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Sample records for high light conditions

  1. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  2. Growth towards light as an adaptation to high light conditions in Chara branches.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susanne; Ziegler, Carmen; Melzer, Arnulf

    2006-01-01

    Growth of plants or plant organs towards more light is commonly interpreted as an adaptation to low light conditions. Here, we show for the first time, in a study of charophyte branches, a growth-based orientation towards light functioning as a mechanism to protect the plant from excessive light. Two Chara species were exposed to five different intensities of photosynthetically active radiation and species traits and pigmentation were measured. Branches of plants exposed to higher light intensities were convergent and pointed steeply upwards, whereas those exposed to lower light intensities grew nearly straight and were less inclined. Only branches that increased in length during the experiments reacted to differences in light intensity. This indicates that branch orientation is determined by a light-dependent growth reaction. Orientation of charophyte branches towards light is accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a (Chla) content and a lower Chla : carotenoid ratio, which clearly indicates that the plant is taking protective measures against potentially damaging excess light conditions. We suggest that the growth-based orientation of Chara branches towards light may protect sexual organs, which grow on adaxial branch sides, from light damage. In addition, the upward orientation of branches might lead to increased light transmission within dense charophyte beds, thus enabling an enhanced gross production.

  3. High-power, light-weight power conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, A. S., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    After a review of light-weight transformer efforts in the US, a weight analysis is carried out. From basic transformer relations and geometrical considerations it is shown how transformer specific power should scale with power and frequency. The result compares well with design results for frequency scaling but not for power scaling. After refinements for variations of voltage, cooling technique, power (while voltage is held constant) and current density, an algorithm is presented that agrees well with the results of adiabatic transformer designs and with vapor cooled transformer designs. Transformer specific powers as low as 0.01 kg/kW are predicted at an operating frequency of 20 kHz. Caution is advised in the use of the algorithm because few of the transformers with which the algorithm is compared have actually been considered. The SDI/AF/NASA megawatt converter program is discussed, and results of Phase I are summarized.

  4. Chlorophyll b degradation by chlorophyll b reductase under high-light conditions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Rei; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2015-12-01

    The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the main antenna complex of photosystem II (PSII). Plants change their LHCII content depending on the light environment. Under high-light conditions, the content of LHCII should decrease because over-excitation damages the photosystem. Chlorophyll b is indispensable for accumulating LHCII, and chlorophyll b degradation induces LHCII degradation. Chlorophyll b degradation is initiated by chlorophyll b reductase (CBR). In land plants, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) and NYC1-Like (NOL) are isozymes of CBR. We analyzed these mutants to determine their functions under high-light conditions. During high-light treatment, the chlorophyll a/b ratio was stable in the wild-type (WT) and nol plants, and the LHCII content decreased in WT plants. The chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased in the nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants, and a substantial degree of LHCII was retained in nyc1/nol plants after the high-light treatment. These results demonstrate that NYC1 degrades the chlorophyll b on LHCII under high-light conditions, thus decreasing the LHCII content. After the high-light treatment, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry was lower in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants than in WT and nol plants. A larger light-harvesting system would damage PSII in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the leaves indicated that photosystem I was also damaged by the excess LHCII in nyc1/nol plants. These observations suggest that chlorophyll b degradation by NYC1 is the initial reaction for the optimization of the light-harvesting capacity under high-light conditions.

  5. The significance of cysteine synthesis for acclimation to high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Anna; Haberland, Stefan; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Wirtz, Markus; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Saito, Kazuki; Hell, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Situations of excess light intensity are known to result in the emergence of reactive oxygen species that originate from the electron transport chain in chloroplasts. The redox state of glutathione and its biosynthesis contribute importantly to the plant's response to this stress. In this study we analyzed the significance of cysteine synthesis for long-term acclimation to high light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Emphasis was put on the rate-limiting step of cysteine synthesis, the formation of the precursor O-acetylserine (OAS) that is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SERAT). Wild type Arabidopsis plants responded to the high light condition (800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for 10 days) with synthesis of photo-protective anthocyanins, induction of total SERAT activity and elevated glutathione levels when compared to the control condition (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). The role of cysteine synthesis in chloroplasts was probed in mutant plants lacking the chloroplast isoform SERAT2;1 (serat2;1) and two knock-out alleles of CYP20-3, a positive interactor of SERAT in the chloroplast. Acclimation to high light resulted in a smaller growth enhancement than wild type in the serat2;1 and cyp20-3 mutants, less induction of total SERAT activity and OAS levels but similar cysteine and glutathione concentrations. Expression analysis revealed no increase in mRNA of the chloroplast SERAT2;1 encoding SERAT2;1 gene but up to 4.4-fold elevated SERAT2;2 mRNA levels for the mitochondrial SERAT isoform. Thus, lack of chloroplast SERAT2;1 activity or its activation by CYP20-3 prevents the full growth response to high light conditions, but the enhanced demand for glutathione is likely mediated by synthesis of OAS in the mitochondria. In conclusion, cysteine synthesis in the chloroplast is important for performance but is dispensable for survival under long-term exposure to high light and can be partially complemented by cysteine synthesis in mitochondria.

  6. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Sisymbrium altissimum (S. altissimum), and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were chosen for the study. The ephemeral A. pumila, which is genetically close to A. thaliana and ecologically in the same habitat as S. altissimum, was used to avoid complications arising from the superficial differences resulted from comparing plants from two extremely contrasting ecological groups. The findings manifested that the ephemerals showed significantly enhanced activities of photosystem (PS) II under HL conditions, while the activities of PSII in A. thaliana were markedly decreased under the same conditions. Detailed analyses of the electron transport processes revealed that the increased plastoquinone pool oxidization, together with the enhanced PSI activities, ensured a lowered excitation pressure to PSII of both ephemerals, and thus facilitated the photosynthetic control to avoid photodamage to PSII. The analysis of the reaction centers of the PSs, both in terms of D1 protein turnover kinetics and the long-term adaptation, revealed that the unusually stable PSs structure provided the basis for the ephemerals to carry out high photosynthetic performances. It is proposed that the characteristic photosynthetic performances of ephemerals were resulted from effects of the long-term adaptation to the harsh environments. PMID:26779223

  7. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9N, 2.7ms) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via a secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed in these

  8. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  9. Energy dissipation pathways in Photosystem 2 of the diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, under high-light conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuzminov, Fedor I; Gorbunov, Maxim Y

    2016-02-01

    To prevent photooxidative damage under supraoptimal light, photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms to thermally dissipate excess absorbed energy, known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Here we quantify NPQ-induced alterations in light-harvesting processes and photochemical reactions in Photosystem 2 (PS2) in the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Using a combination of picosecond lifetime analysis and variable fluorescence technique, we examined the dynamics of NPQ activation upon transition from dark to high light. Our analysis revealed that NPQ activation starts with a 2-3-fold increase in the rate constant of non-radiative charge recombination in the reaction center (RC); however, this increase is compensated with a proportional increase in the rate constant of back reactions. The resulting alterations in photochemical processes in PS2 RC do not contribute directly to quenching of antenna excitons by the RC, but favor non-radiative dissipation pathways within the RC, reducing the yields of spin conversion of the RC chlorophyll to the triplet state. The NPQ-induced changes in the RC are followed by a gradual ~ 2.5-fold increase in the yields of thermal dissipation in light-harvesting complexes. Our data suggest that thermal dissipation in light-harvesting complexes is the major sink for NPQ; RCs are not directly involved in the NPQ process, but could contribute to photoprotection via reduction in the probability of (3)Chl formation.

  10. Partitioning of absorbed light energy differed between the sun-exposed side and the shaded side of apple fruits under high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changsheng; Zhang, Di; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2012-11-01

    Fractions of absorbed light energy consumed via photochemistry and different thermal dissipation processes was quantified and compared between the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruits at different developmental stages. During fruit development, the fraction of absorbed light consumed via photochemistry was no more than 7% in the sun-exposed peel and no more than 5% in the shaded peel under high light conditions. Under high light, the fraction of absorbed light energy consumed via light dependent thermal dissipation was higher whereas that via constitutive thermal dissipation was lower in the sun-exposed peel. The light dependent thermal dissipation in the sun-exposed peel mainly depended on the xanthophyll cycle, and the xanthophyll cycle pool size was significantly larger in the sun-exposed peel than in the shaded peel. The light dependent thermal dissipation in the shaded peel was dependent on both the xanthophyll cycle and the presence of inactivated reaction centers. Under high light conditions, the densities of both Q(A)-reducing reaction centers and Q(B)-reducing reaction centers decreased faster in the shaded peel than in the sun-exposed peel. The thermal dissipation related to photoinhibition increased and then kept unchanged in the sun-exposed peel but decreased in the shaded peel during fruit development. We conclude that under high light intensities, fruit peel looses the excess energy in order of predominance: first by the xanthophyll cycle, then the thermal dissipation related to photoinhibition, next through inactivated reaction centers, and finally by constitutive thermal dissipation.

  11. High Efficiency Light Harvesting by Carotenoids in the LH2 Complex from Photosynthetic Bacteria: Unique Adaptation to Growth under Low-Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopin, rhodopinal, and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) pigments that assemble in the major LH2 light-harvesting pigment–protein complex. Under high-light conditions the well-characterized B800-850 LH2 complex is formed and accumulates rhodopin and rhodopin glucoside as the primary carotenoids. Under low-light conditions, a variant LH2, denoted B800-820, is formed, and rhodopinal and rhodopinal glucoside are the most abundant carotenoids. The present investigation compares and contrasts the spectral properties and dynamics of the excited states of rhodopin and rhodopinal in solution. In addition, the systematic differences in pigment composition and structure of the chromophores in the LH2 complexes provide an opportunity to explore the effect of these factors on the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. It is found that the enzymatic conversion of rhodopin to rhodopinal by Rbl. acidophilus 7050 grown under low-light conditions results in nearly 100% carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in the LH2 complex. This comparative analysis provides insight into how photosynthetic systems are able to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions. PMID:25171303

  12. High efficiency light harvesting by carotenoids in the LH2 complex from photosynthetic bacteria: unique adaptation to growth under low-light conditions.

    PubMed

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Greco, Jordan A; Gardiner, Alastair T; Carey, Anne-Marie; Cogdell, Richard J; Gibson, George N; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2014-09-25

    Rhodopin, rhodopinal, and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) pigments that assemble in the major LH2 light-harvesting pigment-protein complex. Under high-light conditions the well-characterized B800-850 LH2 complex is formed and accumulates rhodopin and rhodopin glucoside as the primary carotenoids. Under low-light conditions, a variant LH2, denoted B800-820, is formed, and rhodopinal and rhodopinal glucoside are the most abundant carotenoids. The present investigation compares and contrasts the spectral properties and dynamics of the excited states of rhodopin and rhodopinal in solution. In addition, the systematic differences in pigment composition and structure of the chromophores in the LH2 complexes provide an opportunity to explore the effect of these factors on the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. It is found that the enzymatic conversion of rhodopin to rhodopinal by Rbl. acidophilus 7050 grown under low-light conditions results in nearly 100% carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in the LH2 complex. This comparative analysis provides insight into how photosynthetic systems are able to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions.

  13. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  14. A highly tumor-specific light-triggerable drug carrier responds to hypoxic tumor conditions for effective tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Wooram; Bae, Byoung-chan; Na, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Light-triggered drug delivery is among the most investigated stimulus-response strategies and has been widely explored in cancer treatment. However, the limited specificity of light-triggered drug delivery reduces the therapeutic efficacy and causes considerable undesirable side effects. In this work, we demonstrate a highly tumor-specific light-triggerable drug carrier (H-LTDC) induced by a combination of internal (i.e., tumor hypoxia) and external stimuli (i.e., light). The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded H-LTDC was self-assembled from type-1-reactive oxygen species (ROStype1)-mediated degradable chondroitin sulfate (CS) conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS), Pheophorbide-a, which has a spherical shape and a uniform size distribution. Under hypoxic conditions, ROSType1 was mainly generated due to the electron-rich sulfate groups in the polysaccharide backbone. The ROStype1 generated by H-LTDC allowed laser-triggered drug release at low oxygen concentrations. From the in vitro cytotoxicity tests with colon cancer cells (HCT-116), under laser irradiation, DOX-loaded H-LTDCs showed higher toxicity under hypoxic conditions than that under normoxic conditions. In vivo and ex vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that H-LTDCs selectively accumulated in the tumor tissues. As a result, drug-loaded H-LTDCs exhibited high anti-tumor activity in vivo. Overall, we believe that this approach could represent a promising platform for the treatment of tumor and hypoxia-associated diseases without undesirable side effects.

  15. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  16. High Intensity Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Xenon arc lamps developed during the Apollo program by Streamlight, Inc. are the basis for commercial flashlights and emergency handlights. These are some of the brightest portable lights made. They throw a light some 50 times brighter than automobile high beams and are primarily used by police and military. The light penetrates fog and smoke and returns less back-scatter light. They are operated on portable power packs as boat and auto batteries. An infrared model produces totally invisible light for covert surveillance.

  17. NdhV subunit regulates the activity of type-1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase under high light conditions in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; He, Zhihui; Xu, Min; Peng, Lianwei; Mi, Hualing

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes play crucial roles in variety of bioenergetic reactions. However, the regulative mechanism of NDH-1 under stressed conditions is still unclear. In this study, we detected that the NDH-1 activity is partially impaired, but the accumulation of NDH-1 complexes was little affected in the NdhV deleted mutant (ΔndhV) at low light in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. ΔndhV grew normally at low light but slowly at high light under inorganic carbon limitation conditions (low pH or low CO2), meanwhile the activity of CO2 uptake was evidently lowered than wild type even at pH 8.0. The accumulation of NdhV in thylakoids strictly relies on the presence of the hydrophilic subcomplex of NDH-1. Furthermore, NdhV was co-located with hydrophilic subunits of NDH-1 loosely associated with the NDH-1L, NDH-1MS′ and NDH-1M complexes. The level of the NdhV was significantly increased at high light and deletion of NdhV suppressed the up-regulation of NDH-1 activity, causing the lowered the photosynthetic oxygen evolution at pH 6.5 and high light. These data indicate that NdhV is an intrinsic subunit of hydrophilic subcomplex of NDH-1, required for efficient operation of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and CO2 uptake at high lights. PMID:27329499

  18. NdhV subunit regulates the activity of type-1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase under high light conditions in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; He, Zhihui; Xu, Min; Peng, Lianwei; Mi, Hualing

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes play crucial roles in variety of bioenergetic reactions. However, the regulative mechanism of NDH-1 under stressed conditions is still unclear. In this study, we detected that the NDH-1 activity is partially impaired, but the accumulation of NDH-1 complexes was little affected in the NdhV deleted mutant (ΔndhV) at low light in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. ΔndhV grew normally at low light but slowly at high light under inorganic carbon limitation conditions (low pH or low CO2), meanwhile the activity of CO2 uptake was evidently lowered than wild type even at pH 8.0. The accumulation of NdhV in thylakoids strictly relies on the presence of the hydrophilic subcomplex of NDH-1. Furthermore, NdhV was co-located with hydrophilic subunits of NDH-1 loosely associated with the NDH-1L, NDH-1MS' and NDH-1M complexes. The level of the NdhV was significantly increased at high light and deletion of NdhV suppressed the up-regulation of NDH-1 activity, causing the lowered the photosynthetic oxygen evolution at pH 6.5 and high light. These data indicate that NdhV is an intrinsic subunit of hydrophilic subcomplex of NDH-1, required for efficient operation of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and CO2 uptake at high lights. PMID:27329499

  19. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  20. Terrain on Europa under Changing Lighting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft show the same region of Europa under different lighting conditions. The upper image was obtained on June 28th, 1996 during Galileo's first orbit around Jupiter under 'high-sun' conditions -- the equivalent of taking a picture from a high altitude at noon (with the sun directly overhead). Note that albedo (light/dark) features are emphasized. Compare this to the lower image containing a higher-resolution inset. This (inset) image was taken on November 6th, 1996 during the spacecraft's third orbit under 'low-sun' illumination -- the equivalent of taking a picture from a high altitude at sunrise or sunset. Note that in this image the albedo features are not readily apparent. Instead, the topography of the terrain is emphasized. Planetary geologists use information from images acquired under a variety of lighting conditions to identify different types of structures and interpret how they formed. Note that the bright linear features in the upper image are seen to be ridges in the lower image. The circular feature on the right side of both images, Cilix, is approximately 25 kilometers (15 miles) across.

    The area seen in the upper image is 312 kilometers (187 miles) by 570 kilometers (342 miles) across; the area covered by the inset is 36 kilometers (22 miles) by 315 kilometers (190 miles) across. Both of these images are centered near 2 South latitude, 185 West longitude. North is to the top of the frames.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; De Carufel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    A manned mission to Phobos may be an important precursor and catalyst for the human exploration of Mars, as it will fully demonstrate the technologies for a successful Mars mission. A comprehensive understanding of Phobos' environment such as lighting condition and gravitational acceleration are essential to the mission success. The lighting condition is one of many critical factors for landing zone selection, vehicle power subsystem design, and surface mobility vehicle path planning. Due to the orbital characteristic of Phobos, the lighting condition will change dramatically from one Martian season to another. This study uses high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, the Earth, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos' state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting condition over one Martian year are presented in this paper, which include length of solar eclipse, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, total maximum solar energy, and total surface solar energy (constrained by incident angle). The results show that Phobos' solar eclipse time changes throughout the Martian year with the maximum eclipse time occurring during the Martian spring and fall equinox and no solar eclipse during the Martian summer and winter solstice. Solar radiation intensity is close to minimum at the summer solstice and close to maximum at the winter solstice. Total surface exposure time is longer near the north pole and around the anti- Mars point. Total maximum solar energy is larger around the anti-Mars point. Total surface solar energy is higher around the anti-Mars point near the equator. The

  2. Redox-Dependent Modulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis by the TCP Transcription Factor TCP15 during Exposure to High Light Intensity Conditions in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Ivana L.; Gonzalez, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins integrate a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes and hormone responses. It has been shown that most members of class I, one of the two classes in which the TCP family is divided, contain a conserved Cys that leads to inhibition of DNA binding when oxidized. In this work, we describe that the class-I TCP protein TCP15 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation during exposure of plants to high light intensity by modulating the expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as suggested by the study of plants that express TCP15 from the 35SCaMV promoter and mutants in TCP15 and the related gene TCP14. In addition, the effect of TCP15 on anthocyanin accumulation is lost after prolonged incubation under high light intensity conditions. We provide evidence that this is due to inactivation of TCP15 by oxidation of Cys-20 of the TCP domain. Thus, redox modulation of TCP15 activity in vivo by high light intensity may serve to adjust anthocyanin accumulation to the duration of exposure to high irradiation conditions. PMID:26574599

  3. Redox-Dependent Modulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis by the TCP Transcription Factor TCP15 during Exposure to High Light Intensity Conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ivana L; Camoirano, Alejandra; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins integrate a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes and hormone responses. It has been shown that most members of class I, one of the two classes in which the TCP family is divided, contain a conserved Cys that leads to inhibition of DNA binding when oxidized. In this work, we describe that the class-I TCP protein TCP15 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation during exposure of plants to high light intensity by modulating the expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as suggested by the study of plants that express TCP15 from the 35SCaMV promoter and mutants in TCP15 and the related gene TCP14. In addition, the effect of TCP15 on anthocyanin accumulation is lost after prolonged incubation under high light intensity conditions. We provide evidence that this is due to inactivation of TCP15 by oxidation of Cys-20 of the TCP domain. Thus, redox modulation of TCP15 activity in vivo by high light intensity may serve to adjust anthocyanin accumulation to the duration of exposure to high irradiation conditions. PMID:26574599

  4. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin J; Chawla, Amarpreet S; Delong, David M; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (L(adp)) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (L(s)). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L(adp) values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m2) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m2) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m2 luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image L(adp) value of

  5. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars' Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; de Carufel, Guy; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study used high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting conditions over one Martian year are presented, which include the duration of solar eclipses, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, available energy per unit area for sun tracking arrays, and available energy per unit area for fixed arrays (constrained by incident angle). The results show that: Phobos' solar eclipse time varies throughout the Martian year, with longer eclipse durations during the Martian spring and fall seasons and no eclipses during the Martian summer and winter seasons; solar radiation intensity is close to minimum at the summer solstice and close to maximum at the winter solstice; exposure time per orbit is relatively constant over the surface during the spring and fall but varies with latitude during the summer and winter; and Sun tracking solar arrays generate more energy than a fixed solar array. A usage example of the result is also present in this paper to demonstrate the utility.

  6. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars' Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; de Carufel, Guy; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study used high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting conditions over one Martian year are presented, which include the duration of solar eclipses, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, and radiant exposure for both sun tracking and fixed solar arrays. The results show that: Phobos' solar eclipse time varies throughout the Martian year, with longer eclipse durations during the Martian northern spring and fall seasons and no eclipses during the Martian northern summer and winter seasons; solar radiation intensity is close to minimum in late spring and close to maximum in late fall; exposure time per orbit is relatively constant over the surface during the spring and fall but varies with latitude during the summer and winter; and Sun tracking solar arrays generate more energy than a fixed solar array. A usage example of the result is also present in this paper to demonstrate the utility.

  7. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and/or

  8. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and

  9. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and

  10. [Oxygen evolution characteristics of Spirulina platensis under various light conditions].

    PubMed

    Xue, Shengzhang; Zhang, Qinghua; Wu, Xia; Cong, Wei

    2011-04-01

    The knowledge of oxygen evolution characteristics, which is a symbol of photosynthetic activity, under various light conditions is important for photobioreactor design and operation. In this study, we constructed a device to investigate oxygen evolution characteristics of Spirulina platensis under two different light regimes: 1) continuous illumination of various light intensities (14-6 500 micromol/(m2 x s)); 2) medium frequency L/D cycles of four different light intensities (69, 505, 1 330, 4 265 micromol/(m2s)). Light limited region, intermediate region, light saturated region and light inhibited region of light intensity were recognized according to their relationship with oxygen evolution rate (OER) under continuous illumination. Investigation of S. platensis under L/D cycles showed whether photosynthetic efficiency could be increased with increasing L/D frequency largely depended on the light intensity applied. The higher the light intensity, the larger the photosynthetic enhancement could be expected with the increase of L/D frequency. The largest light integration effect was found under L/D cycles of high light intensity (4 265 micromol/(m2 x s)) and medium light fraction (k = 0.6), while light integration effect was totally absent under low light fractions (k < 0.2). We also discussed their implications to the practical aspects of microalgae cultivation.

  11. High Intensity Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Nightime illumination is an important part of round-the-clock pre-launch preparations because NASA uses TV and film cameras to monitor each step of the preliminaries and at times to identify the cause of malfunction during countdown. Generating a one billion candlepower beam visible 50 miles away, the lamps developed by Duro-Test Corporation provide daylight quality light that eliminates color distortion in film and TV coverage. The lighting system was first used at Kennedy Space Center in 1968 for the launch of Apollo 8. Modified versions are available in wide range of applications, such as the battery of spotlights with colored filters that light up Niagara Falls, as well as the lamps used in the projectors for the Smithsonian's IMAX Theatre, indoor theatres with supersized screens and outdoor projection systems.

  12. Display conditions and lesion detectability: effect of background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mahmood; Hall, Theodore R.; Aberle, Denise R.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Loloyan, Mansur; Eldredge, Sandra L.

    1990-08-01

    We assessed the effect of high background light on observer performance for the detection of a variety of chest radiographic abnormalities. Five observers reviewed 66 digital hard copy chest images formatted to 1 1 x 14 inch size under two display conditions: 1) on a specially prepared 1 1 x 14 inch illuminated panel with no peripheral light and 2) on a standard viewing panel designed for 14 x 17 inch radiographs. The images contained one - or more of the following conditions: pneumothorax, interstitial disease, nodules, alveolar process, or no abnormality. The results of receiver operator characteristic analysis show that extraneous light does reduce observer performance and the detectability of nodules, interstitial disease.

  13. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  14. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  15. 2-Cysteine Peroxiredoxins and Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase Create a Water-Water Cycle That Is Essential to Protect the Photosynthetic Apparatus under High Light Stress Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Jasmin; Stotz, Henrik U.; Fekete, Agnes; Krischke, Markus; Engert, Cornelia; Havaux, Michel; Berger, Susanne; Mueller, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Different peroxidases, including 2-cysteine (2-Cys) peroxiredoxins (PRXs) and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), have been proposed to be involved in the water-water cycle (WWC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated signaling in plastids. We generated an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double-mutant line deficient in the two plastid 2-Cys PRXs (2-Cys PRX A and B, 2cpa 2cpb) and a triple mutant deficient in 2-Cys PRXs and tAPX (2cpa 2cpb tapx). In contrast to wild-type and tapx single-knockout plants, 2cpa 2cpb double-knockout plants showed an impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and became photobleached under high light (HL) growth conditions. In addition, double-mutant plants also generated elevated levels of superoxide anion radicals, H2O2, and carbonylated proteins but lacked anthocyanin accumulation under HL stress conditions. Under HL conditions, 2-Cys PRXs seem to be essential in maintaining the WWC, whereas tAPX is dispensable. By comparison, this HL-sensitive phenotype was more severe in 2cpa 2cpb tapx triple-mutant plants, indicating that tAPX partially compensates for the loss of functional 2-Cys PRXs by mutation or inactivation by overoxidation. In response to HL, H2O2- and photooxidative stress-responsive marker genes were found to be dramatically up-regulated in 2cpa 2cpb tapx but not 2cpa 2cpb mutant plants, suggesting that HL-induced plastid to nucleus retrograde photooxidative stress signaling takes place after loss or inactivation of the WWC enzymes 2-Cys PRX A, 2-Cys PRX B, and tAPX. PMID:25667319

  16. Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

  17. Light emission from electrodes under dielectrophoresis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Long-Fang; Gong, Hua; Dallon, Kathryn L.; Mazzeo, Brian A.; Nordin, Gregory P.

    2016-04-01

    The use of fluorescence in microfluidic optical biodetection requires materials with low-background fluorescence to avoid influencing the desired optical signal with spurious light emission. For the same reason, spurious light emission from galvanoluminescence (GL) should be avoided when fluorescence is used in dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based biosensors. Use of non-noble metal electrodes such as indium tin oxide (ITO) in DEP devices is therefore a concern. We evaluate GL in the context of conditions typical of DEP devices. We experimentally show that use of ITO can result in GL. We also show that GL can be avoided, even with metals that demonstrate strong GL such as Al, by proper selection of operating frequency, which can be determined by measuring the impedance spectrum of the DEP device. In addition, we demonstrate that GL results in broadband emission for all of the salt solutions tested. Broadband emission implies that at least some of the light will pass through typical fluorescence filters if a device exhibits GL. We also show that Ni and Cr electrodes do not exhibit GL and may therefore be suitable as low-cost DEP electrodes.

  18. Tocopherols in Sunflower Seedlings under Light and Dark Conditions.

    PubMed

    del Moral, Lidia; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of tocopherols in cotyledons and radicles from sunflower seeds with high and low total tocopherol content, mainly in the α-tocopherol form, and from seeds with increased proportions of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, both under dark and light conditions. Tocopherol content was measured every 24 h from 1 to 12 days after sowing. In all cases, the content of individual tocopherol forms in the cotyledons and radicles was reduced along the sampling period, which was more pronounced under light conditions. The presence of light had a slightly greater effect on α- and γ-tocopherol than on β- and δ-tocopherol. A marked light effect was also observed on total tocopherol content, with light promoting the reduction of tocopherol content in cotyledons and radicles. The study revealed only slight differences in the patterns of tocopherol losses in lines with different tocopherol profiles, both under dark and light conditions, which suggested that the partial replacement of α-tocopherol by other tocopherol forms had no great impact on the protection against oxidative damage in seedlings.

  19. High intensity portable fluorescent light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    Eight high intensity portable fluorescent lights were produced. Three prototype lights were also produced, two of which were subsequently updated to the physical and operational configuration of the qualification and flight units. Positioning of lamp apertures and reflectors in these lights is such that the light is concentrated and intensified in a specific pattern rather than widely diffused. Indium amalgam control of mercury vapor pressure in the lamp gives high output at lamp ambient temperatures up to 105 C. A small amount of amalgam applied to each electrode stem helps to obtain fast warm-up. Shrinking a Teflon sleeve on the tube and potting metal caps on each end of the lamp minimizes dispersion of mercury vapor and glass particles in the event of accidental lamp breakage. Operation at 20 kHz allows the lamps to consume more power than at low frequency, thus increasing their light output and raising their efficiency. When used to expose color photographic film, light from the lamps produces results approximately equal to sunlight.

  20. Long-duration animal tracking in difficult lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Ulrich; Zhu, Edward Y.; He, Ruo; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of animal behavior requires software to analyze videos. Such software typically depends on the experiments’ being performed in good lighting conditions, but this ideal is difficult or impossible to achieve for certain classes of experiments. Here, we describe techniques that allow long-duration positional tracking in difficult lighting conditions with strong shadows or recurring “on”/“off” changes in lighting. The latter condition will likely become increasingly common, e.g., for Drosophila due to the advent of red-shifted channelrhodopsins. The techniques enabled tracking with good accuracy in three types of experiments with difficult lighting conditions in our lab. Our technique handling shadows relies on single-animal tracking and on shadows’ and flies’ being accurately distinguishable by distance to the center of the arena (or a similar geometric rule); the other techniques should be broadly applicable. We implemented the techniques as extensions of the widely-used tracking software Ctrax; however, they are relatively simple, not specific to Drosophila, and could be added to other trackers as well. PMID:26130571

  1. Long-duration animal tracking in difficult lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Ulrich; Zhu, Edward Y.; He, Ruo; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput analysis of animal behavior requires software to analyze videos. Such software typically depends on the experiments’ being performed in good lighting conditions, but this ideal is difficult or impossible to achieve for certain classes of experiments. Here, we describe techniques that allow long-duration positional tracking in difficult lighting conditions with strong shadows or recurring “on”/“off” changes in lighting. The latter condition will likely become increasingly common, e.g., for Drosophila due to the advent of red-shifted channelrhodopsins. The techniques enabled tracking with good accuracy in three types of experiments with difficult lighting conditions in our lab. Our technique handling shadows relies on single-animal tracking and on shadows’ and flies’ being accurately distinguishable by distance to the center of the arena (or a similar geometric rule); the other techniques should be broadly applicable. We implemented the techniques as extensions of the widely-used tracking software Ctrax; however, they are relatively simple, not specific to Drosophila, and could be added to other trackers as well.

  2. Long-duration animal tracking in difficult lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ulrich; Zhu, Edward Y; He, Ruo; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput analysis of animal behavior requires software to analyze videos. Such software typically depends on the experiments' being performed in good lighting conditions, but this ideal is difficult or impossible to achieve for certain classes of experiments. Here, we describe techniques that allow long-duration positional tracking in difficult lighting conditions with strong shadows or recurring "on"/"off" changes in lighting. The latter condition will likely become increasingly common, e.g., for Drosophila due to the advent of red-shifted channel rhodopsins. The techniques enabled tracking with good accuracy in three types of experiments with difficult lighting conditions in our lab. Our technique handling shadows relies on single-animal tracking and on shadows' and flies' being accurately distinguishable by distance to the center of the arena (or a similar geometric rule); the other techniques should be broadly applicable. We implemented the techniques as extensions of the widely-used tracking software Ctrax; however, they are relatively simple, not specific to Drosophila, and could be added to other trackers as well.

  3. The Effects of Cold Acclimation on Photosynthetic Apparatus and the Expression of COR14b in Four Genotypes of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Contrasting in their Tolerance to Freezing and High-light Treatment in Cold Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Wolanin, Barbara; Hura, Katarzyna; Tyrka, MirosŁaw

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Cold acclimation modifies the balance of the energy absorbed and metabolized in the dark processes of photosynthesis, which may affect the expression of cold-regulated (COR) genes. At the same time, a gradual acclimation to the relatively high light conditions is observed, thereby minimizing the potential for photo-oxidative damage. As a result, the resistance to photoinhibition in the cold has often been identified as a trait closely related to freezing tolerance. Using four barley genotypes that differentially express both traits, the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and high-light tolerance was studied together with the expression of COR14b, one of the best-characterized barley COR genes. Methods Plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks at 2 °C. Freezing tolerance was studied by means of electrolyte leakage. Changes in photosynthetic apparatus and high-light tolerance were monitored by means of chlorophyll fluorescence. Accumulation of COR14b and some proteins important in photosynthetic acclimation to cold were studied with western analysis. COR14b transcript accumulation during cold acclimation was assessed with real-time PCR. Key Results Cold acclimation increased both freezing tolerance and high-light tolerance, especially when plants were treated with high light after non-lethal freezing. In all plants, cold acclimation triggered the increase in photosynthetic capacity during high-light treatment. In two plants that were characterized by higher high-light tolerance but lower freezing tolerance, higher accumulation of COR14b transcript and protein was observed after 7 d and 14 d of cold acclimation, while a higher transient induction of COR14b expression was observed in freezing-tolerant plants during the first day of cold acclimation. High-light tolerant plants were also characterized with a higher level of PsbS accumulation and more efficient dissipation of excess light energy. Conclusions Accumulation of COR14b in

  4. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  5. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  6. [High resolution laser transient spectroscopic technology under two-stage light gas-gun loading condition and stability study of shocked benzene].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bei-Jing; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Ning-Chao; Feng, Li-Peng; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Xue, Xue-Dong

    2013-10-01

    The present paper reports the high resolution transient Raman laser testing technology under two-stage light gas-gun loading experiment, and its application to studying the Raman spectroscopy of shocked benzene. In the experiments, the frequency shift of C-C stretching vibration (992 cm(-1)) and C-H stretching vibration peak (3 061 cm(-1)) in the low pressure section (less than 8 GPa) varies linearly with the pressure, and the results agree well with reported data in the literature. The structural changes in liquid benzene about 13 GPa were clarified firstly by the Raman spectral technique; the experimental results show that at a pressure of 9.7 GPa, the structural change of liquid benzene has taken place, not reported in the literature about 13 GPa. But the composition in the production is not clear. The measurement system provides an effective means to study the microstructure changes of transparent and translucent material under dynamic loading experiment.

  7. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  8. High Hats, Swiss Cheese, and Fluorescent Lighting?

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2002-08-30

    For DOE, PNNL is conducting a competitive procurement to promote market introduction of new residential recessed downlights (also known as ''recessed cans'' or ''high hats'') that are airtight, rated for insulated ceilings, and hard-wired for CFLs. This paper discusses the potential energy savings of new high-efficiency downlights, and the results of product testing to date. Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixtures in the United States, with 21.7 million fixtures sold in 2000. An estimated 350 million are currently installed in American homes. Recessed cans are relatively inexpensive, and provide an unobtrusive, directed source of light for kitchens, hallways, and living rooms. Recessed cans are energy-intensive in three ways. First, virtually all recessed cans currently installed in the residential sector use incandescent light sources, typically reflector-type lamps drawing 65-150 watts. Second, heat from incandescent lamps adds to air-conditioning loads. Third, most installed recessed cans are not airtight, so they allow conditioned air to escape from the living area into unconditioned spaces such as attics. Addressing both lighting energy use and air leakage in recessed cans has proven challenging. Lighting energy efficiency is greatly improved by using CFLs. Air leakage can be addressed by making fixtures airtight. But when CFLs are used in an airtight recessed can, heat generated by the lamp and ballast is trapped within the fixture. Excessive heat causes reduced light output and shorter lifespan of the CFL. The procurement was designed to overcome these technical challenges and make new products available in the marketplace.

  9. Visual search under scotopic lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Paulun, Vivian C; Schütz, Alexander C; Michel, Melchi M; Geisler, Wilson S; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-08-01

    When we search for visual targets in a cluttered background we systematically move our eyes around to bring different regions of the scene into foveal view. We explored how visual search behavior changes when the fovea is not functional, as is the case in scotopic vision. Scotopic contrast sensitivity is significantly lower overall, with a functional scotoma in the fovea. We found that in scotopic search, for a medium- and a low-spatial-frequency target, individuals made longer lasting fixations that were not broadly distributed across the entire search display but tended to peak in the upper center, especially for the medium-frequency target. The distributions of fixation locations are qualitatively similar to those of an ideal searcher that has human scotopic detectability across the visual field, and interestingly, these predicted distributions are different from those predicted by an ideal searcher with human photopic detectability. We conclude that although there are some qualitative differences between human and ideal search behavior, humans make principled adjustments in their search behavior as ambient light level decreases. PMID:25988753

  10. Visual search under scotopic lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Paulun, Vivian C; Schütz, Alexander C; Michel, Melchi M; Geisler, Wilson S; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-08-01

    When we search for visual targets in a cluttered background we systematically move our eyes around to bring different regions of the scene into foveal view. We explored how visual search behavior changes when the fovea is not functional, as is the case in scotopic vision. Scotopic contrast sensitivity is significantly lower overall, with a functional scotoma in the fovea. We found that in scotopic search, for a medium- and a low-spatial-frequency target, individuals made longer lasting fixations that were not broadly distributed across the entire search display but tended to peak in the upper center, especially for the medium-frequency target. The distributions of fixation locations are qualitatively similar to those of an ideal searcher that has human scotopic detectability across the visual field, and interestingly, these predicted distributions are different from those predicted by an ideal searcher with human photopic detectability. We conclude that although there are some qualitative differences between human and ideal search behavior, humans make principled adjustments in their search behavior as ambient light level decreases.

  11. Three-dimensional object detection under arbitrary lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Vallés, José J; García, Javier; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arsenault, Henri H

    2006-07-20

    A novel method of 3D object recognition independent of lighting conditions is presented. The recognition model is based on a vector space representation using an orthonormal basis generated by the Lambertian reflectance functions obtained with distant light sources. Changing the lighting conditions corresponds to multiplying the elementary images by a constant factor and because of that, all possible lighting views will be elements that belong to that vector space. The recognition method proposed is based on the calculation of the angle between the vector associated with a certain illuminated 3D object and that subspace. We define the angle in terms of linear correlations to get shift and illumination-invariant detection.

  12. Supervised retinal biometrics in different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che; Kumar, Dinesh K; Sugavaneswaran, Lakshmi; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Retinal image has been considered for number of health and biometrics applications. However, the reliability of these has not been investigated thoroughly. The variation observed in retina scans taken at different times is attributable to differences in illumination and positioning of the camera. It causes some missing bifurcations and crossovers from the retinal vessels. Exhaustive selection of optimal parameters is needed to construct the best similarity metrics equation to overcome the incomplete landmarks. In this paper, we extracted multiple features from the retina scans and employs supervised classification to overcome the shortcomings of the current techniques. The experimental results of 60 retina scans with different lightning conditions demonstrate the efficacy of this technique. The results were compared with the existing methods.

  13. Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Berthier, Alexandre; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Meuriot, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose transport between source and sink tissues is supposed to be a key-step for an efficient regrowth of perennial rye-grass after defoliation and might be altered by light conditions. We assessed the effect of different light regimes (high vs low light applied before or after defoliation) on growth, fructans and sucrose mobilization, as well as on sucrose transporter expression during 14 days of regrowth. Our results reported that defoliation led to a mobilization of C reserves (first sucrose and then fructans), which was parallel to an induction of LpSUT1 sucrose transporter expression in source and sink tissues (i.e. leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases, respectively) irrespective to light conditions. Light regime (high or low light) had little effects on regrowth and on C reserves mobilization during the first 48 h of regrowth after defoliation. Thereafter, low light conditions, delaying the recovery of photosynthetic capacities, had a negative effect on C reserves re-accumulation (especially sucrose). Surprisingly, high light did not enhance sucrose transporter expression. Indeed, while light conditions had no effect on LpSUT1 expression, LpSUT2 transcripts levels were enhanced for low light grown plants. These results indicate that two sucrose transporter currently identified in Lolium perenne L. are differentially regulated by light and sucrose.

  14. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  15. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  16. Effect of lighting conditions on zebrafish growth and development.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Natalia; Vera, Luisa María; Foulkes, Nicholas Simon; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-01

    In the underwater environment, the properties of light (intensity and spectrum) change rapidly with depth and water quality. In this article, we have described how and to what extent lighting conditions can influence the development, growth, and survival of zebrafish. Fertilized eggs and the corresponding larvae were exposed to different visible light wavelengths (violet, blue, green, yellow, red, and white) in a 12-h light-12-h dark (LD) cycle until 30 days posthatching (dph), when the expression of morphometric parameters and growth (igf1a, igf2a)- and stress-related (crh and pomca) genes were examined. Another group of larvae was raised under constant darkness (DD) until 5 or 10 dph, after which they were transferred to a LD of white light. A third group remained under DD to investigate the effects of light deprivation upon zebrafish development. The results revealed that the hatching rate was highest under blue and violet light, while total length at 30 dph was greatest under blue, white, and violet light. Red light led to reduced feeding activity and poor survival (100% mortality). Larvae raised under constant white light (LL) showed a higher proportion of malformations, as did larvae raised under LD violet light. The expression of growth and stress factors was upregulated in the violet (igf1a, igf2a, pomca, and chr) and blue (igf2a) groups, which is consistent with the higher growth recorded and the higher proportion of malformations detected under the violet light. All larvae kept under DD died before 18 dph, but the survival rates improved in larvae transferred to LD at 5 dph and at 10 dph. In summary, these findings revealed that lighting conditions are crucial factors influencing zebrafish larval development and growth.

  17. The Effects on Visually Impaired Children of Viewing Fluorescent Stimuli under Black-Light Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrow, S. J.; Leung, J-P.; Leung, S.; Yeung, P.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared effects of four visual conditions of stimuli and light on the visual performance of 30 children with low vision (divided into high, and low, visual-acuity groups). Orange stimuli viewed under black light resulted in the best overall performance, benefitted the low-acuity group more than the high-acuity group, and was the…

  18. Light conditions affect the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Yamany, Nabil A.

    2008-12-01

    In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, effects of asymmetrical light conditions on the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) were tested for the developmental period between stage 47 and 49. For comparison, the rVOR was tested in dim- and high-symmetrical light environments. Test parameters were the rVOR gain and rVOR amplitude. Under all light conditions, the rVOR increased from tadpole stage 47 to 49. For all stages, the asymmetrical light field induced the strongest response, the dim light field the weakest one. The response for the left and right eye was identical, even if the tadpoles were tested under asymmetrical light conditions. The experiments can be considered as hints (1) for an age-dependent light sensitivity of vestibular neurons, and (2) for the existence of control systems for coordinated eye movements that has its origin in the proprioceptors of the extraocular eye muscles.

