. Recent progress in interfacial tissue engineering approaches for osteochondral defects.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; Hacking, S Adam; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2012-08-01

    This review provides a brief synopsis of the anatomy and physiology of the osteochondral interface, scaffold-based and non-scaffold based approaches for engineering both tissues independently as well as recent developments in the manufacture of gradient constructs. Novel manufacturing techniques and nanotechnology will be discussed with potential application in osteochondral interfacial tissue engineering.

  2. Interfacial thermodynamics of water and six other liquid solvents.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Tod A; Goddard, William A

    2014-06-05

    We examine the thermodynamics of the liquid-vapor interface by direct calculation of the surface entropy, enthalpy, and free energy from extensive molecular dynamics simulations using the two-phase thermodynamics (2PT) method. Results for water, acetonitrile, cyclohexane, dimethyl sulfoxide, hexanol, N-methyl acetamide, and toluene are presented. We validate our approach by predicting the interfacial surface tensions (IFT--excess surface free energy per unit area) in excellent agreement with the mechanical calculations using Kirkwood-Buff theory. Additionally, we evaluate the temperature dependence of the IFT of water as described by the TIP4P/2005, SPC/Ew, TIP3P, and mW classical water models. We find that the TIP4P/2005 and SPC/Ew water models do a reasonable job of describing the interfacial thermodynamics; however, the TIP3P and mW are quite poor. We find that the underprediction of the experimental IFT at 298 K by these water models results from understructured surface molecules whose binding energies are too weak. Finally, we performed depth profiles of the interfacial thermodynamics which revealed long tails that extend far into what would be considered bulk from standard Gibbs theory. In fact, we find a nonmonotonic interfacial free energy profile for water, a unique feature that could have important consequences for the absorption of ions and other small molecules.

  3. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  4. Interfacial free energy and stiffness of aluminum during rapid solidification

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas T.; Martinez, Enrique; Qu, Jianmin

    2017-05-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and the capillary fluctuation method, we have calculated the anisotropic crystal-melt interfacial free energy and stiffness of aluminum in a rapid solidification system where a temperature gradient is applied to enforce thermal non-equilibrium. To calculate these material properties, the standard capillary fluctuation method typically used for systems in equilibrium has been modified to incorporate a second-order Taylor expansion of the interfacial free energy term. The result is a robust method for calculating interfacial energy, stiffness and anisotropy as a function of temperature gradient using the fluctuations in the defined interface height. This work includes the calculationmore » of interface characteristics for temperature gradients ranging from 11 to 34 K/nm. The captured results are compared to a thermal equilibrium case using the same model and simulation technique with a zero gradient definition. We define the temperature gradient as the change in temperature over height perpendicular to the crystal-melt interface. The gradients are applied in MD simulations using defined thermostat regions on a stable solid-liquid interface initially in thermal equilibrium. The results of this work show that the interfacial stiffness and free energy for aluminum are dependent on the magnitude of the temperature gradient, however the anisotropic parameters remain independent of the non-equilibrium conditions applied in this analysis. As a result, the relationships of the interfacial free energy/stiffness are determined to be linearly related to the thermal gradient, and can be interpolated to find material characteristics at additional temperature gradients.« less

  5. Interfacial characteristic measurements in horizontal bubbly two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Huang, W. D.; Srinivasmurthy, S.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.

    1990-10-01

    Advances in the study of two-phase flow increasingly require detailed internal structure information upon which theoretical models can be formulated. The void fraction and interfacial area are two fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. However, little information is currently available on these parameters, and it is mostly limited to vertical flow configurations. In view of the above, the internal phase distribution of concurrent, air-water bubbly flow in a 50.3 mm diameter transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a double-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 3.74 to 5.60 m/s and 0.25 to 1.59 m/s, respectively, and average void fractions ranged from 2.12 to 22.5 percent. The local values of void fractions, interfacial area concentration, mean bubble diameter, bubble interface velocity, bubble chord-length and bubble frequency distributions were measured. The experimental results indicate that the void fraction interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency have local maxima near the upper pipe wall, and the profiles tend to flatten with increasing void fraction. The observed peak void fraction can reach 0.65, the peak interfacial area can go up to 900 approximately 1000 sq m/cu m, and the bubble frequency can reach a value of 2200 per s. These ranges of values have never been reported for vertical bubbly flow. It is found that either decreasing the liquid flow rate or increasing the gas flow would increase the local void fraction, the interfacial area concentration and the bubble frequency.

  6. An Interfacial Characterization of Pd-Ag-CuO Reactive Air Joints with Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Darsell, Jens T.

    2005-05-26

    A new ceramic brazing technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) is currently under development that has potential applications in high temperature devices such as gas concentrators, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and combustion engines. Currently, the technique utilizes a silver-copper oxide system. We have previously increased the operating temperature of this system by adding palladium. In this paper, we report the effects of palladium addition on the wetting properties of the resulting braze relative to alumina. Specifically, we will discuss the apparent correlation between braze wettability and interfacial microstructure between the braze and alumina, both with and without palladium additions.

  7. Diphenylbutylbenzyl- and diphenyldibenzylphosphonium chlorides are interfacial catalysts in cross-linking of fluorine-containing copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, L.N.; Bondarenko, N.A.; Tsvetkov, E.N.; Nudel'man, Z.N.

    1988-09-10

    Vulcanization in a two-phase system with an interfacial transfer catalyst (ITC) is widely used for obtaining highly thermostable rubbers from fluorine-containing rubbers, copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with hexafluoropropylene. A simple method of synthesis of tertiary diphenylalkylphosphines by alkylation of diphenylphosphine with alkyl halides in the presence of an aqueous alkali and aprotic bipolar solvents (dimethyl sulfide, dimethylformamide, and hexamethanol) has now been developed. They synthesized diphenylbutyl- and diphenylbenzylphosphines by this method, and they were subsequently transformed into the corresponding phosphonium salts by treatment with an excess of benzyl chloride. The prepared diphenylbutylbenzyl- and diphenyldibenzyl- phosphonium chlorides were tested as ITC in vulcanization of SKF-26 fluorine-containing rubber.

  8. Interfacial reaction and electrical properties of HfO2 film gate dielectric prepared by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen: role of rapid thermal annealing and gate electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hanbin; Jiang, Yong

    2011-10-01

    The high-k dielectric HfO(2) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen atmosphere. Rapid thermal annealing effect on film surface roughness, structure and electrical properties of HfO(2) film was investigated. The mechanism of interfacial reaction and the annealing atmosphere effect on the interfacial layer thickness were discussed. The sample annealed in nitrogen shows an amorphous dominated structure and the lowest leakage current density. Capacitors with high-k HfO(2) film as gate dielectric were fabricated, using Pt, Au, and Ti as the top gate electrode whereas Pt constitutes the bottom side electrode. At the gate injection case, the Pt- and Au-gated metal oxide semiconductor devices present a lower leakage current than that of the Ti-gated device, as well as similar leakage current conduction mechanism and interfacial properties at the metal/HfO(2) interface, because of their close work function and chemical properties.

  9. Investigation of the interfacial condition between bioceramic coatings and metallic substrates using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffari, Nader; Ong, Chuon-Szen

    2001-04-01

    The work reported here is on the characterization of the interfacial properties between plasma-sprayed Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates as used in cement-less hip orthopaedic implants. The phase velocity dispersion for the first Rayleigh-type mode for the coating-substrate system has been shown to be sensitive to the interfacial stiffness. Different interfacial conditions between the coating and substrate have been obtained by cyclic loading of the specimens in a four-point bend fatigue machine. The measured interfacial stiffness is then correlated with the interfacial fracture strength obtained by standard destructive shear tests.

  10. Interfacial behaviours between lithium ion conductors and electrode materials in various battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bingbin; Wang, Shanyu; Evans IV, Willie J.; Deng, Daniel Z.; Yang, Jihui; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years room temperature Li+ ion conductors have been intensively revisited in order to develop safe lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and beyond that can be deployed in the electrical vehicles. Through careful modification on materials synthesis, promising solid Li+ conductors with high ionic conductivity, competitve with liquid electrolytes, have been demonstrated. However, the integration of those highly conductive solid electrolytes into the whole system is still very challenging mainly due to the high impedance existing in the different interfaces throughout the entire battery structure. Herein , this review paper focuses on the overview of the interfacial behaviors between Li+ conductors and cathode/anode materials. The origin, evolution and potential solutions to reuce these interfacial impedances are reviewed for various battery systems spanning from Li-ion, lithium sulfur (Li-S), lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries to lithium metal protection. The predicted gravimetric and volumetric energy densities at different scenarios are also discussed along with the prospectives for further development of solid state batteries.

  11. Interfacial Area Transport of Vertical Upward Bubbly Flow in an Annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Hibiki; Ye Mi; Rong Situ; Mamoru Ishii; Michitsugu Mori

    2002-07-01

    In relation to the development of the interfacial area transport equation, hydrodynamic separate tests without phase change were performed in an adiabatic air-water bubbly flow in a vertical annulus to identify the effect of bubble coalescence and breakup on the interfacial area transport. A total of 20 data sets on axial developments of local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and interfacial velocity were acquired by using the double-sensor conductivity probe method in an extensive bubbly flow region. The detailed discussion was given for the mechanism of the axial development of the local flow parameters. The one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation could reproduce proper trends of the interfacial area concentration change along the flow direction and good agreement between predicted and measured interfacial area concentration was obtained with an average relative deviation of {+-}8.96 %. (authors)

  12. Interface modification for highly efficient organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steim, Roland; Choulis, Stelios A.; Schilinsky, Pavel; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2008-03-01

    We present highly efficient inverted polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells by incorporation of a nanoscale organic interfacial layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) and the metal oxide electron-conducting layer. We demonstrate that stacking of solution-processed organic and metal oxide interfacial layers gives highly charged selective low ohmic cathodes. The incorporation of a polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether interfacial layer between ITO and solution-processed titanium oxide (TiOx) raised the power conversion efficiency of inverted organic photovoltaics to 3.6%, an improvement of around 15% in their performance over comparable devices without the organic interfacial layer.

  13. Controlling Interfacial Dynamics: Covalent Bonding versus Physical Adsorption in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Adam P.; Bocharova, Vera; Cheng, Shiwang; Kisliuk, Alexander M.; White, B. Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Uhrig, David; Mahalik, J. P.; Kumar, Rajeev; Imel, Adam E.; Etampawala, Thusitha; Martin, Halie; Sikes, Nicole; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Dadmun, Mark D.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2016-06-23

    It is generally believed that the strength of the polymer nanoparticle interaction controls the modification of near-interface segmental mobility in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). However, little is known about the effect of covalent bonding on the segmental dynamics and glass transition of matrix-free polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs), especially when compared to PNCs. In this article, we directly compare the static and dynamic properties of poly(2-vinylpyridine)/silica-based nanocomposites with polymer chains either physically adsorbed (PNCs) or covalently bonded (PGNs) to identical silica nanoparticles (RNP = 12.5 nm) for three different molecular weight (MW) systems. Interestingly, when the MW of the matrix is as low as 6 kg/mol (RNP/Rg = 5.4) or as high as 140 kg/mol (RNP/Rg= 1.13), both small-angle X-ray scattering and broadband dielectric spectroscopy show similar static and dynamic properties for PNCs and PGNs. However, for the intermediate MW of 18 kg/mol (RNP/Rg = 3.16), the difference between physical adsorption and covalent bonding can be clearly identified in the static and dynamic properties of the interfacial layer. We ascribe the differences in the interfacial properties of PNCs and PGNs to changes in chain stretching, as quantified by self-consistent field theory calculations. These results demonstrate that the dynamic suppression at the interface is affected by the chain stretching; that is, it depends on the anisotropy of the segmental conformations, more so than the strength of the interaction, which suggests that the interfacial dynamics can be effectively tuned by the degree of stretching a parameter accessible from the MW or grafting density.