  19. Effect of Lighting Conditions on Zebrafish Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Natalia; Vera, Luisa María; Foulkes, Nicholas Simon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the underwater environment, the properties of light (intensity and spectrum) change rapidly with depth and water quality. In this article, we have described how and to what extent lighting conditions can influence the development, growth, and survival of zebrafish. Fertilized eggs and the corresponding larvae were exposed to different visible light wavelengths (violet, blue, green, yellow, red, and white) in a 12-h light–12-h dark (LD) cycle until 30 days posthatching (dph), when the expression of morphometric parameters and growth (igf1a, igf2a)- and stress-related (crh and pomca) genes were examined. Another group of larvae was raised under constant darkness (DD) until 5 or 10 dph, after which they were transferred to a LD of white light. A third group remained under DD to investigate the effects of light deprivation upon zebrafish development. The results revealed that the hatching rate was highest under blue and violet light, while total length at 30 dph was greatest under blue, white, and violet light. Red light led to reduced feeding activity and poor survival (100% mortality). Larvae raised under constant white light (LL) showed a higher proportion of malformations, as did larvae raised under LD violet light. The expression of growth and stress factors was upregulated in the violet (igf1a, igf2a, pomca, and chr) and blue (igf2a) groups, which is consistent with the higher growth recorded and the higher proportion of malformations detected under the violet light. All larvae kept under DD died before 18 dph, but the survival rates improved in larvae transferred to LD at 5 dph and at 10 dph. In summary, these findings revealed that lighting conditions are crucial factors influencing zebrafish larval development and growth. PMID:24367902

  20. Disposable indicators for monitoring lighting conditions in museums.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Lavédrine, Bertrand; Picollo, Marcello; Porcinai, Simone

    2003-12-15

    Photoinduced alterations of light-sensitive artifacts represent one of the main problems that conservators and curators have to face for environmental control in museums and galleries. Therefore, increasing attention has been recently devoted to developing strategies of indoor light monitoring, especially aimed at minimizing the cumulated light exposure for the objects on exhibit. In this work a prototype of a light dosimeter, constituted by a photosensitive dyes/polymer mixture applied on a paper substrate, is presented. This indicator, specially designed for a preventive assessment of the risk of damage for highly light-sensitive objects, undergoes a progressive color variation as its exposure to the light increases. Different, easily distinguishable color steps are exhibited depending on the light dose received, so that the dosimeter can be used straightforwardly to have a first, instrumentation-free estimation of the total light exposure. A reflectance spectroscopy study in the 350-860 nm range was carried out on prototype dosimeters exposed to light emitted from a tungsten-halogen lamp to investigate the response of the dosimeter to the light and to study the fading mechanism. Two different approaches were evaluated for the calibration of the prototype: colorimetry and principal component analysis of the reflectance spectra. The usefulness of the two methods in providing a quantitative indication of the light dose received was evaluated.

  1. [Comparison of light response models of photosynthesis in Nelumbo nucifera leaves under different light conditions].

    PubMed

    Leng, Han-Bing; Qin, Jun; Ye, King; Feng, Shu-Cheng; Gao, Kai

    2014-10-01

    The light responses of Nelumbo nucifera 'Boli Furen', a local N. nucifera species was investigated under full light and 50% shading conditions in Shanghai. The net photosynthetic rate-light response curves of N. nucifera leaves were fitted and analyzed through four light response models to identify the best-fit models of different light conditions and explore the adaptability of N. nucifera to shading environment. The results showed that the sequence of fitting effect of the four light response models was in descending order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential model > non-rectangular hyperbola model > rectangular hyperbola model. The latter three models had no extreme values, and could not directly and accurately provide values of light saturation point (LSP) and maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn max). In contrast, the modified rectangular hyperbola model showed the best fit for LSP, Pn max, dark respiration rate (Rd) and LCP resulting in the minimum relative errors between the measured and fitted values. Light response parameters of N. nucifera declined with the decreasing light. There were no significant differences between full light and shade treatments except for Rd. It was indicated that N. nucifera had good photosynthetic adaptive response and adjustment to weak light to maintain normal growth.

  2. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  3. The appropriateness of organic solar cells for indoor lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnaert, B.; Veelaert, P.

    2010-05-01

    Most commercially available photovoltaic solar cells are crystalline silicon cells. However, in indoor environments, the efficiency of silicon solar cells is poor. Typically, the light intensity under artificial lighting conditions is less than 10 W/m2 as compared to 100-1000 W/m2 under outdoor conditions. Moreover, the spectrum is different from the outdoor solar spectrum and there is more diffuse than direct light. Taken into account the predicted cheaper costs for the production of organic solar cells, a possible niche market for organic PV can be indoor applications. In this article, we study the influence of the narrow absorption window, characteristic for organic solar cells, for different indoor conditions. This comparison is made for typical artificial light sources, i.e. a common incandescent lamp, an LED lamp and a "warm" and a "cool" fluorescent tube, which are compared to the outdoor AM 1.5 spectrum as reference. The comparisons are done by simulation based on the quantum efficiencies of the solar cells and the light spectra of the different light sources. A classical silicon solar cell is used as reference. In this way we determine the appropriateness for indoor use of organic solar cells.

  4. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building lifemore » cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  5. Gene expression by Onoclea Sensibilis gametophytes under different light conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chansa-ngavej, K.; Raghavan, V.

    1987-04-01

    Gametophytes of the fern Onoclea sensibilis grow as filaments in red light or in complete darkness by divisions perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. When transferred to blue light the gametophytes exhibit a plate-like structure as a result of both transverse and longitudinal cell divisions. Both 1-D and 2-D SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in the polypeptide patterns of the gametophytes grown in red and blue light regimes and in complete darkness. NAD/sup +/-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found to increase sharply within 4 hours of transfer of the gametophytes from red light to blue light and to complete darkness. /sup 3/H-Leucine was incorporated at a higher rate into proteins of gametophytes after 2 hours of transfer from red light to blue light and to complete darkness. These results seem to indicate possible involvement of differential protein synthesis and hence differential gene expression during growth of gametophytes under different light conditions.

  6. Selective repression of light harvesting complex 2 formation in Rhodobacter azotoformans by light under semiaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huiying; Zhao, Chungui; Li, Kai; Yang, Suping

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem formation in anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) is repressed by oxygen but is de-repressed when oxygen tension decreases. Under semiaerobic conditions, the synthesis of photopigments and pigment protein complexes in Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides are repressed by light. AppA, a blue-light receptor, mediates this regulation. In the present study, it was showed that the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and pigment protein complexes in Rba. azotoformans 134K20 was significantly repressed by oxygen. Oxygen exposure also led to a conversion of spheroidene to spheroidenone. In semiaerobically growing cells, light irradiation resulted in a decrease in the formation of photosystem, and blue light was found to be the most effective light source. Blue light reduced the contents of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid slightly, but had negligible effects on light harvesting complex (LH) 1 content, whereas the content of LH2 was significantly decreased indicating that blue light selectively repressed the synthesis of LH2 in semiaerobically growing 134K20. It was concluded that, similar to Rba. sphaeroides, a blue light receptor presented in strain 134K20 played important roles in its light-dependent repression. A possible mechanism involved in controlling the differential inhibitory of blue light on the synthesis of photosystem was discussed. PMID:26193456

  7. High-fidelity teleportation between light and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Polzik, E. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-12-15

    We show how high-fidelity quantum teleportation of light to atoms can be achieved in the same setup as was used in the recent experiment [J. Sherson et al., Nature 443, 557, 2006], where such an interspecies quantum state transfer was demonstrated for the first time. Our improved protocol takes advantage of the rich multimode entangled structure of the state of atoms and scattered light and requires simple postprocessing of homodyne detection signals and squeezed light in order to achieve fidelities up to 90% (85%) for teleportation of coherent (qubit) states under realistic experimental conditions. The remaining limitation is due to atomic decoherence and light losses.

  8. Muscular pre-conditioning using light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for high-intensity exercise: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a single elite runner

    PubMed Central

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Beltrame, Thomas; Fabrizzi, Fernando; do Nascimento, Eduardo Sanches Pereira; Karsten, Marlus; de Oliveira Francisco, Cristina; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Cardoso, Daniel Rodrigues; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Hamblin, Michael R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used to improve muscle performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and its mechanisms of action to improve muscle performance in an elite athlete. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2), blood and urine markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase – CK and alanine) and fatigue (lactate) were analyzed. Additionally, some metabolic parameters were assessed in urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). A LED cluster with 50 LEDs (λ = 850 nm; 50mW 15 s; 37.5 J) was applied on legs, arms and trunk muscles of a single runner athlete 5 min before a high-intense constant workload running exercise on treadmill. The athlete received either Placebo-1-LEDT; Placebo-2-LEDT; or Effective-LEDT in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with washout period of 7 d between each test. LEDT improved the speed of the muscular VO2 adaptation (~−9 s), decreased O2 deficit (~−10 L), increased the VO2 from the slow component phase (~+348 ml min−1) and increased the time limit of exercise (~+589 s). LEDT decreased blood and urine markers of muscle damage and fatigue (CK, alanine and lactate levels). The results suggest that a muscular pre-conditioning regimen using LEDT before intense exercises could modulate metabolic and renal function to achieve better performance. PMID:25585514

  9. Differences in Light Interception in Grass Monocultures Predict Short-Term Competitive Outcomes under Productive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vojtech, Eva; Turnbull, Lindsay A.; Hector, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Due to its inherent asymmetry, competition for light is thought to cause loss of diversity from eutrophied systems. However, most of the work on this topic in grasslands has been phenomenological and has not measured light directly. We present the results of one of the few mechanistic experiments investigating the outcome of short-term competition using measurements of light interception from monocultures of five perennial grass species grown under fertilized and irrigated conditions. We found that the level of incident light intercepted by each species in monoculture, a direct measure of resource-reduction ability, was an excellent predictor of the relative competitive effect in pairwise mixtures. Competition for light was asymmetric in relation to differences in light intercepting ability. Our results are consistent with the idea that when light is a limiting resource, competition between species for this resource can be asymmetric, contributing to high dominance and low diversity. PMID:17565366

  10. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (P<0.05) more than that of the control group having 26.4 eggs/goose. We can conclude that the supplemental lighting method will result in an earlier laying peak of the geese in the breeding season and higher egg production. The supplementary lighting program was able to maximize egg production in geese at the Tropic of Cancer.

  11. High-Resolution Light Field Capture With Coded Aperture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Li-Chun; Kong, De-Hui; Yin, Bao-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Acquiring light field with larger angular resolution and higher spatial resolution in low cost is the goal of light field capture. Combining or modifying traditional optical cameras is a usual method for designing light field capture equipment, among which most models should deliberate trade-off between angular and spatial resolution, but augmenting coded aperture avoids this consideration by multiplexing information from different views. On the basis of coded aperture, this paper suggests an improved light field camera model that has double measurements and one mask. The two compressive measurements are respectively realized by a coded aperture and a random convolution CMOS imager, the latter is used as imaging sensor of the camera. The single mask design permits high light efficiency, which enables the sampling images to have high clarity. The double measurement design keeps more correlation information, which is conductive to enhancing the reconstructed light field. The higher clarity and more correlation of samplings mean higher quality of rebuilt light field, which also means higher resolution under condition of a lower PSNR requirement for rebuilt light field. Experimental results have verified advantage of the proposed design: compared with the representative mask-based light field camera models, the proposed model has the highest reconstruction quality and a higher light efficiency.

  12. Biodegradation of a Light NAPL under Varying Soil Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, B. K.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Kleingeld, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    To see the impact of different soil environmental conditions on LNAPL biodegradation, a series of batch, microcosm, column and 2-D tank experiments under controlled conditions have been planned. Microcosms along with batch experiments have been designed for five different moisture contents ranging from residual to saturated, and under varying temperature condition. The batches are being used for two saturated soils containing toluene. For the unsaturated cases, fifteen microcosms are designed to mimic natural conditions more closely. The microcosms consist of a transparent outer column and an air permeable, but watertight, inner tube comprised of toluene phobic material. The space between the outer column and the inner porous tube is filled with a soil having a particular moisture content with a known amount of toluene. The inner porous tube is filled with air at atmospheric pressure, providing sufficient oxygen for the degradation of considered light NAPL. A special sampling mechanism has been fabricated to enable airtight soil sampling. Four columns have been designed for studying the impact of water table fluctuation on the LNAPL fate and transport in variably-saturated soil. Water table in two columns will be static and remaining two will be subjected to a fluctuation. Finally a 2-D tank setup, made of a steel box and a glass cover, has been refurbished for bioremediation process of LNAPL from start to finish. The main body is constructed of one piece of 1.5 mm thick stainless steel formed into a box with inner dimensions of 200cm-long x 94cm-high x 4cm-deep. The front cover is made of glass wall having 19-mm thickness. The soil is going to be packed between the two walls. The groundwater will be flowing horizontally from left to right and the water table level in the tank will be controlled by two end chambers. The chambers are separated from the soil by a fine meshed stainless steel sheet. The spatial and the temporal distributions of the LNAPL and its

  13. The simulation of natural low level light under lab's condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wanyi; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Xuan; An, Zhiyong; Jiang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Considering the needs of glimmer night vision system experiment, this paper has analyzed the working environment of glimmer night vision system, and based on this analysis the paper adopted double integrating sphere and collimator to simulate natural shimmer environment under the laboratory condition. By further analysis, we can conclude that as long as the field of collimator is larger than the field of night vision system, the natural micro light of night vision system testing can be simulated under the laboratory conditions, And the feasibility of this method is verified by experiment.

  14. Photoacclimation supports environmental tolerance of a sponge to turbid low-light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggerstaff, A.; Smith, D. J.; Jompa, J.; Bell, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes to coral reefs are occurring worldwide, often resulting in declining environmental quality which can be in the form of higher sedimentation rates and increased turbidity. While environmental acclimation to turbid and low-light conditions has been extensively studied in corals, far less is known about other phototrophic reef invertebrates. The photosynthetic cyanobacteria containing sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea is one of the most abundant sponges in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia), and its abundance is greatest at highly disturbed, turbid sites. This study investigated photoacclimation of L. herbacea symbionts to turbid reef sites using in situ PAM fluorometry combined with shading and transplant experiments at environmental extremes of light availability for this species. We found in situ photoacclimation of L. herbacea to both shallow, clear, high-light environments and deep, turbid, low-light environments. Shading experiments provide some evidence that L. herbacea are dependent on nutrition from their photosymbionts as significant tissue loss was seen in shaded sponges. Symbionts within surviving shaded tissue showed evidence of photoacclimation. Lamellodysidea herbacea transplanted from high- to low-light conditions appeared to have photoacclimated within 5 d with no significant effect of the lowered light level on survival. This ability of L. herbacea to photoacclimate to rapid and extreme changes in light availability may be one of the factors contributing to their survival on more turbid reef sites in the WMNP. Our study highlights the ability of some sponge species to acclimate to changes in light levels as a result of increased turbidity.

  15. Muscular pre-conditioning using light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for high-intensity exercise: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a single elite runner.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Beltrame, Thomas; Fabrizzi, Fernando; do Nascimento, Eduardo Sanches Pereira; Karsten, Marlus; Francisco, Cristina de Oliveira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Cardoso, Daniel Rodrigues; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Hamblin, Michael R; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recently, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used to improve muscle performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and its mechanisms of action to improve muscle performance in an elite athlete. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2), blood and urine markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase--CK and alanine), and fatigue (lactate) were analyzed. Additionally, some metabolic parameters were assessed in urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). A LED cluster with 50 LEDs (λ = 850 nm; 50 mW 15 s; 37.5 J) was applied on legs, arms and trunk muscles of a single runner athlete 5 min before a high-intense constant workload running exercise on treadmill. The athlete received either Placebo-1-LEDT; Placebo-2-LEDT; or Effective-LEDT in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with washout period of 7 d between each test. LEDT improved the speed of the muscular VO2 adaptation (∼-9 s), decreased O2 deficit (∼-10 L), increased the VO2 from the slow component phase (∼+348 ml min(-1)), and increased the time limit of exercise (∼+589 s). LEDT decreased blood and urine markers of muscle damage and fatigue (CK, alanine and lactate levels). The results suggest that a muscular pre-conditioning regimen using LEDT before intense exercises could modulate metabolic and renal function to achieve better performance.

  16. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  17. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  18. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  19. Melatonin administration modifies circadian motor activity under constant light depending on the lighting conditions during suckling.

    PubMed

    Carpentieri, Agata R; Oliva, Clara; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2015-01-01

    Early lighting conditions have been described to produce long-term effects on circadian behavior, which may also influence the response to agents acting on the circadian system. It has been suggested that melatonin (MEL) may act on the circadian pacemaker and as a scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we studied the oxidative and behavioral changes caused by prolonged exposure to constant light (LL) in groups of rats that differed in MEL administration and in lighting conditions during suckling. The rats were exposed to either a light-dark cycle (LD) or LL. At 40 days old, rats were treated for 2 weeks with a daily subcutaneous injection of MEL (10 mg/kg body weight) or a vehicle at activity onset. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment, to determine catalase (CAT) activity and nitrite level in plasma. As expected, LL-reared rats showed a more stable motor activity circadian rhythm than LD rats. MEL treatment produced more reactivity in LD- than in LL rats, and was also able to alter the phase of the rhythm in LD rats. There were no significant differences in nitrite levels or CAT activity between the groups, although both variables increased with time. Finally, we also tested depressive signs by means of sucrose consumption, and anhedonia was found in LD males treated with MEL. The results suggest that the lighting conditions in early infancy are important for the long-term functionality of the circadian system, including rhythm manifestation, responses to MEL and mood alterations.

  20. Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.

    2001-09-01

    Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.

  1. High-definition imaging system based on spatial light modulators with light-scattering mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takanori; Kawakita, Masahiro; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Fumio; Takizawa, Kuniharu

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a prototype high-definition imaging system using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) light valves, which can modulate unpolarized light with high spatial resolution and exhibit a high optical efficiency, based on the light-scattering effect. We fabricated high-definition light valves with a fine polymer-matrix structure in a PDLC film by controlling the curing conditions used during the photopolymerization-induced phase separation and formation process. This device has excellent characteristics, such as a high resolution, with 50 lp/mm for a limiting resolution and greater than 20 lp/mm at the 50% modulation transfer function point, and a reflectivity of greater than 60%. An optically addressable full-color projection display was designed, consisting of three PDLC light valves, a schlieren optical system based on shift-decentralization optics with a xenon lamp illumination and input-image sources with 1.5 million pixels, including electrical image compensation of the gamma characteristics. We succeeded in displaying pictures on a 110-inch screen with a resolution of 810 TV lines and a luminous flux of 1900-2100 American National Standards Institute lumens.

  2. Circadian Oscillation of the Lettuce Transcriptome under Constant Light and Light-Dark Conditions.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Takanobu; Aoki, Koh; Nagano, Atsushi J; Honjo, Mie N; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Although, the circadian clock is a universal biological system in plants and it orchestrates important role of plant production such as photosynthesis, floral induction and growth, there are few such studies on cultivated species. Lettuce is one major cultivated species for both open culture and plant factories and there is little information concerning its circadian clock system. In addition, most of the relevant genes have not been identified. In this study, we detected circadian oscillation in the lettuce transcriptome using time-course RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. Constant light (LL) and light-dark (LD) conditions were used to detect circadian oscillation because the circadian clock has some basic properties: one is self-sustaining oscillation under constant light and another is entrainment to environmental cycles such as light and temperature. In the results, 215 contigs were detected as common oscillating contigs under both LL and LD conditions. The 215 common oscillating contigs included clock gene-like contigs CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)-like, TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1)-like and LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL)-like, and their expression patterns were similar to those of Arabidopsis. Functional enrichment analysis by GO (gene ontology) Slim and GO Fat showed that the GO terms of response to light stimulus, response to stress, photosynthesis and circadian rhythms were enriched in the 215 common oscillating contigs and these terms were actually regulated by circadian clocks in plants. The 215 common oscillating contigs can be used to evaluate whether the gene expression pattern related to photosynthesis and optical response performs normally in lettuce. PMID:27512400

  3. Thermostability of plants in various light conditions of cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, Elena

    2004-12-01

    At various levels of PHAR with the help of measurement of parameters of a slow induction of chlorophyll fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm in light culture conditions the thermostable estimation of cenosises of plants of wheat and radish in reply to action of the raise and damaging temperatures of air (35°C 20 hours, 45°C 7 hours) is carried out. Without dependence from a level of light exposure, the exposition of cenosises at 35°C did not result in irreversible changes of the photosynthetic device of plants. The minimal damage of cenosises of wheat and radish at influence of temperature of 45°C is observed at 150W/m2 of PHAR, and maximal - at intensities, close to a level of a compensatory point of photosynthesis of cenosises (50-70 W/m2 PHAR at a temperature of air of 24°C). The index of viability is most sensitive parameter in comparison with other parameters determined by a method of a slow induction of fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm. The character of its change in reply to action of the stress-factor coincides with changes of intensity of photosynthesis researched of cenosises.

  4. [Effects of light condition on structure and photosynthetic characteristics of leaves in 'Hanfu' apple].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-Li; Lu, De-Guo

    2014-07-01

    By using microscope technique and gas exchange method, the effects of light conditions on structure and photosynthetic characteristics of the leaves were studied with potted and fielded 'Hanfu' apple as materials. The results showed that the palisade tissue, spongy tissue and the total leaf thickness of 'Hanfu' apple was declined under the weak light environment, the palisade tissue were declined by 34.5% (pot) and 25.0% (field), and the total leaf thickness were declined by 27.1% (pot) and 18.3% (field). The light compensation point (LCP) of the field shading leaves was lowest (30.8 +/- 1.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), the saturation point (LSP) in full light was 22.7% (pot) and 48.2% (field) higher than in shading, respectively. The adaptability of the potted 'Hanfu' apple leaves built under different light conditions had different resistivity after exposing to high light, the startup time of maximum photosynthetic rates (15.4 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) in full light and 12.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) in shading) were different, which was 23 min and 33 min, respectively. Long-time shading impacted on the quality and photosynthetic capacity of 'Hanfu' apple leaves.

  5. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  6. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, Joseph

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  7. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3− at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3− at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  8. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs') has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs', 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs' obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs' was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3(-) at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3(-) at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs'. Brain μs' depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  9. Flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes in grape skin are differentially regulated by temperature and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Akifumi; Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Koshita, Yoshiko; Kobayashi, Shozo

    2012-10-01

    Temperature and light are important environmental factors that affect flavonoid biosynthesis in grape berry skin. However, the interrelationships between temperature and light effects on flavonoid biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we investigated the effects of temperature and light conditions on the biosynthesis of flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavonols) and the expression levels of related genes in an in vitro environmental experiment using detached grape berries. Sufficient anthocyanin accumulation in the grape skin was observed under a low temperature (15 °C) plus light treatment, whereas high temperature (35 °C) or dark treatment severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicates that the accumulation of anthocyanins is dependent on both low temperature and light. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the responses of three MYB-related genes (VlMYBA1-3, VlMYBA1-2, and VlMYBA2) to temperature and light differed greatly even though the products of all three genes had the ability to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes. Furthermore, the expression levels of other MYB-related genes and many flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes were regulated independently by temperature and light. We also found that temperature and light conditions affected the anthocyanin composition in the skin through the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes. Our results suggest that low temperature and light have a synergistic effect on the expression of genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. These findings provide new information about the relationships between environmental factors and flavonoid accumulation in grape berry skin.

  10. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  11. The JLab high power ERL light source

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  12. Pre-Conditioning with Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy: Light Before the Storm

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tanupriya; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Rai, Vikrant; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-conditioning by ischemia, hyperthermia, hypothermia, hyperbaric oxygen (and numerous other modalities) is a rapidly growing area of investigation that is used in pathological conditions where tissue damage may be expected. The damage caused by surgery, heart attack, or stroke can be mitigated by pre-treating the local or distant tissue with low levels of a stress-inducing stimulus, that can induce a protective response against subsequent major damage. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used for nearly 50 years to enhance tissue healing and to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling. The photons are absorbed in cytochrome(c) oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), and this enzyme activation increases electron transport, respiration, oxygen consumption and ATP production. A complex signaling cascade is initiated leading to activation of transcription factors and up- and down-regulation of numerous genes. Recently it has become apparent that LLLT can also be effective if delivered to normal cells or tissue before the actual insult or trauma, in a pre-conditioning mode. Muscles are protected, nerves feel less pain, and LLLT can protect against a subsequent heart attack. These examples point the way to wider use of LLLT as a pre-conditioning modality to prevent pain and increase healing after surgical/medical procedures and possibly to increase athletic performance. PMID:25552961

  13. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  14. Light weight high-stiffness stage platen

    DOEpatents

    Spence, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    An improved light weight, stiff stage platen for photolithography is provided. The high stiffness of the stage platen is exemplified by a relatively high first resonant vibrational mode as determined, for instance, by finite element modal analysis. The stage platen can be employed to support a chuck that is designed to secure a mask or wafer. The stage platen includes a frame that has interior walls that define an interior region and that has exterior walls wherein the outer surfaces of at least two adjacent walls are reflective mirror surfaces; and a matrix of ribs within the interior region that is connected to the interior walls wherein the stage platen exhibits a first vibrational mode at a frequency of greater than about 1000 Hz.

  15. Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1998-01-01

    A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

  16. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  17. On High-Order Radiation Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of high-order radiation boundary conditions for wave propagation problems. In particular, we study the convergence of sequences of time-local approximate conditions to the exact boundary condition, and subsequently estimate the error in the solutions obtained using these approximations. We show that for finite times the Pade approximants proposed by Engquist and Majda lead to exponential convergence if the solution is smooth, but that good long-time error estimates cannot hold for spatially local conditions. Applications in fluid dynamics are also discussed.

  18. Stress-induced hyperthermia depends on both time of day and light condition.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Elizabeth; Wachulec, Maciej; Satinoff, Evelyn

    2002-04-01

    Rats placed in an environment other than their home cage increase their body temperature (Tb) by more than 1 degree C. This stress-induced hyperthermia is considered to be a fever, in the sense that the Tb rise seems to reflect an upward shift in the level of regulated Tb (set point). The circadian rhythm of Tb also reflects changes in set point. One might therefore expect to see differences in response to such stress during various phases of the light-dark (LD) cycle as Tb fluctuates between L and D. To test this, 3- to 6-month-old male Long-Evans rats were taken from their home cages (12:12 LD) and placed individually in a Plexiglas container for 30 min. Tb and activity were measured via telemetry. In the first experiment, rats were placed in the container during day (from 1 to 3 h after lights on) and night (from 1 to 3 h after lights off), with light on or off during the test. There was a significant Tb rise in response to placement in the container at all times except when the rats were tested during the night with light on in the container; in that condition there was no Tb rise. In the second experiment, the authors determined that 30 min of light in the home cage before the test did not affect Tb: If the light was on in the test situation, hyperthermia was inhibited, and if it was off, hyperthermia was as high as control levels. In the third experiment, to determine whether this effect was time dependent, the test was performed at 4-h intervals, with light on or off during the test. The strongest inhibiting effect of light was in early night. In the fourth experiment, the authors turned the lights on during early night while the rats were in their home cages. This reduced their Tb significantly by less than 0.3 degrees C. The authors conclude that both clock time and light condition during testing are factors affecting the Tb rise in response to stress. PMID:12002163

  19. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  20. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  1. Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hae

    2013-06-01

    The behavior and physical properties of matter under extreme conditions are of fundamental scientific interest. Extreme conditions created by intense light source generates dense state with densities of up to several times of solid density, temperatures of 0.1 eV to 100s eV, and pressures of 10s kbar to 10s Mbar. Model calculations in this regime predict electronic and structural phase transitions with new atomic and electronic band structure, anomalous transport, and changes of scattering properties and opacity. A new technique using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an x-ray free electron laser source, was developed at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation to study wide range of extreme conditions in phase space. The LCLS has >=3 mJ per 60 fs pulse enabling an intensity x-ray beam between 4 keV -9.5 keV to be focused onto a small spot ~1 micron at MEC. The research areas that MEC instrument will address include equation of state, behavior of materials under high-pressure, and phenomena of solid materials under extreme conditions. We operate MEC instrument for users' experiments studying warm dense matter, hot dense matter, and high pressure physics. Here, we present the details of the MEC instrument, capabilities and progress. The MEC Instrument is funded by fusion energy science of the U.S. Department of Energy. The author would like to thank the LCLS MECi project team.

  2. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) for Primary Animal Habitat Lighting in Highly Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Syrkin, N.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Significant alterations in Biological Clock responses have been reported following sidereal time changes (e.g., Jet-lag), and exposure to microgravity (e.g., daytime sleepiness). Additionally, light reduces circulating melatonin (spectral specificity greatest between 450-500 nm). It was hypothesized that LEDs can replace the current light sources used in zero gravity and terrestrial research laboratories because of their small size, low mass, low energy consumption and long functional life. This report evaluates the capacity of LEDs to entrain the circadian system of rats as judged by measurement of overt behavioral circadian rhythms (activity, feeding, drinking). These data were collected in highly controlled environments similar to the shuttle Animal Enclosure Modules. Two groups were compared: control - animals exposed to standard cool-white fluorescent lights, and test - animals exposed to LEDs with a spectral power distribution matching the fluorescent lights. Gross locomotor activity, feeding and drinking frequencies were continuously monitored and stored at 10 minute intervals. Animals were exposed to the following photoperiods: 28 days of 12L:12D, 19 days of 24L:0D and 16 days of 12L:12D. Light intensities tested varied between 0.1 to 100 lux. Rats received food and water ad libitum, and temperature and humidity were controlled throughout the study. The general health status of all rats was acceptable for each day of this study. No incidents of aggressive behavior were observed. Growth, locomotor activity, food and water consumption were comparable for all groups of animals, i.e, the circadian characteristics of the animals under these conditions were comparable. These results indicate that LED arrays are as effective in maintaining circadian rhythm stability as the commonly used cool-white fluorescent light sources. LEDs with their flexible spectrum, low energy requirements and minimal heat production have advantages for some chronopharmacology studies and

  3. Isorefractive high internal phase emulsion organogels for light induced reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Qipeng

    2016-03-25

    Isorefractive high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) organogels have been fabricated and investigated for light induced reactions. High transparency facilitates both the UV and visible light induced reactions within HIPE organogels. Transparent HIPE organogels are advantageous for light induced polymerizations, accelerating such polymerizations and enabling the preparation of large polyHIPE monoliths.

  4. HELIX: The High Energy Light Isotope Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarle, Gregory

    This is the lead proposal for a new suborbital program, HELIX (High-Energy Light Isotope eXperiment), designed to make measurements of the isotopic composition of light cosmic-ray nuclei from ~200 MeV/nuc to ~10 GeV/nuc. Past measurements of this kind have provided profound insights into the nature and origin of cosmic rays, revealing, for instance, information on acceleration and confinement time scales, and exposing some conspicuous discrepancies between solar and cosmic-ray abundances. The most detailed information currently available comes from the ACE/CRIS mission, but is restricted to energies below a few 100 MeV/nuc. HELIX aims at extending this energy range by over an order of magnitude, where, in most cases, no measurements of any kind exist, and where relativistic time dilation affects the apparent lifetime of radioactive clock nuclei. The HELIX measurements will provide essential information for understanding the propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy. This is crucial for properly interpreting several intriguing anomalies reported in recent cosmic-ray measurements, pertaining to the energy spectra of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei, and to the anomalous rise in the positron fraction at higher energy. HELIX employs a high-precision magnet spectrometer to provide measurements which are not achievable by any current or planned instrument. The superconducting magnet originally used for the HEAT payload in five successful high-altitude flights will be combined with state-of-the-art detectors to measure the charge, time-of-flight, magnetic rigidity, and velocity of cosmic-ray particles with high precision. The instrumentation includes plastic scintillators, silicon-strip detectors repurposed from Fermilab's CDF detector, a high-performance gas drift chamber, and a ring-imaging Cherenkov counter employing aerogel radiators and silicon photomultipliers. To reduce cost and technical risk, the HELIX program will be structured in two stages. The first

  5. Organic light-emitting diodes: High-throughput virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Shizu, Katsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Computer networks, trained with data from delayed-fluorescence materials that have been successfully used in organic light-emitting diodes, facilitate the high-speed prediction of good emitters for display and lighting applications.

  6. High flexibility, noncollapsing light weight hose

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This invention relates generally to a high-flexibility, light weight, noncollapsing hose and more particularly to such a hose having a large size and particularly useful as equipment draining a radioactively contaminated fluid through a noncontaiminated, isolated and restricted space with high confidence against kinking, collapse, or leaking even with large relative motion between the inlet and outlet ends of the hose. In the operation of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear reactors, processing plants for nuclear fuels and related materials, and chemical processing plants, for example, it is necessary to handle radioactively and/or chemically contaminated fluids which in many instances must be conducted, such as for draining purposes, through a noncontaminated, isolated area. Conduction of such contaminated fluids through uncontaminated environments in practice requires the highest confidence that the hose will not kink, collapse, break, or leak even though the hose may be subject to a large amount of motion relative to the inlet and outlet ends of the hose. Any such breaking, or leaking would result in undesirable contamination of the area through which the hose passes which could result in major damage and/or in the requirement to shut down the operation for cleanup and decontamination processing of the area. Additional problems are also encountered in processing plants for contaminated materials due to the fact that hoses conducting the contaminated liquids or gases pass through inaccessible, restricted spaces requiring extreme flexibility in the hose, but with the assurance that the hose will neither kink nor collapse to close off the flow.

  7. Optogenetics, the intersection between physics and neuroscience: light stimulation of neurons in physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Goldys, Ewa M; Farnham, Melissa M J; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal stimulation by light is a novel approach in the emerging field of optogenetics, where genetic engineering is used to introduce light-activated channels. However, light is also capable of stimulating neurons even in the absence of genetic modifications through a range of physical and biological mechanisms. As a result, rigorous design of optogenetic experiments needs to take note of alternative and parallel effects of light illumination of neuronal tissues. Thus all matters relating to light penetration are critical to the development of studies using light-activated proteins. This paper discusses ways to quantify light, light penetration in tissue, as well as light stimulation of neurons in physiological conditions. We also describe the direct effect of light on neurons investigated at different sites.

  8. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Chris; Menkara, Hisham; Wagner, Brent

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  9. Alleviation of high light-induced photoinhibition in cyanobacteria by artificially conferred biosilica shells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Yang, Zhou; Zhai, Hailei; Wang, Guangchuan; Xu, Xurong; Ma, Weimin; Tang, Ruikang

    2013-09-01

    Bioinspired by diatoms, biomimetic silicification confers an artificial shell on cyanobacteria to alleviate photoinhibition; thus, the photosynthesis of the resulting cyanobacteria@SiO2 becomes more efficient under high light conditions.

  10. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  11. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616

  12. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-12-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  13. Novel Characteristics of Photodamage to PSII in a High-Light-Sensitive Symbiodinium Phylotype.

    PubMed

    Karim, Widiastuti; Seidi, Azadeh; Hill, Ross; Chow, Wah S; Minagawa, Jun; Hidaka, Michio; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Symbiodinium is genetically diverse, and acquiring suitable Symbiodinium phylotypes is crucial for the host to survive in habitat environments, such as high-light conditions. The sensitivity of Symbiodinium to high light differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes, but the mechanism that controls light sensitivity has not yet been fully resolved. In the present study using high-light-tolerant and -sensitive Symbiodinium phylotypes, we examined what determines sensitivity to high light. In growth experiments under different light intensities, Symbiodinium CS-164 (clade B1) and CCMP2459 (clade B2) were identified as high-light-tolerant and -sensitive phylotypes, respectively. Measurements of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the maximum photosynthetic oxygen production rate after high-light exposure demonstrated that CCMP2459 is more sensitive to photoinhibition of PSII than CS-164, and tends to lose maximum photosynthetic activity faster. Measurement of photodamage to PSII under light of different wavelength ranges demonstrated that PSII in both Symbiodinium phylotypes was significantly more sensitive to photodamage under shorter wavelength regions of light spectra (<470 nm). Importantly, PSII in CCMP2459, but not CS-164, was also sensitive to photodamage under the regions of light spectra around 470-550 and 630-710 nm, where photosynthetic antenna proteins of Symbiodinium have light absorption peaks. This finding indicates that the high-light-sensitive CCMP2459 has an extra component of photodamage to PSII, resulting in higher sensitivity to high light. Our results demonstrate that sensitivity of PSII to photodamage differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes and this determines their sensitivity to high light.

  14. Novel Characteristics of Photodamage to PSII in a High-Light-Sensitive Symbiodinium Phylotype.

    PubMed

    Karim, Widiastuti; Seidi, Azadeh; Hill, Ross; Chow, Wah S; Minagawa, Jun; Hidaka, Michio; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Symbiodinium is genetically diverse, and acquiring suitable Symbiodinium phylotypes is crucial for the host to survive in habitat environments, such as high-light conditions. The sensitivity of Symbiodinium to high light differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes, but the mechanism that controls light sensitivity has not yet been fully resolved. In the present study using high-light-tolerant and -sensitive Symbiodinium phylotypes, we examined what determines sensitivity to high light. In growth experiments under different light intensities, Symbiodinium CS-164 (clade B1) and CCMP2459 (clade B2) were identified as high-light-tolerant and -sensitive phylotypes, respectively. Measurements of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the maximum photosynthetic oxygen production rate after high-light exposure demonstrated that CCMP2459 is more sensitive to photoinhibition of PSII than CS-164, and tends to lose maximum photosynthetic activity faster. Measurement of photodamage to PSII under light of different wavelength ranges demonstrated that PSII in both Symbiodinium phylotypes was significantly more sensitive to photodamage under shorter wavelength regions of light spectra (<470 nm). Importantly, PSII in CCMP2459, but not CS-164, was also sensitive to photodamage under the regions of light spectra around 470-550 and 630-710 nm, where photosynthetic antenna proteins of Symbiodinium have light absorption peaks. This finding indicates that the high-light-sensitive CCMP2459 has an extra component of photodamage to PSII, resulting in higher sensitivity to high light. Our results demonstrate that sensitivity of PSII to photodamage differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes and this determines their sensitivity to high light. PMID:25759327

  15. Tellurium behavior in containment under light water reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.

    1986-02-01

    Interactions of tellurium in containment can result in changes of physical form and therefore in its transport properties. This report discusses the most probable forms of tellurium in a containment environment under LWR accident conditions. The physical and chemical form of inorganic tellurium species will be determined by condensation, oxidation, and dissolution in water. Of the three volatile tellurium chemical forms, Te/sub 2/ (gas), H/sub 2/Te, and organic tellurides, only organic tellurides have the potential to remain in the gas phase in a containment atmosphere. There is a general lack of information on the formation and removal of organic tellurides under LWR accident conditions. 41 refs.

  16. Analysis on light quantity and quality based on diverse cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, M.

    2014-09-01

    Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is the source of incident light energy for the photosynthetic activity of plants. PAR additionally characterizes the light environment on the surface of the Earth. The light environment is an important factor for estimating quantities such as carbon exchange and the productivities of forests and agriculture. The incident PAR on the ground surface has the characteristics of light quantity consists of direct and diffuse components, and of light quality consists of spectral components such blue, green and red lights. These light quantity and quality are also important light environmental factors in the photosynthetic activities of plants under the natural environment. However, the light environment including direct and diffuse components and spectral components is easily affected by cloud conditions especially cloud cover and its movements. In this paper, we focus on the characteristics of the light quantity and quality under diverse cloud conditions, and analyse the observational data, which are the global- and diffuse- spectral irradiances from 400 to 700 nm with quantum and energy units and the cloud conditions derived from whole-sky images taken during summer in Kyoto city. As for the comparisons with light quality and cloud conditions, we use the Normalized Difference PAR Spectral Index (NDPSI) which shows the difference of red- and blue-light components and we use cloud cover and the Sun appearance ratio derived from the wholesky images to define the cloud conditions. As the results of these analyses, we confirmed that there are the clear relationships between cloud cover and diffuse ratio, between the Sun appearance ratio and the normalized global PAR as the light quantity, between cloud cover and NDPSI in diffuse component, and between the Sun appearance ratio and NDPSI in direct component as the light quality.

  17. High-resolution record of sea ice conditions in Fram Strait sheds new light on ice-ocean interactions and climate variability during the late glacial and Termination 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Stein, Ruediger

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt shifts in the palaeoceanographic setting in the subpolar North Atlantic and a hence significant climate variability characterised the transition from last glacial to deglacial and current interglacial conditions. Knowledge about the crucial role of sea ice coverage during these rapid climate reversals, however, is still limited. Herein we present a high-resolution reconstruction of the sea ice conditions that prevailed in eastern Fram Strait - the only deepwater passage permitting a substantial exchange of water and ice masses between the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean - during the late glacial and deglacial period (i.e. from 29 ka to 9 ka BP). The joint analysis of the sea ice biomarker IP25 (Belt et al., 2007) and phytoplankton derived biomarkers allows to distinguish between different sea ice conditions and we further provide an even semi-quantitative assessment of the sea ice cover by means of the PIP25 index (Müller et al., 2011). Information about relative sea surface temperature changes is derived from the so-called DIP25 index (Cabedo-Sanz et al., 2013; Fahl & Stein, 2012). Importantly, the exceptional high temporal resolution of the studied sediment core permits the identification of a hitherto unknown variability in the sea ice coverage throughout the late glacial, which finally culminates in a permanent sea ice cover at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We suggest that the heat flow to the Nordic Seas during this critical time interval of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet growth was rather pulse-like than continuous as is commonly assumed. This new observation of late glacial short-term fluctuations in the sea ice cover has considerable implications for palaeoceanographic proxy and model studies that focus on the LGM. Furthermore, we consider that the abrupt breakup of the perennial sea ice cover in Fram Strait at about 18 ka BP directly contributed to the weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during Heinrich

  18. Structural and physiological responses of two invasive weeds, Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata, to contrasting light and soil water conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wen, Da-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the requirement of light and soil water conditions in the invasion sites of two invasive weeds, Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata, we investigated their structural and physiological traits in response to nine combined treatments of light [full, medium and low irradiance (LI)] and soil water (full, medium and low field water content) conditions in three glasshouses. Under the same light conditions, most variables for both species did not vary significantly among different water treatments. Irrespective of water treatment, both species showed significant decreases in maximum light saturated photosynthetic rate (P (max)), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, and relative growth rate under LI relative to full irradiance; specific leaf area, however, increased significantly from full to LI though leaf area decreased significantly, indicating that limited light availability under extreme shade was the critical factor restricting the growth of both species. Our results also indicated that M. micrantha performed best under a high light and full soil water combination, while C. odorata was more efficient in growth under a high light and medium soil water combination.

  19. Delineation of the southern elephant seal's main foraging environments defined by temperature and light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacquié-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe; Laurent, Cécile; Bailleul, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Changes in marine environments, induced by the global warming, are likely to influence the prey field distribution and consequently the foraging behaviour and the distribution of top marine predators. Thanks to bio-logging, the simultaneous measurements of fine-scale foraging behaviors and oceanographic parameters by predators allow characterizing their foraging environments and provide insights into their prey distribution. In this context, we propose to delimit and to characterize the foraging environments of a marine predator, the Southern Elephant Seal (SES). To do so, the relationship between oceanographic factors and prey encounter events (PEE) was investigated in 12 females SES from Kerguelen Island simultaneously equipped with accelerometers and with a range of physical sensors (temperature, light and depth). PEEs were assessed from the accelerometer data at high spatio-temporal precision while the physical sensors allowed the continuous monitoring of environmental conditions encountered by the SES when diving. First, visited and foraging environments were distinguished according to the oceanographic conditions encountered in the absence and in presence of PEE. Then, a hierarchical classification of the physical parameters recorded during PEEs led to the distinction of five different foraging environments. These foraging environments were structured according to the main frontal systems of the SO. One was located north to the subantarctic front (SAF) and characterized by high temperature and depth, and low light levels. Another, characterized by intermediate levels of temperature, light and depth, was located between the SAF and the polar front (PF). And finally, the last three environments were all found south to the PF and, characterized by low temperature but highly variable depth and light levels. The large physical and/or spatial differences found between these environments suggest that, depending on the location, different prey communities are

  20. [Photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation of hybrid rice varieties under different light conditions].

    PubMed

    Tong, Ping; Yang, Shi-Min; Ma, Jun; Wu, He-Zhou; Fu, Tai-Lu; Li, Min; Wang, Ming-Tian

    2008-03-01

    The study on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation of twelve hybrid rice varieties in the eco-environments with low- and high light intensity showed that the adaptation abiility of the varieties to eco-environment was mainly (depended on the varieties themselves, and there existed greater (differenees among them. The differences in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were more significant among the varieties than between the eco-environments. The grain yield had significant positive correlations with Pn and total dry matter mass (TDM), the determination coefficient R2 being 0.584 and 0.590, respectively, but no significant correlations with the export percentage of the matter in stem-sheath (EPMSS) and the transformation percentage of the matter in stem-sheath (TPMSS). In the eco-environment with high light intensity, the leaf thickness and dry matter accumulation increased, while the EPMSS and TPMSS decreased. Under enough sunlight condition, the high proportion of matter in grain yield was mainly come from the photosynthesis at late growth stages; while under insufficient sunlight condition, it was mainly originated from the early growth stages photosynthesis.

  1. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found.

  2. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. PMID:24084195

  3. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  4. High-Efficiency Nitride-Base Photonic Crystal Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    James Speck; Evelyn Hu; Claude Weisbuch; Yong-Seok Choi; Kelly McGroddy; Gregor Koblmuller; Elison Matioli; Elizabeth Rangel; Fabian Rol; Dobri Simeonov

    2010-01-31

    The research activities performed in the framework of this project represent a major breakthrough in the demonstration of Photonic Crystals (PhC) as a competitive technology for LEDs with high light extraction efficiency. The goals of the project were to explore the viable approaches to manufacturability of PhC LEDS through proven standard industrial processes, establish the limits of light extraction by various concepts of PhC LEDs, and determine the possible advantages of PhC LEDs over current and forthcoming LED extraction concepts. We have developed three very different geometries for PhC light extraction in LEDs. In addition, we have demonstrated reliable methods for their in-depth analysis allowing the extraction of important parameters such as light extraction efficiency, modal extraction length, directionality, internal and external quantum efficiency. The information gained allows better understanding of the physical processes and the effect of the design parameters on the light directionality and extraction efficiency. As a result, we produced LEDs with controllable emission directionality and a state of the art extraction efficiency that goes up to 94%. Those devices are based on embedded air-gap PhC - a novel technology concept developed in the framework of this project. They rely on a simple and planar fabrication process that is very interesting for industrial implementation due to its robustness and scalability. In fact, besides the additional patterning and regrowth steps, the process is identical as that for standard industrially used p-side-up LEDs. The final devices exhibit the same good electrical characteristics and high process yield as a series of test standard LEDs obtained in comparable conditions. Finally, the technology of embedded air-gap patterns (PhC) has significant potential in other related fields such as: increasing the optical mode interaction with the active region in semiconductor lasers; increasing the coupling of the incident

  5. Evaluation of Different Light Conditions in the Working Environment for Handling Photosensitive and Thermolabile Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds.

  6. Evaluation of Different Light Conditions in the Working Environment for Handling Photosensitive and Thermolabile Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds. PMID:26651560

  7. Development of lighting system for hologram using high power LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Junko; Yaeda, Asami; Asakawa, Hisashi; Shibuya, Takehisa; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2007-02-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) became popular rapidly by the appearance of blue LED. Three color (R, G, B) emitting LEDs are utilized for the image display system by the development of multi color emitting LED. White LEDs became to commercial base by combining blue or UV light sources for excitation and materials for fluorescence. White LEDs are prevailing for general lighting applications. A single tip with the power of 5W became line up for commercial market owing to the research for high intensity LEDs. As a result, LEDs are replacing the market of conventional incandescent lighting and even head lights of the automobile. In this study, we aim to fabricate the white and R, G, B lighting system using high brightness LEDs for the lighting of holograms instead of a conventional halogen lamp.

  8. Quality control of PSII: behavior of PSII in the highly crowded grana thylakoids under excessive light.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasusi; Kai, Suguru; Ohnishi, Atsuki; Tsumura, Nodoka; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Hori, Haruka; Morita, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The grana thylakoids of higher plant chloroplasts are crowded with PSII and the associated light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs). They constitute supercomplexes, and often form semi-crystalline arrays in the grana. The crowded condition of the grana may be necessary for efficient trapping of excitation energy by LHCII under weak light, but it might hinder proper movement of LHCII necessary for reversible aggregation of LHCII in the energy-dependent quenching of Chl fluorescence under moderate high light. When the thylakoids are illuminated with extreme high light, the reaction center-binding D1 protein of PSII is photodamaged, and the damaged protein migrates to the grana margins for degradation and subsequent repair. In both moderate and extreme high-light conditions, fluidity of the thylakoid membrane is crucial. In this review, we first provide an overview of photoprotective processes, then discuss changes in membrane fluidity and mobility of the protein complexes in the grana under excessive light, which are closely associated with photoprotection of PSII. We hypothesize that reversible aggregation of LHCII, which is necessary to avoid light stress under moderate high light, and swift turnover of the photodamaged D1 protein under extreme high light are threatened by irreversible protein aggregation induced by reactive oxygen species in photochemical reactions.

  9. Diurnal variations of hormonal secretion, alertness and cognition in extreme chronotypes under different lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maierova, L.; Borisuit, A.; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Jaeggi, S. M.; Schmidt, C.; Münch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected. Between the self-selected and the bright, but not the dim lighting condition, the onset of melatonin secretion in the evening (as marker for circadian phase) was significantly different for both chronotypes. Morning chronotypes reported a faster increase in sleepiness during the day than evening chronotypes, which was associated with higher cortisol secretion. Wellbeing, mood and performance in more difficult cognitive tasks were better in bright and self-selected lighting than in dim light for both chronotypes, whereas visual comfort was best in the self-selected lighting. To conclude, self-selection of lighting at work might positively influence biological and cognitive functions, and allow for inter-individual differences. PMID:27646174

  10. Diurnal variations of hormonal secretion, alertness and cognition in extreme chronotypes under different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Maierova, L; Borisuit, A; Scartezzini, J-L; Jaeggi, S M; Schmidt, C; Münch, M

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected. Between the self-selected and the bright, but not the dim lighting condition, the onset of melatonin secretion in the evening (as marker for circadian phase) was significantly different for both chronotypes. Morning chronotypes reported a faster increase in sleepiness during the day than evening chronotypes, which was associated with higher cortisol secretion. Wellbeing, mood and performance in more difficult cognitive tasks were better in bright and self-selected lighting than in dim light for both chronotypes, whereas visual comfort was best in the self-selected lighting. To conclude, self-selection of lighting at work might positively influence biological and cognitive functions, and allow for inter-individual differences. PMID:27646174

  11. Diurnal variations of hormonal secretion, alertness and cognition in extreme chronotypes under different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Maierova, L; Borisuit, A; Scartezzini, J-L; Jaeggi, S M; Schmidt, C; Münch, M

    2016-09-20

    Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected. Between the self-selected and the bright, but not the dim lighting condition, the onset of melatonin secretion in the evening (as marker for circadian phase) was significantly different for both chronotypes. Morning chronotypes reported a faster increase in sleepiness during the day than evening chronotypes, which was associated with higher cortisol secretion. Wellbeing, mood and performance in more difficult cognitive tasks were better in bright and self-selected lighting than in dim light for both chronotypes, whereas visual comfort was best in the self-selected lighting. To conclude, self-selection of lighting at work might positively influence biological and cognitive functions, and allow for inter-individual differences.

  12. Light scattering under conditions of nonstationary electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, N V; Sokolov, I M

    2007-12-31

    The propagation of probe radiation pulses in ultracold atomic ensembles is studied theoretically under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The pulse 'stopping' process is considered which takes place upon nonadiabatic switching off and subsequent switching on the control field. We analysed the formation of an inverted recovered probe radiation pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the direction opposite to the propagation direction before the pulse stopping. Based on this analysis, a scheme is proposed for lidar probing atomic or molecular clouds in which the probe pulse penetrates into a cloud over the specified depth, while information on the cloud state is obtained from the parameters of the inverted pulse. Calculations are performed for an ensemble of {sup 87}Rb atoms. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  13. Light modulated toxicity of isoproturon toward natural stream periphyton photosynthesis: a comparison between constant and dynamic light conditions.

    PubMed

    Laviale, Martin; Prygiel, Jean; Créach, Anne

    2010-05-10

    This study tested if a variation in light intensity, in comparison to constant light required in well-designed toxicity test, could have measurable consequences on the sensitivity of phototrophic biofilms (periphyton) to isoproturon. Two independent experiments were carried out to investigate the combined effects of light and isoproturon on the photochemical behavior of intact natural biofilms by measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment composition. Experiment 1 consisted of exposing biofilms to series of isoproturon concentrations (0-2 mg L(-1)) for 7 h under constant light at different irradiance levels (25-300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). In experiment 2, biofilms were exposed using more environmentally realistic conditions to three selected concentrations of isoproturon (2, 6 and 20 microg L(-1)) during a 7-h-simulated daily light cycle. Our results demonstrated that light, considered here as a direct physical stressor, slightly modulated the acute toxicity of isoproturon on these diatom dominated communities. This was attributed to the fact that these two factors act specifically on the photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that a dynamic light regime increased periphyton sensitivity to isoproturon by challenging its photoprotective mechanisms such as the xanthophyll cycle, therefore implying that traditional ecotoxicological bioassays lead to underestimate the effect of isoproturon.

  14. Analysis of condition for uniform lighting generated by array of light emitting diodes with large view angle.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zong; Wang, Kai; Chen, Fei; Luo, Xiaobing; Liu, Sheng

    2010-08-01

    In this research, the condition for uniform lighting generated by array of LEDs with large view angle was studied. The luminous intensity distribution of LED is not monotone decreasing with view angle. A LED with freeform lens was designed as an example for analysis. In a system based on LEDs designed in house with a thickness of 20mm and rectangular arrangement, the condition for uniform lighting was derived and the analytical results demonstrated that the uniformity was not decreasing monotonously with the increasing of LED-to-LED spacing. The illuminance uniformities were calculated with Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations and the uniformity was found to increase with the increasing of certain LED-to-LED spacings anomalously. Another type of large view angle LED and different arrangements were discussed in addition. Both analysis and simulation results showed that the method is available for LED array lighting system design on the basis of large view angle LED..

  15. HCN1 Channels Enhance Rod System Responsivity in the Retina under Conditions of Light Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Michalakis, Stylianos; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Biel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vision originates in rods and cones at the outer retina. Already at these early stages, diverse processing schemes shape and enhance image information to permit perception over a wide range of lighting conditions. In this work, we address the role of hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 1 (HCN1) in rod photoreceptors for the enhancement of rod system responsivity under conditions of light exposure. Methods To isolate HCN1 channel actions in rod system responses, we generated double mutant mice by crossbreeding Hcn1-/- mice with Cnga3-/- mice in which cones are non-functional. Retinal function in the resulting Hcn1-/- Cnga3-/- animals was followed by means of electroretinography (ERG) up to the age of four month. Retinal imaging via scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was also performed to exclude potential morphological alterations. Results This study on Hcn1-/- Cnga3-/- mutant mice complements our previous work on HCN1 channel function in the retina. We show here in a functional rod-only setting that rod responses following bright light exposure terminate without the counteraction of HCN channels much later than normal. The resulting sustained signal elevation does saturate the retinal network due to an intensity-dependent reduction in the dynamic range. In addition, the lack of rapid adaptational feedback modulation of rod photoreceptor output via HCN1 in this double mutant limits the ability to follow repetitive (flicker) stimuli, particularly under mesopic conditions. Conclusions This work corroborates the hypothesis that, in the absence of HCN1-mediated feedback, the amplitude of rod signals remains at high levels for a prolonged period of time, leading to saturation of the retinal pathways. Our results demonstrate the importance of HCN1 channels for regular vision. PMID:26807953

  16. Light paired with serotonin mimics the effect of conditioning on phototactic behavior of Hermissenda.

    PubMed Central

    Crow, T; Forrester, J

    1986-01-01

    A conditioning procedure consisting of pairing-specific stimulation of the eyes and gravity-detecting statocysts in Hermissenda results in a long-term modification of normal positive phototactic behavior. The learning is expressed by a significant suppression of the initiation of locomotion in the presence of light. We now report that an analogue of the classical conditioning procedure, consisting of light paired with serotonin (5-HT) applied directly to the exposed circumesophageal nervous system of otherwise intact animals, mimics the effect of conditioning on long-term changes in phototactic behavior. The effect of the conditioning analogue on behavior shows some specificity with 5-HT since light paired with dopamine or octopamine does not significantly affect phototactic behavior. The conditioning analogue exhibits pairing specificity since unpaired light and 5-HT and 5-HT applied in the dark do not produce behavioral suppression. Animals that initially received unpaired light and 5-HT do show behavioral suppression after receiving paired light and 5-HT. These results indicate that light (the conditioned stimulus) paired with the putative transmitter of the unconditioned stimulus pathway (5-HT) is sufficient to produce long-term phototactic suppression. PMID:3464014

  17. High energy neutrino spin light [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2005-07-01

    The quantum theory of spin light (electromagnetic radiation emitted by a Dirac massive neutrino propagating in dense matter due to the weak interaction of a neutrino with background fermions) is developed. In contrast to the Cherenkov radiation, this effect does not disappear even if the medium refractive index is assumed to be equal to unity. The formulas for the transition rate and the total radiation power are obtained. It is found out that radiation of photons is possible only when the sign of the particle helicity is opposite to that of the effective potential describing the interaction of a neutrino (antineutrino) with the background medium. Due to the radiative self-polarization the radiating particle can change its helicity. As a result, the active left-handed polarized neutrino (right-handed polarized antineutrino) converting to the state with inverse helicity can become practically "sterile". Since the sign of the effective potential depends on the neutrino flavor and the matter structure, the spin light can change a ratio of active neutrinos of different flavors. In the ultra relativistic approach, the radiated photons averaged energy is equal to one third of the initial neutrino energy, and two thirds of the energy are carried out by the final "sterile" neutrinos.

  18. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°. PMID:26560389

  19. Visible light metasurfaces based on gallium nitride high contrast gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    We propose visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lens and beam deflecting element based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wavefront of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 86.3%, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.09° and transmissivity as high as 91.4%. The proposed all-dielectric metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  20. Visible-light initiated oxidative cyclization of phenyl propiolates with sulfinic acids to coumarin derivatives under metal-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Yang, Shuai; Li, Pinhua; Wang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    A visible-light initiated oxidative cyclization of phenyl propiolates with sulfinic acids has been developed. The arylsulfonylation of alkynes was performed at room temperature under metal-free conditions to generate coumarin derivatives with wide functional group tolerance, good yields and high regioselectivity.

  1. Stray-light suppression with high-collection efficiency in laser light-scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deilamian, K.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Kelleher, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described for collecting a large fraction of fluorescent light emitted isotropically from a cylindrical interaction region. While maintaining an overall detection efficiency of 9 percent, the system rejects, by more than 12 orders of magnitude, incident laser light along a single axis that intersects the interaction region. Such a system is useful for a wide variety of light-scattering experiments in which high-collection efficiency is desirable, but in which light from an incident laser beam must be rejected without resorting to spectral filters.

  2. Analysis of light emitting diode array lighting system based on human vision: normal and abnormal uniformity condition.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zong; Ji, Chuangang; Wang, Kai; Liu, Sheng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, condition for uniform lighting generated by light emitting diode (LED) array was systematically studied. To take human vision effect into consideration, contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was novelly adopted as critical criterion for uniform lighting instead of conventionally used Sparrow's Criterion (SC). Through CSF method, design parameters including system thickness, LED pitch, LED's spatial radiation distribution and viewing condition can be analytically combined. In a specific LED array lighting system (LALS) with foursquare LED arrangement, different types of LEDs (Lambertian and Batwing type) and given viewing condition, optimum system thicknesses and LED pitches were calculated and compared with those got through SC method. Results show that CSF method can achieve more appropriate optimum parameters than SC method. Additionally, an abnormal phenomenon that uniformity varies with structural parameters non-monotonically in LALS with non-Lambertian LEDs was found and analyzed. Based on the analysis, a design method of LALS that can bring about better practicability, lower cost and more attractive appearance was summarized.

  3. Structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qing; Gao, Jian; Lin, Hui; Chen, Yun; Yunbo, He; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guanjin; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    We designed a new three-dimensional (3D) measurement system for micro components: a structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on the Scheimpflug condition. This system creatively combines the telecentric imaging model and the Scheimpflug condition on the basis of structure light stereoscopic vision, having benefits of a wide measurement range, high accuracy, fast speed, and low price. The system measurement range is 20 mm×13 mm×6 mm, the lateral resolution is 20 μm, and the practical vertical resolution reaches 2.6 μm, which is close to the theoretical value of 2 μm and well satisfies the 3D measurement needs of micro components such as semiconductor devices, photoelectron elements, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this paper, we first introduce the principle and structure of the system and then present the system calibration and 3D reconstruction. We then present an experiment that was performed for the 3D reconstruction of the surface topography of a wafer, followed by a discussion. Finally, the conclusions are presented.

  4. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  5. Trapping light into high orbital momentum modes of fiber tapers.

    PubMed

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Savchenkova, Ekaterina A; Matsko, Andrey B

    2015-08-15

    A tapered cylindrical dielectric optical waveguide acts as a high quality factor white-light cavity providing high field concentration as well as long optical group delay. It is possible to optimize shape of a lossless taper to suppress reflection of the input light and to achieve infinitely high field concentration. These tapers can be used in sensing and optoelectronics applications instead of conventional microcavities. PMID:26274659

  6. Resin-based composite light-cured properties assessed by laboratory standards and simulated clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Bauer, H; Draenert, M; Hickel, R

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The following parameters were varied: 1) irradiation technique: top and bottom polymerization according to the ISO standard, and polymerization from only the top, simulating clinical situations; 2) polymerization time: 5, 10, 20, and 40 seconds; 3) storage conditions: 24 hours in distilled water, thermocycling followed by storage for four weeks in artificial saliva or alcohol. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (Eflexural), indentation modulus (E), Vickers hardness (HV), and degree of conversion (DC) were measured. The laboratory results were similar to those measured by mimicking clinical conditions only at high polymerization times and mild storage conditions (20 seconds and 40 seconds and storage for 24 hours in water, and 40 seconds with aging and storing in saliva). Significantly higher DC values were measured on the top than on the bottom of a 2-mm layer for all polymerization times. Overall, 5-second and 10-second irradiation times induced significantly lower DC values compared to the currently recommended polymerization times of 20 and 40 seconds at both the top and bottom of the samples. The initial DC differences as a function of irradiation time are leveled at 24 hours of storage but seem to do well in predicting long-term material behavior. A minimum irradiation time of 20 seconds is necessary clinically to achieve the best mechanical properties with modern high-intensity light emitting diode (LED) units.

  7. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes

    PubMed Central

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  8. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes.

    PubMed

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  9. Analysis of the sensitivity of absorbed light and incident light profile to various canopy architecture and stand conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Palmroth, Sari; Thérézien, Mathieu; Stenberg, Pauline; Oren, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of simplifying assumptions in canopy representation of radiation transfer models, comparing modeled diffuse non-interceptance and photosynthetic photon flux density with measurements at different layers of complex pine-broadleaved canopy with large seasonal variation of leaf area index. The most detailed model included clumping of trees (i.e., stand density) and a vertical specification of leaf angle distribution and shoot clumping. A less detailed model replaced the vertically specified variables with their means. The most parsimonious model accounted for neither shoot clumping nor stand density. The vertical specification of shoot clumping and leaf angle distribution only slightly improved vertical and seasonal openness and light estimates over using mean values. Further simplification had little effect on total absorbed light but was more risky for estimates of the vertical distributions of openness and light absorbed by the canopy, which will affect photosynthesis estimates due to the non-linearity of photosynthetic light response. Including woody surfaces in winter, when leaf area was low, was essential for reproducing the measurements correctly. A sensitivity analysis showed that ignoring (i) shoot clumping could result in a substantial overestimation of total absorbed light with errors increasing with decreasing leaf area and (ii) stand density in sparse stands could lead to substantial overestimation of total absorbed light, and the effect is largely independent of leaf area. Also, (iii) the effect of changing leaf angle distribution increased with decreasing leaf area, and was larger and more persistent along the leaf area range with increasing shoot clumping. Overall, accounting for the effect of tree clumping on absorbed light is most important in stands composed of species where leaves are not very clumped (e.g., broadleaved). However, even in forests with highly clumped shoots (i.e., coniferous), an accurate estimation of

  10. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    SciTech Connect

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin Mohamed, Norani Muti Zaine, Siti Nur Azella

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  11. High efficiency III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Mary; Koleske, Daniel; Cho, Jaehee; Zhu, Di; Noemaun, Ahmed; Schubert, Martin F; Schubert, E. Fred

    2013-05-28

    Tailored doping of barrier layers enables balancing of the radiative recombination among the multiple-quantum-wells in III-Nitride light-emitting diodes. This tailored doping enables more symmetric carrier transport and uniform carrier distribution which help to reduce electron leakage and thus reduce the efficiency droop in high-power III-Nitride LEDs. Mitigation of the efficiency droop in III-Nitride LEDs may enable the pervasive market penetration of solid-state-lighting technologies in high-power lighting and illumination.

  12. Directional orientation of birds by the magnetic field under different light conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews the directional orientation of birds with the help of the geomagnetic field under various light conditions. Two fundamentally different types of response can be distinguished. (i) Compass orientation controlled by the inclination compass that allows birds to locate courses of different origin. This is restricted to a narrow functional window around the total intensity of the local geomagnetic field and requires light from the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. The compass is based on radical-pair processes in the right eye; magnetite-based receptors in the beak are not involved. Compass orientation is observed under 'white' and low-level monochromatic light from ultraviolet (UV) to about 565 nm green light. (ii) 'Fixed direction' responses occur under artificial light conditions such as more intense monochromatic light, when 590 nm yellow light is added to short-wavelength light, and in total darkness. The manifestation of these responses depends on the ambient light regime and is 'fixed' in the sense of not showing the normal change between spring and autumn; their biological significance is unclear. In contrast to compass orientation, fixed-direction responses are polar magnetic responses and occur within a wide range of magnetic intensities. They are disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, which indicates that the respective magnetic information is mediated by iron-based receptors located there. The influence of light conditions on the two types of response suggests complex interactions between magnetoreceptors in the right eye, those in the upper beak and the visual system.

  13. Directional orientation of birds by the magnetic field under different light conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the directional orientation of birds with the help of the geomagnetic field under various light conditions. Two fundamentally different types of response can be distinguished. (i) Compass orientation controlled by the inclination compass that allows birds to locate courses of different origin. This is restricted to a narrow functional window around the total intensity of the local geomagnetic field and requires light from the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. The compass is based on radical-pair processes in the right eye; magnetite-based receptors in the beak are not involved. Compass orientation is observed under ‘white’ and low-level monochromatic light from ultraviolet (UV) to about 565 nm green light. (ii) ‘Fixed direction’ responses occur under artificial light conditions such as more intense monochromatic light, when 590 nm yellow light is added to short-wavelength light, and in total darkness. The manifestation of these responses depends on the ambient light regime and is ‘fixed’ in the sense of not showing the normal change between spring and autumn; their biological significance is unclear. In contrast to compass orientation, fixed-direction responses are polar magnetic responses and occur within a wide range of magnetic intensities. They are disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, which indicates that the respective magnetic information is mediated by iron-based receptors located there. The influence of light conditions on the two types of response suggests complex interactions between magnetoreceptors in the right eye, those in the upper beak and the visual system. PMID:19864263

  14. Light Scattering on the High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    The high temperature superconductors have been examined by the technique of Raman scattering in several limits: the insulating phase, the normal and superconducting state of the superconducting phase, and an optically induced metastable phase. In all cases, the analysis and proposed phenomenological models involved either an examination of the inelastic background scattering or the phonon excitation spectrum. Specifically, the character, temperature dependence, critical temperature dependence and the copper-oxygen covalency dependence of the inelastic background scattering has been studied in all three phases. Analysis of the superconducting phase reveals a marginal Fermi-liquid like character of the electronic polarizability, and a decidedly non-traditional shift of the scattering intensity of the electronic excitations at low temperature. On removing oxygen, the system passes through a metal-insulator transition and the inelastic background becomes dominantly magnetic in origin. Examinations of the 'allowed' Raman active phonons in the superconducting phase expose a strong coupling of two modes to the background electronic excitation spectrum, and a dramatic renormalization of these modes below T _{rm c}. Further, two sharply resonant Raman 'forbidden' modes can be bleached out of the spectrum at low temperature with a sufficiently high laser dosage. A transition from this optically induced metastable state to the normal state occurs on warming the crystal back to room temperature. On reducing the oxygen concentration, the coupling strength of the two asymmetric phonons diminishes rapidly, the renormalization effects vanish, and the compound no longer exhibits metastability.

  15. High root temperature affects the tolerance to high light intensity in Spathiphyllum plants.

    PubMed

    Soto, Adriana; Hernández, Laura; Quiles, María José

    2014-10-01

    Spathiphyllum wallisii plants were sensitive to temperature stress under high illumination, although the susceptibility of leaves to stress may be modified by root temperature. Leaves showed higher tolerance to high illumination, in both cold and heat conditions, when the roots were cooled, probably because the chloroplast were protected by excess excitation energy dissipation mechanisms such as cyclic electron transport. When the roots were cooled both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased. However, when the stems were heated or cooled under high illumination, but the roots were heated, the quantum yield of PSII decreased considerably and neither the electron donation activity by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone nor the amount of PGR5 polypeptide increased. In such conditions, the cyclic electron flow cannot be enhanced by high light and PSII is damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of excess light energy. Additionally, the damage to PSII induced the increase in both chlororespiratory enzymes, NDH complex and PTOX.

  16. Light transmission through intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore (blue light filter) and its potential influence on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Grzegorz; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Skuza, Natalia; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this research the factors used to evaluate the light transmission through two types of acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses, one that contained yellow chromophore that blocks blue light transmission and the other which did not contain that filter, were defined according to various light condition, e.g., daylight and at night. The potential influence of light transmission trough intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions was analysed. PMID:26327154

  17. Light transmission through intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore (blue light filter) and its potential influence on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Owczarek, Grzegorz; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Skuza, Natalia; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this research the factors used to evaluate the light transmission through two types of acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses, one that contained yellow chromophore that blocks blue light transmission and the other which did not contain that filter, were defined according to various light condition, e.g., daylight and at night. The potential influence of light transmission trough intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions was analysed. PMID:26327154

  18. Light transmission through intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore (blue light filter) and its potential influence on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Owczarek, Grzegorz; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Skuza, Natalia; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this research the factors used to evaluate the light transmission through two types of acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses, one that contained yellow chromophore that blocks blue light transmission and the other which did not contain that filter, were defined according to various light condition, e.g., daylight and at night. The potential influence of light transmission trough intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions was analysed.

  19. High-output LED-based light engine for profile lighting fixtures with high color uniformity using freeform reflectors.

    PubMed

    Gadegaard, Jesper; Jensen, Thøger Kari; Jørgensen, Dennis Thykjær; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2016-02-20

    In the stage lighting and entertainment market, light engines (LEs) for lighting fixtures are often based on high-intensity discharge (HID) bulbs. Switching to LED-based light engines gives possibilities for fast switching, additive color mixing, a longer lifetime, and potentially, more energy-efficient systems. The lumen output of a single LED is still not sufficient to replace an HID source in high-output profile fixtures, but combining multiple LEDs can create an LE with a similar output, but with added complexity. This paper presents the results of modeling and testing such a light engine. Custom ray-tracing software was used to design a high-output red, green and blue LED-based light engine with twelve CBT-90 LEDs using a dual-reflector principle. The simulated optical system efficiency was 0.626 with a perfect (R=1) reflector coating for light delivered on a target surface through the entire optical system. A profile lighting fixture prototype was created, and provided an output of 6744 lumen and an efficiency of 0.412. The lower efficiency was mainly due to a non-optimal reflector coating, and the optimized design is expected to reach a significantly higher efficiency.

  20. High-output LED-based light engine for profile lighting fixtures with high color uniformity using freeform reflectors.

    PubMed

    Gadegaard, Jesper; Jensen, Thøger Kari; Jørgensen, Dennis Thykjær; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2016-02-20

    In the stage lighting and entertainment market, light engines (LEs) for lighting fixtures are often based on high-intensity discharge (HID) bulbs. Switching to LED-based light engines gives possibilities for fast switching, additive color mixing, a longer lifetime, and potentially, more energy-efficient systems. The lumen output of a single LED is still not sufficient to replace an HID source in high-output profile fixtures, but combining multiple LEDs can create an LE with a similar output, but with added complexity. This paper presents the results of modeling and testing such a light engine. Custom ray-tracing software was used to design a high-output red, green and blue LED-based light engine with twelve CBT-90 LEDs using a dual-reflector principle. The simulated optical system efficiency was 0.626 with a perfect (R=1) reflector coating for light delivered on a target surface through the entire optical system. A profile lighting fixture prototype was created, and provided an output of 6744 lumen and an efficiency of 0.412. The lower efficiency was mainly due to a non-optimal reflector coating, and the optimized design is expected to reach a significantly higher efficiency. PMID:26906589

  1. The Melanopic Sensitivity Function Accounts for Melanopsin-Driven Responses in Mice under Diverse Lighting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M.; Allen, Annette E.; al-Enezi, Jazi; Wynne, Jonathan; Schlangen, Luc; Hommes, Vanja; Lucas, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to rods and cones, photoreception in mammals extends to a third retinal cell type expressing the photopigment melanopsin. The influences of this novel opsin are widespread, ranging from pupillary and circadian responses to brightness perception, yet established approaches to quantifying the biological effects of light do not adequately account for melanopsin sensitivity. We have recently proposed a novel metric, the melanopic sensitivity function (VZλ), to address this deficiency. Here, we further validate this new measure with a variety of tests based on potential barriers to its applicability identified in the literature or relating to obvious practical benefits. Using electrophysiogical approaches and pupillometry, initially in rodless+coneless mice, our data demonstrate that under a very wide range of different conditions (including switching between stimuli with highly divergent spectral content) the VZλ function provides an accurate prediction of the sensitivity of melanopsin-dependent responses. We further show that VZλ provides the best available description of the spectral sensitivity of at least one aspect of the visual response in mice with functional rods and cones: tonic firing activity in the lateral geniculate nuclei. Together, these data establish VZλ as an important new approach for light measurement with widespread practical utility. PMID:23301090

  2. Face relighting from a single image under arbitrary unknown lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zicheng; Hua, Gang; Wen, Zhen; Zhang, Zhengyou; Samaras, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to modify the appearance of a face image by manipulating the illumination condition, when the face geometry and albedo information is unknown. This problem is particularly difficult when there is only a single image of the subject available. Recent research demonstrates that the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a low-dimensional linear subspace using a spherical harmonic representation. Moreover, morphable models are statistical ensembles of facial properties such as shape and texture. In this paper, we integrate spherical harmonics into the morphable model framework by proposing a 3D spherical harmonic basis morphable model (SHBMM). The proposed method can represent a face under arbitrary unknown lighting and pose simply by three low-dimensional vectors, i.e., shape parameters, spherical harmonic basis parameters, and illumination coefficients, which are called the SHBMM parameters. However, when the image was taken under an extreme lighting condition, the approximation error can be large, thus making it difficult to recover albedo information. In order to address this problem, we propose a subregion-based framework that uses a Markov random field to model the statistical distribution and spatial coherence of face texture, which makes our approach not only robust to extreme lighting conditions, but also insensitive to partial occlusions. The performance of our framework is demonstrated through various experimental results, including the improved rates for face recognition under extreme lighting conditions.

  3. Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tourova, Tatyana P.; Lysenko, Anatoly M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS−) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  4. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  5. Nanosecond high-power dense microplasma switch for visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Bataller, A. Koulakis, J.; Pree, S.; Putterman, S.

    2014-12-01

    Spark discharges in high-pressure gas are known to emit a broadband spectrum during the first 10 s of nanoseconds. We present calibrated spectra of high-pressure discharges in xenon and show that the resulting plasma is optically thick. Laser transmission data show that such a body is opaque to visible light, as expected from Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Nanosecond framing images of the spark absorbing high-power laser light are presented. The sparks are ideal candidates for nanosecond, high-power laser switches.

  6. Nanosecond high-power dense microplasma switch for visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, A.; Koulakis, J.; Pree, S.; Putterman, S.

    2014-12-01

    Spark discharges in high-pressure gas are known to emit a broadband spectrum during the first 10 s of nanoseconds. We present calibrated spectra of high-pressure discharges in xenon and show that the resulting plasma is optically thick. Laser transmission data show that such a body is opaque to visible light, as expected from Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Nanosecond framing images of the spark absorbing high-power laser light are presented. The sparks are ideal candidates for nanosecond, high-power laser switches.

  7. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  8. A guideline for analyzing circadian wheel-running behavior in rodents under different lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Corinne; Schmutz, Isabelle; Hampp, Gabriele; Oster, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the field. Furthermore, it aims to assist in designing, carrying out, and evaluating wheel-running experiments with rodents, particularly mice. Since light is an easily applicable stimulus that provokes strong effects on clock phase, the paper focuses on the application of different lighting conditions. PMID:16136228

  9. New lighting for the design of high quality biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Claudia B.; Jaffe, Steven M.; Conner, Arlie R.

    2009-02-01

    Among the trends redefining 21st century biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics are the advent of low-cost portable analyzers. Because light is a powerful tool in many of today's most widely used life science instruments, high intensity, low cost light engines are essential to the design and proliferation of the newest bioanalytical instruments, medical devices and miniaturized analyzers. The development of new light technology represents a critical technical hurdle in the realization of point-of-care analysis. Lumencor has developed an inexpensive lighting solution, uniquely well suited to the production of safe, effective and commercially viable life science tools and biomedical devices. Lumencor's proprietary, solid-state light engine provides powerful, pure, stable, inexpensive light across the UV-Vis- NIR. Light engines are designed to directly replace the entire configuration of light management components with a single, simple unit. Power, spectral breadth and purity, stability and reliability data will demonstrate the advantages of these light engines for today's bioanalytical needs. Performance and cost analyses will be compared to traditional optical subsystems based on lamps, lasers and LEDs with respect to their suitability as sources for biomedical applications, implementation for development/evaluation of novel measurement tools and overall superior reliability. Next generation products based on such sources will be described to fulfill the demand for portable, hand-held analyzers and affordable devices with highly integrated light sources. A four color violet/cyan/green/red product will be demonstrated. A variety of multicolor prototypes, their spectral outputs and facile modulation will be discussed and their performance capabilities disclosed.

  10. Photomorphogenesis and pigment induction in lentil seedling roots exposed to low light conditions.

    PubMed

    Vollsnes, A V; Melø, T B; Futsaether, C M

    2012-05-01

    Although roots are normally hidden in soil, they may inadvertently be exposed to low light levels in experiments or in natural conditions through cracks or light transmittance through the soil. Light has been implicated in root morphogenesis. Thus, effects of low light conditions on lentil (Lens culinaris L. cv. Verte du Puy) root morphology and root pigmentation were studied. Lentil seedlings were grown in peat or transparent, nutrient-fortified agar at a 12-h light (PAR 240 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1)), 12-h dark cycle. Roots were exposed to low levels (≈ 1-10 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1)) of broadband white light, either directly or indirectly by aboveground light penetrating the growth medium. Control roots were grown in darkness. In situ spectroscopy was used to measure transmittance and reflectance spectra of intact root tissue by mounting the upper part of the primary root directly in a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere attachment. The transmittance and reflectance spectra were used to calculate the in situ root absorbance spectrum. Absorbance bands were found in the regions 480-500 nm and 650-680 nm, possibly due to low levels of root-localised carotenoids and chlorophylls, respectively. Low light levels (≈ 1-10 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) transmitted through the growth medium significantly increased root pigment concentration and root biomass, and altered root morphology by enhancing lateral root formation and inhibiting root elongation relative to roots grown in complete darkness. The light-induced changes in root morphogenesis and pigmentation appear to be primarily due to upper root light perception.

  11. Light emission of metal halide lamps under micro- and hypergravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffels, W.W.; Kemps, P.C.M.; Beckers, J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Haverlag, M.

    2005-12-12

    The wavelength-integrated light output from a metal halide discharge lamp is measured for gravity conditions varying from 0 to 1.8 g during parabolic flights. The results show that the changing gravity affects the convection flow in the lamp, which in turn changes the total light output. For vertically burning lamps, the sign and magnitude of the effect can be predicted using the demixing parameter: the ratio of typical diffusion to convection times. In horizontally burning lamps at 0 g, the absence of convective mixing results in a reduced light emission.

  12. Proton delocalization under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Crowhurst, Jonathan

    2008-10-02

    Knowledge of the behaviour of light hydrogen-containing molecules under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature is crucial to a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that is relevant under such conditions. It is also vital for interpreting the results of planetary observations, in particular those of the gas giants, and also for various materials science applications. On a fundamental level, increasing pressure causes the redistribution of the electronic density, which results in a modification of the interatomic potentials followed by a consequent qualitative change in the character of the associated bonding. Ultimately, at sufficiently high pressure, one may anticipate a transformation to a homogeneously bonded material possessing unusual physical properties (e.g. a quantum fluid). As temperature increases so does the concentration of ionised species leading ultimately to a plasma. Considerable improvements have recently been made in both the corresponding experimental and theoretical investigations. Here we review recent results for hydrogen and water that reveal unexpected routes of transformation to nonmolecular materials. We stress the importance of quantum effects, which remain significant even at high temperatures.

  13. Classes of multichannel EEG microstates in light and deep hypnotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hitoshi; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Isotani, Toshiaki; Faber, Pascal L; Sasada, Kyohei; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The study assessed the brain electric mechanisms of light and deep hypnotic conditions in the framework of EEG temporal microstates. Multichannel EEG of healthy volunteers during initial resting, light hypnosis, deep hypnosis, and eventual recovery was analyzed into temporal EEG microstates of four classes. Microstates are defined by the spatial configuration of their potential distribution maps ([Symbol: see text]potential landscapes') on the head surface. Because different potential landscapes must have been generated by different active neural assemblies, it is reasonable to assume that they also incorporate different brain functions. The observed four microstate classes were very similar to the four standard microstate classes A, B, C, D [Koenig, T. et al. Neuroimage, 2002;16: 41-8] and were labeled correspondingly. We expected a progression of microstate characteristics from initial resting to light to deep hypnosis. But, all three microstate parameters (duration, occurrence/second and %time coverage) yielded values for initial resting and final recovery that were between those of the two hypnotic conditions of light and deep hypnosis. Microstates of the classes B and D showed decreased duration, occurrence/second and %time coverage in deep hypnosis compared to light hypnosis; this was contrary to microstates of classes A and C which showed increased values of all three parameters. Reviewing the available information about microstates in other conditions, the changes from resting to light hypnosis in certain respects are reminiscent of changes to meditation states, and changes to deep hypnosis of those in schizophrenic states.

  14. Sensitivity of Polygonum aviculare Seeds to Light as Affected by Soil Moisture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Batlla, Diego; Nicoletta, Marcelo; Benech-Arnold, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims It has been hypothesized that soil moisture conditions could affect the dormancy status of buried weed seeds, and, consequently, their sensitivity to light stimuli. In this study, an investigation is made of the effect of different soil moisture conditions during cold-induced dormancy loss on changes in the sensitivity of Polygonum aviculare seeds to light. Methods Seeds buried in pots were stored under different constant and fluctuating soil moisture environments at dormancy-releasing temperatures. Seeds were exhumed at regular intervals during storage and were exposed to different light treatments. Changes in the germination response of seeds to light treatments during storage under the different moisture environments were compared in order to determine the effect of soil moisture on the sensitivity to light of P. aviculare seeds. Key Results Seed acquisition of low-fluence responses during dormancy release was not affected by either soil moisture fluctuations or different constant soil moisture contents. On the contrary, different soil moisture environments affected seed acquisition of very low fluence responses and the capacity of seeds to germinate in the dark. Conclusions The results indicate that under field conditions, the sensitivity to light of buried weed seeds could be affected by the soil moisture environment experienced during the dormancy release season, and this could affect their emergence pattern. PMID:17430979

  15. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:26733112

  16. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  17. Matter under extreme conditions experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barbrel, B.; Brown, S. B.; Chapman, D. A.; Chen, Z.; Curry, C. B.; Fiuza, F.; Gamboa, E.; Gauthier, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Gleason, A.; Goede, S.; Granados, E.; Heimann, P.; Kim, J.; Kraus, D.; MacDonald, M. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mishra, R.; Ravasio, A.; Roedel, C.; Sperling, P.; Schumaker, W.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Vorberger, J.; Zastrau, U.; Fry, A.; White, W. E.; Hasting, J. B.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    The matter in extreme conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a new tool enabling accurate pump–probe measurements for studying the physical properties of matter in the high-energy density (HED) physics regime. This instrument combines the world’s brightest x-ray source, the LCLS x-ray beam, with high-power lasers consisting of two nanosecond Nd:glass laser beams and one short-pulse Ti:sapphire laser. These lasers produce short-lived states of matter with high pressures, high temperatures or high densities with properties that are important for applications in nuclear fusion research, laboratory astrophysics and the development of intense radiation sources. In the first experiments, we have performed highly accurate x-ray diffraction and x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on shock-compressed matter resolving the transition from compressed solid matter to a co-existence regime and into the warm dense matter state. These complex charged-particle systems are dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. They exist in planetary interiors and laboratory experiments, e.g., during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Applying record peak brightness x-rays resolves the ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and measure the static structure factor, which is a key quantity for determining equation of state data and important transport coefficients. Simultaneously, spectrally resolved measurements of plasmon features provide dynamic structure factor information that yield temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micron-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments. These studies have demonstrated our ability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties that determine the state of matter in the HED physics regime.