  14. Controlling Interfacial Dynamics: Covalent Bonding versus Physical Adsorption in Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Holt, Adam P.; Bocharova, Vera; Cheng, Shiwang; ...

    2016-06-23

    It is generally believed that the strength of the polymer nanoparticle interaction controls the modification of near-interface segmental mobility in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). However, little is known about the effect of covalent bonding on the segmental dynamics and glass transition of matrix-free polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs), especially when compared to PNCs. In this article, we directly compare the static and dynamic properties of poly(2-vinylpyridine)/silica-based nanocomposites with polymer chains either physically adsorbed (PNCs) or covalently bonded (PGNs) to identical silica nanoparticles (RNP = 12.5 nm) for three different molecular weight (MW) systems. Interestingly, when the MW of the matrix is as lowmore » as 6 kg/mol (RNP/Rg = 5.4) or as high as 140 kg/mol (RNP/Rg= 1.13), both small-angle X-ray scattering and broadband dielectric spectroscopy show similar static and dynamic properties for PNCs and PGNs. However, for the intermediate MW of 18 kg/mol (RNP/Rg = 3.16), the difference between physical adsorption and covalent bonding can be clearly identified in the static and dynamic properties of the interfacial layer. We ascribe the differences in the interfacial properties of PNCs and PGNs to changes in chain stretching, as quantified by self-consistent field theory calculations. These results demonstrate that the dynamic suppression at the interface is affected by the chain stretching; that is, it depends on the anisotropy of the segmental conformations, more so than the strength of the interaction, which suggests that the interfacial dynamics can be effectively tuned by the degree of stretching a parameter accessible from the MW or grafting density.« less

  15. Application of optical 3D measurement on thin film buckling to estimate interfacial toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, H. K.; Wang, S. B.; Li, L. A.; Wang, Z. Y.; Goudeau, P.

    2014-03-01

    The shape-from-focus (SFF) method has been widely studied as a passive depth recovery and 3D reconstruction method for digital images. An important step in SFF is the calculation of the focus level for different points in an image by using a focus measure. In this work, an image entropy-based focus measure is introduced into the SFF method to measure the 3D buckling morphology of an aluminum film on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate at a micro scale. Spontaneous film wrinkles and telephone-cord wrinkles are investigated after the deposition of a 300 nm thick aluminum film onto the PMMA substrate. Spontaneous buckling is driven by the highly compressive stress generated in the Al film during the deposition process. The interfacial toughness between metal films and substrates is an important parameter for the reliability of the film/substrate system. The height profiles of different sections across the telephone-cord wrinkle can be considered a straight-sided model with uniform width and height or a pinned circular model that has a delamination region characterized by a sequence of connected sectors. Furthermore, the telephone-cord geometry of the thin film can be used to calculate interfacial toughness. The instability of the finite element model is introduced to fit the buckling morphology obtained by SFF. The interfacial toughness is determined to be 0.203 J/m2 at a 70.4° phase angle from the straight-sided model and 0.105 J/m2 at 76.9° from the pinned circular model.

  16. Analysis of interfacial peeling in IC chip pick-up process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Huang, YongAn; Yin, ZhouPing; Xiong, YouLun

    2011-10-01

    The IC chip-ejecting and pick-up process plays a critical role in advanced packages since the success ratio and productivity are determined by the delamination of the chip-on-substrate structure. The paper investigates analytically the interfacial peeling mechanism of a chip-on-substrate structure subjected to a transverse concentrated load resulting from ejecting needle from the fracture mechanics point of view. The effects of key factors, including chip size, initial crack length, and substrate material, are uncovered. Finite element calculations are performed to obtain the interfacial peeling energy-release rate by using virtual crack-closure technique with dummy nodes. Analytical formulas and numerical results match fairly well for the entire range of the chip length and the crack length. It is shown that the greater the ratio of length to thickness of the chip is, the smaller the energy-release rate is, and length is the more important factor than thickness to affect the peeling. It implies the interfacial peeling gets tougher for thin or big chips during the pick-up process. Second, as the crack grows, the peeling energy-release rate increases. Third, the softer the substrate is, the greater the peeling energy-release rate is under the action of a constant transverse load. For the pick-up of thin or big chips, in order to achieve high success rate and suppress damage to the chip, it is suggested that more compliant and thinner substrate be adopted, weaker adhesive strength be chosen, and multiple needles be used.

  17. Reliability assessment on interfacial failure of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Wei; Yang, Li; Zhou, Yi-Chun; He, Li-Min; Zhu, Wang; Cai, Can-Ying; Lu, Chun-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) usually exhibit an uncertain lifetime owing to their scattering mechanical properties and severe service conditions. To consider these uncertainties, a reliability assessment method is proposed based on failure probability analysis. First, a limit state equation is established to demarcate the boundary between failure and safe regions, and then the failure probability is calculated by the integration of a probability density function in the failure area according to the first- or second-order moment. It is shown that the parameters related to interfacial failure follow a Weibull distribution in two types of TBC. The interfacial failure of TBCs is significantly affected by the thermal mismatch of material properties and the temperature drop in service.

  18. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  19. Interfacial trapping in an aged discotic liquid crystal semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan J.; Patrick, Michael S.; Paul, Sanjoy; Ellman, Brett; Semyonov, Alexander; Twieg, Robert J.; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily; Singer, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on time-of-flight (TOF) hole mobility measurements in aged 2,3,6,7,10,11-Hexakis(pentyloxy)triphenylene columnar liquid crystals. In contrast to the original samples reported in 2006, homeotropically aligned samples yielded TOF transients with an extended non-exponential rise. The experimental data were fit to a simple model that accurately reproduces the TOF transients assuming delayed charge release from traps near the optically excited electrode. While interfacial trapping appears only in the aged materials, the bulk mobility is similar to the pristine material. The model addresses dispersive transport in quasi-one-dimensional materials, determines the charge carrier mobility in systems with interfacial traps, and provides a method for characterizing the traps.

  20. Modeling Interfacial Adsorption of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Numerous natural and industrial processes demand advances in our fundamental understanding of colloidal adsorption at liquid interfaces. Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we model the interfacial adsorption of core-shell nanoparticles at the water-oil interface. The solid core of the nanoparticle encompasses beads arranged in an fcc lattice structure and its surface is uniformly grafted with polymer chains. The nanoparticles bind to the interface from either phase to minimize total surface energy. With a single nanoparticle, we demonstrate detailed kinetics of different stages in the adsorption process. Prominent effect of grafted polymer chains is characterized by varying molecular weight and polydispersity of the chains. We also preload nanoparticles straddling the interface to reveal the influence of nanoparticle surface density on further adsorption. Importantly, these studies show how surface-grafted polymer chains can alter the interfacial behavior of colloidal particles and provide guidelines for designing on-demand Pickering emulsion.

  1. Simulation of thin film membranes formed by interfacial polymerization.

    PubMed

    Oizerovich-Honig, Rachel; Raim, Vladimir; Srebnik, Simcha

    2010-01-05

    Interfacial polymerization is widely used today for the production of ultrathin films for encapsulation, chemical separations, and desalination. Polyamide films, in particular, are employed in manufacturing of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. While these materials show excellent salt rejection, they have rather low water permeability, both properties that apparently stem from the rigid cross-linked structure. An increasing amount of experimental research on membranes of different chemistries and membrane characterization suggests the importance of other factors (such as unreacted functional groups and surface roughness) in determining membrane performance. We developed a molecular simulation model to qualitatively study the effects of various synthesis conditions on membrane performance, in terms of its estimated porosity and permeability. The model is of an interfacial aggregation process of two types of functional monomers. Film growth with time and structural characteristics of the final film are compared with predictions of existing theories and experimental observations.

  2. Interfacial charge transfer absorption: Application to metal molecule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutz, Carol; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Sutin, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Optically induced charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and a metal electrode was predicted by Hush to lead to new electronic absorption features, but has been only rarely observed experimentally. Interfacial charge transfer absorption (IFCTA) provides information concerning the barriers to charge transfer between molecules and the metal/semiconductor and the magnitude of the electronic coupling and could thus provide a powerful tool for understanding interfacial charge-transfer kinetics. Here, we utilize a previously published model [C. Creutz, B.S. Brunschwig, N. Sutin, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 10251] to predict IFCTA spectra of metal-molecule assemblies and compare the literature observations to these predictions. We conclude that, in general, the electronic coupling between molecular adsorbates and the metal levels is so small that IFCTA is not detectable. However, few experiments designed to detect IFCTA have been done. We suggest approaches to optimizing the conditions for observing the process.

  3. Interfacial Modification by Copolymers: The Importance of Copolymer Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmun, Mark; Eastwood, Eric

    2002-03-01

    The dispersion of nanoscale particles or domains in a polymer matrix can readily lead to nonlinear enhancement of material properties. Our research group has been examining two primary methods to improve the properties of multicomponent polymer systems: compatibilization of a blend with an interfacial modifier or improving the miscibility and properties of polymer blends with specific interactions. In this talk, the importance of specific copolymer microstructure on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface will be discussed. Atom transfer radical polymerization has been utilized to polymerize a series of multiblock copolymers containing styrene and methyl methacrylate. This, in turn, has allowed the synthesis of a series of copolymers with careful control of the sequence distribution. Subsequent experiments that determine the interfacial strength between two polymers in the presence and absence of these copolymers has provided critical information that documents the importance of copolymer sequence distribution on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface.

  4. Interfacial exciplex formation in bilayers of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuyasu, R. S.; Araujo, K. A. S.; Cury, L. A.; Jarrosson, T.; Serein-Spirau, F.; Lère-Porte, J.-P.; Dias, F. B.; Monkman, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The donor-acceptor interactions in sequential bilayer and blend films are investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) were measured to characterize the samples at different geometries of photoluminescence collection. At standard excitation, with the laser incidence at 45° of the normal direction of the sample surface, a band related to the aggregate states of donor molecules appears for both blend and bilayer at around 540 nm. For the PL spectra acquired from the edge of the bilayer, with the laser incidence made at normal direction of the sample surface (90° geometry), a new featureless band emission, red-shifted from donor and acceptor emission regions was observed and assigned as the emission from interfacial exciplex states. The conformational complexity coming from donor/acceptor interactions at the heterojunction interface of the bilayer is at the origin of this interfacial exciplex emission.

  5. Interfacial Properties of Bilayer and Trilayer Graphene on Metal Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Yangyang; Wang, Lu; Quhe, Ruge; Ni, Zeyuan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Gao, Zhengxiang; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Lu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to prepare graphene is to grow them on transition metal substrates via chemical vapor deposition. By using the density functional theory with dispersion correction, we systematically investigate for the first time the interfacial properties of bilayer (BLG) and trilayer graphene (TLG) on metal substrates. Three categories of interfacial structures are revealed. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Al, Ag, Cu, Au, and Pt substrates is a weak physisorption, but a band gap can be opened. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Ti, Ni, and Co substrates is a strong chemisorption, and a stacking-insensitive band gap is opened for the two uncontacted layers of TLG. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Pd substrate is a weaker chemisorption, with a band gap opened for the uncontacted layers. This fundamental study also helps for B(T)LG device study due to inevitable graphene/metal contact. PMID:23803738

  6. Interfacial entropy of water on rigid hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Fereshte; Leroy, Frédéric; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2013-08-06

    A simple theoretical model is proposed for computing the interfacial entropy of water at rigid hydrophobic surfaces. The interfacial entropy, which is not considered in mean field models of static wettability, is evaluated from the fluctuations of the water-surface dispersion energy at the single particle level and represents the configurational bias imposed on the fluid molecules by the attractive external potential of a solid wall. A comparison with results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations shows that the model quantitatively describes the entropy loss of water when a water-vapor interface turns to water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces such as graphene, graphite, and diamond, while it overestimates this quantity on hydrophilic surfaces.

  7. Interfacial Reactivity of Radionuclides: Emerging Paradigms from Molecular Level Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-08-15

    Over the past few decades use of an increasing array of molecular-level analytical probes has provided new detailed insight into mineral and radionuclide interfacial reactivity in subsurface environments. This capability has not only helped change the way mineral surface reactivity is studied but also how field-scale contaminant migration problems are addressed and ultimately resolved. Here we overview examples of relatively new interfacial reactivity paradigms with implications for future research directions. Specific examples include understanding: the role of site-to-site electron conduction at mineral surfaces and through bulk mineral phases, effects of local chemical environment on the stability of intermediate species in oxidation/reduction reactions, and the importance of mechanistic reaction pathway for defining possible reaction products and thermodynamic driving force. The discussion also includes examples of how detailed molecular/microscopic characterization of field samples has changed the way complex contaminant migration problems were conceptualized and modeled.

  8. Effect of solute transfer and interfacial instabilities on scalar and velocity field around a drop rising in quiescent liquid channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanwale, Makrand A.; Khadamkar, Hrushikesh P.; Mathpati, Channamallikarjun S.

    2015-11-01

    Physics of development of flow structures around the drop rising with solute transfer is highly influenced by the interfacial behaviour and is remarkably different than a particle rising under the same conditions. We report on the use of simultaneous particle image velocimetry-planar laser induced fluorescence technique to measure scalar and velocity fields around a drop rising in a quiescent liquid channel. The selected continuous phase is glycerol, and the drop consists of a mixture of toluene, acetone, and a dye rhodamine-6G, with acetone working as a interfacial tension depressant. The drop lies in the spherical region with Eötvös number, Eo = 1.95, Morton number, M = 78.20 and the particle Reynolds number being, Rep = 0.053. With Rep approaching that of creeping flow, we analyse the effect of interfacial instabilities solely, contrary to other investigations [M. Wegener et al., "Impact of Marangoni instabilities on the fluid dynamic behaviour of organic droplets," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52, 2543-2551 (2009); S. Burghoff and E. Y. Kenig, "A CFD model for mass transfer and interfacial phenomena on single droplets," AIChE J. 52, 4071-4078 (2006); J. Wang et al., "Numerical simulation of the Marangoni effect on transient mass transfer from single moving deformable drops," AIChE J. 57, 2670-2683 (2011); R. F. Engberg, M. Wegener, and E. Y. Kenig, "The impact of Marangoni convection on fluid dynamics and mass transfer at deformable single rising droplets—A numerical study," Chem. Eng. Sci. 116, 208-222 (2014)] which account for turbulence as well as interfacial instabilities with Rep in the turbulent range. The velocity and concentration fields obtained are subjected to scale-wise energy decomposition using continuous wavelet transform. Scale-wise probability distribution functions of wavelet coefficients are calculated to check intermittent non-Gaussian behaviour for simultaneous velocity and scalar statistics. Multi-fractal singularity spectra for scalar

  9. Facile Control of Interfacial Energy-Barrier Scattering in Antimony Telluride Electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiwon; Jung, Hyunsung; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V.

    2017-04-01

    The augmented thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) films is investigated by introducing interfacial energy-barrier scattering (i.e., barrier heights), which occurs at both the grain boundaries and the interfaces with embedded second phases. It is postulated that the barriers created at both the interfaces and boundaries filter the low-energy carriers, thus favoring a high Seebeck coefficient. A facile, but high-precision composition-controlled electrodeposition technique is employed to synthesize single-phase nanocrystalline Sb2Te3 and nanocomposite Te/Sb2Te3. Both the initial composition of the Sb-Te solid solution and the post-annealing profiles are varied to control the grain size, as well as the formation of second-phase Te. The electrical and thermoelectric properties are measured and correlated with the physical properties, where an enhanced Seebeck coefficient at a fixed carrier concentration is interpreted as indicating that the energy-dependent carrier filtering effect is in force. On a promising note, modification of the Sb2Te3 film physical properties and formation of the second phase affect the interfacial energy-barrier scattering and yields an enhanced power factor. Thus, Sb2Te3 film is a promising p-type thermoelectric material for a room-temperature-operational micro-thermoelectric power generator.

  10. Preferential orientation of magnetization and interfacial disorder in Co/Au multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quispe-Marcatoma, J.; Pandey, B.; Alayo, W.; de Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2013-10-01

    Two families of Co/Au multilayer films with different interlayer magnetostatic coupling were grown by the DC magnetron sputtering technique. The structure of these films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. All these techniques give complementary information about the structure of the multilayers and the magnetization direction as a function of thickness of the Co layers. The structural analysis shows a decrease of the interfacial disorder for increasing Co layer thickness in both groups of samples. This behavior has been correlated with a transition of the magnetization direction from perpendicular to parallel to the films plane. Thin Co layer samples gave high remnant magnetization with very low saturation field while thick Co layer samples showed low remnant magnetization with high value of saturation field. In the FMR study, the spectra showed two resonance modes, which were associated to the internal and interfacial Co atoms. Volume (Kv) and surface (Ks) anisotropy constants were deduced from the FMR experiments and are in good agreement with the reported values for Co/Au multilayers.

  11. Interfacial Reactions Between ZnAl(Ge) Solders on Cu and Ni Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautiainen, Antti; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2017-04-01

    Reactions between zinc-aluminum-germanium solder and copper/nickel substrates were investigated after 30 min of soldering at 420°C that simulates a wafer-level bonding process, and the results were compared to a eutectic zinc-aluminum solder. The ZnAlGe system (81.4 at.% Zn, 13.1 at.% Al, 5.5 at.% Ge) was selected in order to decrease the eutectic temperature of the ZnAleut (88.7 at.% Zn, 11.3 at.% Al) for high-temperature lead-free solder applications. In addition, a standard high temperature storage test at 150°C was performed up to 3000 h in order to investigate the evolution of the interconnection microstructures. Extensive copper dissolution was discovered during the soldering process. Germanium did not participate in any of the interfacial reactions on a copper substrate. On a nickel substrate, rapid formation of intermetallic compounds was discovered with both solders, and all the aluminum from the 500 μm thick solder was consumed by the formation of the Al3Ni2 phase during bonding. Germanium was observed to dissolve in the Al3Ni2 phase, but the addition of germanium to the solder was not found to affect markedly the interfacial microstructure. Based on the results, isothermal sections at 150°C of Al-Cu-Zn and Al-Ni-Zn systems are presented with superimposed diffusion paths.

  12. Interface feature characterization and Schottky interfacial layer confirmation of TiO2 nanotube array film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongchao; Tang, Ningxin; Yang, Hongzhi; Leng, Xian; Zou, Jianpeng

    2015-11-01

    We report here characterization of the interfacial microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films fabricated by anodization. Field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the interface of the film. With increasing annealing temperature from 200 °C to 800 °C, the interfacial fusion between the film and the Ti substrate increased. The phase transformation of the TiO2 nanotube film from amorphous to anatase to rutile took place gradually; as the phase transformation progressed, the force needed to break the film increased. The growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays occurs in four stages: barrier layer formation, penetrating micropore formation, regular nanotube formation, and nanofiber formation. The TiO2 nanotubes grow from the Schottky interface layer rather than from the Ti substrate. The Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35-45 nm was identified as half the diameter of the corresponding nanotube, which shows good agreement to the Schottky interface layer growth model. The TiO2 nanotube film was amorphous and the Ti substrate was highly crystallized with many dislocation walls.

  13. Formation of alternating interfacial layers in Au-12Ge/Ni joints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-kang; Tsai, Ming-yueh; Tsai, Ping-chun; Hsu, Bo-hsun

    2014-01-01

    Au-Ge alloys are promising materials for high-power and high-frequency packaging, and Ni is frequently used as diffusion barriers. This study investigates interfacial reactions in Au-12Ge/Ni joints at 300°C and 400°C. For the reactions at 300°C, typical interfacial morphology was observed and the diffusion path was (Au) + (Ge)/NiGe/Ni5Ge3/Ni. However, an interesting phenomenon – the formation of (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe alternating layers – was observed for the reactions at 400°C. The diffusion path across the interface was liquid/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/···/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/Ni2Ge/Ni. The periodic thermodynamic instability at the NiGe/Ni2Ge interface caused the subsequent nucleation of new (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe pairs. The thermodynamic foundation and mechanism of formation of the alternating layers are elaborated in this paper. PMID:24690992

  14. Interfacial motions and pressure fluctuations during fluid displacement in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Moebius, F.; Mumford, K. G.; Or, D.

    2014-12-01

    Two-phase flow is of interest in many fields including microfluidic devices, geological CO2 sequestration, agriculture, filtration and contaminated site remediation. Macroscopic flow equations are often used to describe two-phase displacement flows in such systems based on constitutive relationships (e.g., capillary pressure-saturation relationships) determined under equilibrium conditions. The potential limitations of such process representation were examined in experiments with direct observation of pore scale dynamics. Transparent sintered glass beads micro-models enabled quantification of the interplay of various phenomena governing fluid flow (e.g., capillary forces, viscous forces, inertial forces). Experiments systematically evaluated the impact of pore water velocity, grain size, surface tension, viscosity and wettability on water pressure and interfacial dynamics, both during flow and after flow cessation. Particular attention was placed on high-velocity conditions, when inertial forces that are not typically considerred in porous media applications can play a larger role. Liquid pressure was quantified at the base of the system and the displacement process was imaged using a high speed camera. Characteristics of pressure fluctuations were strongly linked with interfacial properties with fluctuations manifested during displacement and following flow cessation (pressure relaxation). The patterns of pressure fluctuations varied with boundary conditions and media properties reflecting complex interactions with fluid, surface and dynamics along the displacement front.

  15. Computational implementation of interfacial kinetic transport theory for water vapour transport in porous media.

    PubMed

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Hill, Reghan J

    2014-01-08

    A computational framework is developed for applying interfacial kinetic transport theory to predict water vapour permeability of porous media. Modified conservation equations furnish spatially periodic disturbances from which the average flux and, thus, the effective diffusivity is obtained. The equations are solved exactly for a model porous medium comprising parallel layers of gas and solid with arbitrary solid volume fraction. From the microscale effective diffusivity, a two-point boundary-value problem is solved at the macroscale to furnish the water vapour transport rate in membranes subjected to a finite RH differential. Then, the microscale model is implemented using a computational framework (extended finite-element method) to examine the role of particle size, aspect ratio and positioning for periodic arrays of aligned super-ellipses (model particles that pack with high density). We show that the transverse water vapour permeability can be reduced by an order of magnitude only when fibres with a high-aspect ratio cross section are packed in a periodic staggered configuration. Maximum permeability is achieved at intermediate micro-structural length scales, where gas-phase diffusion is enhanced by surface diffusion, but not limited by interfacial-exchange kinetics. The two-dimensional computations demonstrated here are intended to motivate further efforts to develop efficient computational solutions for realistic three-dimensional microstructures.