  18. Matter under extreme conditions experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barbrel, B.; Brown, S. B.; Chapman, D. A.; Chen, Z.; Curry, C. B.; Fiuza, F.; Gamboa, E.; Gauthier, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Gleason, A.; Goede, S.; Granados, E.; Heimann, P.; Kim, J.; Kraus, D.; MacDonald, M. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mishra, R.; Ravasio, A.; Roedel, C.; Sperling, P.; Schumaker, W.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Vorberger, J.; Zastrau, U.; Fry, A.; White, W. E.; Hasting, J. B.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    The matter in extreme conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a new tool enabling accurate pump-probe measurements for studying the physical properties of matter in the high-energy density (HED) physics regime. This instrument combines the world’s brightest x-ray source, the LCLS x-ray beam, with high-power lasers consisting of two nanosecond Nd:glass laser beams and one short-pulse Ti:sapphire laser. These lasers produce short-lived states of matter with high pressures, high temperatures or high densities with properties that are important for applications in nuclear fusion research, laboratory astrophysics and the development of intense radiation sources. In the first experiments, we have performed highly accurate x-ray diffraction and x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on shock-compressed matter resolving the transition from compressed solid matter to a co-existence regime and into the warm dense matter state. These complex charged-particle systems are dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. They exist in planetary interiors and laboratory experiments, e.g., during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Applying record peak brightness x-rays resolves the ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and measure the static structure factor, which is a key quantity for determining equation of state data and important transport coefficients. Simultaneously, spectrally resolved measurements of plasmon features provide dynamic structure factor information that yield temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micron-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments. These studies have demonstrated our ability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties that determine the state of matter in the HED physics regime.

  19. Effects of light shading and climatic conditions on the metabolic behavior of flonicamid in red bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-I; Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kabir, Md Humayun; Im, So Jeong; Lee, Young-Jun; Truong, Lieu T B; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-03-01

    The degradation behavior of flonicamid and its metabolites (4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid (TFNA) and N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine (TFNG)) was evaluated in red bell pepper over a period of 90 days under glass house conditions, including high temperature, low and high humidity, and in a vinyl house covered with high density polyethylene light shade covering film (35 and 75%). Flonicamid (10% active ingredient) was applied (via foliar application) to all fruits, including those groups grown under normal conditions (glass house) or under no shade cover (vinyl house). Samples were extracted using a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" method and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The method performance, including linearity, recovery, limits of detection (LOD), and quantitation (LOQ), was satisfactory. Throughout the experimental period, the residual levels of flonicamid and TFNG were not uniform, whereas that of TFNA remained constant. The total sum of the residues (flonicamid and its metabolites) was higher in the vinyl house with shade cover than in the glass house, under various conditions. The total residues were significantly higher when the treatment was applied under high light shade (75%). The flonicamid half-life decreased from 47.2 days (under normal conditions) to 28.4 days (at high temperatures) in the glass house, while it increased from 47.9 days (no shade cover) to 66 days (75% light shading) in the vinyl house. High humidity leads to decreases in the total sum of flonicamid residues in red bell pepper grown in a glass house, because it leads to an increase in the rate of water loss, which in turn accelerates the volatilization of the pesticide. For safety reasons, it is advisable to grow red bell pepper under glass house conditions because of the effects of solar radiation, which increases the rate of flonicamid degradation into its metabolites.

  20. Effects of light shading and climatic conditions on the metabolic behavior of flonicamid in red bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-I; Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kabir, Md Humayun; Im, So Jeong; Lee, Young-Jun; Truong, Lieu T B; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-03-01

    The degradation behavior of flonicamid and its metabolites (4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid (TFNA) and N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine (TFNG)) was evaluated in red bell pepper over a period of 90 days under glass house conditions, including high temperature, low and high humidity, and in a vinyl house covered with high density polyethylene light shade covering film (35 and 75%). Flonicamid (10% active ingredient) was applied (via foliar application) to all fruits, including those groups grown under normal conditions (glass house) or under no shade cover (vinyl house). Samples were extracted using a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" method and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The method performance, including linearity, recovery, limits of detection (LOD), and quantitation (LOQ), was satisfactory. Throughout the experimental period, the residual levels of flonicamid and TFNG were not uniform, whereas that of TFNA remained constant. The total sum of the residues (flonicamid and its metabolites) was higher in the vinyl house with shade cover than in the glass house, under various conditions. The total residues were significantly higher when the treatment was applied under high light shade (75%). The flonicamid half-life decreased from 47.2 days (under normal conditions) to 28.4 days (at high temperatures) in the glass house, while it increased from 47.9 days (no shade cover) to 66 days (75% light shading) in the vinyl house. High humidity leads to decreases in the total sum of flonicamid residues in red bell pepper grown in a glass house, because it leads to an increase in the rate of water loss, which in turn accelerates the volatilization of the pesticide. For safety reasons, it is advisable to grow red bell pepper under glass house conditions because of the effects of solar radiation, which increases the rate of flonicamid degradation into its metabolites. PMID:26846294

  1. High resolution measurement of light in terrestrial ecosystems using photodegrading dyes.

    PubMed

    Roales, Javier; Durán, Jorge; Bechtold, Heather A; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2013-01-01

    Incoming solar radiation is the main determinant of terrestrial ecosystem processes, such as primary production, litter decomposition, or soil mineralization rates. Light in terrestrial ecosystems is spatially and temporally heterogeneous due to the interaction among sunlight angle, cloud cover and tree-canopy structure. To integrate this variability and to know light distribution over time and space, a high number of measurements are needed, but tools to do this are usually expensive and limited. An easy-to-use and inexpensive method that can be used to measure light over time and space is needed. We used two photodegrading fluorescent organic dyes, rhodamine WT (RWT) and fluorescein, for the quantification of light. We measured dye photodegradation as the decrease in fluorescence across an irradiance gradient from full sunlight to deep shade. Then, we correlated it to accumulated light measured with PAR quantum sensors and obtained a model for this behavior. Rhodamine WT and fluorescein photodegradation followed an exponential decay curve with respect to accumulated light. Rhodamine WT degraded slower than fluorescein and remained unaltered after exposure to temperature changes. Under controlled conditions, fluorescence of both dyes decreased when temperatures increased, but returned to its initial values after cooling to the pre-heating temperature, indicating no degradation. RWT and fluorescein can be used to measure light under a varying range of light conditions in terrestrial ecosystems. This method is particularly useful to integrate solar radiation over time and to measure light simultaneously at different locations, and might be a better alternative to the expensive and time consuming traditional light measurement methods. The accuracy, low price and ease of this method make it a powerful tool for intensive sampling of large areas and for developing high resolution maps of light in an ecosystem. PMID:24069440

  2. High light intensity protects photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants against exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, E; Wróblewska, B; Drozak, A; Siedlecka, M

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport rates and coupling factor activity in the chloroplasts; adenylate contents, rates of photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves as well as activity of isolated mitochondria were investigated in Pisum sativum L. leaves of plants grown under low or high light intensity and exposed after detachment to 5 mM Pb(NO(3))(2). The presence of Pb(2+) reduced rate of photosynthesis in the leaves from plants grown under the high light (HL) and low light (LL) conditions, whereas the respiration was enhanced in the leaves from HL plants. Mitochondria from Pb(2+) treated HL-leaves oxidized glycine at a higher rate than those isolated from LL leaves. ATP content in the Pb-treated leaves increased to a greater extend in the HL than LL grown plants. Similarly ATP synthase activity increased markedly when chloroplasts isolated from control and Pb-treated leaves of HL and LL grown plants were subjected to high intensity light. The presence of Pb ions was found inhibit ATP synthase activity only in chloroplasts from LL grown plants or those illuminated with low intensity light. Low light intensity during growth also lowered PSI electron transport rates and the Pb(2+) induced changes in photochemical activity of this photosystem were visible only in the chloroplasts isolated from LL grown plants. The activity of PSII was influenced by Pb ions on similar manner in both light conditions. This study demonstrates that leaves from plants grown under HL conditions were more resistant to lead toxicity than those obtained from the LL grown plants. The data indicate that light conditions during growth might play a role in regulation of photosynthetic and respiratory energy conservation in heavy metal stressed plants by increasing the flexibility of the stoichiometry of ATP to ADP production.

  3. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    Tarsa, Eric

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  4. High light induced changes in organization, protein profile and function of photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Nama, Srilatha; Madireddi, Sai Kiran; Devadasu, Elsin Raju; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-11-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) reinhardtii is used as a model organism to understand the efficiency of photosynthesis along with the organization and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus under various intensities of high light exposure for 1h. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction, OJIPSMT transient was decreased with increase in light intensity indicating the reduction in photochemical efficiency. Further, circular dichroism studies of isolated thylakoids from high light exposed cells showed considerable change in the pigment-pigment interactions and pigment-proteins interactions. Furthermore, the organization of supercomplexes from thylakoids is studied, in which, one of the hetero-trimer of light harvesting complex (LHC) II is affected significantly in comparison to other complexes of LHC's monomers. Also, other supercomplexes, photosystem (PS)II reaction center dimer and PSI complexes are reduced. Additionally, immunoblot analysis of thylakoid proteins revealed that PSII core proteins D1 and D2 were significantly decreased during high light treatment. Similarly, the PSI core proteins PsaC, PsaD and PsaG were drastically changed. Further, the LHC antenna proteins of PSI and PSII were differentially affected. From our results it is clear that LHCs are damaged significantly, consequently the excitation energy is not efficiently transferred to the reaction center. Thus, the photochemical energy transfer from PSII to PSI is reduced. The inference of the study deciphers the structural and functional changes driven by light may therefore provide plants/alga to regulate the light harvesting capacity in excess light conditions.

  5. Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, K; Fujii, T; Kikuchi, H; Fujikake, H; Kawakita, M; Hirano, Y; Sato, F

    1999-09-10

    We fabricated polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves (PDLCLV's) consisting of a 30-microm-thick hydrogenated amorphous-silicon film and a 10-microm-thick polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) film composed of nematic liquid-crystal (LC) microdroplets surrounded by polymer. The device can modulate high-power reading light, because the PDLC becomes transparent or opalescent independent of the polarization state of the reading light when either sufficient or no writing light is incident on the PDLCLV. This device has a limiting resolution of 50 lp/mm (lp indicates line pairs), a reading light efficiency of 60%, a ratio of intensity of light incident on the PDLC layer to intensity of light radiated from the layer, and an extinction ratio of 130:1. The optically addressed video projection system with three PDLCLV's, LC panels of 1048 x 480 pixels as input image sources, a 1-kW Xe lamp, and a schlieren optical system projected television (TV) pictures of 600 and 450 TV lines in the horizontal and the vertical directions on a screen with a diagonal length of 100 in. The total output flux of this system was 1500 lm. PMID:18324076

  6. Multiscale logarithm difference edgemaps for face recognition against varying lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhao-Rong; Dai, Dao-Qing; Ren, Chuan-Xian; Huang, Ke-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Lambertian model is a classical illumination model consisting of a surface albedo component and a light intensity component. Some previous researches assume that the light intensity component mainly lies in the large-scale features. They adopt holistic image decompositions to separate it out, but it is difficult to decide the separating point between large-scale and small-scale features. In this paper, we propose to take a logarithm transform, which can change the multiplication of surface albedo and light intensity into an additive model. Then, a difference (substraction) between two pixels in a neighborhood can eliminate most of the light intensity component. By dividing a neighborhood into subregions, edgemaps of multiple scales can be obtained. Then, each edgemap is multiplied by a weight that can be determined by an independent training scheme. Finally, all the weighted edgemaps are combined to form a robust holistic feature map. Extensive experiments on four benchmark data sets in controlled and uncontrolled lighting conditions show that the proposed method has promising results, especially in uncontrolled lighting conditions, even mixed with other complicated variations.

  7. Diffuse Galactic light at high Galactic latitude: nature and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagury, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    The hypothesis of an extended red emission (ERE) in diffuse Galactic light (DGL) has been put forward in 1998 by Gordon, Witt & Friedmann who found that scattered starlight was not enough to explain the amount of DGL in the R band, in some high Galactic latitude directions. This paper re-investigates, for high Galactic latitudes, the brightnesses and colours of DGL, integrated star and galaxy light (ISGL), and of the total extrasolar light (ISGL+DGL) measured by Pioneer. Under the traditional assumption that DGL is forward scattering of background starlight by interstellar dust on the line of sight, ISGL and Pioneer have very close colours, as it is found by Gordon, Witt & Friedmann. Pioneer observations at high |b| thus accept an alternative and simple interpretation, with no involvement of ERE in DGL.

  8. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ting

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  9. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  10. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  11. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    PubMed

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p < 0.05. Interaction of lighting regimen and CMS was proved to be significant according to time spent in the light compartment and the average number of changes between the light and dark compartments. Results of our examination confirm that the changes of lighting conditions evocate anxiety more prominently than CMS. No significant differences were found between the results of the low rotating group and the control group, supposing that this schedule is the least harmful to health. Our results on the association between the use of lighting regimens and the level of CMS provide evidence that the fast rotating shift work schedule puts the heaviest load on the organism of animals.

  12. Non-invasive fluorescence imaging under ambient light conditions using a modulated ICCD and laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    One limitation of fluorescence molecular imaging that can limit clinical implementation and hamper small animal imaging is the inability to eliminate ambient light. Herein, we demonstrate the ability to conduct rapid non-invasive, far-red and near-infrared fluorescence imaging in living animals and a phantom under ambient light conditions using a modulated image intensified CCD (ICCD) and a laser diode operated in homodyne detection. By mapping AC amplitude from three planar images at varying phase delays, we show improvement in target-to-background ratios (TBR) and reasonable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) over continuous wave measurements. The rapid approach can be used to accurately collect fluorescence in situations where ambient light cannot be spectrally conditioned or controlled, such as in the case of fluorescent molecular image-guided surgery. PMID:24575349

  13. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  14. High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light.

    PubMed

    Afek, Itai; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-05-14

    Precision measurements can be brought to their ultimate limit by harnessing the principles of quantum mechanics. In optics, multiphoton entangled states, known as NOON states, can be used to obtain high-precision phase measurements, becoming more and more advantageous as the number of photons grows. We generated "high-NOON" states (N = 5) by multiphoton interference of quantum down-converted light with a classical coherent state in an approach that is inherently scalable. Super-resolving phase measurements with up to five entangled photons were produced with a visibility higher than that obtainable using classical light only.

  15. Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional homodyne detection of the quadrature amplitudes of light

    PubMed

    Carmichael; Castro-Beltran; Foster; Orozco

    2000-08-28

    Conditional homodyne detection is proposed as an extension of the intensity correlation technique introduced by Hanbury-Brown and Twiss [Nature (London) 177, 27 (1956)]. It detects giant quadrature amplitude fluctuations for weakly squeezed light, violating a classical bound by orders of magnitude. Fluctuations of both quadrature amplitudes are anomalously large. The squeezed quadrature also exhibits an anomalous phase. PMID:10970631

  16. Modeling the impact of roadway emissions in light wind, stable and transition conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the processes that govern air pollution dispersion under light wind, stable and transition conditions by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model to interpret measurements from a tracer experiment conducted next to US highway 99 in Sacramento in 1981–1982 dur...

  17. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  18. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  19. Induction of Fos expression in the circadian system by unsignaled light is attenuated as a result of previous experience with signaled light: a role for Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Amir, S; Stewart, J

    1998-04-01

    A circadian clock responsive to light is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. In rodents, light induces the expression of the transcription factor Fos in cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and this effect is associated with light-induced resetting of the circadian clock. Until recently, it was thought that the induction of Fos in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was mediated by a mechanism uniquely sensitive to photic cues. We have shown, however, using Pavlovian conditioning procedures, that a nonphotic stimulus that has been repeatedly paired with light can, in the absence of light, induce Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the present study we asked whether, as a result of conditioning, the ability of light alone to induce Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus might be altered. We suspected that once the mechanism mediating Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus had become tuned to receiving light signaled by a conditioned stimulus, the response to presentation of light alone would be diminished. To study this possibility we investigated whether induction of Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus by unsignaled light would be altered as a result of previous experience with signaled light. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that a series of conditioning trials not only confers upon a nonphotic stimulus the ability to activate the mechanism mediating Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but also reduces the efficacy of light itself to activate this mechanism.

  20. High light decreases xylem contribution to fruit growth in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, Jochen; DE Swaef, Tom; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Recently, contradicting evidence has been reported on the contribution of xylem and phloem influx into tomato fruits, urging the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit growth. So far, little research has been performed on quantifying the effect of light intensity on the different contributors to the fruit water balance. However, as light intensity affects both transpiration and photosynthesis, it might be expected to induce important changes in the fruit water balance. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in light and shade conditions and the fruit water balance was studied by measuring fruit growth of girdled and intact fruits with linear variable displacement transducers combined with a model-based approach. Results indicated that the relative xylem contribution significantly increased when shading lowered light intensity. This resulted from both a higher xylem influx and a lower phloem influx during the daytime. Plants from the shade treatment were able to maintain a stronger gradient in total water potential between stem and fruits during daytime, thereby promoting xylem influx. It appeared that the xylem pathway was still functional at 35 days after anthesis and that relative xylem contribution was strongly affected by environmental conditions.

  1. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  2. A GROWTH ADVANTAGE FOR MICROCYSTIN PRODUCTION BY MICROCYSTIS PCC7806 UNDER HIGH LIGHT(1).

    PubMed

    Phelan, Richard R; Downing, Timothy G

    2011-12-01

    Batch cultures of both Microcystis PCC7806 and a mcyA(-) knockout mutant (MT) of PCC7806 were cultured at three different light intensities and five media treatments, so as to vary cellular N:C ratios and concentrations and sampled daily over 5 d for analysis of microcystin concentration, cell numbers, and residual nitrate in the growth medium. A competitive survival advantage was noted at a high-light level (37 μmol photons · m(-2 ) · s(-1) ), where the toxic strain survived while the nontoxic strain became chlorotic. A strong correlation (r(2)  = 0.91, P < 0.001, N = 22) between microcystin concentration and growth rate was observed at high-light conditions. No advantage was observed at optimal or low-light conditions, and media composition had no significant effect on the relationship between toxicity and survival at high-light conditions. These data suggest a possible role for microcystin in protection against photooxidation. PMID:27020347

  3. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test whether disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is covariation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from nonresponders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24-h light:dark:light: dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than were SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across 3 distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling.

  4. Road condition analysis using NIR illumination and compensating for surrounding light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casselgren, Johan; Rosendahl, Sara; Sjödahl, Mikael; Jonsson, Patrik

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of a NIR camera system for road surface classification has been conducted for several road conditions. The surfaces were illuminated with three wavelengths, 980 nm, 1310 nm and 1550 nm and a halogen lamp, to simulate a real environment application with surrounding light. A measuring scheme to deal with surrounding light has been implemented enabling road condition classification from NIR images in a real environment. The retrieved camera images have been analyzed and an RGB representation of the different surfaces has been created to classify the different road conditions. The investigation shows that it is possible to distinguish between dry, moist, wet, frosty, icy and snowy road surfaces using a NIR camera system in a disturbed environment.

  5. Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the

  6. Overexpression of Glycolate Oxidase Confers Improved Photosynthesis under High Light and High Temperature in Rice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Li; Lu, Yu-Sheng; Li, Yong; Yang, Chengwei; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While glycolate oxidase (GLO) is well known as a key enzyme for the photorespiratory metabolism in plants, its physiological function and mechanism remains to be further clarified. Our previous studies have shown that suppression of GLO in rice leads to stunted growth and inhibited photosynthesis (Pn) which is positively and linearly correlated with decreased GLO activities. It is, therefore, of interest to further understand whether Pn can be improved when GLO is up-regulated? In this study, four independent overexpression rice lines, with gradient increases in GLO activity, were generated and functionally analyzed. Phenotypic observations showed that the growth could be improved when GLO activities were increased by 60 or 100%, whereas reduced growth was noticed when the activity was further increased by 150 or 210%. As compared with WT plants, all the overexpression plants exhibited significantly improved Pn under conditions of high light and high temperature, but not under normal conditions. In addition, the overexpression plants were more resistant to the MV-induced photooxidative stress. It was further demonstrated that the antioxidant enzymes, and the antioxidant metabolite glutathione was not significantly altered in the overexpression plants. In contrast, H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) were correspondingly induced upon the GLO overexpression. Taken together, the results suggest that GLO may play an important role for plants to cope with high light and high temperature, and that H2O2 and SA may serve as signaling molecules to trigger stress defense responses but antioxidant reactions appear not to be involved in the defense. PMID:27540387

  7. Overexpression of Glycolate Oxidase Confers Improved Photosynthesis under High Light and High Temperature in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Li-Li; Lu, Yu-sheng; Li, Yong; Yang, Chengwei; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While glycolate oxidase (GLO) is well known as a key enzyme for the photorespiratory metabolism in plants, its physiological function and mechanism remains to be further clarified. Our previous studies have shown that suppression of GLO in rice leads to stunted growth and inhibited photosynthesis (Pn) which is positively and linearly correlated with decreased GLO activities. It is, therefore, of interest to further understand whether Pn can be improved when GLO is up-regulated? In this study, four independent overexpression rice lines, with gradient increases in GLO activity, were generated and functionally analyzed. Phenotypic observations showed that the growth could be improved when GLO activities were increased by 60 or 100%, whereas reduced growth was noticed when the activity was further increased by 150 or 210%. As compared with WT plants, all the overexpression plants exhibited significantly improved Pn under conditions of high light and high temperature, but not under normal conditions. In addition, the overexpression plants were more resistant to the MV-induced photooxidative stress. It was further demonstrated that the antioxidant enzymes, and the antioxidant metabolite glutathione was not significantly altered in the overexpression plants. In contrast, H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) were correspondingly induced upon the GLO overexpression. Taken together, the results suggest that GLO may play an important role for plants to cope with high light and high temperature, and that H2O2 and SA may serve as signaling molecules to trigger stress defense responses but antioxidant reactions appear not to be involved in the defense. PMID:27540387

  8. [Light response of Wisteria sinensis leaves physiological parameters under different soil moisture conditions].

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiang-bao; Zhang, Guang-can; Liu, Gang; Han, Wei; Chen, Jian; Liu, Xia

    2007-01-01

    With two years old Wisteria sinensis as test material, this paper measured the light response of its leaves net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) under different soil moisture conditions, aimed to ascertain the optimal soil moisture and light conditions of W. sinensis growth. The results showed that the Pn, Tr and WUE had evident threshold responses to the variations of soil moisture and light intensity. To maintain the normal growth and higher levels P. and WUE of W. sinensis, soil volumetric moisture content (Wr) and relative moisture content (Wv) should be within the range of 15.3%-26.5% and 46.4%-80.3%, and the optimal Wv and Wr were 23.3% and 70.6%, respectively. W. sineasis leaves had stronger adaptability to light conditions. When the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was 600-1600 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), the Pn and WUE were at higher level, and the light saturation points of Pn and WUE were all at about 800-1000 x micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). The appearance of non-stomatal limit was significantly correlated with soil moisture and light intensity. When W, ranged from 18.4% to 26.5%, the decline of Pn was mainly caused by stomatal limit rather than PAR. Out of this range, Pn was obviously affected by PAR, and the critical turning point of PAR was observed with the change from stomatal limit to non-stomatal limit. The minimal values of Wv and Wr for the normal growth of W. sinensis were 11.9% and 36.1%, respectively, and the maximal PAR was 1000 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), the critical point of detriment in leaf photosynthetic organ.

  9. Composite cure and shrinkage associated with high intensity curing light.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Wong, N Y; Siow, K S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cure and post-gel shrinkage of three visible light-cured composite resins (In Ten-S [IT], Ivoclar Vivadent; Z100 [ZO], 3M-ESPE; Tetric Ceram [TC], Ivoclar Vivadent) when polymerized with a very high intensity (1296 +/- 2 mW/cm2) halogen light (Astralis 10, Ivoclar Vivadent) for 10 seconds. Irradiation with a conventional (494 +/- 3 mW/cm2) halogen light (Spectrum, Dentsply) for 40 seconds was used for comparison. The effectiveness of cure was assessed by computing the hardness gradient between the top and bottom surfaces of 2-mm composite specimens after curing. A strain-monitoring device was used to measure the linear polymerization shrinkage associated with the various composites and curing lights. A sample size of five was used for both experiments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc and Independent Samples t-tests at significance level 0.05. Results showed that the effect of the curing method on the effectiveness of cure and shrinkage was material-dependent. Polymerization of IT and TC with Spectrum for 40 seconds resulted in significantly more effective cure than polymerization with Astralis for 10 seconds. Polymerization of ZO with Spectrum for 40 seconds resulted in significantly more shrinkage than polymerization with Astralis for 10 seconds. In view of the substantial time saving, using high intensity lights may be a viable method to polymerize composites.

  10. High light intensity augments mercury toxicity in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Dubey, Gunjan; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Sushil; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2012-11-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the role of growth irradiance in determining the extent of mercury (Hg) toxicity on various physiological parameters viz. growth, pigment contents, photosynthesis, respiration, (14)CO(2) fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, photorespiration and enzyme activity of cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. A general decline was observed in all these parameters with increasing concentration of Hg except for carotenoids content and respiratory activity which exhibited significant enhancement. This effect was more pronounced in high light (130 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) exposed cells as compared to normal (70 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and low (10 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) light exposed cells. Among the photosynthetic electron transport activities, whole chain was found to be more sensitive than photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). (14)CO(2) fixation was more affected as compared to O(2) evolution when exposed to Hg and different light intensities. Photorespiratory activity, which is an index of protecting organisms from light-induced damage, also showed a similar declining trend. Enzyme assay revealed that among the carboxylating enzymes, activity of RUBISCO was more severely inhibited than PEPCase. Thus, these results suggest that Hg itself was toxic at all tested concentrations and high light intensity augmented its toxicity in N. muscorum inhibiting the growth, pigment contents and photosynthetic activity of the organism.

  11. [Behavior of rats kept under conditions of a shifted light/dark regimen and receiving melatonin].

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S

    2005-07-01

    We studied the effect of shift in the natural light/dark regimen (desynchronosis) and treatment with melatonin on behavioral characteristics of rats with different activity in the open-field test. Experiments were performed on 172 Wistar rats kept under conditions of the natural or shifted light/dark regimen. Some animals were intraperitoneally treated with 1 ml physiological saline or melatonin in doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg, while others did not receive the injections. Desynchronosis altered the normal rhythm of locomotor activity and abolished the differences between daytime and nighttime activity rats not receiving the injections. The influence of melatonin on locomotor activity of rats maintained under normal or shifted light/dark conditions depended on its dose, time of treatment, and initial behavioral characteristics of animals. Our results indicate that the use of melatonin for treatment of disturbances produced by a shift in the light/dark conditions should be performed taking into account individual behavioral characteristics of the organism.

  12. Thioredoxin-dependent regulatory networks in chloroplasts under fluctuating light conditions.

    PubMed

    Nikkanen, Lauri; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2014-04-19

    Plants have adopted a number of mechanisms to restore redox homeostasis in the chloroplast under fluctuating light conditions in nature. Chloroplast thioredoxin systems are crucial components of this redox network, mediating environmental signals to chloroplast proteins. In the reduced state, thioredoxins control the structure and function of proteins by reducing disulfide bridges in the redox active site of a protein. Subsequently, an oxidized thioredoxin is reduced by a thioredoxin reductase, the two enzymes together forming a thioredoxin system. Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems, including two reductases dependent on ferredoxin and NADPH as reducing power, respectively, several types of thioredoxins, and the system to deliver thiol redox signals to the thylakoid membrane and lumen. Light controls the activity of chloroplast thioredoxin systems in two ways. First, light reactions activate the thioredoxin systems via donation of electrons to oxidized ferredoxin and NADP(+), and second, light induces production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts which deactivate the components of the thiol redox network. The diversity and partial redundancy of chloroplast thioredoxin systems enable chloroplast metabolism to rapidly respond to ever-changing environmental conditions and to raise plant fitness in natural growth conditions.

  13. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  14. Nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Newly eco-friendly high light transparency film with plant-based materials was investigated to future development of liquid crystal displays and optical devices with water repellency as a chemical design concept of nanoimprint lithography. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency. The developed formulation of advanced nanoimprinted materials design derived from lactulose and psicose, and the development of suitable UV nanoimprint conditions produced high resolutions of the conical shaped moth-eye regularly-nanostructure less than approximately 200 nm diameter, and acceptable patterning dimensional accuracy by the replication of 100 times of UV nanoimprint lithography cycles. The newly plant-based materials and the process conditions are expected as one of the defect less nanoimprint lithographic technologies in next generation electronic devices.

  15. Optical power splitter for splitting high power light

    DOEpatents

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Christensen, John J.

    1995-01-01

    An optical power splitter for the distribution of high-power light energy has a plurality of prisms arranged about a central axis to form a central channel. The input faces of the prisms are in a common plane which is substantially perpendicular to the central axis. A beam of light which is substantially coaxial to the central axis is incident on the prisms and at least partially strikes a surface area of each prism input face. The incident beam also partially passes through the central channel.

  16. Optical power splitter for splitting high power light

    DOEpatents

    English, R.E. Jr.; Christensen, J.J.

    1995-04-18

    An optical power splitter for the distribution of high-power light energy has a plurality of prisms arranged about a central axis to form a central channel. The input faces of the prisms are in a common plane which is substantially perpendicular to the central axis. A beam of light which is substantially coaxial to the central axis is incident on the prisms and at least partially strikes a surface area of each prism input face. The incident beam also partially passes through the central channel. 5 figs.

  17. Resonant transmission of light in chains of high-index dielectric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelev, Roman S.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Petrov, Mihail I.; Krasnok, Alexander E.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-10-01

    We study numerically, analytically, and experimentally the resonant transmission of light in a waveguide formed by a periodic array of high-index dielectric nanoparticles with a side-coupled resonator. We demonstrate that a resonator with high enough Q -factor provides the conditions for the Fano-type interference allowing one to control the resonant transmission of light. We suggest a practical realization of this resonant effect based on the quadrupole resonance of a dielectric particle and demonstrate it experimentally for ceramic disks at microwave frequencies.

  18. The phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex responsive to environmental conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A R; Schaefer, M R; Chiang, G G; Collier, J L

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms can acclimate to their environment by changing many cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. In this article we discuss the phycobilisome, the light-harvesting apparatus of cyanobacteria and red algae. Unlike most light-harvesting antenna complexes, the phycobilisome is not an integral membrane complex but is attached to the surface of the photosynthetic membranes. It is composed of both the pigmented phycobiliproteins and the nonpigmented linker polypeptides; the former are important for absorbing light energy, while the latter are important for stability and assembly of the complex. The composition of the phycobilisome is very sensitive to a number of different environmental factors. Some of the filamentous cyanobacteria can alter the composition of the phycobilisome in response to the prevalent wavelengths of light in the environment. This process, called complementary chromatic adaptation, allows these organisms to efficiently utilize available light energy to drive photosynthetic electron transport and CO2 fixation. Under conditions of macronutrient limitation, many cyanobacteria degrade their phycobilisomes in a rapid and orderly fashion. Since the phycobilisome is an abundant component of the cell, its degradation may provide a substantial amount of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited cells. Furthermore, degradation of the phycobilisome during nutrient-limited growth may prevent photodamage that would occur if the cells were to absorb light under conditions of metabolic arrest. The interplay of various environmental parameters in determining the number of phycobilisomes and their structural characteristics and the ways in which these parameters control phycobilisome biosynthesis are fertile areas for investigation. PMID:8246846

  19. Melanopsin-Derived Visual Responses under Light Adapted Conditions in the Mouse dLGN

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Katherine E.; Eleftheriou, Cyril G.; Allen, Annette E.; Procyk, Christopher A.; Lucas, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    A direct projection from melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) reaches the primary visual thalamus (dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; dLGN). The significance of this melanopsin input to the visual system is only recently being investigated. One unresolved question is the degree to which neurons in the dLGN could use melanopsin to track dynamic changes in light intensity under light adapted conditions. Here we set out to address this question. We were able to present full field steps visible only to melanopsin by switching between rod-isoluminant ‘yellow’ and ‘blue’ lights in a mouse lacking cone function (Cnga3-/-). In the retina these stimuli elicited melanopsin-like responses from a subset of ganglion cells. When presented to anaesthetised mice, we found that ~25-30% of visually responsive neurones in the contralateral dLGN responded to these melanopsin-isolating steps with small increases in firing rate. Such responses could be elicited even with fairly modest increases in effective irradiance (32% Michelson contrast for melanopsin). These melanopsin-driven responses were apparent at bright backgrounds (corresponding to twilight-daylight conditions), but their threshold irradiance was strongly dependent upon prior light exposure when stimuli were superimposed on a spectrally neutral ramping background light. While both onset and offset latencies were long for melanopsin-derived responses compared to those evoked by rods, there was great variability in these parameters with some cells responding to melanopsin steps in <1 s. These data indicate that a subset of dLGN units can employ melanopsin signals to detect modest changes in irradiance under photopic conditions. PMID:25822371

  20. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white

  1. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui

    Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light

  2. The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

    2014-03-01

    Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

  3. An extended mathematical model for reproducing the phase response of Arabidopsis thaliana under various light conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Takayuki; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Tokuda, Isao T

    2015-10-01

    Experimental studies showed that light qualities such as color and strength influence the phase response properties of plant circadian systems. These effects, however, have yet to be properly addressed in theoretical models of plant circadian systems. To fill this gap, the present paper develops a mathematical model of a plant circadian clock that takes into account the intensity and wavelength of the input light. Based on experimental knowledge, we model three photoreceptors, Phytochrome A, Phytochrome B, and Cryptochrome 1, which respond to red and/or blue light, in Arabidopsis thaliana. The three photoreceptors are incorporated into a standard mathematical model of the plant system, in which activator and repressor genes form a single feedback loop. The model capability is examined by a phase response curve (PRC), which plots the phase shifts elicited by the light perturbation as a function of the perturbation phase. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the extended model reproduces the essential features of the PRCs measured experimentally under various light conditions. Particularly, unlike conventional models, the model generates the inherent shape of the PRC under dark pulse stimuli. The outcome of our modeling approach may motivate future theoretical and experimental studies of plant circadian rhythms.

  4. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  5. Intercomparison of EMCCD- and sCMOS-based imaging spectrometers for biomedical applications in low-light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Palacios, J.; Randeberg, L. L.

    2012-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides means for characterizing large biological samples with microscopic spatial resolution and a narrow spectral sampling interval. However, this approach requires having a measurable light signal in each spectral band. Overcoming the limitations imposed by working with biological samples requires the use of a highly sensitive sensor to detect weak signals. For this study we have built and compared the performance of two imaging spectrometers using optimized for low light environments: an electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) and a scientific CMOS (sCMOS). Both systems have been designed to lower the risk of damaging photosensitive samples, delay the bleaching of fluorophores and detect weak fluorescence signals. The cameras work within the VNIR spectral region (400 nm - 900 nm) with a spectral sampling lower than 4 nm. The produced images have scene pixel sizes smaller than 25 μm and a field of view larger than 25 mm. The systems have been tested side to side measuring the diffusion front of a fluorescent tag in samples of porcine skin in challenging light conditions. The study aimed to show the advantages and limitations of each approach. Preliminary results show good performance of the EMCCD for fluorescence applications, whereas more experimental results are needed to be able to conclude on the performance of the sCMOS sensor. However, the sCMOS appears promising for imaging scenes with high dynamics in low light settings.

  6. Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhuizen, Serge; Krames, Michael; Harbers, Gerard; Weijers, Gon

    2007-09-01

    We will discuss the performance, progress and trend of High Power Light Emitting Diodes (HP-LEDs), suitable for high luminance applications like micro-display projection, car headlamps, spot lamps, theatre lamps, etc. Key drivers for the high luminance applications are LED parameters such as internal quantum efficiency, extraction efficiency, drive current, operating temperature and optical coupling efficiency, which are important for most applications as they also enable higher lumen/$ ratios. Historical progress, prospects for improving these parameters and potential optical luminance enhancement methods to meet the demands for the various illumination applications are presented.

  7. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  8. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  9. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species.

  10. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  11. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species. PMID:26913795

  12. Identification and differential accumulation of two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit under high light stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A

    2004-12-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase coupling factor CF1 complex contains five nonidentical subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon, with a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The beta subunit contains the catalytic site for ATP synthesis during photooxidative phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In this study, we have identified two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit at 56 and 54 kDa in the chloroplast of Brassica rapa, through isolation/purification, proteolytic digestion and internal peptide sequencing. Examining their accumulation pattern demonstrates that both isoforms coexist during chloroplast biogenesis and in mature thylakoid membranes, but the 54 kDa isoform is more apparently upregulated by light or under light stress. LiDS-PAGE shows that the 56 kDa is a major isoform of the CF1-beta subunit under normal light conditions, and its amount was not influenced during high light or other light stress treatments. The 54 kDa isoform is a minor band at normal conditions; however, it significantly increased under excess light stresses, such as high or low light with drought and/or high temperature. Particularly, a ninefold increase was observed after 8-10 h of high light treatment with drought and high temperature. The results suggest that light stress induction of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform may present a positive response during chloroplast photoacclimation.

  13. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  14. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  15. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    with UVES at KUEYEN was of SN 1987A , the famous supernova that exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in February 1987, and the brightest supernova of the last 400 years. ESO PR Photo 37a/99 ESO PR Photo 37a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 455 pix - 87k] [Normal - JPEG: 645 x 733 pix - 166k] Caption to ESO PR Photo 37a/99 : This is a direct image of SN1987A, flanked by two nearby stars. The distance between these two is 4.5 arcsec. The slit (2.0 arcsec wide) through which the echelle spectrum shown in PR Photo 37b/99 was obtained, is outlined. This reproduction is from a 2-min exposure through a R(ed) filter with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument at VLT ANTU, obtained in 0.55 arcsec seeing on September 20, 1998. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 37b/99 ESO PR Photo 37b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 459 pix - 130k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 917 pix - 470k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3439 pix - 6.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 37b/99 : This shows the raw image, as read from the CCD, with the recorded echelle spectrum of SN1987A. With this technique, the supernova spectrum is divided into many individual parts ( spectral orders , each of which appears as a narrow horizontal line) that together cover the wavelength interval from 479 to 682 nm (from the bottom to the top), i.e. from blue to red light. Many bright emission lines from different elements are visible, e.g. the strong H-alpha line from hydrogen near the centre of the fourth order from the top. Emission lines from the terrestrial atmosphere are seen as vertical bright lines that cover the full width of the individual horizontal bands. Since this exposure was done with the nearly Full Moon above the horizon, an underlying, faint absorption-line spectrum of reflected sunlight is also visible. The exposure time was 30 min and the seeing conditions were excellent (0.5 arcsec). ESO PR Photo 37c/99 ESO PR Photo 37c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 355 pix - 156k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 709 pix - 498k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1074 x 952

  16. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A S; Purohit, A N

    1991-06-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R. nepalensis, the average photosynthesis rates were found to be about three times higher at 550 m as compared to that under their natural habitat. However, in M. polyandra, the CO2 exchange rates were two times higher at 3600 m than at 550 m but in R. emodi, there were virtually no differences at the two altitudes. These results indicate the variations in the CO2 exchange rates are species specific. The change in growth altitude does not affect this process uniformly.The transpiration rates in R. emodi and M. polyandra were found to be very high at 3600 m compared to 550 m and are attributed to overall higher stomatal conductance in plants of these species, grown at higher altitude. The mid-day closure of stomata and therefore, restriction of transpirational losses of water were observed in all the species at 550 m altitude. In addition to the effect of temperature and relative humidity, the data also indicate some endogenous rhythmic control of stomatal conductance.The temperature optima for photosynthesis was close to 30°C in M. polyandra and around 20°C in the rest of the three species. High temperature and high light intensity, as well as low temperature and high light intensity, adversely affect the net rate of photosynthesis in these species.Both light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with increasing temperature.The effect of light was more prominent on photosynthesis than the effect of temperature, however, on transpiration the effect of temperature was more prominent than the effect of light intensity.No definite trends were found in stomatal conductance with respect to

  17. Metabolomic Responses of Arabidopsis Suspension Cells to Bicarbonate under Light and Dark Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; Yin, Zepeng; Geng, Sisi; de Armas, Evaldo; Chen, Sixue

    2016-01-01

    Global CO2 level presently recorded at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment likely to impact plant growth and productivity. Using targeted LC-MS and GC-MS platforms we quantified 229 and 29 metabolites, respectively in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses to different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 mM) of bicarbonate (HCO3−) under light and dark conditions. Results indicate that HCO3− treatment responsive metabolomic changes depend on the HCO3− concentration, time of treatment, and light/dark. Interestingly, 3 mM HCO3− concentration treatment induced more significantly changed metabolites than either lower or higher concentrations used. Flavonoid biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism were common to both light and dark-mediated responses in addition to showing concentration-dependent changes. Our metabolomics results provide insights into short-term plant cellular responses to elevated HCO3− concentrations as a result of ambient increases in CO2 under light and dark. PMID:27762345

  18. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1.