  16. Influence of the interfacial peptide organization on the catalysis of hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Doneux, Th; Dorcák, V; Palecek, E

    2010-01-19

    The hydrogen evolution reaction is catalyzed by peptides and proteins adsorbed on electrode materials with high overpotentials for this reaction, such as mercury. The catalytic response characteristics are known to be very sensitive to the composition and structure of the investigated biomolecule, opening the way to the implementation of a label-free, reagentless electroanalytical method in protein analysis. Herein, it is shown using the model peptide Cys-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala that the interfacial organization significantly influences the catalytic behavior. This peptide forms at the electrode two distinct films, depending on the concentration and accumulation time. The low-coverage film, composed of flat-lying molecules (area per molecule of approximately 250-290 A(2)), yields a well-defined catalytic peak at potentials around -1.75 V. The high-coverage film, made of upright-oriented peptides (area per molecule of approximately 43 A(2)), is catalytically more active and the peak is observed at potentials less negative by approximately 0.4 V. The higher activity, evidenced by constant-current chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry, is attributed to an increase in the acid dissociation constant of the amino acid residues as a result of the low permittivity of the interfacial region, as inferred from impedance measurements. An analogy is made to the known differences in acidic-basic behaviors of solvent-exposed and hydrophobic domains of proteins.

  17. Tuning interfacial exchange interactions via electronic reconstruction in transition-metal oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Binzhi; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Mehta, Apurva; Byers, J. Paige; Browning, Nigel D.; Arenholz, Elke; Takamura, Yayoi

    2016-10-10

    The impact of interfacial electronic reconstruction on the magnetic characteristics of La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 (LSCO)/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) superlattices was investigated as a function of layer thickness using a combination of soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy and bulk magnetometry. We found that the magnetic properties of the LSCO layers are impacted by two competing electronic interactions occurring at the LSCO/substrate and LSMO/LSCO interfaces. For thin LSCO layers (< 5 nm), the heterostructures exist in a highly coupled state where the chemically distinct layers behave as a single magnetic compound with magnetically active Co2+ ions. As the LSCO thickness increases, a high coercivity LSCO layer develops which biases a low coercivity layer, which is composed not only of the LSMO layer, but also an interfacial LSCO layer. These results suggest a new route to tune the magnetic properties of transition metal oxide heterostructures through careful control of the interface structure.

  18. Interfacial Structure, Dynamics, and Transport of Polyelectrolyte Membrane Materials for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher; Page, K.; Eastman, S.; Kim, S.; Kang, S.; Dura, J.; National Institute of Standards; Technology; Polymers Divison Team; NIST Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) fuel cells show promise for a wide range of applications both in the transportation sector and for stationary power production due to their high charge density and low operating temperatures. While the structure and transport of bulk PEMs have been studied extensively, little is known about these materials at interfaces and under confinement, as they exist within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Using neutron/ x-ray reflectivity and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we have studied the polymer-substrate interfacial structure, swelling, and water transport as function of humidity, surface chemistry, and film thickness. The interfacial structure is highly dependent upon the substrate surface chemistry and the swelling/water diffusivity are suppressed when the PEM is confined to a thin film. This new information will enable researchers to more accurately model the performance of the MEA as current simulations typically rely on bulk property values to predict water and proton transport under these conditions.

  19. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-01-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation. PMID:28230203

  20. Hybrid Polymer/Garnet Electrolyte with a Small Interfacial Resistance for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Xu, Biyi; Xu, Henghui; Duan, Huanan; Lü, Xujie; Xin, Sen; Zhou, Weidong; Xue, Leigang; Fu, Gengtao; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-16

    Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 -based Li-rich garnets react with water and carbon dioxide in air to form a Li-ion insulating Li2 CO3 layer on the surface of the garnet particles, which results in a large interfacial resistance for Li-ion transfer. Here, we introduce LiF to garnet Li6.5 La3 Zr1.5 Ta0.5 O12 (LLZT) to increase the stability of the garnet electrolyte against moist air; the garnet LLZT-2 wt % LiF (LLZT-2LiF) has less Li2 CO3 on the surface and shows a small interfacial resistance with Li metal, a solid polymer electrolyte, and organic-liquid electrolytes. An all-solid-state Li/polymer/LLZT-2LiF/LiFePO4 battery has a high Coulombic efficiency and long cycle life; a Li-S cell with the LLZT-2LiF electrolyte as a separator, which blocks the polysulfide transport towards the Li-metal, also has high Coulombic efficiency and kept 93 % of its capacity after 100 cycles.

  1. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-02-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation.

  2. Interfacial polymerization of conductive polymers: Generation of polymeric nanostructures in a 2-D space.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Georgakilas, Vasilios

    2015-10-01

    In the recent advances in the field of conductive polymers, the fibrillar or needle shaped nanostructures of polyaniline and polypyrrole have attracted significant attention due to the potential advantages of organic conductors that exhibit low-dimensionality, uniform size distribution, high crystallinity and improved physical properties compared to their bulk or spherically shaped counterparts. Carrying the polymerization reaction in a restricted two dimensional space, instead of the three dimensional space of the one phase solution is an efficient method for the synthesis of polymeric nanostructures with narrow size distribution and small diameter. Ultra-thin nanowires and nanofibers, single crystal nanoneedles, nanocomposites with noble metals or carbon nanotubes and layered materials can be efficiently synthesized with high yield and display superior performance in sensors and energy storage applications. In this critical review we will focus not only on the interfacial polymerization methods that leads to polymeric nanostructures and composites and their properties, but also on the mechanism and the physico-chemical processes that govern the diffusion and reactivity of molecules and nanomaterials at an interface. Recent advances for the synthesis of conductive polymer composites with an interfacial method for energy storage applications and future perspectives are presented.

  3. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    F Cauduro, André L; Dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K; Méthivier, Christophe; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Bossard-Giannesini, Léo; Cruguel, Hervé; Witkowski, Nadine; Madsen, Morten

    2017-03-01

    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic or hybrid technologies, where precise control of the charge transport properties through the interfacial layer is highly important for improving device performance. In this work, we study the effects of in situ annealing in nearly stoichiometric MoOx (x ∼ 3.0) thin-films deposited by reactive sputtering. We report on a work function increase of almost 2 eV after inducing in situ crystallization of the films at 500 °C, resulting in the formation of a single crystalline α-MoO3 overlaid by substoichiometric and highly disordered nanoaggregates. The surface nanoaggregates possess various electronic properties, such as a work function ranging from 5.5 eV up to 6.2 eV, as determined from low-energy electron microscopy studies. The crystalline underlayer possesses a work function greater than 6.3 eV, up to 6.9 eV, characteristic of a very clean and nearly defect-free MoO3. By combining electronic spectroscopies together with structural characterizations, this work addresses a novel method for tuning, and correlating, the optoelectronic properties and microstructure of device-relevant MoOx layers.

  4. Intermittent Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Biju, Vasudevan P.; Micic, Miodrag; Hu, Dehong; Lu, H. Peter

    2004-08-04

    We report on single molecule studies of photosensitized interfacial electron transfer (ET) processes in Coumarin 343 (C343)-TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and Cresyl Violet (CV+)-TiO2 NP systems, using time-correlated single photon counting coupled with scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence intensity trajectories of individual dye molecules adsorbed on a semiconductor NP surface showed fluorescence fluctuations and blinking, with time constrants distributed from sub-milliseconds to several seconds.

  5. Avalanche in adhesion. [interfacial separation between two Ni crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John R.; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Consider surfaces being brought into contact. It is proposed that atomic layers can collapse or avalanche together when the interfacial spacing falls below a critical distance. This causes a discontinuous drop in the adhesive binding energy. Avalanche can occur regardless of the stiffness of external supports. A simple understanding of the origin of this phenomenon is provided. A numerical calculation has been carried out for adhesion in Ni. A new wear mechanism due to avalanche is suggested.

  6. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  7. Studying the Dependency of Interfacial Formation with Carbon Nanotube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-27

    observed that the sliding of nano -chips platelets from the CNCF occurs during sonication. Figure 4.1.1. SEM images of fracture surfaces for...was focused on understanding the capabilities of polymeric materials to form interfacial structures around carbon nanotubes and other nano -carbon...materials. The proposed effort led to the development of a new processing route for dispersing nano -carbons in dilute polymer solutions. This dispersion

  8. Improved interfacial and electrical properties of Ge MOS capacitor by using TaON/LaON dual passivation interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z. X.; Xu, J. P.; Liu, L.; Huang, Y.; Lai, P. T.; Tang, W. M.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of TaON/LaON dual passivation interlayer on the interfacial and electrical properties of Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with HfO2 gate dielectric are investigated. As compared to its counterpart with only LaON as passivation interlayer, the formation of HfGeOx and LaHfOx, which would degrade the interfacial quality, is effectively suppressed due to the strong blocking role of the TaON barrier layer against Hf diffusion. As a result, excellent interfacial and electrical properties are achieved for the Ge MOS device with the TaON/LaON dual passivation interlayer: high k value (20.9), low interface-state density (5.32 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1) and oxide-charge density (-3.90 × 1012 cm-2), low gate leakage current density (1.77 × 10-4 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb + 1 V), and high reliability under high-field stress.

  9. Homocomposites of Polylactide (PLA) with Induced Interfacial Stereocomplex Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The demand for “green” degradable composite materials increases with growing environmental awareness. The key challenge is achieving the preferred physical properties and maintaining their eco-attributes in terms of the degradability of the matrix and the filler. Herein, we have designed a series of “green” homocomposites materials based purely on polylactide (PLA) polymers with different structures. Film-extruded homocomposites were prepared by melt-blending PLA matrixes (which had different degrees of crystallinity) with PLLA and PLA stereocomplex (SC) particles. The PLLA and SC particles were spherical and with 300–500 nm size. Interfacial crystalline structures in the form of stereocomplexes were obtained for certain particulate-homocomposite formulations. These SC crystallites were found at the particle/matrix interface when adding PLLA particles to a PLA matrix with d-lactide units, as confirmed by XRD and DSC data analyses. For all homocomposites, the PLLA and SC particles acted as nucleating agents and enhanced the crystallization of the PLA matrixes. The SC particles were more rigid and had a higher Young’s modulus compared with the PLLA particles. The mechanical properties of the homocomposites varied with particle size, rigidity, and the interfacial adhesion between the particles and the matrix. An improved tensile strength in the homocomposites was achieved from the interfacial stereocomplex formation. Hereafter, homocomposites with tunable crystalline arrangements and subsequently physical properties, are promising alternatives in strive for eco-composites and by this, creating materials that are completely degradable and sustainable. PMID:26523245

  10. Predictions of one-group interfacial area transport in TRACE

    SciTech Connect

    Worosz, T.; Talley, J. D.; Kim, S.; Bajorek, S. M.; Ireland, A.

    2012-07-01

    In current nuclear reactor system analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model, flow regime dependent correlations are used to specify the interfacial area concentration (a i). This approach does not capture the continuous evolution of the interfacial structures, and thus, it can pose issues near the transition boundaries. Consequently, a pilot version of the system analysis code TRACE is being developed that employs the interfacial area transport equation (IATE). In this approach, dynamic estimation of a i is provided through mechanistic models for bubble coalescence and breakup. The implementation of the adiabatic, one-group IATE into TRACE is assessed against experimental data from 50 air-water, two-phase flow conditions in pipes ranging in inner diameter from 2.54 to 20.32 cm for both vertical co-current upward and downward flows. Predictions of pressure, void fraction, bubble velocity, and a i data are made. TRACE employing the conventional flow regime-based approach is found to underestimate a i and can only predict linear trends since the calculation is governed by the pressure. Furthermore, trends opposite to that of the data are predicted for some conditions. In contrast, TRACE with the one-group IATE demonstrates a significant improvement in predicting the experimental data with an average disagreement of {+-} 13%. Additionally, TRACE with the one-group IATE is capable of predicting nonlinear axial development of a, by accounting for various bubble interaction mechanisms, such as coalescence and disintegration. (authors)

  11. Interfacial thermal conductance of thiolate-protected gold nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Kelsey M.; Neidhart, Suzanne M.; Gezelter, J. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of thiolate-protected and solvated gold nanoparticles were carried out in the presence of a non-equilibrium heat flux between the solvent and the core of the particle. The interfacial thermal conductance (G) was computed for these interfaces, and the behavior of the thermal conductance was studied as a function of particle size, ligand flexibility, and ligand chain length. In all cases, thermal conductance of the ligand-protected particles was higher than the bare metal-solvent interface. A number of mechanisms for the enhanced conductance were investigated, including thiolate-driven corrugation of the metal surface, solvent ordering at the interface, solvent-ligand interpenetration, and ligand ordering relative to the particle surface. Only the smallest particles exhibited significant corrugation. All ligands permitted substantial solvent-ligand interpenetration, and ligand chain length has a significant influence on the orientational ordering of interfacial solvent. Solvent-ligand vibrational overlap, particularly in the low frequency range (<80 cm-1), was significantly altered by ligand rigidity, and had direct influence on the interfacial thermal conductance.

  12. How intermixing and anharmonicity enhances interfacial thermal conductance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos; Zhang, Jingjie; Le, Nam; Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Norris, Pamela; Ghosh, Avik

    2015-03-01

    The thermal conductance at an interface, whether ballistic or diffusive, can be expressed as a product of the number of conducting channels (M) and their average transmission (T). The common expectation is that interfacial defects reduce T and thus hurt the conductance. This is however at odds with recent simulations showing that a thin intermixing layer can in fact enhance the conductance. We argue that such an enhancement occurs when the increase in number of modes outweighs the reduction in their average transmission. The new channels open as a result of (a) the random interfacial structure that relaxes the conservation rules for the transverse momentum and promotes transitions between formerly symmetry disallowed channels; and (b) inelastic scattering through phonon-phonon interactions that allow modes beyond the contact cut-off frequency to contribute to transport. We use these results to build a back of the envelope model for interfacial conductance that depends on the mixing distribution, the anharmonic strength, the phonon polarization and wavelength. Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) as well as Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on Si/mixed layer/Ge, as well as simpler FCC crystals support our results. NSF-CAREER (QMHP 1028883), NSF-IDR (CBET 1134311), XSEDE (TG-DMR130123).

  13. Interfacial structures and acidity of edge surfaces of ferruginous smectites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiandong; Cheng, Jun; Sprik, Michiel; Lu, Xiancai; Wang, Rucheng

    2015-11-01

    We report an FPMD (first-principles molecular dynamics) study of the interfacial structures and acidity constants of the edge surfaces of ferruginous smectites. To understand the effects of Fe oxidation states on the interfacial properties, we investigated both the oxidized and reduced states of the (0 1 0)-type edges of two clay models with different Fe contents. The coordination states of edge Fe atoms are determined from the free energy curves for the desorption of the H2O ligands. The results of both clay models show that for Fe(III), only the 6-coordinate states are stable, whereas for Fe(II), both the 6- and 5-coordinate states are stable. Using the FPMD-based vertical energy gap technique, the pKa values of the edge sites are evaluated for both oxidation states. The results indicate that for both clay models, both the octahedral and tetrahedral sites become much less acidic upon Fe reduction. Therefore, the comparison reveals that the interfacial structures and protonation states are strongly dependent on the Fe oxidation states. Using the calculated results, we have derived the pH-dependent surface complexing mechanisms of ferruginous smectites.

  14. Lipases at interfaces: unique interfacial properties as globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Reis, P; Miller, R; Krägel, J; Leser, M; Fainerman, V B; Watzke, H; Holmberg, K

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of two globular proteins, lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and beta-lactoglobulin, at inert oil/water and air/water interfaces was studied by the pendant drop technique. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms were interpreted for both proteins in different environments. It was found that the adopted mathematical models well describe the adsorption behavior of the proteins at the studied interfaces. One of the main findings is that unique interfacial properties were observed for lipase as compared to the reference beta-lactoglobulin. A folded drop with a "skinlike" film was formed for the two proteins after aging followed by compression. This behavior is normally associated with protein unfolding and covalent cross-linking at the interface. Despite this, the lipase activity was not suppressed. By highlighting the unique interfacial properties of lipases, we believe that the presented work contributes to a better understanding of lipase interfacial activation and the mechanisms regulating lipolysis. The results indicate that the understanding of the physical properties of lipases can lead to novel approaches to regulate their activity.

  15. Tailored interfacial rheology for gastric stable adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2014-08-11

    Human lipid digestion begins at the interface of oil and water by interfacial adsorption of lipases. Tailoring the available surface area for lipase activity can lead to specific lipid sensing in the body, thus, tailored satiety hormone release. In this study we present biopolymer layers at the MCT-oil/water interface with different stabilities under human gastric environment (37 °C, pH 2, pepsin). Physicochemical changes and enzymatic degradation of interfacial layers were monitored online by interfacial shear rheology. We show the weakening of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) layers at body temperature and acidification and their hydrolysis by pepsin. If sufficient concentrations of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) are given to an existing β-lg layer, this weakening is buffered and the proteolysis delayed. A synergistic, composite layer is formed by adding methylated NCC to the β-lg layer. This layer thermogels at body temperature and resists hydrolysis by pepsin. Coexistence of these two emulsifiers at the air/water interface is evidenced by neutron reflectometry measurements, where morphological information are extracted. The utilized layers and their analysis provide knowledge of physicochemical changes during in vitro digestion of interfaces, which promote functional food formulations.

  16. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  17. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  18. Interfacial forces between silica surfaces measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal particle stability and some other interfacial phenomena are governed by interfacial force interactions. The two well known forces are van der Waals force and electrostatic force, as documented by the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Moreover, advances in modern instrumentation and colloid science suggested that some short-ranged forces or structure forces are important for relevant colloidal systems. The interfacial and/or molecular forces can be measured as a resultant force as function of separation distance by atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe. This article presents a discussion on AFM colloid probe measurement of silica particle and silica wafer surfaces in solutions with some technical notifications in measurement and data convolution mechanisms. The measured forces are then analyzed and discussed based on the 'constant charge' and 'constant potential' models of DLVO theory. The difference between the prediction of DLVO theory and the measured results indicates that there is a strong short-range structure force between the two hydrophilic surfaces, even at extremely low ionic concentration, such as Milli-Q water purity solution.

  19. Molecular modeling of nanotube composite materials: Interface formation, interfacial strength, and thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marietta-Tondin, Olivier

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the wonders of modern science. Discovered a little over 15 years ago, they have shown the research community an outstanding set of properties. In terms of mechanical properties, they exhibit extremely high young's modulus, which, coupled with a high strain to break, leads to unsurpassed strength to break. CNTs also demonstrate superior thermal conductivity, good electrical capacity and high thermal stability. In light of these properties, CNTs are expected to be introduced into a wide variety of new materials aimed at applications for various fields, such as high-performance composites, biological and chemical sensors, magnetic recording, nanoelectronic devices and flat panel displays. One such promising application is CNT-reinforced composite materials, exhibiting the possibility of outstanding mechanical properties. In practice, however, many reports indicate that nanocomposites are weaker or only slightly stronger than the neat resins. Several factors are believed to be the primary source of this discrepancy, namely poor nanotube dispersion in resin, inadequate alignment of the nanotubes, and weak interfacial bonding between nanotubes and resins. As a result, these have become crucial investigation issues for developing high-performance nanocomposites. In this dissertation, fundamental understanding of the interfacial phenomena between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrices are studied. Both molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, an effective approach to investigate nanoscale behaviors, and experimental investigation, are utilized to achieve this goal. First, we examine the interface formation phenomena between a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) and the resin, prior to curing, in the case of the Epon862 resin system. The MD simulation results outline the validity of some of the current theories, such as molecular migration and reduction of molecular mobility of the resin, while they seem to indicate some other mechanisms are not

  20. Interfacial diffusion aided deformation during nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Amit; E, Weinan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation is commonly used to quantify the mechanical response of material surfaces. Despite its widespread use, a detailed understanding of the deformation mechanisms responsible for plasticity during these experiments has remained elusive. Nanoindentation measurements often show stress values close to a material's ideal strength which suggests that dislocation nucleation and subsequent dislocation activity dominates the deformation. However, low strain-rate exponents and small activation volumes have also been reported which indicates high temperature sensitivity of the deformation processes. Using an order parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling technique called adiabatic free energy dynamics [J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B, 112, 15742 (2008)], and molecular dynamics we have probed the diffusive mode of deformation during nanoindentation. Localized processes such as surface vacancy and ad-atom pair formation, vacancy diffusion are found to play an important role during indentation. Our analysis suggests a change in the dominant deformation mode from dislocation mediated plasticity to diffusional flow at high temperatures, slow indentation rates and small indenter tip radii.

  1. Formation of periodic interfacial misfit dislocation array at the InSb/GaAs interface via surface anion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between growth temperature and the formation of periodic interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocations via the anion exchange process in InSb/GaAs heteroepitaxy was systematically investigated. The microstructural and electrical properties of the epitaxial layer were characterized using atomic force microscope, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall resistance measurement. The formation of interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocation arrays depended on growth temperature. A uniformly distributed IMF array was found in a sample grown at 310 °C, which also exhibited the lowest threading dislocation density. The analysis suggested that an incomplete As-for-Sb anion exchange process impeded the formation of IMF on sample grown above 310 °C. At growth temperature below 310 °C, island coalescence led to the formation of 60° dislocations and the disruption of periodic IMF array. All samples showed higher electron mobility at 300 K than at 77 K.

  2. Electrospinning of polyvinylidene difluoride with carbon nanotubes: synergistic effects of extensional force and interfacial interaction on crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu; Yee, Wu Aik; Tjiu, Wuiwui Chauhari; Liu, Ye; Kotaki, Masaya; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Ma, Jan; Liu, Tianxi; Lu, Xuehong

    2008-12-02

    Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) solutions containing a very low concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of similar surface chemistry, respectively, were electrospun, and the nanofibers formed were collected using a modified rotating disk collector. The polymorphic behavior and crystal orientation of the nanofibers were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, while the nanotube alignment and interfacial interactions in the nanofibers were probed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the interfacial interaction between the SWCNTs and PVDF and the extensional force experienced by the nanofibers in the electrospinning and collection processes can work synergistically to induce highly oriented beta-form crystallites extensively. In contrast, the MWCNTs could not be well aligned along the nanofiber axis, which leads to a lower degree of crystal orientation.