  19. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. PMID:25619314

  20. Distribution of light in the human retina under natural viewing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Jorge C.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness inAmerica. The fact that AMD wreaks most of the damage in the center of the retina raises the question of whether light, integrated over long periods, is more concentrated in the macula. A method, based on eye-tracking, was developed to measure the distribution of light in the retina under natural viewing conditions. The hypothesis was that integrated over time, retinal illumination peaked in the macula. Additionally a possible relationship between age and retinal illumination was investigated. The eye tracker superimposed the subject's gaze position on a video recorded by a scene camera. Five informed subjects were employed in feasibility tests, and 58 naive subjects participated in 5 phases. In phase 1 the subjects viewed a gray-scale image. In phase 2, they observed a sequence of photographic images. In phase 3 they viewed a video. In phase 4, they worked on a computer; in phase 5, the subjects walked around freely. The informed subjects were instructed to gaze at bright objects in the field of view and then at dark objects. Naive subjects were allowed to gaze freely for all phases. Using the subject's gaze coordinates, and the video provided by the scene camera, the cumulative light distribution on the retina was calculated for ˜15° around the fovea. As expected for control subjects, cumulative retinal light distributions peaked and dipped in the fovea when they gazed at bright or dark objects respectively. The light distribution maps obtained from the naive subjects presented a tendency to peak in the macula for phases 1, 2, and 3, a consistent tendency in phase 4 and a variable tendency in phase 5. The feasibility of using an eye-tracker system to measure the distribution of light in the retina was demonstrated, thus helping to understand the role played by light exposure in the etiology of AMD. Results showed that a tendency for light to peak in the macula is a characteristic of some

  1. High Efficiency Near Infrared Spectrometer for Zodiacal Light Spectral Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrea, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a near infrared spectrometer for measuring solar absorption lines in the zodiacal light in the near infrared region. R. Reynolds at el. (2004, ApJ 61 2, 1206) demonstrated that observing single Fraunhofer line can be a powerful tool for extracting zodiacal light parameters based on their measurements of the profile of the Mg I lneat 5 184 A. We are extending this technique to the near infrared with the primary goal of measuring the absolute intensity of the zodiacal light. This measurement will provide the crucial information needed to accurately subtract zodiacal emission from the DIRBE measurements to get a much higher quality measurement of the extragalactic IR background. The instrument design is based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometer with a narrow band filter. Its double etalon design allows to achieve high spectral contrast to reject the bright out of band telluric OH emission. High spectral contrast is absolutely necessary to achieve detection limits needed to accurately measure the intensity of the absorption line. We present the design, estimated performance of the instrument with the expected results of the observing program.

  2. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  3. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2007-03-31

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  4. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  5. Drivers' eye movements as a function of collision avoidance warning conditions in red light running scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting; Yan, Xuedong; Li, Xiaomeng; Xue, Qingwan

    2016-11-01

    The intersection collision avoidance warning systems (ICAWSs) have substantial potentials in improving driving performance and reducing the number and severity of intersection collisions, through helping drivers timely detect hazardous conflicting vehicles in precrash scenarios. However, the influences of ICAWS on drivers' visual performance have barely been discussed. This study focuses on exploring the patterns in drivers' eye movements as a function of ICAWS's warning conditions in red light running scenarios based on a driving simulation experiment. Two types of speech warning conditions including warning timings (varied form 2.5s to 5.5s) and directional information (with or without) are examined, and the no-warning condition is the baseline. The results revealed that more subjects would be likely to benefit from the ICWAS under the earlier warning timings. The warning condition of 4.5s ahead of a collision had the best effectiveness in terms of visual performances. Under such a warning timing, drivers had shorter fixation duration and higher frequency of searching for the red light running (RLR) vehicles. Compared to the warning condition without directional information, the directional warning information could capture drivers' attention more efficiently, help driver direct fixations toward the RLR vehicles more quickly and lead to more scanning activities. Compared to female drivers, male drivers had more scanning activities when approaching intersections, detected the RLR vehicles more quickly and were more likely to avoid the RLR collisions. Besides, the experiment results indicated that the female drivers were more inclined to trust the warning information and got more benefits from the RLR-ICAWS in terms of the crash risk reduction rate than male drivers. Finally, the conclusions lead the way toward warning condition design recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the RLR-ICAWSs.

  6. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River... intended to place restrictions on vessels due to current extreme high-water conditions. This safety zone is... flood waters and potential catastrophic failure of the Marseilles Dam. DATES: This rule will be...

  7. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia. PMID:24891831

  8. Circadian Oscillation of the Lettuce Transcriptome under Constant Light and Light–Dark Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Takanobu; Aoki, Koh; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Although, the circadian clock is a universal biological system in plants and it orchestrates important role of plant production such as photosynthesis, floral induction and growth, there are few such studies on cultivated species. Lettuce is one major cultivated species for both open culture and plant factories and there is little information concerning its circadian clock system. In addition, most of the relevant genes have not been identified. In this study, we detected circadian oscillation in the lettuce transcriptome using time-course RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. Constant light (LL) and light–dark (LD) conditions were used to detect circadian oscillation because the circadian clock has some basic properties: one is self-sustaining oscillation under constant light and another is entrainment to environmental cycles such as light and temperature. In the results, 215 contigs were detected as common oscillating contigs under both LL and LD conditions. The 215 common oscillating contigs included clock gene-like contigs CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)-like, TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1)-like and LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL)-like, and their expression patterns were similar to those of Arabidopsis. Functional enrichment analysis by GO (gene ontology) Slim and GO Fat showed that the GO terms of response to light stimulus, response to stress, photosynthesis and circadian rhythms were enriched in the 215 common oscillating contigs and these terms were actually regulated by circadian clocks in plants. The 215 common oscillating contigs can be used to evaluate whether the gene expression pattern related to photosynthesis and optical response performs normally in lettuce. PMID:27512400

  9. Constitutive cylindrospermopsin pool size in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under different light and CO2 partial pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Sinha, Rati; Willis, Anusuya; Burford, Michele A; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-05-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (dCYN) are potent hepatotoxic alkaloids produced by numerous species of cyanobacteria, including the freshwater Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. C. raciborskii is an invasive cyanobacterium, and the study of how environmental parameters drive CYN production has received significant interest from water managers and health authorities. Light and CO2 affect cell growth and physiology in photoautotrophs, and these are potential regulators of cyanotoxin biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated how light and CO2 affect CYN and dCYN pool size as well as the expression of the key genes, cyrA and cyrK, involved in CYN biosynthesis in a toxic C. raciborskii strain. For cells growing at different light intensities (10 and 100 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), we observed that the rate of CYN pool size production (μCYN) was coupled to the cell division rate (μc) during batch culture. This indicated that CYN pool size under our experimental conditions is constant and cell quotas of CYN (QCYN) and dCYN (QdCYN) are fixed. Moreover, a lack of correlation between expression of cyrA and total CYN cell quotas (QCYNs) suggests that the CYN biosynthesis is regulated posttranscriptionally. Under elevated CO2 (1,300 ppm), we observed minor effects on QCYN and no effects on expression of cyrA and cyrK. We conclude that the CYN pool size is constitutive and not affected by light and CO2 conditions. Thus, C. raciborskii bloom toxicity is determined by the absolute abundance of C. raciborskii cells within the water column and the relative abundance of toxic and nontoxic strains. PMID:25724956

  10. Modal analysis of low-level-light aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Ding, Huan; Xue, Xiao; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2010-10-01

    Low-level-light ( LLL ) aiming sight-glass measurement technologies based on multiple circumstances testing conditions are always concerned by military equipments manufacturers. The article puts forward the concrete steps and method of shock circumstances testing measurement according to military optical equipments circumstances testing standard. Using shock theory and mathematical modeling analysis, shock model of LLL aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions is constructed and analyzed. Without considering resistances and under instantaneous half-sine shock pulse, the ratio of system response amplitude and half-sine pulse peak value is related to system inherent characteristic (inherent frequency, cycle T, etc.) and shock pulse duration D. The results indicate that given D/T>~ 10.5, / 1 max / A = , half-sine shock pulse is transmitted by 1:1. Testing device response acceleration is equal to shock pulse peak acceleration. Testing device response is more intense under this condition. LLL aiming sight-glass structural performance and reticle zero point moving are influenced. Optical lens offset of LLL aiming sight-glass testing parts is impacted. Optical path parameters change and light transmission is influenced. What is more serious is that objective lens will be broken due to shock pulse transmission.

  11. Receptive field properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex under photopic and scotopic lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Kevin R.; Hubel, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of the primate visual cortex (area V-1) comes mostly from studies done in photopic conditions, in which retinal cones are active and rods play little or no part. Conflicting results have come from research into the effects of dark adaptation on receptive field organization of cells in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus. These studies claim either that the effect of the surround disappears with dark adaptation or that it does not. The current study has as its objective a comparison of responses of V-1 cells in awake-alert macaque monkeys under conditions of light and dark adaptation. We reasoned that basic receptive field properties of V-1 cells such as orientation selectivity, direction selectivity, and end-stopping should be preserved in scotopic conditions if the receptive field organization of antecedent cells is maintained in dim light. Our results indicate that dark adaptation does not alter basic V-1 receptive field characteristics such as selectivity for orientation, direction, and bar length. PMID:17688906

  12. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  13. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

  14. Visible Light Initiated Hantzsch Synthesis of 2,5-Diaryl-Substituted Pyrroles at Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tao; Liu, Wen-Qiang; Li, Jian; Huang, Mao-Yong; Yang, Bing; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-20

    Irradiation of a mixture of enamines and α-bromo ketones, with a catalytic amount of Ir(ppy)3 by visible light (λ = 450 nm), enables the production of various 2,5-diaryl-substituted pyrroles in good to excellent yields. The key intermediates in this reaction have been identified as alkyl radicals, generated from single-electron transfer from the photoexcited Ir(ppy)3* to α-bromo ketones, which subsequently react with a broad range of enamines to undergo the Hantzsch reaction rapidly at ambient conditions. PMID:27199225

  15. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  16. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.

  17. Light masking in the field: an experiment with nocturnal and diurnal spiny mice under semi-natural field conditions.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Dayan, Tamar; Levy, Ofir; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-02-01

    Light masking has been studied almost exclusively in the laboratory. The authors populated four field enclosures with locally coexisting nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus, and monitored their body temperatures (T(b)) using implanted temperature-sensitive radio transmitters. A 3-h light pulse was initiated at the beginning of two consecutive nights; preceding nights were controls. A. cahirinus T(b) and calculated activity levels decreased significantly during the light pulse, demonstrating a negative light masking response (light effect on T(b): -0.32 °C ± 0.15 °C; average calculated activity records during the light pulse: 7 ± 1.53, control: 9.8 ± 1.62). Diurnal A. russatus did not respond to the light pulse. We conclude that light masking is not an artifact of laboratory conditions but represents a natural adaptive response in free-living populations.

  18. Formation of an interphase boundary under highly nonequilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.

    2007-12-15

    The results of comparison studies of the CdTe-CdS interphase boundary in Au/CdTe/CdS sandwich structures synthesized on a substrate of artificial fluorophlogopite mica in highly nonequilibrium conditions (with a substrate temperature T{sub s} = 125 K) and in quasi-equilibrium conditions (T{sub s} > 720 K) are reported. The X-ray diffraction patterns and a capacitance-voltage characteristic are also reported. It is shown that highly nonequilibrium conditions allow synthesis of structures with excellent crystalline quality and with an interphase boundary that is no worse than in the structures grown under equilibrium conditions.

  19. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  20. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  1. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  2. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  3. Large-scale modeling provides insights into Arabidopsis's acclimation to changing light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Töpfer, Nadine; Niokoloski, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Classical flux balance analysis predicts steady-state flux distributions that maximize a given objective function. A recent study, Schuetz et al., (1) demonstrated that competing objectives constrain the metabolic fluxes in E. coli. For plants, with multiple cell types, fulfilling different functions, the objectives remain elusive and, therefore, hinder the prediction of actual fluxes, particularly for changing environments. In our study, we presented a novel approach to predict flux capacities for a large collection of metabolic pathways under eight different temperature and light conditions. (2) By integrating time-series transcriptomics data to constrain the flux boundaries of the metabolic model, we captured the time- and condition-specific state of the network. Although based on a single time-series experiment, the comparison of these capacities to a novel null model for transcript distribution allowed us to define a measure for differential behavior that accounts for the underlying network structure and the complex interplay of metabolic pathways.

  4. Modeling of microstructure evolution in austenitic stainless steels irradiated under light water reactor condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Was, G. S.; Stoller, R. E.

    2001-10-01

    A model for microstructure development in austenitic alloys under light water reactor irradiation conditions is described. The model is derived from the model developed by Stoller and Odette to describe microstructural evolution under fast neutron or fusion reactor irradiation conditions. The model is benchmarked against microstructure measurements in 304 and 316 SS irradiated in a boiling water reactor core using one material-dependent and three irradiation-based parameters. The model is also adapted for proton irradiation at higher dose rate and higher temperature and is calibrated against microstructure measurements for proton irradiation. The model calculations show that for both neutron and proton irradiations, in-cascade interstitial clustering is the driving mechanism for loop nucleation. The loss of interstitial clusters to sinks by interstitial cluster diffusion was found to be an important factor in determining the loop density. The model also explains how proton irradiation can produce an irradiated dislocation microstructure similar to that in neutron irradiation.

  5. Polymer Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Cathodes Transferred under Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Liu, Yan-Peng; Jung, Eun; Seo, Seung-Woo; Chae, Heeyeop; Cho, Sung M.

    2011-11-01

    We fabricated polymer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with an aluminum cathode transferred under ambient conditions from a separately prepared transfer film in order to achieve complete, vacuum-free fabrication of polymer OLEDs. Transfer of aluminum (Al) and lithium fluoride on aluminum (LiF/Al) onto polymer OLEDs as a cathode revealed problems in device performance due to native aluminum oxide and the stability of the LiF layer under ambient conditions, respectively. In contrast, the device fabricated with the transfer of cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3)-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on aluminum as a cathode showed lower turn-on voltage, and enhanced efficiency and stability. This method may provide an easy way to fabricate low-cost polymer OLEDs using complete, vacuum-free processes.

  6. Realizing Strong Light-Matter Interactions between Single-Nanoparticle Plasmons and Molecular Excitons at Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Gülis; Wersäll, Martin; Nilsson, Sara; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur

    2015-04-01

    Realizing strong light-matter interactions between individual two-level systems and resonating cavities in atomic and solid state systems opens up possibilities to study optical nonlinearities on a single-photon level, which can be useful for future quantum information processing networks. However, these efforts have been hampered by unfavorable experimental conditions, such as cryogenic temperatures and ultrahigh vacuum, required to study such systems and phenomena. Although several attempts to realize strong light-matter interactions at room temperature using plasmon resonances have been made, successful realizations on the single-nanoparticle level are still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the strong coupling between plasmons confined within a single silver nanoprism and excitons in molecular J aggregates at ambient conditions. Our findings show that deep subwavelength mode volumes V together with quality factors Q that are reasonably high for plasmonic nanostructures result in a strong-coupling figure of merit-Q /√{V } as high as ˜6 ×103 μ m-3 /2 , a value comparable to state-of-the-art photonic crystal and microring resonator cavities. This suggests that plasmonic nanocavities, and specifically silver nanoprisms, can be used for room temperature quantum optics.

  7. Realizing Strong Light-Matter Interactions between Single-Nanoparticle Plasmons and Molecular Excitons at Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Gülis; Wersäll, Martin; Nilsson, Sara; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur

    2015-04-17

    Realizing strong light-matter interactions between individual two-level systems and resonating cavities in atomic and solid state systems opens up possibilities to study optical nonlinearities on a single-photon level, which can be useful for future quantum information processing networks. However, these efforts have been hampered by unfavorable experimental conditions, such as cryogenic temperatures and ultrahigh vacuum, required to study such systems and phenomena. Although several attempts to realize strong light-matter interactions at room temperature using plasmon resonances have been made, successful realizations on the single-nanoparticle level are still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the strong coupling between plasmons confined within a single silver nanoprism and excitons in molecular J aggregates at ambient conditions. Our findings show that deep subwavelength mode volumes V together with quality factors Q that are reasonably high for plasmonic nanostructures result in a strong-coupling figure of merit-Q/sqrt[V] as high as ∼6×10^{3}  μm^{-3/2}, a value comparable to state-of-the-art photonic crystal and microring resonator cavities. This suggests that plasmonic nanocavities, and specifically silver nanoprisms, can be used for room temperature quantum optics.

  8. Hydrogen production by the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 under conditions of continuous light.

    PubMed

    Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A

    2010-07-01

    We report on the hydrogen production properties of the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. This organism has a versatile metabolism and can grow in the presence or absence of combined nitrogen and can grow photosynthetically or mixotrophically and heterotrophically in the presence of glycerol. The strain produces a bidirectional hydrogenase (encoded by the hox genes), an uptake hydrogenase (hupLS), and nitrogenase (nifHDK). We demonstrated hydrogen production by both the hydrogenase and the nitrogenase under appropriate metabolic conditions. The highest rates of hydrogen production were produced under nitrogen-fixing conditions when cells were grown and incubated under continuous light conditions, in either the presence or absence of glycerol. Under such nitrogen-fixing conditions, we have achieved rates of 300 micromol H(2)/mg chloramphenicol (Chl)/hr during the first 24 h of incubation. The levels of H(2) measured were dependent upon the incubation conditions, such as sparging with argon, which generated anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that the same conditions led to high levels of H(2) production and N(2) fixation, indicating that low-oxygen conditions favor nitrogenase activity for both processes. The levels of hydrogen produced by the hydrogenase are much lower, typically 5 to 10 micromol H(2)/mg Chl/hr. Hydrogenase activity was dependent upon electron transport through photosystem II (PS II), whereas nitrogenase activity was more dependent on PS I, as well as on respiration. Although cells do not double under the incubation conditions when sparged with argon to provide a low-oxygen environment, the cells are metabolically active, and hydrogen production can be inhibited by the addition of chloramphenicol to inhibit protein synthesis.

  9. Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yoshimi; Nishidate, Koji; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanahama, Koki; Kanayama, Yoshinori

    2011-08-01

    The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single color in the night. Flowering was promoted not by blue light, but by far-red light in G. paniculata, while flowering was promoted by both light colors in Arabidopsis. FT homologs of G. paniculata GpFT1 and GpFT2 were differentially expressed under long-day conditions with white light, suggesting that they play roles in flowering at different stages of reproductive development. GpFTs and FT gene expression was not induced by far-red light in G. paniculata or Arabidopsis. Instead, the expression of the SOC1 homolog of G. paniculata GpSOC1 and SOC1 was induced by far-red light in G. paniculata and Arabidopsis. Flowering was promoted by induction of FT and SOC1 expression with blue light in Arabidopsis, whereas GpFTs and GpSOC1 expression was low with blue light induction in G. paniculata. The relationship between flowering and the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis was confirmed with ft and soc1 mutants. These results suggest that long-day conditions with far-red light promote flowering through SOC1 and its homologs, while the conditions with blue light do not promote flowering in G. paniculata, because of low expression of GpFTs and GpSOC1 in contrast to that in Arabidopsis.

  10. The risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources.

    PubMed

    Pollak, V A; Romanchuk, K G

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excessive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A mehtod of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  11. Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400–700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture. PMID:24905835

  12. Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jacob A; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400-700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture.

  13. Seagrass dynamics in shallow coastal lagoons: Interactions with fluid dynamics, sediment resuspension and light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; D'Odorico, P.; McGlathery, K.; Wiberg, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Sea grasses have been recognized for their ability to stabilize the benthic sediments of shallow coastal lagoons, thereby reducing the turbidity of the water column and providing a light environment that is more favorable for sea grass establishment and growth. Sea grasses are complex, in that they involve different strategies of carbon allocation between below and above ground biomass, and the partitioning of the overall biomass into a discrete number of stems and leaves. Stem density and canopy height, in turn, modify the flow field, sediment resuspension, and the light environment. It is still unclear how these seasonal and interannual dynamics of seagrass vegetation may be affected by and interact with the process of sediment resuspension under fluctuating climatic and hydrologic conditions. To this end, a coupled model hydrodynamic model of vegetation-sediment-water flow interactions and vegetation growth is developed and used to examine the feedback between seagrass vegetation density and sediment resuspension and water column turbidity. The daily growth model is designed to capture underground biomass and the growth and senescence of above ground biomass structural components (e.g., leaves and stems). This allows for investigating how the interseasonal and seasonal variability in shoot and leaf density within a meadow affects the strength of positive feedback between seagrass and their light environment. Eight years of hourly wind, light, tides and water temperature are used to drive the coupled model from an initial mature meadow state as well as a seedling state. The model demonstrates both the emergence of bistable behavior as well as the limited resilience of seagrass meadows due to the strength of the positive feedback. The effects of increased water depths and water temperatures on the health and resilience of a seagrass meadow were also investigated. As both water depth and water temperatures increase, the system only exhibits bistable behavior with

  14. Effects of post-harvest light conditions on quality and aromatic volatile formation in 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Okamoto, Goro

    2007-06-01

    The effect of light condition during post-harvest storage on fruit quality of 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) was examined. Fruits were harvested at the immature stage (7 d before the tree-ripening stage) and firm-ripe (3 d before the tree-ripening) stage and stored at 25 degrees C under light (ca 80 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at the fruit top by a fluorescent lamp) and in darkness. The light and dark conditions did not significantly influence the ethylene production rate except for the fully ripened fruits harvested at firm-ripe stage and stored under light. However, no difference in fruit firmness was detected among treatments at full-ripe stage. The skin anthocyanin content increased significantly during storage under light. Total soluble solid (TSS) content of juice at the full ripe stage was not affected significantly by the storage condition, although titratable acidity (TA) in immature harvested fruits decreased more quickly during storage under light compared with those stored in darkness. Dark storage limited the decrease in juice asparagine to some extent. Aromatic lactones, such as gamma-decalactone and gamma-dodecalactone, both in skin and in flesh tissues increased more rapidly when the fruits were stored under a light condition, irrespective of fruit harvest stage. From these results, we conclude that fruit storage under a light condition is better for fruit quality of the 'Hakuho' peaches than storage in darkness.

  15. Digital image database processing to simulate image formation in ideal lighting conditions of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Santos, Jessica; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Hernández-Méndez, Arturo

    2015-09-01

    The pupil size of the human eye has a large effect in the image quality due to inherent aberrations. Several studies have been performed to calculate its size relative to the luminance as well as considering other factors, i.e., age, size of the adapting field and mono and binocular vision. Moreover, ideal lighting conditions are known, but software suited to our specific requirements, low cost and low computational consumption, in order to simulate radiation adaptation and image formation in the retina with ideal lighting conditions has not yet been developed. In this work, a database is created consisting of 70 photographs corresponding to the same scene with a fixed target at different times of the day. By using this database, characteristics of the photographs are obtained by measuring the luminance average initial threshold value of each photograph by means of an image histogram. Also, we present the implementation of a digital filter for both, image processing on the threshold values of our database and generating output images with the threshold values reported for the human eye in ideal cases. Some potential applications for this kind of filters may be used in artificial vision systems.

  16. High-performance lighting evaluated by photobiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rebec, Katja Malovrh; Gunde, Marta Klanjšek

    2014-08-10

    The human reception of light includes image-forming and non-image-forming effects which are triggered by spectral distribution and intensity of light. Ideal lighting is similar to daylight, which could be evaluated by spectral or chromaticity match. LED-based and CFL-based lighting were analyzed here, proposed according to spectral and chromaticity match, respectively. The photobiological effects were expressed by effectiveness for blue light hazard, cirtopic activity, and photopic vision. Good spectral match provides light with more similar effects to those obtained by the chromaticity match. The new parameters are useful for better evaluation of complex human responses caused by lighting.

  17. Light bullets and supercontinuum spectrum during femtosecond pulse filamentation under conditions of anomalous group-velocity dispersion in fused silicalicati

    SciTech Connect

    Chekalin, Sergei V; Kompanets, V O; Smetanina, E O; Kandidov, V P

    2013-04-30

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental research on spectrum transformation and spatiotemporal distribution of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity during filamentation in fused silica. The formation of light bullets with a high power density is first observed in a femtosecond laser pulse in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1800 nm. The minimum duration of the light bullet is about two oscillation cycles of the light field. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  18. The High School Strength and Conditioning Professional: A Job Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Randy

    2001-01-01

    Presents a job description for the high school strength and conditioning professional, who is in a unique position to integrate athletics and academics, highlighting: minimum qualifications; school-related benefits derived from employing a strength and conditioning professional; whom the professional reports to and works with; job…

  19. Expression profiling of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia CCY9414 under light and oxidative stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Matthias; Möke, Fred; Bauwe, Hermann; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hagemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Massive blooms of toxic cyanobacteria frequently occur in the central Baltic Sea during the summer. In the surface scum, cyanobacterial cells are exposed to high light (HL) intensity, high oxygen partial pressure and other stresses. To mimic these conditions, cultures of Nodularia spumigena CCY9414, which is a strain isolated from a cyanobacterial summer bloom in the Baltic Sea, were incubated at a HL intensity of 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 or a combination of HL and increased oxygen partial pressure. Using differential RNA sequencing, we compared the global primary transcriptomes of control and stressed cells. The combination of oxidative and light stresses induced the expression of twofold more genes compared with HL stress alone. In addition to the induction of known stress-responsive genes, such as psbA, ocp and sodB, Nodularia cells activated the expression of genes coding for many previously unknown light- and oxidative stress-related proteins. In addition, the expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was found to be stimulated by these stresses. Among them was an antisense RNA to the phycocyanin-encoding mRNA cpcBAC and the trans-encoded regulator of photosystem I, PsrR1. The large genome capacity allowed Nodularia to harbor more copies of stress-relevant genes such as psbA and small chlorophyll-binding protein genes, combined with the coordinated induction of these and many additional genes for stress acclimation. Our data provide a first insight on how N. spumigena became adapted to conditions relevant for a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25689027

  20. High-current quasi-square-wave millisecond light source for high-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenzheng; Jiang, Aibao; Zhuo, Meizhen

    1993-01-01

    A novel powerful strobe for high-speed photography is described which can replace the high power cw light source, to save energy and synchroflash with the camera. In this strobe, three- phase transformerless direct rectifier, high current SCR switch and pre-ionization technique are used so that the energy consumption goes down greatly, and its total weight is less than 25 Kg. Its principal parameters are as follows: average power, 50 KW; light emitting pulse width, 1 - 100 ms; pulse rise time, less than 0.05 ms; pulse fall time, less than 0.1 ms.

  1. The matter in extreme conditions instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nagler, Bob; Arnold, Brice; Bouchard, Gary; Boyce, Richard F.; Boyce, Richard M.; Callen, Alice; Campell, Marc; Curiel, Ruben; Galtier, Eric; Garofoli, Justin; et al

    2015-04-21

    The LCLS beam provides revolutionary capabilities for studying the transient behavior of matter in extreme conditions. The particular strength of the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument is that it combines the unique LCLS beam with high-power optical laser beams, and a suite of dedicated diagnostics tailored for this field of science. In this paper an overview of the beamline, the capabilities of the instrumentation, and selected highlights of experiments and commissioning results are presented.

  2. The Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Bob; Arnold, Brice; Bouchard, Gary; Boyce, Richard F; Boyce, Richard M; Callen, Alice; Campell, Marc; Curiel, Ruben; Galtier, Eric; Garofoli, Justin; Granados, Eduardo; Hastings, Jerry; Hays, Greg; Heimann, Philip; Lee, Richard W; Milathianaki, Despina; Plummer, Lori; Schropp, Andreas; Wallace, Alex; Welch, Marc; White, William; Xing, Zhou; Yin, Jing; Young, James; Zastrau, Ulf; Lee, Hae Ja

    2015-05-01

    The LCLS beam provides revolutionary capabilities for studying the transient behavior of matter in extreme conditions. The particular strength of the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument is that it combines the unique LCLS beam with high-power optical laser beams, and a suite of dedicated diagnostics tailored for this field of science. In this paper an overview of the beamline, the capabilities of the instrumentation, and selected highlights of experiments and commissioning results are presented.

  3. The Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Bob; Arnold, Brice; Bouchard, Gary; Boyce, Richard F.; Boyce, Richard M.; Callen, Alice; Campell, Marc; Curiel, Ruben; Galtier, Eric; Garofoli, Justin; Granados, Eduardo; Hastings, Jerry; Hays, Greg; Heimann, Philip; Lee, Richard W.; Milathianaki, Despina; Plummer, Lori; Schropp, Andreas; Wallace, Alex; Welch, Marc; White, William; Xing, Zhou; Yin, Jing; Young, James; Zastrau, Ulf; Lee, Hae Ja

    2015-01-01

    The LCLS beam provides revolutionary capabilities for studying the transient behavior of matter in extreme conditions. The particular strength of the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument is that it combines the unique LCLS beam with high-power optical laser beams, and a suite of dedicated diagnostics tailored for this field of science. In this paper an overview of the beamline, the capabilities of the instrumentation, and selected highlights of experiments and commissioning results are presented. PMID:25931063

  4. Positive and negative innate immune responses in zebrafish under light emitting diodes conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Wei-Ye; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Certain light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become popular in fish farming beacause of a promoting effect on growth and reproduction. However, little information is available on innate immune responses in related tissues under LEDs conditions. The present study assessed the effects of a white fluorescent bulb (the control) and two different light-emitting diodes (LEDs: blue, LDB, peak at 450 nm; red, LDR, 630 nm) on growth and innate immune responses in the serum, liver and ovary of zebrafish for 8 weeks. LDB significantly enhanced specific growth rate (SGR), food intake (FI), and serum globulin levels. In contrast, LDR sharply inhibited SGR, FI, and the levels of albumin and globulin. Under LDB condition, there was an increase in protein levels of alkaline phophatase (AKP) and protein and activity levels of lysozyme (LZM) in the liver, and the levels of mRNA, protein, and activity of LZM in the ovary. Under LDR condition, LZM was dramatically down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels in the ovary, suggesting that LZM was regulated at a transcriptional level. In the liver of the LDR group, though AKP mRNA levels sharply increased, its protein and activity levels significantly declined, indicating that AKP was regulated at translational level. Furthermore, a positive correlation between transcription factor NF-κB RelA mRNA levels and expression levels of AKP and LZM was observed in the liver and ovary, implying a transcriptional regulation of NF-κB RelA. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a positive effect of LDB and negative effect of LDR on fish growth and innate immune responses, possibly associated with modifications at transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and the transcriptional regulation of the NF-κB signaling molecule. PMID:27452972

  5. Positive and negative innate immune responses in zebrafish under light emitting diodes conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Wei-Ye; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Certain light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become popular in fish farming beacause of a promoting effect on growth and reproduction. However, little information is available on innate immune responses in related tissues under LEDs conditions. The present study assessed the effects of a white fluorescent bulb (the control) and two different light-emitting diodes (LEDs: blue, LDB, peak at 450 nm; red, LDR, 630 nm) on growth and innate immune responses in the serum, liver and ovary of zebrafish for 8 weeks. LDB significantly enhanced specific growth rate (SGR), food intake (FI), and serum globulin levels. In contrast, LDR sharply inhibited SGR, FI, and the levels of albumin and globulin. Under LDB condition, there was an increase in protein levels of alkaline phophatase (AKP) and protein and activity levels of lysozyme (LZM) in the liver, and the levels of mRNA, protein, and activity of LZM in the ovary. Under LDR condition, LZM was dramatically down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels in the ovary, suggesting that LZM was regulated at a transcriptional level. In the liver of the LDR group, though AKP mRNA levels sharply increased, its protein and activity levels significantly declined, indicating that AKP was regulated at translational level. Furthermore, a positive correlation between transcription factor NF-κB RelA mRNA levels and expression levels of AKP and LZM was observed in the liver and ovary, implying a transcriptional regulation of NF-κB RelA. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a positive effect of LDB and negative effect of LDR on fish growth and innate immune responses, possibly associated with modifications at transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and the transcriptional regulation of the NF-κB signaling molecule.

  6. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  7. In high-light-acclimated coffee plants the metabolic machinery is adjusted to avoid oxidative stress rather than to benefit from extra light enhancement in photosynthetic yield.

    PubMed

    Martins, Samuel C V; Araújo, Wagner L; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2014-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance.

  8. In High-Light-Acclimated Coffee Plants the Metabolic Machinery Is Adjusted to Avoid Oxidative Stress Rather than to Benefit from Extra Light Enhancement in Photosynthetic Yield

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Samuel C. V.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R.; DaMatta, Fábio M.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance. PMID:24733284

  9. High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Padgett, Miles J.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems often rely on polarization of light for encoding, thus limiting the amount of information that can be sent per photon and placing tight bounds on the error rates that such a system can tolerate. Here we describe a proof-of-principle experiment that indicates the feasibility of high-dimensional QKD based on the transverse structure of the light field allowing for the transfer of more than 1 bit per photon. Our implementation uses the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons and the corresponding mutually unbiased basis of angular position (ANG). Our experiment uses a digital micro-mirror device for the rapid generation of OAM and ANG modes at 4 kHz, and a mode sorter capable of sorting single photons based on their OAM and ANG content with a separation efficiency of 93%. Through the use of a seven-dimensional alphabet encoded in the OAM and ANG bases, we achieve a channel capacity of 2.05 bits per sifted photon. Our experiment demonstrates that, in addition to having an increased information capacity, multilevel QKD systems based on spatial-mode encoding can be more resilient against intercept-resend eavesdropping attacks.

  10. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  11. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  12. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings. PMID:26139219

  13. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions. PMID:22408977

  14. Thermal analysis of high intensity organic light-emitting diodes based on a transmission matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiangfei; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-12-01

    We use a general transmission matrix formalism to determine the thermal response of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) under high currents normally encountered in ultra-bright illumination conditions. This approach, based on Laplace transforms, facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a multi-layer composite characteristic of OLEDs. Model calculations are compared with experimental data on 5 cm × 5 cm green and red-emitting electrophosphorescent OLEDs under various current drive conditions. This model can be extended to study other complex optoelectronic structures under a wide variety of conditions that include heat removal via conduction, radiation, and convection. We apply the model to understand the effects of using high-thermal- conductivity substrates, and the transient thermal response under pulsed-current operation.

  15. 15 CFR 14.14 - High risk special award conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High risk special award conditions. 14.14 Section 14.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.14 High risk special award...

  16. Sorption behavior of heavy metals on poorly crystalline manganese oxides: roles of water conditions and light.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jungwon; Choi, Sung-Chan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of solution properties and light on the metal uptake and release in a nanosized, poorly crystalline manganese oxide (δ-MnO2) system. The results from synthetic water matrices revealed that the aggregation state was strongly affected by ionic strength, Ca(2+), and humic acid, and the particle aggregation subsequently changed the ability of δ-MnO2 to adsorb and sequester heavy metal ions (Cu(ii)). The extent of Cu(ii) uptake onto δ-MnO2 exhibited a negative correlation with the attachment efficiency value, which suggested that a lower sorption capacity could be achieved under aggregation-inducing conditions. Upon exposure to light, the adsorbed Cu(ii) was released from the δ-MnO2 surface via photoinduced dissolution of MnO2. The concentration of Cu(ii) desorbed was substantially higher when the humic acid was present together with Ca(2+). The present investigation enables us to better understand the adsorption-desorption processes of heavy metals occurring at the MnO2-solution interface in response to common environmental stimuli.

  17. Developmental expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase in leaves of tobacco growing under high and low light

    SciTech Connect

    Bugos, R.C.; Chang, S.H.; Yamamoto, H.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (BDE) is a lumen-localized enzyme that catalyzes the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin in the thylakoid membrane upon formation of a transthylakoin pH gradient. The authors investigated the developmental expression of VDE in leaves of mature tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants grown under high-light conditions (in the field) and low-light conditions (in a growth chamber). The difference in light conditions was evident by the increased pool size (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin - zeaxanthin, VAZ) throughout leaf development in field-grown plants. VDE activity based on chlorophyll or leaf area was low in the youngest leaves, with the levels increasing with increasing leaf age in both high- and low-light-grown plants. However, in high-light-grown plants, the younger leaves in early leaf expansion showed a more rapid increase in VDE activity and maintained higher levels of VDE transcript in more leaves, indicating that high light may induce greater levels of VDE. VDE transcript levels deceased substantially in leaves of mid-leaf expansion, which the levels of enzyme continued to increase, suggesting that the VDE enzyme does not turn over rapidly. The level of VDE changed in an inverse, nonlinear relationship with respect to the VAZ pool, suggesting that enzyme levels could be indirectly regulated by the VAZ pool.

  18. Progress toward light weight high angular resolution multilayer coated optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, M.P.; Graham, M.E.; Vaynman, S.; Echt, J.; Farber, M.; Ehlert, S.; Varlese, S.

    2008-11-18

    We have been working on 3 separate projects that together will give us the ability to make 1 arc second, light weight Wolter I optics that work above 40 keV. The three separate tasks are: (a) plasma spraying of metal-coated micro-balloons; (b) coating of the inside of Wolter I mirrors, (c) actuator designs for improving figure quality. We give a progress report on our work on all three areas. In summary, for future space missions it will be desirable for them to be affordable by reducing mass, keeping the focal length manageable, and yet having high figure quality. The avenues we have described above are straight forward paths to achieving this goal, but a great deal of work needs to be done to take us from the concept stage to a functional system.

  19. Photoprotection mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana acclimate to high light by increasing photosynthesis and specific antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Golan, Talila; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2006-05-01

    Biochemical and physiological acclimation to different light environments is crucial for plant growth and survival. In high light (HL), feedback de-excitation (qE) is a well-known photoprotective mechanism that dissipates excess excitation energy in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII) and relieves excitation pressure in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The xanthophylls zeaxanthin (Z) and lutein (L) function in qE, but also have roles as antioxidants. Although several studies have shown that qE is important during short-term fluctuations in light intensity, here we show that it is not required for the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in prolonged HL conditions in the laboratory. Mutants that are deficient in qE alone, qE and Z synthesis, or in qE, Z synthesis and also L synthesis were able to grow at 1800 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) and exhibited no major symptoms of photooxidative stress. The mutants (and wild type) acclimated to HL by increasing photosynthetic capacity and decreasing light harvesting, which together rendered qE less important for photoprotection. At a metabolite level, the HL-grown mutants appeared to compensate for their remaining qE deficit with increased alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate levels compared to the wild type. The specificity of this response provides insight into the relationship between qE and the antioxidant network in plants.

  20. Validation of scale-4 for LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel in transportation and storage cask conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. ); Bierman, S.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of criticality calculations performed to validate the recently released SCALE-4 modular code system for light water reactor (LWR) fuel under various conditions typical of transportation and storage casks. The modifications in SCALE-4 include NITAWL-II, an updated version of the NITAWL code that performs resonance self-shielding calculations using the Nordeim Integral Treatment. In order to validate SCALE-4 with the new resonance self-shielding treatment, the CSAS4 control module was used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) via the BONAMI{sup 3}, NITAWL-II, and KENO V.a{sup 4} codes. The cross section library used was the 27 group ENDF/B-IV library, which has been updated for use with NITAWL-II. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Modifying the high rate algal pond light environment and its effects on light absorption and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-03-01

    The combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) for wastewater treatment and commercial algal production is considered to be an economically viable option. However, microalgal photosynthesis and biomass productivity is constrained in HRAPs due to light limitation. This paper investigates how the light climate in the HRAP can be modified through changes in pond depth, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and light/dark turnover rate and how this impacts light absorption and utilisation by the microalgae. Wastewater treatment HRAPs were operated at three different pond depth and HRT during autumn. Light absorption by the microalgae was most affected by HRT, significantly decreasing with increasing HRT, due to increased internal self-shading. Photosynthetic performance (as defined by Pmax, Ek and α), significantly increased with increasing pond depth and decreasing HRT. Despite this, increasing pond depth and/or HRT, resulted in decreased pond light climate and overall integrated water column net oxygen production. However, increased light/dark turnover was able to compensate for this decrease, bringing the net oxygen production in line with shallower ponds operated at shorter HRT. On overcast days, modelled daily net photosynthesis significantly increased with increased light/dark turnover, however, on clear days such increased turnover did not enhance photosynthesis. This study has showed that light absorption and photosynthetic performance of wastewater microalgae can be modified through changes to pond depth, HRT and light/dark turnover.

  2. High-speed Light Peak optical link for high energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, F. X.; Chiang, F.; Deng, B.; Hou, J.; Hou, S.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Teng, P. K.; Wang, C. H.; Xu, T.; Ye, J.

    2014-11-01

    Optical links provide high speed data transmission with low mass fibers favorable for applications in high energy experiments. We report investigation of a compact Light Peak optical engine designed for data transmission at 4.8 Gbps. The module is assembled with bare die VCSEL, PIN diodes and a control IC aligned within a prism receptacle for light coupling to fiber ferrule. Radiation damage in the receptacle was examined with 60Co gamma ray. Radiation induced single event effects in the optical engine were studied with protons, neutrons and X-ray tests.

  3. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  4. Variation of glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression of transcription factors at different stages of Chinese cabbage seedlings under light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hye Ran; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2014-04-01

    Chinese cabbage is one of the most important leafy vegetables widely used in East Asian cuisines. The glucosinolate (GSL) accumulation and transcript levels of 7 transcription factors (Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122, and their isoforms) involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates (GSLs) were analyzed at different stages of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) seedlings under light and dark conditions using high performance liquid chromatography and quantitative real time PCR. During seedling development, transcription of almost all transcription factors under light conditions was higher expressed than under dark conditions. Five aliphatic GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin) and four indolic GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and neoglucobrasscin) were detected. Total GSL contents under light conditions 6, 8, and 10 days after sowing (DAS) were 3.2-, 3.9-, and 6.9-fold higher, respectively than those of dark conditions. Interestingly, total GSL contents 2 {85.4 micromol/g dry weight (DW)} to 10 (7.74 micromol/g DW) DAS under dark conditions were gradually decreased. In this study, our results suggest that light affects the levels of GSL in Chinese cabbage seedlings. These results could be useful for obtaining cabbage varieties rich in GSLs.

  5. High Light Induced Disassembly of Photosystem II Supercomplexes in Arabidopsis Requires STN7-Dependent Phosphorylation of CP29

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic oxidation of water and production of oxygen by photosystem II (PSII) in thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts is highly affected by changes in light intensities. To minimize damage imposed by excessive sunlight and sustain the photosynthetic activity PSII, organized in supercomplexes with its light harvesting antenna, undergoes conformational changes, disassembly and repair via not clearly understood mechanisms. We characterized the phosphoproteome of the thylakoid membranes from Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, stn7, stn8 and stn7stn8 mutant plants exposed to high light. The high light treatment of the wild type and stn8 caused specific increase in phosphorylation of Lhcb4.1 and Lhcb4.2 isoforms of the PSII linker protein CP29 at five different threonine residues. Phosphorylation of CP29 at four of these residues was not found in stn7 and stn7stn8 plants lacking the STN7 protein kinase. Blue native gel electrophoresis followed by immunological and mass spectrometric analyses of the membrane protein complexes revealed that the high light treatment of the wild type caused redistribution of CP29 from PSII supercomplexes to PSII dimers and monomers. A similar high-light-induced disassembly of the PSII supercomplexes occurred in stn8, but not in stn7 and stn7stn8. Transfer of the high-light-treated wild type plants to normal light relocated CP29 back to PSII supercomplexes. We postulate that disassembly of PSII supercomplexes in plants exposed to high light involves STN7-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the linker protein CP29. Disruption of this adaptive mechanism can explain dramatically retarded growth of the stn7 and stn7stn8 mutants under fluctuating normal/high light conditions, as previously reported. PMID:21915352

  6. Scalability of buried microreflector light-emitting diodes for high-current applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illek, Stefan; Pietzonka, Ines; Ploessl, Andreas; Stauss, Peter; Wegleiter, Walter; Windisch, Reiner; Wirth, Ralph; Zull, Heribert; Streubel, Klaus P.