  3. Interfacial electron transfer of P3HT/PDI/ZnO nanocomposite and its application in visible-light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lina; Lin, Hongtao; Wu, Yishi; Zhuo, Shuping

    2016-09-01

    Photoinduced interfacial electron transfer plays a key role in photoactive organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials and remains elusive with regard to interfacial energy level alignment. In this study, n-type organic semiconductor 1,6,7,12-tetrachloro-3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide (PDI) molecules bearing carboxylic acid groups at nitrogen positions were grafted onto the surface of the Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, and then blended with p-type poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT. The addition of PDI facilitates the charge transfer process from P3HT to ZnO, which was characterized by steady-state spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. High performance visible-light detector based on P3HT/PDI/ZnO has been fabricated. This provides guidelines for the construction of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Focusing on charge-surface interfacial effects to enhance the laser properties of dye-doped nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdán, Luis; Gartzia-Rivero, Leire; Enciso, Eduardo; Bañuelos, Jorge; López Arbeloa, Iñigo; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) for which only a single property is modified in a controlled manner is a challenge due to the fact that several physicochemical parameters are entangled. This letter assesses, from both experimental and theoretical points of view, the critical dependence on the charged-surface interfacial effect of the laser behavior in photonic nanomaterials based on dye-doped latexes without interference from other physicochemical parameters. When the dye and the NPs have similar charge nature, strong electrostatic repulsion prevents the dye molecules from being directly adsorbed in the surface and maintains the dye homogeneously distributed inside the NP, thus reducing deleterious interfacial effects. The highly homogeneous inner morphology leads to at least two-fold laser behavior enhancement of Rh6G in cationic NPs as compared with their anionic counterparts, and at least three-fold enhancement over Rh6G behavior in water solution.

  5. Individual surface-engineered microorganisms as robust Pickering interfacial biocatalysts for resistance-minimized phase-transfer bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Ji, Haiwei; Zhao, Chuanqi; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-04-13

    A powerful strategy for long-term and diffusional-resistance-minimized whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems is reported where individually encapsulated bacteria are employed as robust and recyclable Pickering interfacial biocatalysts. By individually immobilizing bacterial cells and optimizing the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the encapsulating magnetic mineral shells, the encased bacteria became interfacially active and locate at the Pickering emulsion interfaces, leading to dramatically enhanced bioconversion performances by minimizing internal and external diffusional resistances. Moreover, in situ product separation and biocatalyst recovery was readily achieved using a remote magnetic field. Importantly, the mineral shell effectively protected the entire cell from long-term organic-solvent stress, as shown by the reusability of the biocatalysts for up to 30 cycles, while retaining high stereoselective catalytic activities, cell viabilities, and proliferative abilities.

  6. The interfacial amorphous double layer and the homogeneous nucleation in reflow of a Sn-Zn solder on Cu substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2011-05-15

    To illustrate the interfacial reaction mechanism, the Sn-Zn[Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga (wt%)] solder was reflowed on Cu substrate at 250 deg. C for 15 s followed by immediate quench in liquid nitrogen. The frozen interfacial microstructure was investigated with high resolution transmission electron microscope. An amorphous double layer was formed at the interface which consists of a 5 nm pure Cu region and a Cu-Zn diffusion region. Nanocrystalline intermetallic compound (IMC) Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} were observed in the Cu-Zn diffusion region. These nanocrystalline IMCs are suggested to form via a homogeneous nucleation process.

  7. Direct, Dynamic Measurement of Interfacial Area within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.; Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the

  8. Micromechanical study of concrete materials with interfacial transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambheera, Ramesh

    This thesis describes analytical and finite element micromechanical studies for investigating the mechanical behavior of concrete materials. A concrete material is treated as a three phase composite consisting of aggregate, bulk paste and an interfacial transition zone around the aggregate. Experimental work on the microstructure of concrete has demonstrated the existence of interfacial transition zone and that this is the weakest link in the composite system of concrete material. Hence, the main focus of this thesis is to understand the role of the interfacial transition zone on the overall mechanical behavior of concrete materials. A four phase composite model consisting of aggregate, ITZ, bulk paste and an equivalent homogeneous medium is proposed to represent the concrete material. Analytical solutions are derived for the overall elastic moduli of the four phase composite model. The effects of volume fraction and the elastic moduli of the transition zone on the overall elastic moduli are investigated. The results obtained using the analytical model are in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. Analytical stress solutions are also derived for the four phase composite model subjected to uniaxial compression in two and three dimensions. The stress concentration and the tensile stress development in the interfacial transition zone are investigated. The effect of imperfect shear interfacial bond on the overall elastic moduli and on the stresses in the transition zone is also investigated. Basic concepts of damage mechanics are applied to model the damage in the transition zone. The effect of local damage in the transition zone on the overall damage in a concrete material is illustrated. For the specific case of uniaxial compression, the pre-peak stress-strain curves are generated. Computational analysis of micromechanical models of concrete materials requires efficient finite elements. This thesis proposes the use of hybrid finite elements for the

  9. Determination of interfacial tension of binary mixtures from perturbative approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We determine the interfacial properties of mixtures of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules from direct simulation of the vapour-liquid interface. We consider mixtures with same molecular size but different dispersive energy parameter values. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček, presented recently by MacDowell and Blas and Martínez-Ruiz et al., to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of mixtures of Lennard-Jones molecules with a cut-off distance rc = 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, and interfacial thickness as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the ratio between the dispersive energy parameters of the mixture, ε22/ε11, is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative maximum in the density profiles of the less volatile component at the interface. This maximum is related with adsorption or accumulation of these molecules at the interface, a direct consequence of stronger attractive interactions between these molecules in

  10. Plasma kinetic effects on interfacial mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Taitano, W.; Vold, E. L.; Chacon, L.; Simakov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    Mixing at interfaces in dense plasma media is a problem central to inertial confinement fusion and high energy density laboratory experiments. In this work, collisional particle-in-cell simulations are used to explore kinetic effects arising during the mixing of unmagnetized plasma media. Comparisons are made to the results of recent analytical theory in the small Knudsen number limit and while the bulk mixing properties of interfaces are in general agreement, some differences arise. In particular, "super-diffusive" behavior, large diffusion velocity, and large Knudsen number are observed in the low density regions of the species mixing fronts during the early evolution of a sharp interface prior to the transition to a slow diffusive process in the small-Knudsen-number limit predicted by analytical theory. A center-of-mass velocity profile develops as a result of the diffusion process and conservation of momentum.

  11. Nanoparticle interfacial assembly in liquid crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Roberts, Tyler; Armas-Perez, Julio; Wang, Xiaoguang; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Controlled assembly of nanoparticles at liquid crystal interfaces could lead to easily manufacturable building blocks for assembly of materials with tunable mechanical, optical, and electronic properties. Past work has examined nanoparticle assembly at planar liquid crystal interfaces. In this work we show that nanoparticle assembly on curved interfaces is drastically different, and arises for conditions under which assembly is too weak to occur on planar interfaces. We also demonstrate that LC-mediated nanoparticle interactions are strong, are remarkably sensitive to surface anchoring, and lead to hexagonal arrangements that do not arise in bulk systems. All these elements form the basis for a highly tunable, predictable, and versatile platform for hierarchical materials assembly. National Science Foundation through the UW MRSEC.

  12. Distinct Roles for Interfacial Hydration in Site-Specific DNA Recognition by ETS-Family Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Xhani, Suela; Esaki, Shingo; Huang, Kenneth; Erlitzki, Noa; Poon, Gregory M K

    2017-03-15

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. Unlike other ETS homologs, such as Ets-1, DNA recognition by PU.1 is highly sensitive to its osmotic environment due to excess interfacial hydration in the complex. To interrogate interfacial hydration in the two homologs, we mutated a highly conserved tyrosine residue, which is exclusively engaged in coordinating a well-defined water contact between the protein and DNA among ETS proteins, to phenylalanine. The loss of this water-mediated contact blunted the osmotic sensitivity of PU.1/DNA binding, but did not alter binding under normo-osmotic conditions, suggesting that PU.1 has evolved to maximize osmotic sensitivity. The homologous mutation in Ets-1, which was minimally sensitive to osmotic stress due to a sparsely hydrated interface, reduced DNA-binding affinity at normal osmolality but the complex became stabilized by osmotic stress. Molecular dynamics simulations of wildtype and mutant PU.1 and Ets-1 in their free and DNA-bound states, which recapitulated experimental features of the proteins, showed that abrogation of this tyrosine-mediated water contact perturbed the Ets-1/DNA complex not through disruption of interfacial hydration, but by inhibiting local dynamics induced specifically in the bound state. Thus, a configurationally identical water-mediated contact plays mechanistically distinct roles in mediating DNA recognition by structurally homologous ETS transcription factors.

  13. Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial lubrication flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-02-01

    The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.

  14. Wettability of supercritical carbon dioxide/water/quartz systems: simultaneous measurement of contact angle and interfacial tension at reservoir conditions.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Soheil; Goual, Lamia; Piri, Mohammad; Plancher, Henry

    2013-06-11

    Injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers is considered as a method of carbon sequestration. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions inside the porous media. For instance, the final storage capacity and total amount of capillary-trapped CO2 inside an aquifer are affected by the interfacial tension between the fluids and the contact angle between the fluids and the rock mineral surface. A thorough study of these parameters and their variations with temperature and pressure will provide a better understanding of the carbon sequestration process and thus improve predictions of the sequestration efficiency. In this study, the controversial concept of wettability alteration of quartz surfaces in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. A novel apparatus for measuring interfacial tension and contact angle at high temperatures and pressures based on Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis with no-Apex (ADSA-NA) method was developed and validated with a simple system. Densities, interfacial tensions, and dynamic contact angles of CO2/water/quartz systems were determined for a wide range of pressures and temperatures relevant to geological sequestration of CO2 in the subcritical and supercritical states. Image analysis was performed with ADSA-NA method that allows the determination of both interfacial tensions and contact angles with high accuracy. The results show that supercritical CO2 alters the wettability of quartz surface toward less water-wet conditions compared to subcritical CO2. Also we observed an increase in the water advancing contact angles with increasing temperature indicating less water-wet quartz surfaces at higher temperatures.

  15. Interaction Between the Growth and Dissolution of Intermetallic Compounds in the Interfacial Reaction Between Solid Iron and Liquid Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhai; Yang, Dongdong; Zhang, Mingxin; Huang, Jihua; Zhao, Xingke

    2016-10-01

    The interfacial reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminum has been widely investigated in past decades; however, some issues, such as the solid/liquid interfacial structure, formation mechanisms of FeAl3 and Fe2Al5, and interaction between the growth and dissolution of intermetallic compounds, are still not fully understood. In this study, a hot-dipping method is designed to investigate the interfacial reaction in the temperature range between 973 K and 1273 K (700 °C 1000 °C) for 10 to 60 seconds. The intensification of the dissolution leads to the transformation of FeAl3/liquid aluminum into Fe2Al5/liquid aluminum in the solid/liquid structure with increasing reaction temperature. The formation of FeAl3 adhered to the interface depends not only on the reaction mechanism but also on precipitation at relatively low temperatures. In contrast, precipitation is the only formation mechanism for FeAl3 at relatively high temperatures. Austenitizing results in the complete transformation of the tongue-like Fe2Al5/Fe interface to a flat shape. The growth of Fe2Al5 with respect to the maximum thickness is governed by the interfacial reaction process, whereas the growth of Fe2Al5 with respect to the average thickness is governed by the diffusion process in the range of 973 K to 1173 K (700 °C to 900 °C) for 10 to 60 seconds. The dissolution of the parent metal is due to the natural dissolution of FeAl3 at low temperatures and Fe2Al5 at high temperatures.