    2003-07-01

    The combination of wafer soldering using metal layers and the introduction of buried micro-reflector structures has proven to be a promising approach to fabricate high brightness, substrate-less LEDs in the AlGaInP material system. In addition to the enhanced light output, the scalability of this approach has been predicted as a major advantage. In contrast to other approaches, larger area LEDs can be fabricated without altering the epitaxial structure and thickness of layers simply by offering a larger area for light generation. First samples of amber (λ = 615 nm) buried micro-reflector LEDs with side-length up to 1000 μm have been realized. Devices mounted in packages with improved heat sinks are capable of low voltage CW operation with currents as high as 600 mA (Vfw<= 2,8 V) without significant thermal flattening of the light-current characteristics. The maximum luminous flux achieved at these oeprating conditions is 46 lumen. Already these first experiments demonstrate the potential of the concept of buried micro-reflector LEDs not only for high-brightness but also for high-current operation. The results are among the best values of high-flux LEDs in this wavelength range.

  7. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  8. Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Siggins, Timothy Lynn; Murray, Charles W.; Walker, Richard L.

    2007-01-23

    A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

  9. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  10. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  11. Electric signalling in fruit trees in response to water applications and light-darkness conditions.

    PubMed

    Gurovich, Luis A; Hermosilla, Paulo

    2009-02-15

    A fundamental property of all living organisms is the generation and conduction of electrochemical impulses throughout their different tissues and organs, resulting from abiotic and biotic changes in environmental conditions. In plants and animals, signal transmission can occur over long and short distances, and it can correspond to intra- and inter-cellular communication mechanisms that determine the physiological behaviour of the organism. Rapid plant and animal responses to environmental changes are associated with electrical excitability and signalling. The same molecules and pathways are used to drive physiological responses, which are characterized by movement (physical displacement) in animals and by continuous growth in plants. In the field of environmental plant electrophysiology, automatic and continuous measurements of electrical potential differences (DeltaEP) between plant tissues can be effectively used to study information transport mechanisms and physiological responses that result from external stimuli on plants. A critical mass of data on electrical behaviour in higher plants has accumulated in the last 5 years, establishing plant neurobiology as the most recent discipline of plant science. In this work, electrical potential differences were monitored continuously using Ag/AgCl microelectrodes, which were inserted 15mm deep into sapwood at various positions in the trunks of several fruit-bearing trees. Electrodes were referenced to an unpolarisable Ag/AgCl microelectrode, which was installed 5cm deep in the soil. Systematic patterns of DeltaEP during day-night cycles and at different conditions of soil water availability are discussed as alternative tools to assess early plant stress conditions. This research relates to the adaptive response of trees to soil water availability and light-darkness cycles.

  12. Light bullets and supercontinuum spectrum during femtosecond pulse filamentation under conditions of anomalous group-velocity dispersion in fused silicalicati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekalin, Sergei V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Smetanina, E. O.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2013-04-01

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental research on spectrum transformation and spatiotemporal distribution of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity during filamentation in fused silica. The formation of light bullets with a high power density is first observed in a femtosecond laser pulse in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1800 nm. The minimum duration of the light bullet is about two oscillation cycles of the light field.

  13. Influence of light colours on growth and stress response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Parto, M; Pilevarian, A A

    2013-02-01

    The influence of light colours on growth and stress response in rainbow trout Oncorhyncus mykiss (15.16 ± 0.29 cm; 32.27 ± 1.18 g) was studied. Fish were reared in 16 glass aquaria (140 × 30 × 80 cm) each with 12 fish under one of four different lighting spectra: yellow (546 nm), red (605 nm), blue (470 nm) and white (full spectrum, control). Experiments lasted 125 days. The stress response was evaluated by measuring cortisol levels. Body weight and total length of the fish reared under yellow light were greater compared with the other colour regimes while feed conversion ratio significantly lowers. Condition factor and specific growth rate, however, were not differentiated among experimental light treatments. Stressed fish showed lower cortisol levels under yellow light compared with other light exposures. The study indicates that under laboratory conditions, rainbow trout grow best under yellow light and that yellow light lowers the stress-induced cortisol response in this fish species.

  14. MISR empirical stray light corrections in high-contrast scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbacher, J. A.; Kahn, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    We diagnose the potential causes for the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's (MISR) persistent high aerosol optical depth (AOD) bias at low AOD with the aid of coincident MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery from NASA's Terra satellite. Stray light in the MISR instrument is responsible for a large portion of the high AOD bias in high-contrast scenes, such as broken-cloud scenes that are quite common over ocean. Discrepancies among MODIS and MISR nadir-viewing blue, green, red, and near-infrared images are used to optimize seven parameters individually for each wavelength, along with a background reflectance modulation term that is modeled separately, to represent the observed features. Independent surface-based AOD measurements from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the Marine Aerosol Network (MAN) are compared with MISR research aerosol retrieval algorithm (RA) AOD retrievals for 1118 coincidences to validate the corrections when applied to the nadir and off-nadir cameras. With these corrections, plus the baseline RA corrections and enhanced cloud screening applied, the median AOD bias for all data in the mid-visible (green, 558 nm) band decreases from 0.006 (0.020 for the MISR standard algorithm (SA)) to 0.000, and the RMSE decreases by 5 % (27 % compared to the SA). For AOD558 nm < 0.10, which includes about half the validation data, 68th percentile absolute AOD558 nm errors for the RA have dropped from 0.022 (0.034 for the SA) to < 0.02 (~ 0.018).

  15. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective. PMID:26561964

  16. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective.

  17. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  18. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  19. Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Mechanical Isolation of Highly Stable Antimonene under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ares, Pablo; Aguilar-Galindo, Fernando; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Aldave, Diego A; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Alcamí, Manuel; Martín, Fernando; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Antimonene fabricated by mechanical exfoliation is highly stable under atmospheric conditions over periods of months and even when immersed in water. Density functional theory confirms the experiments and predicts an electronic gap of ≈1 eV. These results highlight the use of antimonene for optoelectronics applications. PMID:27272099

  1. SCHOOL AIR CONDITIONING/CASE STUDY, MCPHERSON HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSTENBERG, JOE W.

    THE STANFORD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL PLANNING LABORATORIES CONDUCTED AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE MCPHERSON CITY SCHOOLS BY STUDYING THE EXISTING CONDITIONS, LOCAL ECONOMIES, AND POTENTIAL POPULATION GROWTH. IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT A NEW SENIOR HIGH BE BUILT TO HOUSE 700-750 STUDENTS, THE ANTICIPATED ENROLLMENT 10 YEARS AFTER…

  2. ROC study of four LCD displays under typical medical center lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve; Fetterly, Ken; Mandrekar, Jay; Harmsen, Scott; Bartholmai, Brian; Patton, Charles; Bishop, Alan; McCannel, Colin

    2006-03-01

    Nine observers reviewed a previously assembled library of 320 chest computed radiography (CR) images. Observers participated in four sessions, reading a different 1/4 of the sample on each of four liquid crystal displays: a 2-megapixel (MP) consumer color display, a 2-MP business color display, a 2-MP medical-grade gray display, and a 3-MP gray display. Each display was calibrated according to the DICOM Part 14 standard. The viewing application required observer log-in, then randomized the order of the subsample seen on the display, and timed the responses of the observer to render a 1-5 judgment on the absence or presence of ILD on chest CRs. Selections of 1-2 were considered negative, 3 was indeterminate, and 4-5 were positive. The order of viewing sessions was also randomized for each observer. The experiment was conducted under controlled lighting, temperature, and sound conditions to mimic conditions typically found in a patient examination room. Lighting was indirect, and illuminance at the display face was 195 +/- 8% lux and was monitored over the course of the experiment. The average observer sensitivity for the 2 MP color consumer, 2 MP business color, 2 MP gray, and 3 MP gray displays were 83.7%, 84.1%, 85.5%, and 86.7%, respectively. The only pairwise significant difference was between the 2-MP consumer color and the 2-MP gray (P = 0.05). Effect of order within a session was not significant (P = 0.21): period 1 (84.3%), period 2 (86.2%), period 3 (85.4%), period 4 (84.1%). Observer specificity for the various displays was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). Finally, a timing analysis showed no significant difference between the displays for the user group (P = 0.13), ranging from 5.3 s (2 MP color business) to 5.9 s (3 MP Gray). There was, however, a reduction in time over the study that was significant (P < 0.001) for all users; the group average decreased from 6.5 to 4.7 s per image. Physical measurements of the resolution, contrast, and noise

  3. An assessment of high-power light-emitting diodes for high frame rate schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willert, Christian E.; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Soria, Julio

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of using high-power light-emitting diodes (LED) as a light source for high frame rate schlieren imaging is investigated. Continuous sequences of high-intensity light pulses are achieved by overdriving the LED with current pulses up to a factor of ten beyond its specifications. In comparison to commonly used pulsed light sources such as gas discharge lamps and pulsed lasers, the pulsed LED has several attractive advantages: the pulse-to-pulse intensity variation is on the same order of magnitude as the detector (camera) noise permitting quantitative intensity measurements. The LED's narrow emission bandwidth reduces chromatic abberations, yet it is spectrally wide enough to prevent the appearance of speckle and diffraction effects in the images. Most importantly, the essentially lag-free light emission within tens of nanoseconds of the applied current pulse allows the LED to be operated at varying frequencies (i.e., asynchronously), which generally is not possible with neither lasers nor discharge lamps. The pulsed LED source, driven by a simple driver circuit, is demonstrated on two schlieren imaging setups. The first configuration visualizes the temporal evolution of shock structures and sound waves of an under-expanded jet that is impinging on a rigid surface at frame rates of 500 kHz to 1 MHz. In a second application, long sequences of several thousand high-resolution images are acquired on a free jet at a frame rate of 1 kHz. The low-intensity fluctuation and large sample number allow a reliable computation of two-point correlation data from the image sequences.

  4. Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qian; Chen Xihao; Luo Kaihong; Wu Lingan; Wu Wei

    2009-05-15

    The intrinsic higher-order correlation of intensities which gives a measure of 'pure' correlations among photons (corresponding to multiphoton bunching) is investigated with regard to ghost imaging with thermal light. The synchronous detection of the same light field by all reference detectors, which is a necessary condition for achieving an Nth-order ghost image based on N-photon bunching, is discussed. Furthermore, it is found that the enhanced high visibility of Nth-order ghost imaging is a consequence of the contribution of N-photon bunching, which is not a small value but is equal to the sum of all contributions from (N-1)-photon bunching. These results differ from those obtained by certain other groups.

  5. Development of UV-LED Phosphor Coatings for High Efficiency Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    U. Happek

    2005-01-01

    The University of Georgia, in collaboration with GE Global Research, is investigating the relevant quenching mechanism of phosphor coatings used in white light devices based on UV LEDs in a focused eighteen month program. The final goal is the design of high-efficacy white UV-LEDs through improved and optimized phosphor coatings. At the end of the first year, we have reached a fundamental understanding of quenching processes in UV-LED phosphors and have observed severe quenching in standard devices under extreme operating conditions. Relationships are being established that describe the performance of the phosphor as a function of photon flux, temperature, and phosphor composition. These relationships will provide a road map for the design of efficient white light LEDs during the final six months of the project.

  6. Light-Drag Enhancement by a Highly Dispersive Rubidium Vapor.

    PubMed

    Safari, Akbar; De Leon, Israel; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The change in the speed of light as it propagates through a moving material has been a subject of study for almost two centuries. This phenomenon, known as the Fresnel light-drag effect, is quite small and usually requires a large interaction path length and/or a large velocity of the moving medium to be observed. Here, we show experimentally that the observed drag effect can be enhanced by over 2 orders of magnitude when the light beam propagates through a moving slow-light medium. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, which indicates that, in the limit of large group indices, the strength of the light-drag effect is proportional to the group index of the moving medium. PMID:26799017

  7. Light-Drag Enhancement by a Highly Dispersive Rubidium Vapor.

    PubMed

    Safari, Akbar; De Leon, Israel; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The change in the speed of light as it propagates through a moving material has been a subject of study for almost two centuries. This phenomenon, known as the Fresnel light-drag effect, is quite small and usually requires a large interaction path length and/or a large velocity of the moving medium to be observed. Here, we show experimentally that the observed drag effect can be enhanced by over 2 orders of magnitude when the light beam propagates through a moving slow-light medium. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, which indicates that, in the limit of large group indices, the strength of the light-drag effect is proportional to the group index of the moving medium.

  8. Prospects for high-gain, high yield NIF targets driven by 2ω (green) light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S.; Haan, S.; Hammel, B.; Manes, K.; Meezan, N.; Moody, J.; Spaeth, M.; Oades, K.; Stevenson, M.

    2016-10-01

    For several years we have been exploring the possibility of using green (2w) light for indirect drive ignition on NIF. The rationale for this work is the possibility of extracting significantly more energy from NIF in green light, as compared to blue (3w) light, and driving far more energetic capsules than we originally envisioned when we started planning NIF in the early 1990's. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the progress we have made exploring 2w for NIF ignition. First we describe the potential operating regime for NIF at 2w and how that can translate into a very large "design space" for exploring ignition target designs. We then present the results of 2w ignition target design studies indicating that we can achieving adequate drive and symmetry with 2w and showing how we might capitalize on the large amount of energy available by electing to trade-off coupling efficiency for, say, better symmetry or plasma conditions. These simulations also define plasma conditions for ignition-relevant 2w laser-plasma interaction experiments that have been recently performed. We summarize the results of these experiments which indicate that 2w LPI is not very different from 3w's. Finally, we show how recent experimental findings on mitigating 2w laser plasma interactions through reduced intensity and/or judicious choice of plasma composition can be incorporated into ignition target designs.

  9. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers.

  10. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation under continuous light: implications for paleoenvironmental interpretations of the High Arctic during Paleogene warming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Pagani, Mark; Briggs, Derek E G; Equiza, M A; Jagels, Richard; Leng, Qin; Lepage, Ben A

    2009-06-01

    The effect of low intensity continuous light, e.g., in the High Arctic summer, on plant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionations is unknown. We conducted greenhouse experiments to test the impact of light quantity and duration on both carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of three deciduous conifers whose fossil counterparts were components of Paleogene Arctic floras: Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taxodium distichum, and Larix laricina. We found that plant leaf bulk carbon isotopic values of the examined species were 1.75-4.63 per thousand more negative under continuous light (CL) than under diurnal light (DL). Hydrogen isotope values of leaf n-alkanes under continuous light conditions revealed a D-enriched hydrogen isotope composition of up to 40 per thousand higher than in diurnal light conditions. The isotope offsets between the two light regimes is explained by a higher ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C (i)/C (a)) and more water loss for plants under continuous light conditions during a 24-h transpiration cycle. Apparent hydrogen isotope fractionations between source water and individual lipids (epsilon(lipid-water)) range from -62 per thousand (Metasequoia C(27) and C(29)) to -87 per thousand (Larix C(29)) in leaves under continuous light. We applied these hydrogen fractionation factors to hydrogen isotope compositions of in situ n-alkanes from well-preserved Paleogene deciduous conifer fossils from the Arctic region to estimate the deltaD value in ancient precipitation. Precipitation in the summer growing season yielded a deltaD of -186 per thousand for late Paleocene, -157 per thousand for early middle Eocene, and -182 per thousand for late middle Eocene. We propose that high-latitude summer precipitation in this region was supplemented by moisture derived from regionally recycled transpiration of the polar forests that grew during the Paleogene warming.

  11. Several high speed multiplier theory for low-light-level technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiancang; Zhang, Liuqiang; Xiao, Haijun; Zhao, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Low-light-level image intensifier images weak optical signal through electron multiplication process in Low-light-level night vision device, the key technology of intensifier is electron multiplier, the thesis put forward three kinds of electron multiplication methods. One is that the electron multiplier device is the avalanche transistor made use of the semiconductor material, the thesis analyses the photoelectric conversion theory and rapid multiplication avalanche breakdown conditions with PN junction of the avalanche diode under reverse bias by light excitation; the second approach is to use gas discharge theory to explains the electron multiplication process in the low-pressure gas and high-pressure gas discharging breakdown by photon excitation; the third method is photoelectron multiplication gain theory,in the microchannel plate (MCP) as the second generation image intensifier in vacuum condition and the applied voltage. The thesis analyses that the electronic gain efficiency is better than the other two methods ,and proposes the avalanche transistor can be key device of image intensifier.

  12. Multiple stressor effects of high light irradiance and photosynthetic herbicides on growth and survival of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beat B; Rüfenacht, Karin; Dannenhauer, Kerstin; Wiesendanger, Manuela; Eggen, Rik I L

    2010-10-01

    Exposure of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard to a combination of environmental stress by high light irradiance and chemical stress by each of the three herbicides paraquat, atrazine, and norflurazon resulted in diverse multiple stressor effects on growth and survival of the cells. Under low light conditions, growth analyzed by cell numbers was generally more sensitive to herbicide treatment than optical density-based growth rates or colony-forming unit endpoints, which both also analyzed the viability of the cells. However, growth analyzed by optical density and colony-forming units in herbicide-treated cultures was affected much more strongly by high light irradiance, as shown by reduced 50% effective concentrations, indicating extensive multiple stressor effects of the combined treatment on the viability of the cells. None of the currently used concepts for mixture toxicity (concentration addition, independent action, or effect summation) could accurately describe the effects measured by the two stressors in combination. Both synergistic and antagonistic interactions seem to occur depending on the light conditions and the parameter analyzed. The strong stimulation of toxicity by the combined stresses can be explained by the similar mode of toxic action of the treatments, all increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. Antagonistic effects, conversely, are probably attributable to the various protection mechanisms of photosynthetic organisms to increased light irradiance, which help the cells acclimate to specific light conditions and defend against the deleterious effects of excess light. These protection mechanisms can affect growth and viability under increased light conditions and also might influence the toxicity of the photosynthetic herbicides.

  13. Multiple stressor effects of high light irradiance and photosynthetic herbicides on growth and survival of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beat B; Rüfenacht, Karin; Dannenhauer, Kerstin; Wiesendanger, Manuela; Eggen, Rik I L

    2010-10-01

    Exposure of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard to a combination of environmental stress by high light irradiance and chemical stress by each of the three herbicides paraquat, atrazine, and norflurazon resulted in diverse multiple stressor effects on growth and survival of the cells. Under low light conditions, growth analyzed by cell numbers was generally more sensitive to herbicide treatment than optical density-based growth rates or colony-forming unit endpoints, which both also analyzed the viability of the cells. However, growth analyzed by optical density and colony-forming units in herbicide-treated cultures was affected much more strongly by high light irradiance, as shown by reduced 50% effective concentrations, indicating extensive multiple stressor effects of the combined treatment on the viability of the cells. None of the currently used concepts for mixture toxicity (concentration addition, independent action, or effect summation) could accurately describe the effects measured by the two stressors in combination. Both synergistic and antagonistic interactions seem to occur depending on the light conditions and the parameter analyzed. The strong stimulation of toxicity by the combined stresses can be explained by the similar mode of toxic action of the treatments, all increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. Antagonistic effects, conversely, are probably attributable to the various protection mechanisms of photosynthetic organisms to increased light irradiance, which help the cells acclimate to specific light conditions and defend against the deleterious effects of excess light. These protection mechanisms can affect growth and viability under increased light conditions and also might influence the toxicity of the photosynthetic herbicides. PMID:20872684

  14. Proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under high gravity fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Chong, Poh Kuan; Gan, Chee Sian; Wright, Phillip C

    2006-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae KAY446 was utilized for ethanol production, with glucose concentrations ranging from 120 g/L (normal) to 300 g/L (high). Although grown in a high glucose environment, S. cerevisiae still retained the ability to produce ethanol with a high degree of glucose utilization. iTRAQ-mediated shotgun proteomics was applied to identify relative expression change of proteins under the different glucose conditions. A total of 413 proteins were identified from three replicate, independent LC-MS/MS runs. Unsurprisingly, many proteins in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway showed significant changes in expression level. Twenty five proteins involved in amino acid metabolism decreased their expression, while the expressions of 12 heat-shock related proteins were also identified. Under high glucose conditions, ethanol was produced as a major product. However, the assimilation of glucose as well as a number of byproducts was also enhanced. Therefore, to optimize the ethanol production under very high gravity conditions, a number of pathways will need to be deactivated, while still maintaining the correct cellular redox or osmotic state. Proteomics is demonstrated here as a tool to aid in this forward metabolic engineering.

  15. Adaptation of iron requirement to hypoxic conditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Max; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2015-12-15

    Adequate acclimatization time to enable adjustment to hypoxic conditions is one of the most important aspects for mountaineers ascending to high altitude. Accordingly, most reviews emphasize mechanisms that cope with reduced oxygen supply. However, during sojourns to high altitude adjustment to elevated iron demand is equally critical. Thus in this review we focus on the interaction between oxygen and iron homeostasis. We review the role of iron 1) in the oxygen sensing process and erythropoietin (Epo) synthesis, 2) in gene expression control mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-2 (HIF-2), and 3) as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes. The blood hormone Epo that is abundantly expressed by the kidney under hypoxic conditions stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a process requiring high iron levels. To ensure that sufficient iron is provided, Epo-controlled erythroferrone that is expressed in erythroid precursor cells acts in the liver to reduce expression of the iron hormone hepcidin. Consequently, suppression of hepcidin allows for elevated iron release from storage organs and enhanced absorption of dietary iron by enterocytes. As recently observed in sojourners at high altitude, however, iron uptake may be hampered by reduced appetite and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reduced iron availability, as observed in a hypoxic mountaineer, enhances hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and may contribute to other hypoxia-related diseases. Overall, adequate systemic iron availability is an important prerequisite to adjust to high-altitude hypoxia and may have additional implications for disease-related hypoxic conditions.

  16. [HIGH ALTITUDE EXPOSURE IN TRAVELERS WITH PREEXISTING MEDICAL CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Dalya Navat; Leshem, Eyal; Chazan, Bibiana; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-11-01

    The number of travelers visiting high altitude regions is increasing. High altitude areas have become more accessible in recent years, and reaching areas at altitudes over 3000 meters above sea level has become more common than before. In many circumstances older travelers, who are more likely to have pre-existing chronic diseases and for whom altitude and hypoxic condition might be a risk, reach high altitudes in a fast and tight schedule, therefore having a shorter time for adaptation and acclimatization. Pre-travel consultation, including the discussion of chronic illnesses and medication use, is therefore crucial for the reduction of the risk of acute mountain sickness and preventing the deterioration of their pre-existing medical conditions.

  17. Far red/near infrared light-induced cardioprotection under normal and diabetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszler, Agnes; Baumgardt, Shelley; Hwe, Christopher; Bienengraeber, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Far red/near infrared light (NIR) is beneficial against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R), although the exact underlying mechanism is unknown. Previously we established that NIR enhanced the cardioprotective effect of nitrite in the rabbit heart. Furthermore, we observed that the nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO) level in ischemic tissue decreased upon irradiation of the heart. Our hypothesis was that protection against I/R is dependent on nitric oxide (NO)-release from heme-proteins, and remains present during diabetes. When mice were subjected to I/R NIR (660 nm) applied during the beginning of reperfusion reduced infarct size dose dependently compared to untreated animals. Similarly, the isolated (Langendorff) heart model resulted in sustained left ventricular diastolic pressure after I/R in NIR-treated hearts. NIRinduced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db) and during acute hyperglycemia. NIR liberated NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO) and MbNO as well as from HbNO isolated from the blood of diabetic animals. In the Langendorff model, after application of the nitrosylated form of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as an NO donor NIR induced an increase in NADH level, suggesting a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by NO during reperfusion. Taken together, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against I/R in a NO-dependent and mitochondrion-targeted manner. This unique mechanism is conserved under diabetic conditions where other protective strategies fail.

  18. Bifurcation boundary conditions for current programmed PWM DC-DC converters at light loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2012-10-01

    Three types of bifurcations (instabilities) in the PWM DC-DC converter at light loading under current mode control in continuous-conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM) are analysed: saddle-node bifurcation (SNB) in CCM or DCM, border-collision bifurcation during the CCM-DCM transition, and period-doubling bifurcation in CCM. Different bifurcations occur in some particular loading ranges. Bifurcation boundary conditions separating stable regions from unstable regions in the parametric space are derived. A new methodology to analyse the SNB in the buck converter based on the peak inductor current is proposed. The same methodology is applied to analyse the other types of bifurcations and converters. In the buck converter, multiple stable/unstable CCM/DCM steady-state solutions may coexist. Possibility of multiple solutions deserves careful study, because an ignored solution may merge with a desired stable solution and make both disappear. Understanding of SNB can explain some sudden disappearances or jumps of steady-state solutions observed in switching converters.

  19. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-11-15

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  20. Analysis of the Fine-Tuning of Cyanobacterial Circadian Phase by Monochromatic Light and Long-Day Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Obana, Yuji; Kuboi, Naoyuki; Kitayama, Yohko; Hayashi, Shingo; Oka, Masataka; Wada, Naomichi; Arita, Kyouhei; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Kanaly, Robert A; Kutsuna, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian-related protein, Pex, accumulates in the dark period of the diurnal light-dark cycle. After the diurnal cycle, an approximately 3 h advance in the phase of the circadian bioluminescence rhythm is observed in pex-deficient mutants, as compared with the wild type. However, it is unclear what type of photosensing mechanism regulates the accumulation and the phase change. In monochromatic light irradiation experiments, Pex accumulation was strongly repressed under blue light conditions; however, only small reductions in Pex accumulation were observed under red or green light conditions. After the diurnal cycle of 12 h of white fluorescent light and 12 h of blue light, the phase advance was repressed more than that of the cycle of 12 h red (or green) light. The phase advance also occurred after 16 h light/8 h dark cycles (long-day cycles) but did not occur after 8 h light/16 h dark cycles (short-day cycles). While Pex is a unique winged helix transcription factor harboring secondary structures (α0 and α4 helices), the importance of the structures is not understood. In in vivo experiments with site-directed mutations in the α0 helix, the obtained mutants, in which Pex was missing the hydrophobic side chain at the 28th or 32nd amino acid residue, exhibited no phase delay after the light/dark cycle. In in vitro DNA binding assays, the mutant proteins showed no binding to the promoter region of the clock gene kaiA. From these results, we propose a molecular model which describes the phase delay in cyanobacteria. PMID:26578695

  1. Effects of Geroprotectors on Age-Related Changes in Proteolytic Digestive Enzyme Activities at Different Lighting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morozov, A V; Khizhkin, E A; Svechkina, E B; Vinogradova, I A; Ilyukha, V A; Anisimov, V N; Khavinson, V Kh

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effect of melatonin and epithalon on age-related changes in proteolytic digestive enzyme activity in the pancreas and gastric mucosa of rats kept under different lighting conditions. In rats kept under standard illumination, pepsin activity and the total proteolytic activity in the stomach and pancreas increased by the age of 12 months, but then decreased. Constant and natural lighting disturbed the age dynamics of proteolytic digestive enzyme activity. Administration of melatonin and epithalon to animals exposed to constant lighting restored age dynamics of pepsin activity and little affected total proteolytic activity.

  2. Coupled effects of director orientations and boundary conditions on light induced bending of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline polymer plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yue; Xu, Changwei; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2012-12-01

    A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design.

  3. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  4. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  5. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source for VASIMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition.

  6. Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, T.; Tran, C.; Chu, C.; Chen, C.; Liu, W. H.; Chu, J.; Yen, K.; Chen, H.; Fan, F.

    2007-09-01

    Vertical GaN based Light Emitting Diodes on metal alloy substrate (VLEDMS) were realized and characterized for solid state lighting application. An efficiency of more than 100 lumens/watt from a white LED was achieved. And, an efficiency of more than 80 lumens/watt from a high efficiency and high power green LED was achieved also. The dissipate heat more effectively than conventional and flip-chip LEDs, thanks to the higher thermal conductivity of a copper alloy substrate. This increases their maximum operating current and output power and makes them more suitable for solid-state lighting applications. In addition, these VLEDMS exhibit many advantages over those on sapphire under extreme operation conditions for general lighting application.

  7. Constraints on light noble gas partitioning at the conditions of spinel-peridotite melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Colin R. M.; Parman, Stephen W.; Kelley, Simon P.; Cooper, Reid F.

    2013-12-01

    Helium partitioning between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel and basaltic melt has been experimentally determined under upper mantle melting conditions (up to 20 kbar and 1450 °C). Under the conditions explored, helium partition coefficients are similar in all minerals investigated (KdHe˜10-4), suggesting He is evenly distributed between the minerals of spinel peridotite. This is in contrast to most incompatible elements, which are concentrated in clinopyroxene in spinel peridotite. The studied minerals have different concentrations of point defects, but similar He solubility, providing no evidence for He partitioning onto specific defects sites (e.g. cation vacancies). Upper limits on the partition coefficients for Ne and Ar have also been determined, constraining these elements to be moderately to highly incompatible in olivine at the conditions of spinel peridotite melting (<10-2 and <10-3, respectively). Helium partitioning in peridotite minerals varies little within the range of temperatures, pressures, and mineral compositions explored in this study. Reported partition coefficients, in combination with previous work, suggest that moderate to high degree mantle melting is not an efficient mechanism for increasing (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, or K/Ar of the depleted mantle (DMM) through time, and consequently, supports the argument that recycling of oceanic crust is largely responsible for the relatively strong radiogenic noble gas signatures in the depleted mantle. Mantle residues with lowered (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, and K/Ar may be produced through large extents of melting, but concentrations of noble gases will be low, unless noble gas solubility in solids deviate from Henry's Law at high fugacity.

  8. Geometric conditions for reflection measurement II: effects of light trap size of integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Gorow; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2002-06-01

    Many samples with various color and gloss grades were measured by the spectrophotometer with integrating sphere, of which light trap size was variable. Samples include white plaques, ceramic tiles, paint panels, ink-jet printings, textiles and metal surfaces. For these samples, lightness and chromaticness change with light trap size, which is relate to the elimination of surface reflection, was examined. In case of color measurement, using integrating sphere, colorimetric values are affected by the light trap size, when gloss grade of sample is different.

  9. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, A.; Danzeca, S.; Losito, R.; Peronnard, P.; Secondo, R.; Spiezia, G.

    2014-05-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. The algorithm validation and board architecture are described. A full metrological characterization of the module is reported and radiation tests results are discussed.

  10. Rhythm of carbon and nitrogen fixation in unicellular cyanobacteria under turbulent and highly aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Viswanathan, Ganesh A; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are being increasingly explored for nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production. Commercial success however will depend on the ability to grow these cultures at high cell densities. Photo-limitation at high cell densities leads to hindered photoautotrophic growth while turbulent conditions, which simulate flashing light effect, can lead to oxygen toxicity to the nitrogenase enzyme. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142, a known hydrogen producer, is reported to grow and fix nitrogen under moderately oxic conditions in shake flasks. In this study, we explore the growth and nitrogen fixing potential of this organism under turbulent conditions with volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KL a) values that are up to 20-times greater than in shake flasks. In a stirred vessel, the organism grows well in turbulent regime possibly due to a simulated flashing light effect with optimal growth at Reynolds number of approximately 35,000. A respiratory burst lasting for about 4 h creates anoxic conditions intracellularly with near saturating levels of dissolved oxygen in the extracellular medium. This is concomitant with complete exhaustion of intracellular glycogen storage and upregulation of nifH and nifX, the genes encoding proteins of the nitrogenase complex. Further, the rhythmic oscillations in exhaust gas CO2 and O2 profiles synchronize faithfully with those in biochemical parameters and gene expression thereby serving as an effective online monitoring tool. These results will have important implications in potential commercial success of nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production by cyanobacteria.

  11. Operating synchrotron light sources with a high gain free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-11-01

    Since the 1980s synchrotron light sources have been considered as drivers of a high repetition rate (RR), high gain free electron laser (FEL) inserted in a by-pass line or in the ring itself. As of today, the high peak current required by the laser is not deemed to be compatible with the standard multi-bunch filling pattern of synchrotrons, and in particular with the operation of insertion device (ID) beamlines. We show that this problem can be overcome by virtue of magnetic bunch length compression in a ring section, and that, after lasing, the beam returns to equilibrium conditions without beam quality disruption. Bunch length compression brings a double advantage: the high peak current stimulates a high gain FEL emission, while the large energy spread makes the beam less sensitive to the FEL heating and to the microwave instability in the ring. The beam’s large energy spread at the undulator is matched to the FEL energy bandwidth through a transverse gradient undulator. Feasibility of lasing at 25 nm is shown for the Elettra synchrotron light source at 1 GeV, and scaling to shorter wavelengths as a function of momentum compaction, beam energy and transverse emittance in higher energy, larger rings is discussed. For the Elettra case study, a low (100 Hz) and a high (463 kHz) FEL RR are considered, corresponding to an average FEL output power at the level of ∼1 W (∼1013 photons per pulse) and ∼300 W (∼1011 photons per pulse), respectively. We also find that, as a by-product of compression, the ∼5 W Renieri’s limit on the average FEL power can be overcome. Our conclusion is that existing and planned synchrotron light sources may be made compatible with this new hybrid IDs-plus-FEL operational mode, with little impact on the standard beamlines functionality.

  12. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  13. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assef, R. J.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  14. Ultra-High Speed Fabrication of TiO2 Photoanode by Flash Light for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a new way to fabricate nanoporous TiO2 photoanode by flash light is demonstrated. TiO2 nanoparticles are sintered on FTO glass by flash light irradiation at room temperature in ambient condition, which is dramatically simple, ultrahigh speed and one-shot large area fabrication process compared to a conventional high temperature (120 °C) thermal sintering process. The effect of the flash light conditions (flash light energy, pulse numbers and pulse duration) on the nanostructures of sintered TiO2 layer, was studied and discussed using several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as SEM, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The sintered TiO2 photoanodes by flash light were used in DSSC and its performance were compared with that of DSSC fabricated by conventional thermal sintering process. It was found that a flash light sintered TiO2 photoanode has efficiency which is similar to that of the thermal sintered photoanode. It is expected that the newly developed flash light sintering technique of TiO2 nanoparticles would be a strong alternative to realize the room temperature and in-situ sintering of photoanode fabrication for outdoor solar cell fabrication.

  15. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  16. Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2014-04-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using LEDs has attracted significant attention recently for the future secure, license-free and electromagnetic-interference (EMI)-free optical wireless communication. Dimming technique in LED lamp is advantageous for energy efficiency. Color control can be performed in the red-green-blue (RGB) LEDs by using dimming technique. It is highly desirable to employ dimming technique to provide simultaneous color and dimming control and high speed VLC. Here, we proposed and demonstrated a LED dimming control using dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) modulation. High speed DMT-based VLC with simultaneous color and dimming control is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Demonstration and analyses for several modulation conditions and transmission distances are performed, for instance, demonstrating the data rate of 103.5 Mb/s (using RGB LED) with fast Fourier transform (FFT) size of 512.

  17. Method and technique for installing light-weight, fragile, high-temperature fiber insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of installing fragile, light weight, high temperature fiber insulation, particularly where the insulation is to be used as a seal strip providing a high order of thermal barrier insulation is discussed. The process is based on provision of a strip of the mineral batting cut oversize by a predetermined amount, saturated in a fugitive polymer solution, compressed in a mold, dried and cured to form a rigidized batting material which is machined to required shape. The machine dimensions would normally be at least nominally less than the dimensions of the cavity to be sealed. After insertion in the cavity, which may be a wire-mesh seal enclosure, the apparatus is subjected to baking at a temperature sufficiently high to cause the resin to burn off cleanly, leaving the batting substantially in its original condition and expanded into the cavity or seal enclosure.

  18. A method and technique for installing light-weight fragile, high-temperature fiber insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballantine, T. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of installing fragile, light-weight, high-temperature fiber insulation, particularly where the insulation is to be used as a seal strip providing a high order of thermal barrier insulation is described. The process is based on provision of a strip of the mineral batting cut oversize by a predetermined amount, saturated in a fugitive polymer solution, compressed in a mold, dried and cured to form a rigidized batting material which may be machined to required shape. The machined dimensions would normally be at least nominally less than the dimensions of the cavity to be sealed. After insertion in the cavity, which may be a wire-mesh seal enclosure, the apparatus is subjected to baking at a temperature sufficiently high to cause the resin to burn off cleanly, leaving the batting substantially in its original condition and expanded into the cavity or seal enclosure.

  19. Third user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bolme, Cynthia Anne; Glenzer, Sigfried; Fry, Alan

    2016-03-24

    On October 5–6, 2015, the third international user workshop focusing on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was held in Menlo Park, CA, USA [1 R. Falcone, S. Glenzer, and S. Hau-Riege, Synchrotron Radiation News 27(2), 56–58 (2014)., 2 P. Heimann and S. Glenzer, Synchrotron Radiation News 28(3), 54–56 (2015).]. Here, the workshop was co-organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. More than 110 scientists attended from North America, Europe, and Asia to discuss high-energy-density (HED) science that is enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the LCLS X-rays at themore » LCLS-Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation.« less

  20. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 newmore » experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.« less

  1. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 new experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.

  2. Photosynthetic traits of Siebold's beech seedlings in changing light conditions by removal of shading trees under elevated CO₂.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Kitaoka, S; Eguchi, N; Watanabe, Y; Satomura, T; Takagi, K; Satoh, F; Koike, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain basic information on acclimation capacity of photosynthesis in Siebold's beech seedlings to increasing light intensity under future elevated CO2 conditions. We monitored leaf photosynthetic traits of these seedlings in changing light conditions (before removal of shade trees, the year after removal of shade trees and after acclimation to open conditions) in a 10-year free air CO2 enrichment experiment in northern Japan. Elevated CO2 did not affect photosynthetic traits such as leaf mass per area, nitrogen content and biochemical photosynthetic capacity of chloroplasts (i.e. maximum rate of carboxylation and maximum rate of electron transport) before removal of the shade trees and after acclimation to open conditions; in fact, a higher net photosynthetic rate was maintained under elevated CO2 . However, in the year after removal of the shade trees, there was no increase in photosynthesis rate under elevated CO2 conditions. This was not due to photoinhibition. In ambient CO2 conditions, leaf mass per area and nitrogen content were higher in the year after removal of shade trees than before, whereas there was no increase under elevated CO2 conditions. These results indicate that elevated CO2 delays the acclimation of photosynthetic traits of Siebold's beech seedlings to increasing light intensity.

  3. Effects of carbon source and light intensity on the growth and total lipid production of three microalgae under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Moon Jong; Kim, Pyung Il; Kim, Si Wouk

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to enhance the growth and total lipid production of three microalgal species, Isochrysis galbana LB987, Nannochloropsis oculata CCAP849/1, and Dunaliella salina, which are capable of accumulating high content of lipid in cells. Low nitrogen concentration under photoautotrophic conditions stimulated total lipid production, but a decreasing total lipid content and an increasing biomass were observed with increasing nitrogen concentration. Among the different carbon sources tested for heterotrophic cultivation, glucose improved the growth of all three strains. The optimal glucose concentration for growth of I. galbana LB987 and N. oculata CCAP849/1 was 0.02 M, and that of D. salina was 0.05 M. Enhanced growth occurred when they were cultivated under heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions compared with photoautotrophic conditions. Meanwhile, high total lipid accumulation in cells occurred when they were cultivated under photoautotrophic or mixotrophic conditions. During mixotrophic cultivation, biomass production was not affected significantly by light intensity; however, both chlorophyll concentration and total lipid content increased dramatically with increasing light intensity up to 150 µmol/m(2)/s. The amount and composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in cells were different from each other depending on both species and light intensity. The highest accumulation of total fatty acid (C16-C18) among the three strains was found from cells of N. oculata CCAP849/1, which indicates that this species can be used as a source for production of biodiesel. PMID:26856592

  4. High-quality green tea leaf production by artificial cultivation under growth chamber conditions considering amino acids profile.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Shunsuke; Yuki, Takayuki; Fuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Kunio; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-12-01

    The current study focused on the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) as a target for artificial cultivation because of the variation in its components in response to light conditions. We analyzed its sensory quality by multi-marker profiling using multicomponent data based on metabolomics to optimize the conditions of light and the environment during cultivation. From the analysis of high-quality tea samples ranked in a tea contest, the ranking predictive model was created by the partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to examine the correlation between the amino-acid content (X variables) and the ranking in the tea contest (Y variables). The predictive model revealed that glutamine, arginine, and theanine were the predominant amino acids present in high-ranking teas. Based on this result, we established a cover-culture condition (i.e., a low-light intensity condition) during the later stage of the culture process and obtained artificially cultured tea samples, which were predicted to be high-quality teas. The aim of the current study was to optimize the light conditions for the cultivation of tea plants by performing data analysis of their sensory qualities through multi-marker profiling in order to facilitate the development of high-quality teas by plant factories.

  5. High-quality green tea leaf production by artificial cultivation under growth chamber conditions considering amino acids profile.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Shunsuke; Yuki, Takayuki; Fuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Kunio; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-12-01

    The current study focused on the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) as a target for artificial cultivation because of the variation in its components in response to light conditions. We analyzed its sensory quality by multi-marker profiling using multicomponent data based on metabolomics to optimize the conditions of light and the environment during cultivation. From the analysis of high-quality tea samples ranked in a tea contest, the ranking predictive model was created by the partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to examine the correlation between the amino-acid content (X variables) and the ranking in the tea contest (Y variables). The predictive model revealed that glutamine, arginine, and theanine were the predominant amino acids present in high-ranking teas. Based on this result, we established a cover-culture condition (i.e., a low-light intensity condition) during the later stage of the culture process and obtained artificially cultured tea samples, which were predicted to be high-quality teas. The aim of the current study was to optimize the light conditions for the cultivation of tea plants by performing data analysis of their sensory qualities through multi-marker profiling in order to facilitate the development of high-quality teas by plant factories. PMID:24915994

  6. Seasonal variation in the structure of three Mediterranean algal communities in various light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Ruth; Uriz, Maria J.; Ballesteros, Enric; Turon, Xavier

    2005-09-01

    Three algal communities subjected to different light conditions were analysed using structure descriptors such as α-diversity (Shannon diversity index), similarity (Kulczynski index), diversity/area and similarity/area curves, the number and size of patches and their spatial distribution (Morisita index). The data used to calculate the structure descriptors were obtained from 20 pictures taken at random in each community in June (Spring) and November (Autumn) to assess seasonal variation. The value of α-diversity was quite similar in all communities. The structural minimal area obtained from the spectra of diversity at increasing areas was higher in the photophilic and the hemisciaphilic communities than in the sciaphilic. Moreover, this area was smaller in November than in June in the three communities. Seasonal variation was also detected for the Kulczynski similarity index in the photophilic and hemisciaphilic communities, with similarity values higher in November than in June, which points to the stronger homogeneity of the communities in November. As for the distribution patterns, the number of species with a clumped distribution decreased from the sciaphilic to the photophilic communities. Species distribution showed seasonal variation in the photophilic and, to a lesser extent, in the hemisciaphilic community. These communities had smaller but more numerous patches in November than in June. It is concluded that most of the used descriptors indicate a higher seasonal variation of community structure in the most illuminated communities (i.e. the photophilic and to a lesser extent the hemisciaphilic communities) than in the least illuminated one (i.e. the sciaphilic).