  16. Nanometre-scale evidence for interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation control of silicate glass corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Roland; Cotte, Stéphane; Cadel, Emmanuel; Malladi, Sairam; Karlsson, Lisa S.; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Cabié, Martiane; Seyeux, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    Silicate glasses are durable solids, and yet they are chemically unstable in contact with aqueous fluids—this has important implications for numerous industrial applications related to the corrosion resistance of glasses, or the biogeochemical weathering of volcanic glasses in seawater. The aqueous dissolution of synthetic and natural glasses results in the formation of a hydrated, cation-depleted near-surface alteration zone and, depending on alteration conditions, secondary crystalline phases on the surface. The long-standing accepted model of glass corrosion is based on diffusion-coupled hydration and selective cation release, producing a surface-altered zone. However, using a combination of advanced atomic-resolution analytical techniques, our data for the first time reveal that the structural and chemical interface between the pristine glass and altered zone is always extremely sharp, with gradients in the nanometre to sub-nanometre range. These findings support a new corrosion mechanism, interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation. Moreover, they also highlight the importance of using analytical methods with very high spatial and mass resolution for deciphering the nanometre-scale processes controlling corrosion. Our findings provide evidence that interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation may be a universal reaction mechanism that controls both silicate glass corrosion and mineral weathering.

  17. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  18. Impacts of interfacial charge transfer on nanoparticle electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Lu, Bingzhang; Wang, Nan; Li, Ligui; Chen, Shaowei

    2017-04-05

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells represent a next-generation power supply technology that may be used in a diverse range of applications. Towards this end, the rational design and engineering of functional nanomaterials as low-cost, high-performance catalysts is of critical significance in the wide-spread commercialization of fuel cell technology. One major bottleneck is the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Whereas platinum-based nanoparticles have been used as the catalysts of choice, further engineering of the nanoparticles is urgently needed to enhance the catalytic performance and concurrently reduce the costs. Extensive research has also been extended to non-platinum metals or even metal-free nanocatalysts that may be viable alternatives to platinum. In this review article, we will summarize recent progress in these areas of research within the context of interfacial electron transfer: (a) interactions between metal elements in alloy nanoparticles, (b) metal-ligand interfacial bonding interactions, (c) metal-carbon substrate interactions, and (d) heteroatom doping of graphitic carbons. Results have shown that ready manipulation of the electronic interactions between the catalyst surface and oxygen species may serve as a fundamental mechanism for the optimization of the catalytic performance.

  19. REVIEW ARTICLE: Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-12-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles.

  20. Nanometre-scale evidence for interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation control of silicate glass corrosion.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Roland; Cotte, Stéphane; Cadel, Emmanuel; Malladi, Sairam; Karlsson, Lisa S; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Cabié, Martiane; Seyeux, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    Silicate glasses are durable solids, and yet they are chemically unstable in contact with aqueous fluids-this has important implications for numerous industrial applications related to the corrosion resistance of glasses, or the biogeochemical weathering of volcanic glasses in seawater. The aqueous dissolution of synthetic and natural glasses results in the formation of a hydrated, cation-depleted near-surface alteration zone and, depending on alteration conditions, secondary crystalline phases on the surface. The long-standing accepted model of glass corrosion is based on diffusion-coupled hydration and selective cation release, producing a surface-altered zone. However, using a combination of advanced atomic-resolution analytical techniques, our data for the first time reveal that the structural and chemical interface between the pristine glass and altered zone is always extremely sharp, with gradients in the nanometre to sub-nanometre range. These findings support a new corrosion mechanism, interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation. Moreover, they also highlight the importance of using analytical methods with very high spatial and mass resolution for deciphering the nanometre-scale processes controlling corrosion. Our findings provide evidence that interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation may be a universal reaction mechanism that controls both silicate glass corrosion and mineral weathering.

  1. Molecular simulation on interfacial structure and gettering efficiency of direct silicon bonded (110)/(100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariyazaki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Tatsuhiko; Izunome, Koji; Sueoka, Koji

    2010-06-01

    Direct silicon bonded (DSB) substrates with (110)/(100) hybrid orientation technology are attracting considerable attention as a promising technology for high performance bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. We have investigated the structure and the gettering efficiency of the (110)/(100) interface parallelling each ⟨110⟩ direction (DSB interface) by molecular dynamics (MD) and first-principles calculation. In MD calculations, initial calculation cells of 15 atomic-configurations with coincidence-site lattices were prepared. It was found that (i) the calculated DSB interface was stable independent of the initial atomic-configurations and (ii) the interfacial structures were essentially the same among the calculated models. Moreover, the calculated interfacial structure corresponds to the reported TEM observation. The first-principles calculation showed that Si atoms in the DSB interface formed covalent bonding. The dangling bonds in Si (110) and (100) surfaces disappeared due to restructuring in the DSB interface. Furthermore, the DSB interface, which exists just below the device active region, was found to be an efficient gettering site for Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Hf atoms.

  2. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  3. Moisture-Induced Spallation and Interfacial Hydrogen Embrittlement of Alumina Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal expansion mismatch stresses and interfacial sulfur activity are the major factors producing primary Al2O3 scale spallation on high temperature alloys. However, moisture-induced delayed spallation appears as a secondary, but often dramatic, illustration of an additional mechanistic detail. A historical review of delayed failure of alumina scales and TBC s on superalloys is presented herein. Similarities with metallic phenomena suggest that hydrogen embrittlement from ambient humidity, resulting from the reaction Al+3H2O=Al(OH)3+3H(+)+3e(-), is the operative mechanism. This proposal was tested by standard cathodic hydrogen charging in 1N H2SO4, applied to Rene N5 pre-oxidized at 1150 C for 1000 1-hr cycles, and monitored by weight change, induced current, and microstructure. Here cathodic polarization at -2.0 V abruptly stripped mature Al2O3 scales at the oxide-metal interface. Anodic polarization at +2.0 V, however, produced alloy dissolution. Finally, with no applied voltage, the electrolyte alone produced neither scale spallation nor alloy dissolution. These experiments thus highlight the detrimental effects of hydrogen charging on alumina scale adhesion. It is proposed that interfacial hydrogen embrittlement is produced by moist air and is the root cause of both moisture-induced, delayed scale spallation and desktop TBC failures.

  4. Enhanced interfacial thermal transport in pnictogen tellurides metallized with a lead-free solder alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devender,; Ramanath, Ganpati; Lofgreen, Kelly; Devasenathipathy, Shankar; Swan, Johanna; Mahajan, Ravi; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2015-11-15

    Controlling thermal transport across metal–thermoelectric interfaces is essential for realizing high efficiency solid-state refrigeration and waste-heat harvesting power generation devices. Here, the authors report that pnictogen chalcogenides metallized with bilayers of Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5} solder and Ni barrier exhibit tenfold higher interfacial thermal conductance Γ{sub c} than that obtained with In/Ni bilayer metallization. X-ray diffraction and x-ray spectroscopy indicate that reduced interdiffusion and diminution of interfacial SnTe formation due to Ni layer correlates with the higher Γ{sub c}. Finite element modeling of thermoelectric coolers metallized with Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}/Ni bilayers presages a temperature drop ΔT ∼ 22 K that is 40% higher than that obtained with In/Ni metallization. Our results underscore the importance of controlling chemical intermixing at solder–metal–thermoelectric interfaces to increase the effective figure of merit, and hence, the thermoelectric cooling efficiency. These findings should facilitate the design and development of lead-free metallization for pnictogen chalcogenide-based thermoelectrics.

  5. Magnetic properties and interfacial characteristics of all-epitaxial Heusler-compound stacking structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Honda, S.; Hirayama, J.; Kawano, M.; Santo, K.; Tanikawa, K.; Kanashima, T.; Itoh, H.; Hamaya, K.

    2016-09-01

    We study magnetic properties and interfacial characteristics of all-epitaxial D 03-Fe3Si /L 21 - Fe3 -xMnxSi /L 21-Co2FeSi Heusler-compound trilayers grown on Ge(111) by room-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetization reversal processes can be intentionally designed by changing the chemical composition of the intermediate Fe3 -xMnxSi layers because of their tunable ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase-transition temperature. From first-principles calculations, interfacial half metallicity in the Co2FeSi layer is nearly expected when the sequence of stacking layers along <111 > of the Fe2MnSi /Co2FeSi interface includes the atomic row of L 21 - or B 2 -ordered structures. We believe that Co2FeSi /Fe2MnSi /Co2FeSi trilayer systems stacked along <111 > will open a new avenue for high-performance current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistive devices with Heusler compounds.

  6. Alkali Halide Interfacial Behavior in a Sequence of Charged Slit Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Wander, Matthew C; Shuford, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a variety of alkali halide, aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with charged, planar-graphite slit-pores are simulated using classical molecular dynamics. Size trends in structure and transport properties are examined by varying the choice of ions among the alkali metal and halide series. As with the uncharged pores, system dynamics are driven by changes in water hydration behavior and specifically by variations in the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule. Overall, the larger ions diffuse more rapidly under high surface charge conditions than the smaller ions. In particular, for the 1 nmslit, ion diffusivity increased by a factor of 4 compared to the uncharged case. Finally, a quantitative fit to the interfacial charge structure is presented, which confirms the presence of two distinct types of layers in an aqueous interface. This model indicates that the chemistry of the interface is able to create a small interfacial potential, and it shows how water molecules can rotate to increase charge separation in response to a surface potential.

  7. Water-Soluble Polymeric Interfacial Material for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Ma, Yingzhuang; Xiao, Lixin; Zhang, Fengyan; Wang, Yuanhao; Yang, Hongxing

    2017-04-11

    Interfacial materials play a critical role in photoelectric conversion properties as well as the anomalous hysteresis phenomenon of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this article, a water-soluble polythiophene PTEBS was employed as a cathode interfacial material for PSCs. Efficient energy level aligning and improved film morphology were obtained due to an ultrathin coating of PTEBS. Better ohmic contact between the perovskite layer and the cathode also benefits the charge transport and extraction of the device. Moreover, less charge accumulation at the interface weakens the polarization of the perovskite resulting in a relatively quick response of the modified device. The ITO/PTEBS/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Au cells by an all low-temperature process achieved power conversion efficiencies of up to 15.4% without apparent hysteresis effect. Consequently, the utilization of this water-soluble polythiophene is a practical approach for the fabrication of highly efficient, large-area, and low-cost PSCs and compatible with low-temperature solution process, roll-to-roll manufacture, and flexible application.

  8. Influence of silane surface modification of veneer on interfacial adhesion of wood-plastic plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lu; Chang, Liang; Guo, Wen-jing; Chen, Yongping; Wang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, wood-plastic plywood was fabricated with high density polyethylene (HDPE) film and poplar veneer by hot-pressing. To improve the interfacial adhesion between the wood veneer and HDPE film, silane A-171 (vinyltrimethoxysilane) was used to treat the surface of poplar veneer by spraying. The effects of silane agent on the veneer surface properties as well as the physical-mechanical performance of wood-plastic plywood were evaluated. The adsorption of several prehydrolyzed alkoxysilanes onto the veneer surface and the existence of a covalent bonding between the wood veneer and silane agent were confirmed using FTIR, XPS and contact angle. Silane surface treatment resulted in enhancement of shear strength and water resistance. When one layer HDPE film was used as adhesive, it caused 293.2% increase in shear strength, 34.6% and 40.8% reduction in water absorption and thickness swelling, respectively. In addition, the wood failure also increased from 5% to 100% due to the silane modification. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that treated plywood have higher storage modulus, lower tan δ peak value and lagged temperature for tan δ peak value with respect to untreated plywood. Experimental results of interfacial morphology by SEM further revealed better interaction between silane A-171 treated veneer and HDPE film.

  9. Surface grafting of Kevlar fibers for improved interfacial properties of fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, Vasudha.

    1991-01-01

    Matrix-specific chemical modification of the Kevlar fiber surfaces was carried out with the aim of enhancing adhesion, through covalent bonding, to selected thermoset matrix resins such as vinyl ester, unsaturated polyester and epoxy. A two-step grafting method, involving initial metalation followed by subsequent substitution, was used to graft vinyl and epoxy terminated groups onto Kevlar fiber surfaces. The physical changes in fiber surface were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy and surface area measurement and the chemical changes due to grafting were measured by contact angle measurement and neutron activation analysis; high concentrations of double bonds and epoxy groups were measured. The change in interfacial sear strength due to the surface grafting was measured by means of a single fiber pull out test. The results show a nearly twofold increase in the interfacial shear strength due to vinyl terminated grafts in the case of Kevlar/vinyl ester and Kevlar/polyester composites. Kevlar fibers containing the epoxy functionality on the surface had enhanced adhesion to epoxy matrix resin.

  10. Manipulation of three-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability by initial interfacial principal curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ben; Zhai, Zhigang; Si, Ting; Lu, Xiyun; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) in the early stages are studied numerically. By designing 3D interfaces that initially possess various identical and opposite principal curvature combinations, the growth rate of perturbations can be effectively manipulated. The weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme and the level set method combined with the real ghost fluid method are used to simulate the flow. The results indicate that the interface development and the shock propagation in 3D cases are much more complicated than those in 2D case, and the evolution of 3D interfaces is heavily dependent on the initial interfacial principal curvatures. The 3D structure of wave patterns induces high pressure zones in the flow field, and the pressure oscillations change the local instabilities of interfaces. In the linear stages, the perturbation growth rate follows regularity as the interfacial principal curvatures vary, which is further predicted by the stability theory of 2D and 3D interfaces. It is also found that hysteresis effects exist at the onset of the linear stages in the 3D case for the same initial perturbations as the 2D case, resulting in different evolutions of 3D RMI in the nonlinear stages.

  11. Thermal conduction in polymeric nanofluids under mean field approximation: role of interfacial adsorption layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisha, M. R.; Philip, J.

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric nanofluids of TiO2/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and Cu/PVA have been prepared by dispersing nanoparticles of TiO2 or metallic copper in PVA. The thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities of these nanofluids have been measured as a function of particle loading following a thermal wave interference technique in a thermal wave resonant cavity. It is found that in both cases thermal conductivity increases with particle concentration, with Cu/PVA nanofluids showing a much larger increase. The results have been compared with the corresponding values calculated following different theoretical models. Comparison of the results with model-based calculations shows that the thermal conductivity variations in these nanofluids are within the framework of the classical mean field theory including the formation of thin interfacial adsorption layers around nanoparticles. Although the molecular weight of PVA is very high, it is found that the adsorption layer thickness is limited by the hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles. It is found that particle clustering followed by interfacial layering accounts for the larger increase in thermal conductivity found for Cu/PVA compared to TiO2/PVA.

  12. Fingers, toes and tongues: the anatomy of interfacial instabilities in viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, Irmgard

    The invasion of one fluid into another of higher viscosity is unstable and produces complex patterns in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. This viscous-fingering instability, a bedrock of our understanding of pattern formation, has been characterized by a most-unstable wavelength that sets the characteristic width of the fingers. We have shown that a second, previously overlooked, parameter governs the length of the fingers and characterizes the dominant global features of the patterns. Because interfacial tension suppresses short-wavelength fluctuations, its elimination would suggest an instability producing highly ramified singular structures. Our experimental investigations using miscible fluids show the opposite behavior - the interface becomes more stable even as the stabilizing effect of interfacial tension is removed. This is accompanied by slender structures, tongues, that form in the narrow thickness of the fluid. Among the rich variety of global patterns that emerge is a regime of blunt structures, ``toes'', that exhibit the unusual features characteristic of proportionate growth. This type of pattern formation, while quite common in mammalian biology, was hitherto unknown in physical systems.

  13. Temperature-Induced Transitions in the Structure and Interfacial Rheology of Human Meibum

    PubMed Central

    Leiske, Danielle L.; Leiske, Christopher I.; Leiske, Daniel R.; Toney, Michael F.; Senchyna, Michelle; Ketelson, Howard A.; Meadows, David L.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2012-01-01

    Meibomian lipids are the primary component of the lipid layer of the tear film. Composed primarily of a mixture of lipids, meibum exhibits a range of melt temperatures. Compositional changes that occur with disease may alter the temperature at which meibum melts. Here we explore how the mechanical properties and structure of meibum from healthy subjects depend on temperature. Interfacial films of meibum were highly viscoelastic at 17°C, but as the films were heated to 30°C the surface moduli decreased by more than two orders of magnitude. Brewster angle microscopy revealed the presence of micron-scale inhomogeneities in meibum films at higher temperatures. Crystalline structure was probed by small angle x-ray scattering of bulk meibum, which showed evidence of a majority crystalline structure in all samples with lamellar spacing of 49 Å that melted at 34°C. A minority structure was observed in some samples with d-spacing at 110 Å that persisted up to 40°C. The melting of crystalline phases accompanied by a reduction in interfacial viscosity and elasticity has implications in meibum behavior in the tear film. If the melt temperature of meibum was altered significantly from disease-induced compositional changes, the resultant change in viscosity could alter secretion of lipids from meibomian glands, or tear-film stabilization properties of the lipid layer. PMID:22339874

  14. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  15. Interfacial Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Laura J.

    Scientific interest in graphene oxide (GO) sheets, the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powder, has resurged in recent years because GO is considered a promising precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based sheets for a variety of applications. In addition, GO can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material as it is characterized by two abruptly different length scales. Its thickness is of typical molecular dimensions, measured to be about 1 nm by atomic force microscopy, but its lateral dimensions are that of common colloidal particles, ranging from nanometers to tens of microns. This high anisotropy leads to interesting fundamental colloidal interactions between the soft sheets which have practical implications in the solution processing and assembly of the material. This research therefore aims to use a variety of techniques to control these inter-sheet interactions to gain an understanding of the processing-structure relationships which ultimately determine the overall properties of the bulk GO assembly. GO is identified as a two-dimensional amphiphile with a unique edge-to-center arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which has led to the demonstration of its pH- and size-dependent surface activity. The water surface is then utilized, as in the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, as an ideal substrate to tile up the GO sheets and study the interactions between them. Sheet-sheet interaction morphologies were successfully altered between wrinkled and overlapped states by pH tuning of sheet charge density, and the resulting structure-property relationships are explored. In addition, a novel flash-reduction and assembly process is described in which a simple photographic camera flash can rapidly and cleanly turn an insulating, well-stacked GO paper to a more open and fluffy conducting film. Lastly, the use of these research results as educational outreach platforms is highlighted. A variety of outlets, such as You

  16. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-08

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.

  17. The effect of chain rigidity on the interfacial layer thickness and dynamics of polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Carroll, Bobby; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    There are growing experimental evidences showing the existence of an interfacial layer that has a finite thickness with slowing down dynamics in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Moreover, it is believed that the interfacial layer plays a significant role on various macroscopic properties of PNCs. A thicker interfacial layer is found to have more pronounced effect on the macroscopic properties such as the mechanical enhancement. However, it is not clear what molecular parameter controls the interfacial layer thickness. Inspired by our recent computer simulations that showed the chain rigidity correlated well with the interfacial layer thickness, we performed systematic experimental studies on different polymer nanocomposites by varying the chain stiffness. Combining small-angle X-ray scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry, we find a good correlation between the polymer Kuhn length and the thickness of the interfacial layer, confirming the earlier computer simulations results. Our findings provide a direct guidance for the design of new PNCs with desired properties.

  18. Ferroelectric Thin Films for the Manipulation of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Robert

    Ferroelectric thin films (FETFs) offer a promising new platform for advancing liquid-phase interfacial sensing devices. FETFs are capable of expressing surface charge densities that are an order of magnitude higher than those of traditional charged surfaces in liquid environments (e.g., common oxides, self-assembled monolayers, or electrets). Furthermore, the switchable polarization state of FETFs enables patterning of charge-heterogeneous surfaces whose charge patterns persist over a range of environmental conditions. Integration of FETFs into liquid-phase interfacial sensing devices, however, requires the fabrication of films with nanometer-scale surface roughness, high remnant polarization values, and interfacial stability during prolonged exposure. The objectives of my research were to i) fabricate ferroelectric ultra-smooth lead zirconium titanate (US-PZT) thin films with nanometer-scale surface roughness, ii) establish the interfacial stability of these films after prolonged exposure to aqueous environments, iii) measure the interfacial forces as a function of film polarization and ionic strength, iv) calculate the surface potential of the US-PZT surface using electric double layer (EDL) theory, and v) demonstrate the guided deposition of charged colloidal particles onto locally polarized US-PZT thin films from solution. I demonstrate the use of ferroelectric US-PZT thin films to manipulate EDL interaction forces in aqueous environments. My work conclusively shows that the polarization state of US-PZT controls EDL formation and can be used to induce the guided deposition of charged colloidal particles in solution. I present a robust fabrication scheme for making ferroelectric US-PZT thin films from a sol-gel precursor. By optimizing critical thermal processing steps I am able to minimize the in-plane stress of the film and reliably produce US-PZT thin films on the wafer-scale with mean surface roughness values of only 2.4 nm over a 25 μm2 area. I then

  19. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2014-01-10

    The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

  20. Role of interfacial strain in fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Huang, Lu; Liu, Zuohua; Tao, Changyuan

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the first equivalent circuit model for all-solid, fiber-shaped, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), in order to reveal the internal catalytic reaction mechanism in this new type of solar cells. The counter electrode of the winding structure leads to negative impedance under high frequency, which is consistent with the model. The study further investigates the strain of the TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays and its influence on interfacial mechanism. As a unique characteristic of fiber-shaped DSSC, the strain of the TNT arrays strengthens the permeation of the electrolyte. The permeation not only improves the efficiency of interfacial photochemical reactions, but also magnifies the probability of the side reactions on the electrolyte/Ti interfaces. Therefore, both the variation of impedance and overall conversion efficiency exhibit similar inflection points. Different from that of traditional plate-type device, the interfacial impedance in the equivalent circuit of fiber-shaped devices should be treated as a variable for changes in TiO2 and CuI layers.