  7. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  8. Long-term adaptive response to high-frequency light signals in the unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Combe, Charlotte; Hartmann, Philipp; Rabouille, Sophie; Talec, Amelie; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Productivity of microalgal cultivation processes is tightly related to photosynthetic efficiency, and therefore to light availability at the cell scale. In an agitated, highly turbid suspension,the light signal received by a single phytoplankton cell moving in a dense culture is a succession of flashes. The growth characteristics of microalgae under such dynamic light conditions are thus fundamental information to understand nonlinear properties of the photosynthetic process and to improve cultivation process design and operation. Studies of the long term consequences of dynamic illumination regime on photosynthesis require a very specific experimental set-up where fast varying signals are applied on the long term. In order to investigate the growth response of the unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae) to intermittent light exposure, different light regimes using LEDs with the same average total light dose were applied in continuous cultures. Flashing light with different durations of light flashes (△t of 30 s, 15 s, 2 s and 0.1 s) followed by dark periods of variable length (0.67 ≤ L:D ≤ 2) yielding flash frequencies in the range 0.017-5 Hz, were compared to continuous illumination. Specific growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, lipid productivity and elemental composition were measured on two duplicates for each irradiance condition. The different treatments of intermittent light led to specific growth rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 day(-1) . While photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced with increased flash frequency, no significant differences were observed in the particular carbon and chlorophyll content. Pigment analysis showed that within this range of flash frequency, cells progressively photoacclimated to the average light intensity.

  9. Fruit maturation, not deteriorating light conditions, is the primary cue of senescence in a spring ephemeral annual plant--Floerkea proserpinacoides (Limnanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Ines Ben; Houle, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    In monocarpic plants, reproduction is closely associated with senescence, which is itself often correlated to specific environmental signals. Floerkea proserpinacoides (Limnanthaceae) is a spring ephemeral annual of the deciduous forests of eastern North America. The phenology of its growth and reproduction is considered to be a specific adaptation to the short period during which there is a high availability of resources (mostly light). Indeed, flowering starts 2-3 wk following seedling emergence soon after snowmelt and continues until tree canopy closure. However, fruit maturation is postponed for several weeks and is followed by the plant's death. The objective of this study is to determine if senescence in F. proserpinacoides is primarily cued by fruit maturation or deteriorating light conditions associated with tree canopy closure. Plants for which reproductive investment was manipulated by removing their carpels were grown either in full light or in the shade. Carpel-removal plants reached a higher biomass than control plants (46.0- 57.5% higher), especially in full light. However, longevity was greater in carpel-removal plants, particularly in the shade (25.3-37.8% greater). These results thus suggest that fruit maturation, not deteriorating light conditions associated with canopy closure, is the primary cue of plant senescence in F. proserpinacoides.

  10. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  11. Unidirectional light scattering with high efficiency at optical frequencies based on low-loss dielectric nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Albella, Pablo; Maier, Stefan A.

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric nanoparticles offer low optical losses and access to both electric and magnetic Mie resonances. This enables unidirectional scattering along the incident axis of light, owing to the interference between these two resonances. Here we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an asymmetric dimer of dielectric nanoparticles can provide unidirectional forward scattering with high efficiency. Theoretical analyses reveal that the dimer configuration can satisfy the first Kerker condition at the resonant peaks of electric and magnetic dipolar modes, therefore showing highly efficient directional forward scattering. The unidirectional forward scattering with high efficiency is confirmed in our experiments using a silicon nanodisk dimer on a transparent substrate. This study will boost the realization of practical applications using low-loss and efficient subwavelength all-dielectric nanoantennas.Dielectric nanoparticles offer low optical losses and access to both electric and magnetic Mie resonances. This enables unidirectional scattering along the incident axis of light, owing to the interference between these two resonances. Here we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an asymmetric dimer of dielectric nanoparticles can provide unidirectional forward scattering with high efficiency. Theoretical analyses reveal that the dimer configuration can satisfy the first Kerker condition at the resonant peaks of electric and magnetic dipolar modes, therefore showing highly efficient directional forward scattering. The unidirectional forward scattering with high efficiency is confirmed in our experiments using a silicon nanodisk dimer on a transparent substrate. This study will boost the realization of practical applications using low-loss and efficient subwavelength all-dielectric nanoantennas. Data availability. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on request (E-mail: datainquiryEXSS@imperial.ac.uk).

  12. Energy transfer and light yield properties of a new highly loaded indium(III) β-diketonate organic scintillator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C.; Hartmann, F. X.; Motta, D.; Schoenert, S.

    2007-02-01

    We present combined experimental and model studies of the light yield and energy transfer properties of a newly developed high light yield scintillator based on indium(III)-tris(2,4-pentanedionate) in a 2-(4-biphenyl)-5-phenyloxazole (BPO), methoxybenzene organic liquid; of interest to the detection of solar electron neutrino oscillations. Optical measurements are made to understand the energy transfer properties and a model is advanced to treat the unusual conditions of high metal and fluor loadings. Such scintillator types are of interest to the exploration of novel luminescent materials and the development of large-scale detectors for studying fundamental properties of naturally occurring neutrinos.

  13. Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan H.; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E.; Leu, Eva S.; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1–1.5 x 10-5 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (400–700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20–30m depth during the Arctic polar night. PMID:26039111

  14. Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E; Leu, Eva S; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1-1.5 x 10-5 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (400-700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20-30m depth during the Arctic polar night. PMID:26039111

  15. Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E; Leu, Eva S; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1-1.5 x 10-5 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (400-700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20-30m depth during the Arctic polar night.

  16. Arabidopsis ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 Contributes to the Adaptation to High-Intensity Light in Phototropic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Ken; Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Yamada, Mizuki; Sakai, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms adapt to changing light environments via mechanisms that enhance photosensitivity under darkness and attenuate photosensitivity under bright light conditions. In hypocotyl phototropism, phototropin1 (phot1) blue light photoreceptors mediate both the pulse light-induced, first positive phototropism and the continuous light-induced, second positive phototropism, suggesting the existence of a mechanism that alters their photosensitivity. Here, we show that light induction of ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 (RPT2) underlies photosensory adaptation in hypocotyl phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana. rpt2 loss-of-function mutants exhibited increased photosensitivity to very low fluence blue light but were insensitive to low fluence blue light. Expression of RPT2 prior to phototropic stimulation in etiolated seedlings reduced photosensitivity during first positive phototropism and accelerated second positive phototropism. Our microscopy and biochemical analyses indicated that blue light irradiation causes dephosphorylation of NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3) proteins and mediates their release from the plasma membrane. These phenomena correlate closely with the desensitization of phot1 signaling during the transition period from first positive phototropism to second positive phototropism. RPT2 modulated the phosphorylation of NPH3 and promoted reconstruction of the phot1-NPH3 complex on the plasma membrane. We conclude that photosensitivity is increased in the absence of RPT2 and that this results in the desensitization of phot1. Light-mediated induction of RPT2 then reduces the photosensitivity of phot1, which is required for second positive phototropism under bright light conditions. PMID:25873385

  17. Prospects for High-Gain, High Yield NIF Targets Driven by 2ω (green) Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Laurance

    2003-10-01

    For several years we have been exploring the possibility of using green (2w) light for indirect drive ignition on NIF. The rationale for this work is the possibility of extracting significantly more energy from NIF in green light, as compared to blue (3w) light, and driving far more energetic capsules than we originally envisioned when we started planning NIF in the early 1990's. This talk provides a comprehensive picture of the progress we have made exploring 2w for NIF ignition. First we describe the potential operating regime for NIF at 2w and how that can translate into a very large design space for exploring ignition target designs. We then present the results of several 2w ignition target design studies indicating that we can achieve adequate drive and symmetry with 2w and showing how we might capitalize on the large amount of energy available by electing to trade-off coupling efficiency for, say, better symmetry or plasma conditions. These simulations also define plasma conditions for ignition-relevant 2w laser-plasma interaction experiments that have been recently performed. We summarize the results of these experiments which indicate that 2w LPI is not very different from 3w. Finally, we show how recent experimental findings on mitigating 2w laser plasma interactions through reduced intensity and/or judicious choice of plasma composition can be incorporated into ignition target designs. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. In collaboration with S. Glenzer, S. Haan, K. Manes, N. Meezan, J. Moody. M. Spaeth, LLNL; K. Oades, M. Stevenson AWE

  18. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  19. Negative Lens–Induced Myopia in Infant Monkeys: Effects of High Ambient Lighting

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Earl L.; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar; Huang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates. Methods. Hyperopic defocus was imposed on 27 monkeys by securing −3 diopter (D) lenses in front of one eye. The lens-rearing procedures were initiated at 24 days of age and continued for periods ranging from 50 to 123 days. Fifteen of the treated monkeys were exposed to normal laboratory light levels (∼350 lux). For the other 12 lens-reared monkeys, auxiliary lighting increased the illuminance to 25,000 lux for 6 hours during the middle of the daily 12 hour light cycle. Refractive development, corneal power, and axial dimensions were assessed by retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonography, respectively. Data were also obtained from 37 control monkeys, four of which were exposed to high ambient lighting. Results. In normal- and high-light-reared monkeys, hyperopic defocus accelerated vitreous chamber elongation and produced myopic shifts in refractive error. The high light regimen did not alter the degree of myopia (high light: −1.69 ± 0.84 D versus normal light: −2.08 ± 1.12 D; P = 0.40) or the rate at which the treated eyes compensated for the imposed defocus. Following lens removal, the high light monkeys recovered from the induced myopia. The recovery process was not affected by the high lighting regimen. Conclusions. In contrast to the protective effects that high ambient lighting has against form-deprivation myopia, high artificial lighting did not alter the course of compensation to imposed defocus. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia and lens-induced myopia are not identical. PMID:23557736

  20. High explosive violent reaction (HEVR) from slow heating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, A.S.

    1999-03-01

    The high explosives (HEs) developed and used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are designed to be insensitive to impact and thermal insults under all but the most extreme conditions. Nevertheless, violent reactions do occasionally occur when HE is involved in an accident. The HE response is closely dependent on the type of external stimulus that initiates the reaction. For example, fast heating of conventional HE will probably result in fairly benign burning, while long-term, slow heating of conventional HE is more likely to produce an HEVR that will do much more damage to the immediate surroundings. An HEVR (High Explosive Violent Reaction) can be defined as the rapid release of energy from an explosive that ranges from slightly faster than a deflagration (very rapid burning) to a reaction that approaches a detonation. A number of thermal analyses have been done to determine slow heat/cook-off conditions that produce HE self-heating that can build up to a catastrophic runaway reaction. The author specifies the conditions that control reaction violence, describes experiments that produced an HEVR, describes analyses done to determine a heating rate threshold for HEVR, and lists possible HEVR situations.

  1. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  2. A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

    1997-06-01

    High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

  3. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  4. High brightness GaN vertical light emitting diodes on metal alloyed substrate for general lighting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chuong Anh; Chu, Chen-Fu; Cheng, Chao-Chen; Liu, Wen-Huan; Chu, Jiunn-Yi; Cheng, Hao-Chun; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Yen, Jui-Kang; Doan, Trung

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes on metal alloyed substrate (VLEDMS) were investigated. The VLEDMS exhibits very good current-voltage behaviour with low serial dynamic resistance of 0.7 Ω and low operated voltage of 3.2 V at 350 mA. High current operation up to 3 A in continuous mode was demonstrated without any performance deterioration. The high thermal conductivity of metal alloyed substrate exhibits excellent heat dissipation capability. Chip scaling without efficiency loss shows a unique property of VLEDMS. A light output efficiency of 70 lumens/W or better was achieved in single chip or multiple chips package. Coupled with good reliability and mass production ability, VLEDMS is very suitable for general lighting application.

  5. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  6. Light absorption properties of brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena N.; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The light-absorbing properties of water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble brown carbon (MeS-BrC) were studied in PM10 aerosols collected at the "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) station (5079 m above sea level) during the period 2013-2014. The light absorption coefficients of WS-BrC and MeS-BrC were the highest during the premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon. MeS-BrC absorbs about 2 times higher at 365 nm and about 3 times more at 550 nm compared to WS-BrC. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) of WS-BrC measured at 365 nm is similar to that observed previously at South Asian low-altitude sites. Fractional solar radiation absorption by BrC compared to BC considering the full solar spectrum showed that WS-BrC absorbs 4 ± 1% and MeS-BrC absorbs 9 ± 2% compared to BC at NCO-P. Such ratios become 8 ± 1% (for WS-BrC respect to BC) and 17 ± 5% (for MeS-BrC respect to BC) when accounting for correction factors proposed by previous studies to convert absorption coefficients in bulk solutions into light absorption by accumulation mode aerosol particles. These results confirm the importance of BrC in contributing to light-absorbing aerosols in this region of the world. However, the BrC absorption at 550 nm appears small compared to that of BC (1-5%, or 3-9% with conversion factors), and it is lower compared to global model estimates constrained by Aerosol Robotic Network observations. Finally, our study provides no clear evidence of a change in the fractional contribution of BrC with respect to BC to light absorption in the middle troposphere respect to the Indo-Gangetic plain boundary layer.

  7. Ice Fog and Light Snow Measurements Using a High-Resolution Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Ice fog, diamond dust, and light snow usually form over extremely cold weather conditions, and they affect both visibility and Earth's radiative energy budget. Prediction of these hydrometeors using models is difficult because of limited knowledge of the microphysical properties at the small size ranges due to measurement issues. These phenomena need to be better represented in forecast and climate models; therefore, in addition to remote sensing accurate measurements using ground-based instrumentation are required. An imaging instrument, aimed at measuring ice fog and light snow particles, has been built and is presented here. The ice crystal imaging (ICI) probe samples ice particles into a vertical, tapered inlet with an inlet flow rate of 11 L min-1. A laser beam across the vertical air flow containing the ice crystals allows for their detection by a photodetector collecting the scattered light. Detected particles are then imaged with high optical resolution. An illuminating LED flash and image capturing are triggered by the photodetector. In this work, ICI measurements collected during the fog remote sensing and modeling (FRAM) project, which took place during Winter of 2010-2011 in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, are summarized and challenges related to measuring small ice particles are described. The majority of ice particles during the 2-month-long campaign had sizes between 300 and 800 μm. During ice fog events the size distribution measured had a lower mode diameter of 300 μm compared to the overall campaign average with mode at 500 μm.

  8. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-09-30

    Indium-free transparent conducting oxides may provide a lower cost solution for the transparent anode in flexible displays and energy efficient solid state lighting. We report herein a near room temperature sputtering process for generating an indium-free transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coating on a flexible substrate. Specifically, we deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the energetic sputtering conditions, without any noticeable damage to the PET substrate. The GZO films exhibit excellent physical, optical and electrical properties: roughness ~7 nm, transmittance >85% and resistivity ~ 10-3 ohm• cm. Phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated on these substrates with comparable performance (16% external quantum efficiency and 33 lm/W power efficiency at 1mA/cm2) to that of devices fabricated on GZO (or ITO) deposited on glass substrates, suggesting flexible GZO/PET substrates may be used instead of high-cost and rigid ITO and glass for flexible displays and solid state lighting.

  9. Ice Fog and Light Snow Measurements Using a High-Resolution Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Ice fog, diamond dust, and light snow usually form over extremely cold weather conditions, and they affect both visibility and Earth's radiative energy budget. Prediction of these hydrometeors using models is difficult because of limited knowledge of the microphysical properties at the small size ranges due to measurement issues. These phenomena need to be better represented in forecast and climate models; therefore, in addition to remote sensing accurate measurements using ground-based instrumentation are required. An imaging instrument, aimed at measuring ice fog and light snow particles, has been built and is presented here. The ice crystal imaging (ICI) probe samples ice particles into a vertical, tapered inlet with an inlet flow rate of 11 L min-1. A laser beam across the vertical air flow containing the ice crystals allows for their detection by a photodetector collecting the scattered light. Detected particles are then imaged with high optical resolution. An illuminating LED flash and image capturing are triggered by the photodetector. In this work, ICI measurements collected during the fog remote sensing and modeling (FRAM) project, which took place during Winter of 2010-2011 in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, are summarized and challenges related to measuring small ice particles are described. The majority of ice particles during the 2-month-long campaign had sizes between 300 and 800 μm. During ice fog events the size distribution measured had a lower mode diameter of 300 μm compared to the overall campaign average with mode at 500 μm.

  10. Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-09-06

    Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

  11. High CO2 concentration increases relative leaf carbon gain under dynamic light in Dipterocarpus sublamellatus seedlings in a tropical rain forest, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Iio, Atsuhiro; Adachi, Minaco; Saw, Leng-Guan; Fletcher, Christine; Tang, Yanhong

    2014-09-01

    Understory plants in tropical forests often experience a low-light environment combined with high CO2 concentration. We hypothesized that the high CO2 concentration may compensate for leaf carbon loss caused by the low light, through increasing light-use efficiency of both steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties. To test the hypothesis, we examined CO2 gas exchange in response to an artificial lightfleck in Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. seedlings under contrasting CO2 conditions: 350 and 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) air in a tropical rain forest, Pasoh, Malaysia. Total photosynthetic carbon gain from the lightfleck was about double when subjected to the high CO2 when compared with the low CO2 concentration. The increase of light-use efficiency in dynamic photosynthesis contributed 7% of the increased carbon gain, most of which was due to reduction of photosynthetic induction to light increase under the high CO2. The light compensation point of photosynthesis decreased by 58% and the apparent quantum yield increased by 26% at the high CO2 compared with those at the low CO2. The study suggests that high CO2 increases photosynthetic light-use efficiency under both steady-state and fluctuating light conditions, which should be considered in assessing the leaf carbon gain of understory plants in low-light environments.

  12. Adjustment of carbon fluxes to light conditions regulates the daily turnover of starch in plants: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Flis, Anna; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    In the light, photosynthesis provides carbon for metabolism and growth. In the dark, plant growth depends on carbon reserves that were accumulated during previous light periods. Many plants accumulate part of their newly-fixed carbon as starch in their leaves in the day and remobilise it to support metabolism and growth at night. The daily rhythms of starch accumulation and degradation are dynamically adjusted to the changing light conditions such that starch is almost but not totally exhausted at dawn. This requires the allocation of a larger proportion of the newly fixed carbon to starch under low carbon conditions, and the use of information about the carbon status at the end of the light period and the length of the night to pace the rate of starch degradation. This regulation occurs in a circadian clock-dependent manner, through unknown mechanisms. We use mathematical modelling to explore possible diurnal mechanisms regulating the starch level. Our model combines the main reactions of carbon fixation, starch and sucrose synthesis, starch degradation and consumption of carbon by sink tissues. To describe the dynamic adjustment of starch to daily conditions, we introduce diurnal regulators of carbon fluxes, which modulate the activities of the key steps of starch metabolism. The sensing of the diurnal conditions is mediated in our model by the timer α and the "dark sensor"β, which integrate daily information about the light conditions and time of the day through the circadian clock. Our data identify the β subunit of SnRK1 kinase as a good candidate for the role of the dark-accumulated component β of our model. The developed novel approach for understanding starch kinetics through diurnal metabolic and circadian sensors allowed us to explain starch time-courses in plants and predict the kinetics of the proposed diurnal regulators under various genetic and environmental perturbations.

  13. Light-Emitting Diodes with Hierarchical and Multifunctional Surface Structures for High Light Extraction and an Antifouling Effect.

    PubMed

    Leem, Young-Chul; Park, Jung Su; Kim, Joon Heon; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Jeong, Sehee; Lim, Wantae; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-01-13

    Bioinspired hierarchical structures on the surface of vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs) are demonstrated by combining a self-assembled dip-coating process and nanopatterning transfer method using thermal release tape. This versatile surface structure can efficiently reduce the total internal reflection and add functions, such as superhydrophobicity and high oleophobicity, to achieve an antifouling effect for VLEDs.

  14. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  15. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    PubMed

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  16. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  17. Cold fluorescent light as major inducer of lipid oxidation in soybean oil stored at household conditions for eight weeks.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Gartner, Stephanie; Dumhart, Bettina; Stoll, Christiane; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-12

    Light, temperature, and oxygen availability has been shown to promote rancidity in vegetable oils. However, the contribution of each of these environmental factors to lipid oxidation in oil stored under household conditions is not known. We aimed to identify the major inducer of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil stored at constant (67.0 mL) or increasing (67.0-283 mL) headspace volume, 22 or 32 °C, with or without illumination by cold fluorescent light for 56 days by means of fatty acid composition, peroxide value, formation of conjugated dienes, lipid radicals, hexanal, and the decrease in the contents of tocopherols. Soybean oil stored in the dark for 56 days showed an increase of the peroxide value by 124 ± 0.62% (p = 0.006), whereas exposure of the oil to light in a cycle of 12 h light alternating with 12 h darkness for 56 days led to a rise of the peroxide value by 1473 ± 1.79% (p ≤ 0.001). Little effects on the oxidative status of the oil were observed after elevating the temperature from 22 to 32 °C and the headspace volume from 67.0 to 283 mL during 56 days of storage. We conclude that storing soybean oil in transparent bottles under household conditions might pose an increased risk for accelerated lipid oxidation induced by exposure to cold fluorescent light. PMID:24548005

  18. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant “Jingling Huangfeng” turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  19. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration.

  20. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  1. Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with high efficiency and brightness

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-11-12

    An organic light emitting device including a) an anode; b) a cathode; and c) an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, the emissive layer comprising an organic host compound and a phosphorescent compound exhibiting a Stokes Shift overlap greater than 0.3 eV. The organic light emitting device may further include a hole transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the anode; and an electron transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the cathode. In some embodiments, the phosphorescent compound exhibits a phosphorescent lifetime of less than 10 .mu.s. In some embodiments, the concentration of the phosphorescent compound ranges from 0.5 wt. % to 10 wt. %.

  2. Is blue optical filter necessary in high speed phosphor-based white light LED visible light communications?

    PubMed

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2014-08-25

    Optical blue filter is usually regarded as a critical optical component for high speed phosphor-based white light emitting diode (LED) visible-light-communication (VLC). However, the optical blue filter plays different roles in VLC when using modulations of on-off keying (OOK) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). We show that in the DMT VLC system, the blue optical filter may be unnecessary, and even degrade the transmission performance (by reducing the optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)). Analyses and verifications by experiments are performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the function of blue filters in VLC is explicitly analyzed.

  3. Comparison between DICOM-calibrated and uncalibrated consumer grade and 6-MP displays under different lighting conditions in panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Haapea, M; Liukkonen, E; Huumonen, S; Tervonen, O; Nieminen, M T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare observer performance in the detection of anatomical structures and pathology in panoramic radiographs using consumer grade with and without digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM)-calibration and 6-megapixel (6-MP) displays under different lighting conditions. Methods: 30 panoramic radiographs were randomly evaluated on three displays under bright (510 lx) and dim (16 lx) ambient lighting by two observers with different years of experience. Dentinoenamel junction, dentinal caries and periapical inflammatory lesions, visibility of cortical border of the floor and pathological lesions in maxillary sinus were evaluated. Consensus between the observers was considered as reference. Intraobserver agreement was determined. Proportion of equivalent ratings and weighted kappa were used to assess reliability. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Results: The proportion of equivalent ratings with consensus differed between uncalibrated and DICOM-calibrated consumer grade displays in dentinal caries in the lower molar in dim lighting (p = 0.021) and between DICOM-calibrated consumer grade and 6-MP display in bright lighting (p = 0.038) for an experienced observer. Significant differences were found between uncalibrated and DICOM-calibrated consumer grade displays in dentinal caries in bright lighting (p = 0.044) and periapical lesions in the upper molar in dim lighting (p = 0.008) for a less experienced observer. Intraobserver reliability was better at detecting dentinal caries than at detecting periapical and maxillary sinus pathology. Conclusions: DICOM calibration may improve observer performance in panoramic radiography in different lighting conditions. Therefore, a DICOM-calibrated consumer grade display can be used instead of a medical display in dental practice without compromising the diagnostic quality. PMID:25564888

  4. Soot formation in diesel combustion under high-EGR conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Idicheria, Cherian A.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate soot formation at diesel combustion conditions - in a high exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) environment. The ambient oxygen concentration was decreased systematically from 21% to 8% to simulate a wide range of EGR conditions. Quantitative measurements of in-situ soot in quasi-steady n-heptane and No.2 diesel fuel jets were made by using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurements. Flame lift-off length measurements were also made in support of the soot measurements. At constant ambient temperature, results show that the equivalence ratio estimated at the lift-off length does not vary with the use of EGR, implying an equal amount of fuel-air mixing prior to combustion. Soot measurements show that the soot volume fraction decreases with increasing EGR. The regions of soot formation are effectively 'stretched out' to longer axial and radial distances from the injector with increasing EGR, according to the dilution in ambient oxygen. However, the axial soot distribution and location of maximum soot collapses if plotted in terms of a 'flame coordinate', where the relative fuel-oxygen mixture is equivalent. The total soot in the jet cross-section at the maximum axial soot location initially increases and then decreases to zero as the oxygen concentration decreases from 21% to 8%. The trend is caused by competition between soot formation rates and increasing residence time. Soot formation rates decrease with decreasing oxygen concentration because of the lower combustion temperatures. At the same time, the residence time for soot formation increases, allowing more time for accumulation of soot. Increasing the ambient temperature above nominal diesel engine conditions leads to a rapid increase in soot for high-EGR conditions when compared to conditions with no EGR. This result emphasizes the importance of EGR cooling and its beneficial

  5. Effect of dynamic oxygen concentrations on the growth of Neochloris oleoabundans at sub-saturating light conditions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Claudia; Valev, Dimitar; Vermuë, Marian H; Wijffels, Rene H

    2013-08-01

    In tubular photobioreactors micro-algae continuously experience dynamically changing oxygen and light conditions when circulating from the solar receiver to the dark degasser. These changes in oxygen concentration and light were simulated in a CSTR using sub-saturating light intensity. Elongation of the residence time in the solar receiver from 30 to 300 min was also investigated. Specific growth rates measured at constant low oxygen concentration PO2=0.21 bar were; 1.14 ± 0.06 day(-1) using continuous light 0.80 ± 0.16 day(-1) with 30 min light and 1.09 ± 0.05 day(-1) with 300 min light. The effect of dynamically changing oxygen concentrations from PO2=0.21 to 0.63 bar followed by degassing resulted in similar specific growth rates. The exposure of the algae cells to dark periods in the degasser has a bigger negative impact than the temporary exposure to accumulating oxygen concentrations in the solar receiver. This shows that considerable energy savings for degassing are possible.

  6. [Effects of sodium naphthalene acetate on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-na; Li, Yan-su; He, Chao-xing; Yu, Xian-chang

    2015-10-01

    Taking tomato 'Zhongza 105' as test material, the influences of sodium naphthalene acetate (SNA) on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition were investigated. The results showed that the dry mass, vigorous seedling index, root activity, total nitrogen content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of tomato seedlings were significantly decreased by suboptimum temperature and light treatment. In addition, the catalase activity and zeatin riboside (ZR) concentration were also reduced. However, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase activity and the content of abscisic acid (ABA) were increased. Compared with treatment of the same volume distilled water on tomato seedlings under suboptimum temperature and light condition, the dry mass of whole plant and vigorous seedling index of tomato seedlings were significantly increased by 16.4% and 22.9%, as the total N contents in roots and leaves and Pn were also increased by 8.5%, 28.5%and 37.0%, respectively, with the treatment of root application of 10 mg . L-1 SNA. Besides protective enzyme activity and the root activity were improved, the indole acetic acid (IAA) and ZR concentration of tomato were raised, and ABA concentration was reduced. The results indicated that root application of certain concentration of SNA could promote the growth of tomato seedlings by increasing the tomato root activity, protective enzymes activity, Pn and regulating endogenous hormone concentration under suboptimum temperature and light condition. PMID:26995913

  7. White Organic Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting -- A Path Towards High Efficiency and Device Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oloye, Temidayo Abiola

    White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently being developed as the next generation of solid state lighting sources. Although, there has been considerable improvements in device efficiency from the early days up until now, there are still major drawbacks for the implementation of WOLEDs to commercial markets. These drawbacks include short lifetimes associated with highly efficient and easier to fabricate device structures. Platinum (II) complexes are been explored as emitters for single emissive layer WOLEDs, due to their higher efficiencies and stability in device configurations. These properties have been attributed to their square planar nature. Tetradentate platinum (II) complexes in particular have been shown to be more rigid and thus more stable than their other multidentate counterparts. This thesis aims to explore the different pathways via molecular design of tetradentate platinum II complexes and in particular the percipient engineering of a highly efficient and stable device structure. Previous works have been able to obtain either highly efficient devices or stable devices in different device configurations. In this work, we demonstrate a device structure employing Pt2O2 as the emitter using mCBP as a host with EQE of above 20% and lifetime values (LT80) exceeding 6000hours at practical luminance of 100cd/m2. These results open up the pathway towards the commercialization of white organic light emitting diodes as a solid state lighting source.

  8. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  9. Quantitative phase imaging of biological cells using spatially low and temporally high coherent light source.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Azeem; Dubey, Vishesh; Singh, Gyanendra; Singh, Veena; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2016-04-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate quantitative phase imaging of biological samples, such as human red blood cells (RBCs) and onion cells using narrow temporal frequency and wide angular frequency spectrum light source. This type of light source was synthesized by the combined effect of spatial, angular, and temporal diversity of speckle reduction technique. The importance of using low spatial and high temporal coherence light source over the broad band and narrow band light source is that it does not require any dispersion compensation mechanism for biological samples. Further, it avoids the formation of speckle or spurious fringes which arises while using narrow band light source. PMID:27192285

  10. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  11. Toward Quantitative, High-Shear Strain Deformation Experiments at Lower Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivka, L.; Miyagi, L. M.; Amulele, G.; Otsuka, K.; Du, Z.; Karato, S.

    2010-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the deformation properties of lower mantle mineral phases. This is largely due to the fact that conventional deformation devices have been unable to reach pressure and temperature conditions beyond those of the transition zone. The Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) has been used successfully to perform quantitative, high shear strain deformation experiments at conditions of the transition zone. New technological advances such as beveling anvils to reduce cupping of the anvil tips at high pressures, and high precision laser machining of sample assemblies are allowing us to increase the available pressure range of the RDA toward lower mantle conditions. We have already performed deformation experiments on ringwoodite at ~23 GPa and 1800 K, conditions quite close to those of the top of the lower mantle. These experiments were performed at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, using white x-rays to collect energy-dispersive diffraction patterns at a fixed 2θ of 6.7° over ten azimuth angles. Determination of strain was made in-situ using x-ray radiography and a Pt strain marker. Equivalent strains of up to γ = 2 are achieved. Uniaxial and shear stresses were determined in-situ from the d-spacing of ringwoodite (311) and (400) lattice planes as a function of azimuth angle.

  12. Indoor light on thermoluminescence of CVD diamond film used as a high-energy photon dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Chang; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Sung-Yen; Lin, Jao-Perng

    2003-01-01

    The effect of light on polycrystalline diamond film that was produced by chemical vapor deposition and is used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter should be considered, although some researchers have indicated that such an effect was theoretically unlikely to happen. A 15 min exposure to a normal desk light bulb induces significant thermoluminescence (TL) comparable to a 0.5 Gy exposure to high-energy photons. This light-induced TL will be saturated within 2 h. The saturated TL intensity depends on the frequency of the light and the blue light dominates. The TL peak area at a temperature of 605 K is insensitive to light but is sensitive to high-energy photons. Another peak at about 410 K is caused by light only, because the TL from the ionization radiation at the same location is bleached. The effect of light could be easily distinguished by a numerical or an experimental method. Lamps with a green lampshade or pure red lights are suggested for use as indoor light sources. To reduce the effect of light, pre-heating treatment before readout is also suggested.

  13. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media.

    PubMed

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando

    2012-04-20

    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles' performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications.

  14. Role of PSBS and LHCSR in Physcomitrella patens acclimation to high light and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Gerotto, Caterina; Alboresi, Alessandro; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Bassi, Roberto; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2011-06-01

    Photosynthetic organisms respond to strong illumination by activating several photoprotection mechanisms. One of them, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), consists in the thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess. In vascular plants NPQ relies on the activity of PSBS, whereas in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii it requires a different protein, LHCSR. The moss Physcomitrella patens is the only known organism in which both proteins are present and active in triggering NPQ, making this organism particularly interesting for the characterization of this protection mechanism. We analysed the acclimation of Physcomitrella to high light and low temperature, finding that these conditions induce an increase in NPQ correlated to overexpression of both PSBS and LHCSR. Mutants depleted of PSBS and/or LHCSR showed that modulation of their accumulation indeed determines NPQ amplitude. All mutants with impaired NPQ also showed enhanced photosensitivity when exposed to high light or low temperature, indicating that in this moss the fast-responding NPQ mechanism is also involved in long-term acclimation.

  15. Visible light photooxidative performance of a high-nuclearity molecular bismuth vanadium oxide cluster.

    PubMed

    Tucher, Johannes; Streb, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The visible light photooxidative performance of a new high-nuclearity molecular bismuth vanadium oxide cluster, H3[{Bi(dmso)3}4V13O40], is reported. Photocatalytic activity studies show faster reaction kinetics under anaerobic conditions, suggesting an oxygen-dependent quenching of the photoexcited cluster species. Further mechanistic analysis shows that the reaction proceeds via the intermediate formation of hydroxyl radicals which act as oxidant. Trapping experiments using ethanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger show significantly decreased photocatalytic substrate oxidation in the presence of EtOH. Photocatalytic performance analyses using monochromatic visible light irradiation show that the quantum efficiency Φ for indigo photooxidation is strongly dependent on the irradiation wavelength, with higher quantum efficiencies being observed at shorter wavelengths (Φ395nm ca. 15%). Recycling tests show that the compound can be employed as homogeneous photooxidation catalyst multiple times without loss of catalytic activity. High turnover numbers (TON ca. 1200) and turnover frequencies up to TOF ca. 3.44 min(-1) are observed, illustrating the practical applicability of the cluster species. PMID:24991508

  16. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media.

    PubMed

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando

    2012-04-20

    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles' performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications. PMID:22456180

  17. Changes of vitamins A and E in the rat retina under light and dark conditions detected with TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, T.; Gong, H.; Takaya, K.; Tozu, M.; Ohashi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A is a key material for visual function and its metabolism is always important topics in visual sciences. TOF-SIMS (SIMS: secondary ion mass spectrometry) can detect organic materials and elements in relation to the cell and tissue. Changes of vitamin A distribution in the rat retina under light and dark adaptations were detected with TOF-SIMS. Vitamin A is present in combination with polyunsaturated fatty acids in the living cell. Vitamin E participates in the membrane stability. Thus we examined not only vitamin A, but also vitamin E. In light condition, vitamins A and E were increased in the photoreceptor cell. These findings suggest that these vitamins are increased in the light exposed retina.

  18. Tracking energy transfer between light harvesting complex 2 and 1 in photosynthetic membranes grown under high and low illumination.

    PubMed

    Lüer, Larry; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Henry, Sarah; Polli, Dario; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brida, Daniele; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio; Cogdell, Richard J

    2012-01-31

    Energy transfer (ET) between B850 and B875 molecules in light harvesting complexes LH2 and LH1/RC (reaction center) complexes has been investigated in membranes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown under high- and low-light conditions. In these bacteria, illumination intensity during growth strongly affects the type of LH2 complexes synthesized, their optical spectra, and their amount of energetic disorder. We used a specially built femtosecond spectrometer, combining tunable narrowband pump with broadband white-light probe pulses, together with an analytical method based on derivative spectroscopy for disentangling the congested transient absorption spectra of LH1 and LH2 complexes. This procedure allows real-time tracking of the forward (LH2 → LH1) and backward (LH2←LH1) ET processes and unambiguous determination of the corresponding rate constants. In low-light grown samples, we measured lower ET rates in both directions with respect to high-light ones, which is explained by reduced spectral overlap between B850 and B875 due to partial redistribution of oscillator strength into a higher energetic exciton transition. We find that the low-light adaptation in R. palustris leads to a reduced elementary backward ET rate, in accordance with the low probability of two simultaneous excitations reaching the same LH1/RC complex under weak illumination. Our study suggests that backward ET is not just an inevitable consequence of vectorial ET with small energetic offsets, but is in fact actively managed by photosynthetic bacteria.

  19. Differentially expressed proteins of soybean (Glycine max) pulvinus in light and dark conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean leaves (Glycine max) both track and avoid the sun through turgor changes of the pulvinus tissue at the base of leaves. Pulvinar response is known to be affected by both diurnally varying environmental factors and circadian patterns. Differential expression of the proteins between light and d...

  20. Development of High-power LED Lighting Luminaires Using Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Huang, Huan-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Wu, Min-Sheng

    High-power LED should reject about 6 times of heat of the conventional lighting device and keep the LED junction temperature below 80°C to assure reliability and low light decay. In addition, no fan is allowed and the heat dissipation design should not interfere with the industrial design of lighting fixture and have a light weight. This thus creates an extreme thermal management problem. The present study has shown that, using a special heat dissipation technology (loop heat pipe), the high-power LED lighting luminaire with input power from 36 to 150W for outdoor and indoor applications can be achieved with light weight, among 0.96 to 1.57 kg per 1,000 lumen of net luminous flux output from the luminaire. The loop heat pipe uses a flexible connecting pipe as the condenser which can be wounded around the reflector of the luminaire to dissipate the heat to the ambient air by natural convection. For roadway or street lighting application, the present study shows that a better optical design of LED lamps can further result in power consumption reduction, based on the same illumination on road surface. The high-power LED luminaries developed in the present study have shown that the energy saving is > 50% in road lighting applications as compared to sodium light or > 70% compared to mercury light.

  1. Soybean stem growth under high-pressure sodium with supplemental blue lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    To study high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps used for plant lighting because of their high energy conversion efficiencies, 'McCall' soybean plants were grown for 28 days in growth chambers utilizing HPS lamps, with/without supplemental light from blue phosphor fluorescent lamps. Total photosynthetic photon flux levels, including blue fluorescent, were maintained near 300 or 500 micromol/sq m s. Results indicate that employment of HPS or other blue-deficient sources for lighting at low to moderate photosynthetic photon flux levels may cause abnormal stem elongation, but this can be prevented by the addition of a small amount of supplemental blue light.

  2. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  3. CONDITIONED ANALYSIS OF HIGH-LATITUDE SOLAR WIND INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amicis, R.; Consolini, G.; Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    2012-08-10

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium displaying intermittency. Its intermittent features have been widely documented and studied, showing how the intermittent character is different in fast and slow wind. In this paper, a statistical conditioned analysis of the solar wind intermittency for a period of high-latitude fast solar wind is presented. In particular, the intermittent features are investigated as a function of the Alfvenic degree of fluctuations at a given scale. The results show that the main contribution to solar wind intermittency is due to non-Alfvenic structures, while Alfvenic increments are found to be characterized by a smaller level of intermittency than the previous ones. Furthermore, the lifetime statistics of Alfvenic periods are discussed in terms of a multiscale texture of randomly oriented flux tubes.

  4. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  5. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyα systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ∼100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  6. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  7. A novel light tracing system with high-precision and high-sensitivity sensors setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Wu, Pin Yi; Tsai, Jen Min; Tseng, Yu Hung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Hwang, Jiann-Lih

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel light source tracing system, which is comprised of a light-tracing board, with four photo-sensors of different incline angles, correspondingly disposed on its four edges, which are adjustable according to the movement range of the light source in order to achieve light-tracing purposes. This system introduces the algorithm of four-edge-sensors with servo motors in each site to improve sensor's sensitivity. The measurement values of light perception can be feedback to the programmable logic controller by wireless transceiver module. After proportional-integral-derivative operation, the system can obtain the situation of light source. In a normal mode, the light source movement range is large, the range of the incline angle of the light sensors are also set to large to obtain wide detection angle. But in a locking mode, the incline angle of the light sensing plane decreases, thus, the measurement range reduces, and the sensitivity is higher.

  8. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  9. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity.

  10. Light thermal structures and materials for high speed flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, unified viscoplastic constitutive models have evolved to meet this need. These constitutive models provide a means for representing a material's response from the elastic through the plastic range including strain-rate dependent plastic flow, creep, and stress relaxation. Rate-dependent plasticity effects are known to be important at elevated temperatures. The purpose of this paper is to describe computational and experimental research programs underway at the Light Thermal Structures Center focused on the investigation of the response of structures and materials to local heating. In the first part of the paper, finite element thermoviscoplastic analysis is highlighted. In the second part of the paper, the thermal-structures experimental program is outlined.

  11. ZnO PN Junctions for Highly-Efficient, Low-Cost Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Norton; Stephen Pearton; Fan Ren

    2007-09-30

    By 2015, the US Department of Energy has set as a goal the development of advanced solid state lighting technologies that are more energy efficient, longer lasting, and more cost-effective than current technology. One approach that is most attractive is to utilize light-emitting diode technologies. Although III-V compound semiconductors have been the primary focus in pursuing this objective, ZnO-based materials present some distinct advantages that could yield success in meeting this objective. As with the nitrides, ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor whose gap energy (3.2 eV) can be tuned from 3.0 to 4 eV with substitution of Mg for higher bandgap, Cd for lower bandgap. ZnO has an exciton binding energy of 60 meV, which is larger than that for the nitrides, indicating that it should be a superior light emitting semiconductor. Furthermore, ZnO thin films can be deposited at temperatures on the order of 400-600 C, which is significantly lower than that for the nitrides and should lead to lower manufacturing costs. It has also been demonstrated that functional ZnO electronic devices can be fabricated on inexpensive substrates, such as glass. Therefore, for the large-area photonic application of solid state lighting, ZnO holds unique potential. A significant impediment to exploiting ZnO in light-emitting applications has been the absence of effective p-type carrier doping. However, the recent realization of acceptor-doped ZnO material overcomes this impediment, opening the door to ZnO light emitting diode development In this project, the synthesis and properties of ZnO-based pn junctions for light emitting diodes was investigated. The focus was on three issues most pertinent to realizing a ZnO-based solid state lighting technology, namely (1) achieving high p-type carrier concentrations in epitaxial and polycrystalline films, (2) realizing band edge emission from pn homojunctions, and (3) investigating pn heterojunction constructs that should yield efficient light

  12. A simple and highly sensitive assay of perfluorooctanoic acid based on resonance light scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Zheng, Yonghong; Liang, Jiaman; Long, Sha; Chen, Xianping; Tan, Kejun

    2016-04-01

    A simple, highly sensitive resonance light scattering (RLS) method for the detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been developed based on the interaction with crystal violet (CV). It was found that PFOA can form complexes with CV in acid medium resulting in remarkable enhancement of the RLS intensity of the system. And the enhanced RLS intensities are in proportion to the concentration of PFOA in the range of 0.1-25.0 μmol/L (R2 = 0.9998), with a detection limit of 11.0 nmol/L (S/N = 3). In this work, the optimum reaction conditions and the interferences of foreign substances were investigated. The reaction mechanism between CV and PFOA was also studied by the absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscope (SEM). This method is successfully applied to the determination of PFOA in tap water and Jialing river water samples with RSD ≤ 4.04%.

  13. Visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances and lighting conditions after implantation of an aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. Methods In this retrospective–prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50–81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated. Monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuities were measured at distance (20 ft), intermediate (70–80 cm), and near (35–40 cm) under photopic (85 cd/m2) and mesopic (3 cd/m2) lighting conditions and were compared using the paired t-test. All patients also completed a subjective questionnaire. Results At a mean follow-up of 9.5±3.9 months, distance, near, and intermediate visual acuity improved significantly from preoperative acuity. Under photopic and mesopic conditions, 93.8% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, had binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 62.5% and 31.3% of patients had binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 20/20 or better. All patients were satisfied with their overall vision without using glasses and/or contact lenses when compared with before surgery. A total of 87.5% of patients reported no glare and 68.8% of patients reported no halos around lights at night. Conclusion Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses provide good distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity under photopic as well as mesopic lighting conditions. High levels of spectacle independence with low levels of photic phenomenon were achieved, resulting in excellent patient satisfaction. PMID:27536061

  14. Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) for high rate tracking medical imaging and particle astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Atac, M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper is on the operation principles of the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs), application to high luminosity-high multiplicity tracking for High Energy Charged Particle Physics, and application to Medical Imaging and Particle Astrophysics. The VLPCs as Solid State Photomultipliers (SSPMS) with high quantum efficiency can detect down to single photons very efficiently with excellent time resolution and high avalanche gains.

  15. Light stress photodynamics of chlorophyll-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometric studies.

    PubMed

    Galetskiy, D N; Lohscheider, J N; Kononikhin, A S; Kharybin, O N; Popov, I A; Adamska, I; Nikolaev, E N

    2011-01-01

    In higher plants the light energy is captured by the photosynthetic pigments that are bound to photosystem I and II and their light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits. In this study, we examined the photodynamic changes within chlorophyll-protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves adapted to low light and subsequently exposed to light stress. Chlorophyll-protein complexes were isolated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and blue-native polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Proteome analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE, HPLC and high resolution mass spectrometry. We identified several rarely expressed and stress-induced chlorophyll-binding proteins, showed changes in localization of early light-induced protein family and LHC protein family members between different photosynthetic complexes and assembled/disassembled subcomplexes under light stress conditions and discuss their role in a variety of light stress-related processes.

  16. Light stress photodynamics of chlorophyll-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometric studies.

    PubMed

    Galetskiy, D N; Lohscheider, J N; Kononikhin, A S; Kharybin, O N; Popov, I A; Adamska, I; Nikolaev, E N

    2011-01-01

    In higher plants the light energy is captured by the photosynthetic pigments that are bound to photosystem I and II and their light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits. In this study, we examined the photodynamic changes within chlorophyll-protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves adapted to low light and subsequently exposed to light stress. Chlorophyll-protein complexes were isolated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and blue-native polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Proteome analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE, HPLC and high resolution mass spectrometry. We identified several rarely expressed and stress-induced chlorophyll-binding proteins, showed changes in localization of early light-induced protein family and LHC protein family members between different photosynthetic complexes and assembled/disassembled subcomplexes under light stress conditions and discuss their role in a variety of light stress-related processes. PMID:21460887

  17. Origins of life and biochemistry under high-pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Isabelle; Oger, Philippe; Winter, Roland

    2006-10-01

    Life on Earth can be traced back to as far as 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago. The catastrophic meteoritic bombardment ended between 4.2 and 3.9 Ga ago. Therefore, if life emerged, and we know it did, it must have emerged from nothingness in less than 400 million years. The most recent scenarios of Earth accretion predict some very unstable physico-chemical conditions at the surface of Earth, which, in such a short time period, would impede the emergence of life from a proto-biotic soup. A possible alternative would be that life originated in the depth of the proto-ocean of the Hadean Earth, under high hydrostatic pressure. The large body of water would filter harmful radiation and buffer physico-chemical variations, and therefore would provide a more stable radiation-free environment for pre-biotic chemistry. After a short introduction to Earth history, the current tutorial review presents biological and physico-chemical arguments in support of high-pressure origin for life on Earth.

  18. Impact of Solar Proton Events on High Latitude Ionospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, A. M.; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Mansoori, Azad Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the ionospheric response to the solar protons which are accelerated to different energies (MeV-GeV) and thought to be originated at the solar atmosphere during the various energetic phenomena knows as solar transients viz. Solar Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). These transients are believed to be a manifestation of same energy release processes from a highly complex condition in the magnetic field configuration on the solar surface. We have taken six solar proton events (SPE) of solar cycle 23rd for analysis in the various energy bands of the protons. In order to find the ionospheric responses to these incoming solar protons ionospheric total electron content (TEC) is taken as the characteristic parameter. We have taken the data observed by GOES satellites which provides the data for different energy channels (0.8-4 MeV, 4-9 MeV, 9-15 MeV, 15-40 MeV, 40-80 MeV, 80-165 MeV, and 165-500 MeV). The enhancement in peak TEC (∆TEC) was then obtained for the high latitude station Davis (Lat-68.35, Lon 77.58). To find the association of this enhancement with proton flux characteristics we derived the correspondence between spectral indices and ∆TEC. We obtained a strong correlation (0.84) to exist between the spectral indices and ∆TEC.

  19. Fatigue behavior of high-strength concrete under marine conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, 24 high-strength reinforced concrete beams were tested in fatigue under simulated marine conditions. Low-cycle, high-magnitude loading was imposed on beams, some of which were exposed to air, and others which were submerged in water. The beams were cycled at 1 Hz, to 80% of their yield capacity in negative and positive flexure. Four concrete mixes were compared. Half of the specimens were made with lightweight aggregate (LWA), and half were made with river gravel (NWA). Half of each group contained silica-fume as partial replacement of cement (13%). By manipulating the water/cement ratio, the 28-day compressive strength of all concretes was 9500 {plus minus} 300 psi. The previously reported phenomenon of water pumping through the cracks was observed, but did not appear to be directly related to the subsequent failure. When silica fume is added to the concrete mix, the adhesion is greatly improved. LWA concrete utilizes this additional adhesion effectively. NWA concrete with silica-fume, on the other hand, is not able to utilize the increased adhesion due to microcracking. Main findings of both the fatigue and pull-out bond tests are listed.

  20. Comparison of different methods for stripping cladding light in the high-power fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Zilun; Zhou, Hang; Hou, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Different methods for stripping cladding light in the high-power fiber laser have been presented. Original fluoroacrylate jacket of fiber selected 50mm-length is continuous removed, then use three different index polymers recoated the selected section to make the uniform light stripping possible. The power-handling capability of the device is tested over 140W cladding light, attenuation of 15dB is achieved and the local temperature does not exceed 70°C.

  1. Apparatus for injecting high power laser light into a fiber optic cable

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1997-11-11

    High intensity laser light is evenly injected into an optical fiber by the combination of a converging lens and a multisegment kinoform (binary optical element). The segments preferably have multi-order gratings on each which are aligned parallel to a radial line emanating from the center of the kinoform and pass through the center of the element. The grating in each segment causes circumferential (lateral) dispersion of the light, thereby avoiding detrimental concentration of light energy within the optical fiber. 6 figs.

  2. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  3. Design and implementation of high power LED machine vision lighting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-peng; Li, Ming-dong; Gao, Xing-yu; Chen, Peng-bo

    2014-11-01

    The machine vision system has already become the optical mechanical electrical integration products or components of products in modern equipment manufacturing industry. The new LED is more excellent than the halogen tungsten lamp, laser and other traditional light source. It is used in machine vision system more and more. From the analysis of the functional characteristics, this article pointed out the difference between machine vision LED lighting system and traditional optical instrument lighting system. By the interactive methods which integrate with synthesis design analysis and Simulation, this paper import the element of field flattening theory into traditional lighting design, making it a kind of the new flat field lighting system. The effect when it was applied to high power LED lighting system is good. With the new design concept, through the interactive design method and the new image quality evaluation system, we have a contrast experiment on a kind of LED single lamp lighting system. The results show that the field flat lighting system is superior to the traditional one. The most distinctive feature of the new light system is that, it can improve the performance of critical illumination system in certain procedures -- poor illumination uniformity performance. This new lighting optical structure and the new lighting quality evaluation system have broad prospects.

  4. Chlororespiration is involved in the adaptation of Brassica plants to heat and high light intensity.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Milagros; de Haro, Virginia; Muñoz, Romualdo; Quiles, María José

    2007-12-01

    Two species of Brassica were used to study their acclimation to heat and high illumination during the first stages of development. One, Brassica fruticulosa, is a wild species from south-east Spain and is adapted to both heat and high light intensity in its natural habitat, while the other, Brassica oleracea, is an agricultural species that is widely cultivated throughout the world. Growing Brassica plants under high irradiance and moderate heat was seen to affect the growth parameters and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. The photosystem II (PSII) quantum yields and the capacity of photosynthetic electron transport, which were lower in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea, decreased in B. oleracea plants when grown under stress conditions, indicating inhibition of PSII. However, in B. fruticulosa, the values of these parameters were similar to the values of control plants. Photosystem I (PSI) activity was higher in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea, and in both species this activity increased in plants exposed to heat and high illumination. Immunoblot analysis of thylakoid membranes using specific antibodies raised against the NDH-K subunit of the thylakoidal NADH dehydrogenase complex (NADH DH) and against plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) revealed a higher amount of both proteins in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea. In addition, PTOX activity in plastoquinone oxidation, and NADH DH activity in thylakoid membranes were higher in the wild species (B. fruticulosa) than in the agricultural species (B. oleracea). The results indicate that tolerance to high illumination and heat of the photosynthetic activity was higher in the wild species than in the agricultural species, suggesting that plant adaptation to these stresses in natural conditions favours subsequent acclimation, and that the chlororespiration process is involved in adaptation to heat and high illumination in Brassica.

  5. Role of light satellites in the high-resolution Earth observation domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Moshe

    1999-12-01

    Current 'classic' applications using and exploring space based earth imagery are exclusive, narrow niche tailored, expensive and hardly accessible. On the other side new, inexpensive and widely used 'consumable' applications will be only developed concurrently to the availability of appropriate imagery allowing that process. A part of these applications can be imagined today, like WWW based 'virtual tourism' or news media, but the history of technological, cultural and entertainment evolution teaches us that most of future applications are unpredictable -- they emerge together with the platforms enabling their appearance. The only thing, which can be ultimately stated, is that the definitive condition for such applications is the availability of the proper imagery platform providing low cost, high resolution, large area, quick response, simple accessibility and quick dissemination of the raw picture. This platform is a constellation of Earth Observation satellites. Up to 1995 the Space Based High Resolution Earth Observation Domain was dominated by heavy, super-expensive and very inflexible birds. The launch of Israeli OFEQ-3 Satellite by MBT Division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) marked the entrance to new era of light, smart and cheap Low Earth Orbited Imaging satellites. The Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) initiated by West Indian Space, is based on OFEQ class Satellites design and it is capable to gather visual data of Earth Surface both at high resolution and large image capacity. The main attributes, derived from its compact design, low weight and sophisticated logic and which convert the EROS Satellite to valuable and productive system, are discussed. The major advantages of Light Satellites in High Resolution Earth Observation Domain are presented and WIS guidelines featuring the next generation of LEO Imaging Systems are included.

  6. [Light Absorption Characteristics of FeS2-Fe1-xS Heterostructures Synthesized under Hydrothermal Conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Huang, Fei; Meng, Lin; Yu, Hao-ran; Chen, Ying-hua

    2015-05-01

    Fe-S series, especially FeS2 and Fe1-x S is the main component of crustal rocks as important metal sulphides. Pyrite (FeS2) shows a promising vision in solar cell materials for its high absorption coefficient and suitable band gap. Predecessors have done some researches on the photovoltaic properties of Fe-S series under different conditions. However, little researches have been done on the coexisted sulphide of FeS2 and Fe1-xS. FeS2 and Fe1-xS often appear as symbiotically due to their similar formation conditions. So the study on the optical absorption characteristics of FeS2 and Fe1-xS are of important significance. In order to study the optical absorption characteristics of FeS2-Fe1-xS heterostructures, using the SEM and XRD to characterize the morphology, composition and structure, respectively. The results show that the samples were cubic pyrite with a certain amount of pyrhotite (Fe1-xS). The crystal partical size was between 5 and 10 nm. Measurement of the absorption spectrum was performed using Cary 500 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotoineter, acquiring the results of 1 860-1 889 nm, and the absorption peak in 1879nm. According to the band gap (eV) formula, the band gap value is calculated to be 0. 657 8 eV. The extreme electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency achieved was about 15%. By the first principles, we analysed the reason of the changing of the band gap value, and then compared the result with previous one. The internal structure of mineral is the important factor affecting the photoelectric conversion. The light absorption characteristics of FeS2-Fel-xS heterostructures synthesized under hydrothermal conditions is better than the characteristics from natural pyrite with defects of Co and Ni. The heterostructures can improve the electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency and provide scientific basis for the absorption characteristics research of Fe-S series materials. PMID:26415446

  7. [Light Absorption Characteristics of FeS2-Fe1-xS Heterostructures Synthesized under Hydrothermal Conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Huang, Fei; Meng, Lin; Yu, Hao-ran; Chen, Ying-hua

    2015-05-01

    Fe-S series, especially FeS2 and Fe1-x S is the main component of crustal rocks as important metal sulphides. Pyrite (FeS2) shows a promising vision in solar cell materials for its high absorption coefficient and suitable band gap. Predecessors have done some researches on the photovoltaic properties of Fe-S series under different conditions. However, little researches have been done on the coexisted sulphide of FeS2 and Fe1-xS. FeS2 and Fe1-xS often appear as symbiotically due to their similar formation conditions. So the study on the optical absorption characteristics of FeS2 and Fe1-xS are of important significance. In order to study the optical absorption characteristics of FeS2-Fe1-xS heterostructures, using the SEM and XRD to characterize the morphology, composition and structure, respectively. The results show that the samples were cubic pyrite with a certain amount of pyrhotite (Fe1-xS). The crystal partical size was between 5 and 10 nm. Measurement of the absorption spectrum was performed using Cary 500 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotoineter, acquiring the results of 1 860-1 889 nm, and the absorption peak in 1879nm. According to the band gap (eV) formula, the band gap value is calculated to be 0. 657 8 eV. The extreme electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency achieved was about 15%. By the first principles, we analysed the reason of the changing of the band gap value, and then compared the result with previous one. The internal structure of mineral is the important factor affecting the photoelectric conversion. The light absorption characteristics of FeS2-Fel-xS heterostructures synthesized under hydrothermal conditions is better than the characteristics from natural pyrite with defects of Co and Ni. The heterostructures can improve the electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency and provide scientific basis for the absorption characteristics research of Fe-S series materials.

  8. High-resolution light field reconstruction using a hybrid imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Lin; Hou, GuangQi

    2016-04-01

    Recently, light field cameras have drawn much attraction for their innovative performance in photographic and scientific applications. However, narrow baselines and constrained spatial resolution of current light field cameras impose restrictions on their usability. Therefore, we design a hybrid imaging system containing a light field camera and a high-resolution digital single lens reflex camera, and these two kinds of cameras share the same optical path with a beam splitter so as to achieve the reconstruction of high-resolution light fields. The high-resolution 4D light fields are reconstructed with a phase-based perspective variation strategy. First, we apply complex steerable pyramid decomposition on the high-resolution image from the digital single lens reflex camera. Then, we perform phase-based perspective-shift processing with the disparity value, which is extracted from the upsampled light field depth map, to create high-resolution synthetic light field images. High-resolution digital refocused images and high-resolution depth maps can be generated in this way. Furthermore, controlling the magnitude of the perspective shift enables us to change the depth of field rendering in the digital refocused images. We show several experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  9. High Energy Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Mesh Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Shishir; Murman, Scott; Aftosmis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Inlets and exhaust nozzles are common place in the world of flight. Yet, many aerodynamic simulation packages do not provide a method of modelling such high energy boundaries in the flow field. For the purposes of aerodynamic simulation, inlets and exhausts are often fared over and it is assumed that the flow differences resulting from this assumption are minimal. While this is an adequate assumption for the prediction of lift, the lack of a plume behind the aircraft creates an evacuated base region thus effecting both drag and pitching moment values. In addition, the flow in the base region is often mis-predicted resulting in incorrect base drag. In order to accurately predict these quantities, a method for specifying inlet and exhaust conditions needs to be available in aerodynamic simulation packages. A method for a first approximation of a plume without accounting for chemical reactions is added to the Cartesian mesh based aerodynamic simulation package CART3D. The method consists of 3 steps. In the first step, a components approach where each triangle is assigned a component number is used. Here, a method for marking the inlet or exhaust plane triangles as separate components is discussed. In step two, the flow solver is modified to accept a reference state for the components marked inlet or exhaust. In the third step, the flow solver uses these separated components and the reference state to compute the correct flow condition at that triangle. The present method is implemented in the CART3D package which consists of a set of tools for generating a Cartesian volume mesh from a set of component triangulations. The Euler equations are solved on the resulting unstructured Cartesian mesh. The present methods is implemented in this package and its usefulness is demonstrated with two validation cases. A generic missile body is also presented to show the usefulness of the method on a real world geometry.

  10. Method to generate high efficient devices which emit high quality light for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Krummacher, Benjamin C.; Mathai, Mathew; Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2009-06-30

    An electroluminescent apparatus includes an OLED device emitting light in the blue and green spectrums, and at least one down conversion layer. The down conversion layer absorbs at least part of the green spectrum light and emits light in at least one of the orange spectra and red spectra.

  11. High light intensity plays a major role in emergence of population level variation in Arabidopsis thaliana along an altitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Antariksh; Yadav, Amrita; Tripathi, Abhinandan Mani; Roy, Sribash

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in the emergence of genetic variations in natural populations. We identified genome-wide patterns of nucleotide variations in the coding regions of natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations. These populations originated from 700 m to 3400 m a.m.s.l. in the Western Himalaya. Using a pooled RNA-Seq approach, we identified the local and global level population-specific SNPs. The biological functions of the SNP-containing genes were primarily related to the high light intensity prevalent at high-altitude regions. The novel SNPs identified in these genes might have arisen de novo in these populations. In another approach, the FSTs of SNP-containing genes were correlated with the corresponding climatic factors. ‘Radiation in the growing season’ was the only environmental factor found to be strongly correlated with the gene-level FSTs. In both the approaches, the high light intensity was identified as the primary abiotic stress associated with the variations in these populations. The differential gene expression analysis between field and controlled condition grown plants also showed high light intensity as the primary abiotic stress, particularly for the high altitude populations. Our results provide a genome-wide perspective of nucleotide variations in populations along altitudinal gradient and their putative role in emergence of these variations. PMID:27211014

  12. High efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Dong, Weili; Gao, Hongyan; Tian, Xiaocui; Zhao, Lina; Jiang, Wenlong; Zhang, Xiyan

    2015-06-01

    The light emitting diodes with the structure of ITO/ m-MTDATA(20 nm)/NPB(10 nm)/CBP BCzVBi ( x, nm, 10%)/CBP(3 nm)/CBP: Ir(ppy)3: DCJTB(10 nm, 8 and 1%)/Bphen(30 nm)/Cs2CO3: Ag2O (2 nm, 20%)/Al (100 nm) employing phosphorescence sensitization and fluorescence doping, were manufactured. The performance of the devices was studied by adjusting the thickness of fluorescence dopant layer ( x = 15, 20, 25, and 30). The best performance was achieved when its thickness was 25 nm. The device has the maximum luminance of 20260 cd/m2 at applied voltage of 14 V and the maximum current efficiency of 11.70 cd/A at 7 V. The device displays a continuous change of color from yellow to white. The CIE coordinates change from (0.49, 0.48) to (0.32, 0.39) when the driving voltage is varied from 5 to 15 V.

  13. Vendors Future: Northern Light--Delivering High-Quality Content to a Large Internet Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Web-based information service, Northern Light, which demonstrates a new paradigm for serving large populations of users and delivering high-quality content on topics both general and narrow. Discusses performance of the search engine, search syntax, Northern Light's special collection, and pricing. (AEF)

  14. High iron requirement for growth, photosynthesis, and low-light acclimation in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris

    PubMed Central

    Sunda, William G.; Huntsman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron limits carbon fixation in much of the modern ocean due to the very low solubility of ferric iron in oxygenated ocean waters. We examined iron-limitation of growth rate under varying light intensities in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris, a descendent of the oxygenic phototrophs that evolved ca. 3 billion years ago when the ocean was reducing and iron was present at much higher concentrations as soluble Fe(II). Decreasing light intensity increased the cellular iron:carbon (Fe:C) ratio needed to support a given growth rate, indicating that iron and light may co-limit the growth of Synechococcus in the ocean, as shown previously for eukaryotic phytoplankton. The cellular Fe:C ratios needed to support a given growth rate were 5- to 8-fold higher than ratios for coastal eukaryotic algae growing under the same light conditions. The higher iron requirements for growth in the coastal cyanobacterium may be largely caused by the high demand for iron in photosynthesis, and to higher ratios of iron-rich photosystem I to iron-poor photosystem II in Synechococcus than in eukaryotic algae. This high iron requirement may also be vestigial and represent an adaptation to the much higher iron levels in the ancient reducing ocean. Due to the high cellular iron requirement for photosynthesis and growth, and for low light acclimation, Synechococcus may be excluded from many low-iron and low-light environments. Indeed, it decreases rapidly with depth within the ocean’s deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) where iron and light levels are low, and lower-iron requiring picoeukaryotes typically dominate the biomass of phytoplankton community within the mid to lower DCM. PMID:26150804

  15. High iron requirement for growth, photosynthesis, and low-light acclimation in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris.

    PubMed

    Sunda, William G; Huntsman, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Iron limits carbon fixation in much of the modern ocean due to the very low solubility of ferric iron in oxygenated ocean waters. We examined iron-limitation of growth rate under varying light intensities in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris, a descendent of the oxygenic phototrophs that evolved ca. 3 billion years ago when the ocean was reducing and iron was present at much higher concentrations as soluble Fe(II). Decreasing light intensity increased the cellular iron:carbon (Fe:C) ratio needed to support a given growth rate, indicating that iron and light may co-limit the growth of Synechococcus in the ocean, as shown previously for eukaryotic phytoplankton. The cellular Fe:C ratios needed to support a given growth rate were 5- to 8-fold higher than ratios for coastal eukaryotic algae growing under the same light conditions. The higher iron requirements for growth in the coastal cyanobacterium may be largely caused by the high demand for iron in photosynthesis, and to higher ratios of iron-rich photosystem I to iron-poor photosystem II in Synechococcus than in eukaryotic algae. This high iron requirement may also be vestigial and represent an adaptation to the much higher iron levels in the ancient reducing ocean. Due to the high cellular iron requirement for photosynthesis and growth, and for low light acclimation, Synechococcus may be excluded from many low-iron and low-light environments. Indeed, it decreases rapidly with depth within the ocean's deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) where iron and light levels are low, and lower-iron requiring picoeukaryotes typically dominate the biomass of phytoplankton community within the mid to lower DCM.

  16. High-resolution Fourier hologram synthesis from photographic images through computing the light field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Ren, Zhenbo; Lam, Edmund Y

    2016-03-01

    We present a technique for synthesizing the Fourier hologram of a three-dimensional scene from its light field. The light field captures the volumetric information of an object, and an important advantage is that it does not require coherent illumination, as in conventional holography. In this work, we show how to obtain a high-resolution digital hologram with the light field obtained from a series of photographic images captured along the optical axis. The method is verified both by simulations and experimentally captured light field.

  17. High power laser-driven ceramic phosphor plate for outstanding efficient white light conversion in application of automotive lighting.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Hyun; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Byung Woo; Jung, Mong Kwon; Kim, Eun Young; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report on Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) using nano phosphor for high power laser diode (LD) application for white light in automotive lighting. The prepared CPP shows improved luminous properties as a function of Ce(3+) concentration. The luminous properties of the Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP nano phosphor are improved when compared to the Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP with bulk phosphor, and hence, the luminous emittance, luminous flux, and conversion efficiency are improved. The Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP with an optimal Ce(3+) content of 0.5 mol % shows 2733 lm/mm(2) value under high power blue radiant flux density of 19.1 W/mm(2). The results indicate that Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP using nano phosphor can serve as a potential material for solid-state laser lighting in automotive applications. PMID:27502730

  18. High power laser-driven ceramic phosphor plate for outstanding efficient white light conversion in application of automotive lighting

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Hyun; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Byung Woo; Jung, Mong Kwon; Kim, Eun Young; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report on Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) using nano phosphor for high power laser diode (LD) application for white light in automotive lighting. The prepared CPP shows improved luminous properties as a function of Ce3+ concentration. The luminous properties of the Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP nano phosphor are improved when compared to the Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP with bulk phosphor, and hence, the luminous emittance, luminous flux, and conversion efficiency are improved. The Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP with an optimal Ce3+ content of 0.5 mol % shows 2733 lm/mm2 value under high power blue radiant flux density of 19.1 W/mm2. The results indicate that Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP using nano phosphor can serve as a potential material for solid-state laser lighting in automotive applications. PMID:27502730

  19. High power laser-driven ceramic phosphor plate for outstanding efficient white light conversion in application of automotive lighting.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Hyun; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Byung Woo; Jung, Mong Kwon; Kim, Eun Young; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-08-09

    We report on Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) using nano phosphor for high power laser diode (LD) application for white light in automotive lighting. The prepared CPP shows improved luminous properties as a function of Ce(3+) concentration. The luminous properties of the Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP nano phosphor are improved when compared to the Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP with bulk phosphor, and hence, the luminous emittance, luminous flux, and conversion efficiency are improved. The Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP with an optimal Ce(3+) content of 0.5 mol % shows 2733 lm/mm(2) value under high power blue radiant flux density of 19.1 W/mm(2). The results indicate that Y3Al5O12: Ce(3+) CPP using nano phosphor can serve as a potential material for solid-state laser lighting in automotive applications.

  20. High power laser-driven ceramic phosphor plate for outstanding efficient white light conversion in application of automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Hyun; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Byung Woo; Jung, Mong Kwon; Kim, Eun Young; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-08-01

    We report on Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) using nano phosphor for high power laser diode (LD) application for white light in automotive lighting. The prepared CPP shows improved luminous properties as a function of Ce3+ concentration. The luminous properties of the Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP nano phosphor are improved when compared to the Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP with bulk phosphor, and hence, the luminous emittance, luminous flux, and conversion efficiency are improved. The Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP with an optimal Ce3+ content of 0.5 mol % shows 2733 lm/mm2 value under high power blue radiant flux density of 19.1 W/mm2. The results indicate that Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ CPP using nano phosphor can serve as a potential material for solid-state laser lighting in automotive applications.

  1. High density spin noise spectroscopy with squeezed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Kong, Jia; Mitchell, Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for determining physical properties of an unperturbed spin system from its power noise spectrum both in atomic and solid state physics. In the presence of a transverse magnetic field, we detect spontaneous spin fluctuations of a dense Rb vapor via Faraday rotation of an off-resonance probe beam, resulting in the excess of spectral noise at the Larmor frequency over a white photon shot-noise background. We report quantum enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio via polarization squeezing of the probe beam up to 3dB over the full density range up to n = 1013 atoms cm-3, covering practical conditions used in optimized SNS experiments. Furthermore, we show that squeezing improves the trade-off between statistical sensitivity and systematic errors due to line broadening, a previously unobserved quantum advantage. Finally, we present a novel theoretical model on quantum limits of noise spectroscopies by defining a standard quantum limit under optimized regimes and by discussing the conditions of its overcoming due to squeezing.

  2. How do sink and source activities influence the reproduction and vegetative growth of spring ephemeral herbs under different light conditions?

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, Ninuola; Kudo, Gaku

    2014-07-01

    Spring ephemeral herbs inhabiting deciduous forests commonly complete reproduction and vegetative growth before canopy closure in early summer. Effects of shading by early canopy closure on reproductive output and vegetative growth, however, may vary depending on the seasonal allocation patterns of photosynthetic products between current reproduction and storage for future growth in each species. To clarify the effects of sink-source balance on seed production and bulb growth in a spring ephemeral herb, Gagea lutea, we performed a bract removal treatment (source reduction) and a floral-bud removal treatment (sink reduction) under canopy and open conditions. Leaf carbon fixations did not differ between the forest and open sites and among treatments. Bract carbon fixations were also similar between sites but tended to decrease when floral buds were removed. Seed production was higher under open condition but decreased by the bract-removal treatment under both light conditions. In contrast, bulb growth was independent of light conditions and the bract-removal treatment but increased greatly by the bud-removal treatment. Therefore, leaves and bracts acted as specialized source organs for vegetative and reproductive functions, respectively, but photosynthetic products by bracts were flexibly used for bulb growth when plants failed to set fruits. Extension of bright period was advantageous for seed production (i.e., source limited) but not for vegetative growth (i.e., sink limited) in this species.

  3. Reversal of the inhibitory effect of light and high temperature on germination of Phacelia tanacetifolia seeds by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, Iskender; Keles, Huseyin

    2012-04-01

    Possible role of melatonin in the germination of negatively photoblastic and thermosensitive seeds of Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth was studied. Final germination percentage (FGP) was determined in the presence or absence of light at various temperatures, ranging from 0 to 40°C. The highest FGP was determined as 48.7% and 92% at temperature of 15°C in the presence and absence of light, respectively. Seeds were primed with 1% KNO(3) containing various concentrations (0.3, 1, 6, 12, 30, 60, or 90 μM) of melatonin for 2 days at 15°C in darkness. Primed seeds were germinated at an inhibitory temperature of 30°C, and results were compared to those occurring at the optimum temperature of 15°C under both light and no light conditions. Melatonin incorporated into priming medium significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of light and high temperature. Germination was elevated from 2.5% to 52% of FGP for seeds primed in the presence of 6 μM melatonin in darkness at 30°C, while 1 μM melatonin had the highest FGP (21.0%) in the presence of light at 30°C. The highest FGP (47.5%) was obtained from seeds primed in the presence of 0.3 μM melatonin under the light condition at 15°C, while untreated seeds had 1.5% of FGP. The fastest seed germination was determined from seeds primed in the presence of 0.3 μM melatonin (G(50) = 0.56 days) at 15°C in darkness. The possible roles of melatonin in promoting germination parameters of photo- and thermosensitive seed germination are discussed.

  4. A high-performance and cost-effective grating coupler for ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Dingbo; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Hailiang; Jia, Honghui

    2015-10-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) light wavelengths, typically defined to range from10-400nm, have proven to be useful for a number of applications, such as astronomy, biology, medicine and so on. It is important for us to study on the UV and related devices. In this paper, a novel and effective grating coupler for ultraviolet light was reported, which can couple efficiently ultraviolet light from fiber to waveguide at the wavelength of 300nm. The grating coupler was based on the oxide layer of silicon surface, because ultraviolet light can be transmitted pure silicon dioxide (SiO2) with low loss. Based on Bragg condition of grating, we use FDTD method to simulate and design the grating parameters operated under TM polarization. Using our optimization design parameters (period T, incident angle θ, filling factor f and etching height h) to optimize the mode matching between the fiber and the grating region, a relatively high coupling efficiency was obtained for the fiber and waveguide interface. In our design, filling factor f=0.55, period T=280nm etching height H=110nm, incident angle θ=11° can be realized in the process of manufacture. But coupling efficiency are sensitivity to the range of period of grating and incident angle θ, which increase the difficulty of processing and experiment, the process of technology and operation need high precision. Consequently, we the coupling efficiency can be largely increased and beyond 88.5% at center wavelength of 296nm and 1dB bandwidth, in which the theory analysis and the simulation results are in good agreement and coupling efficiency is the highest for this kind of coupler reported as we known. This kind submicron-sized SiO2 waveguides that can be fabricated by mature CMOS-compatible processes are showing promise for realistic dense photonic integrated circuit (PIC) in various applications including optical communications, optical interconnects, signal processing and sensing. The gratings open the path to pure silicon dioxide

  5. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, J. M.; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System

    2015-05-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measurement for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measurement has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measurement to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superimposed information, and the QF may be used again as signal acceptance criterion. In this work, a new QF measurement is introduced. It is based on divergence statistics, which measures the similarity of probability density functions.

  6. Conical photonic crystals for enhancing light extraction efficiency from high refractive index materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Hsieh, Chih-Hung; Choi, Hyungryul J; Gardener, Jules; Singh, Bipin; Knapitsch, Arno; Lecoq, Paul; Barbastathis, George

    2015-08-24

    We propose, analyze and optimize a two-dimensional conical photonic crystal geometry to enhance light extraction from a high refractive index material, such as an inorganic scintillator. The conical geometry suppresses Fresnel reflections at an optical interface due to adiabatic impedance matching from a gradient index effect. The periodic array of cone structures with a pitch larger than the wavelength of light diffracts light into higher-order modes with different propagating angles, enabling certain photons to overcome total internal reflection (TIR). The numerical simulation shows simultaneous light yield gains relative to a flat surface both below and above the critical angle and how key parameters affect the light extraction efficiency. Our optimized design provides a 46% gain in light yield when the conical photonic crystals are coated on an LSO (cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate) scintillator. PMID:26368241

  7. Analysis of Compact Fluorescent Lights for Use by Patients with Photosensitive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rachel S.; Werth, Victoria P.; Dowdy, John C.; Sayre, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is hazardous to patients with photosensitive skin disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, xeroderma pigmentosum and skin cancer. As such, these patients are advised to minimize their exposure to UVR. Classically, this is accomplished through careful avoidance of sun exposure and artificial tanning booths. Indoor light bulbs, however, are generally not considered to pose significant UVR hazard. We sought to test this notion by measuring the UV emissions of 19 different compact fluorescent light bulbs. The ability to induce skin damage was assessed with the CIE erythema action spectrum, ANSI S(λ) generalized UV hazard spectrum and the CIE photocarcinogenesis action spectrum. The results indicate that there is a great deal of variation amongst different bulbs, even within the same class. Although the irradiance of any given bulb is low, the possible daily exposure time is rather lengthy. This results in potential daily UVR doses ranging from 0.1 to 625 mJ cm−2, including a daily UVB (290–320 nm) dose of 0.01 to 15 mJ cm−2. Because patients are exposed continually over long time frames, this could lead to significant cumulative damage. It would therefore be prudent for patients to use bulbs with the lowest UV irradiance. PMID:19320850

  8. High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

    2010-08-31

    This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

  9. Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

  10. High average power CO II laser MOPA system for Tin target LPP EUV light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Hideo; Endo, Akira

    2007-02-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the candidate for next generation lithography to be introduced by the semiconductor industry to HVM (high volume manufacturing) in 2013. The power of the EUVL light source has to be at least 115W at a wavelength of 13.5nm. A laser produced plasma (LPP) is the main candidate for this light source but a cost effective laser driver is the key requirement for the realization of this concept. We are currently developing a high power and high repetition rate CO II laser system to achieve 50 W intermediate focus EUV power with a Tin droplet target. We have achieved CE of 2.8% with solid Tin wire target by a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO II laser MOPA system with pulse width, pulse energy and pulse repetition rate as 10~15 ns, 30 mJ and 10 Hz, respectively. A CO II laser system with a short pulse length less than 15 ns, a nominal average power of a few kW, and a repetition rate of 100 kHz, based on RF-excited, fast axial flow CO II laser amplifiers is under development. Output power of about 3 kW has been achieved with a pulse length of 15 ns at 130 kHz repletion rate in a small signal amplification condition with P(20) single line. The phase distortion of the laser beam after amplification is negligible and the beam can be focused to about 150μm diameter in 1/e2. The CO II laser system is reported on short pulse amplification performance using RF-excited fast axial flow lasers as amplifiers. And the CO II laser average output power scaling is shown towards 5~10 kW with pulse width of 15 ns from a MOPA system.

  11. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xingliang; Zhang, Zhenxing; Jin, Yizheng; Niu, Yuan; Cao, Hujia; Liang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Jianpu; Peng, Xiaogang

    2014-11-01

    Solution-processed optoelectronic and electronic devices are attractive owing to the potential for low-cost fabrication of large-area devices and the compatibility with lightweight, flexible plastic substrates. Solution-processed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using conjugated polymers or quantum dots as emitters have attracted great interest over the past two decades. However, the overall performance of solution-processed LEDs--including their efficiency, efficiency roll-off at high current densities, turn-on voltage and lifetime under operational conditions--remains inferior to that of the best vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. Here we report a solution-processed, multilayer quantum-dot-based LED with excellent performance and reproducibility. It exhibits colour-saturated deep-red emission, sub-bandgap turn-on at 1.7 volts, high external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.5 per cent, low efficiency roll-off (up to 15.1 per cent of the external quantum efficiency at 100 mA cm-2), and a long operational lifetime of more than 100,000 hours at 100 cd m-2, making this device the best-performing solution-processed red LED so far, comparable to state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. This optoelectronic performance is achieved by inserting an insulating layer between the quantum dot layer and the oxide electron-transport layer to optimize charge balance in the device and preserve the superior emissive properties of the quantum dots. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to high-performance, all-solution-processed quantum-dot-based LEDs ideal for next-generation display and solid-state lighting technologies.

  12. Generation of high-power laser light with Gigahertz splitting.

    PubMed

    Unks, B E; Proite, N A; Yavuz, D D

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of two high-power laser beams whose frequencies are separated by the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in (87)Rb. The system uses a single master diode laser appropriately shifted by high frequency acousto-optic modulators and amplified by semiconductor tapered amplifiers. This produces two 1 W laser beams with a frequency spacing of 6.834 GHz and a relative frequency stability of 1 Hz. We discuss possible applications of this apparatus, including electromagnetically induced transparency-like effects and ultrafast qubit rotations. PMID:17764314

  13. Serum-free light-chain analysis in diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the serum-free light-chain (S-FLC) assay has been a breakthrough in the diagnosis and management of plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly monoclonal light-chain diseases. The first method, proposed in 2001, quantifies serum-free light-chains using polyclonal antibodies. More recently, assays based on monoclonal antibodies have entered into clinical practice. S-FLC measurement plays a central role in the screening for multiple myeloma and related conditions, in association with electrophoretic techniques. Analysis of S-FLC is essential in assessing the risk of progression of precursor diseases to overt plasma cell dyscrasias. It is also useful for risk stratification in solitary plasmacytoma and AL amyloidosis. The S-FLC measurement is part of the new diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma, and provides a marker to follow changes in clonal substructure over time. Finally, the evaluation of S-FLC is fundamental for assessing the response to treatment in monoclonal light chain diseases. PMID:27467897

  14. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenlight exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  15. Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in pineal, retina, liver, and gut of the goldfish (Carassius): mRNA expression pattern and regulation of daily rhythms by lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Elena; Cerdá-Reverter, Jose Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Angel Luis; Sánchez, Elisa; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María Jesús

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that melatonin is synthesized in nonphotosensitive organs of vertebrates in addition to the well-known sites of the pineal gland and retina. However, very few studies have demonstrated the gene expression of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in extrapineal and extraretinal locations. This study focuses on the circadian expression of the two key enzymes of the melatoninergic pathway, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), in central and peripheral locations of a teleost fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequences corresponding to the goldfish AANAT-2 (gAanat-2) and HIOMT-2 (gHiomt-2) were cloned, showing high similarity with other teleost sequences. Two forms of AANAT exist in teleosts. Here, for the first time, two isoforms of HIOMT are deduced from phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, both HIOMT and AANAT were detected in several peripheral locations, including liver and gut, the present results being the first to find HIOMT in nonphotosensitive structures of a fish species. Second, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were performed to investigate regulation of gAanat-2 in pineal and peripheral locations of goldfish maintained under different lighting conditions. The current results show circadian rhythms in Aanat-2 and Hiomt-2 transcripts in liver and hindgut, suggesting a local melatonin synthesis in goldfish. Moreover, the analysis of daily expression of gAanat-2 under different lighting conditions, including continuous light (24L) and darkness (24D) revealed light-dependent rhythms in the pineal and retina, as expected, but also in liver and hindgut. The persistence in hindgut of these gAanat-2 rhythms under both constant conditions, 24L and 24D, suggests expression of this transcript is governed by a circadian clock and entrained by nonphotic cues. Finally, the current results support the existence of melatonin synthesis in gut and

  16. THE IMPACT OF NONPHOTOCHEMICAL QUENCHING OF FLUORESCENCE ON THE PHOTON BALANCE IN DIATOMS UNDER DYNAMIC LIGHT CONDITIONS(1).

    PubMed

    Su, Wanwen; Jakob, Torsten; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of fluorescence is an important photoprotective mechanism in particular under dynamic light conditions. Its photoprotective potential was suggested to be a functional trait of algal diversity. In the present study, the influence of the photoprotective capacity on the growth balance was investigated in two diatoms, which possess different NPQ characteristics. It was hypothesized that under fluctuating light conditions Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz. would benefit from its large and flexible NPQ potential, whereas the comparably small NPQ capacity in Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve should exert an unfavorable impact on growth. The results of the study clearly falsify this hypothesis. Although C. meneghiniana possesses a fast NPQ component, this diatom was not able to recover its full NPQ capacity under fluctuating light. On the other hand, the induction of NPQ at relatively low irradiance in S. costatum resulted in rather small differences in the fraction of energy dissipation by the NPQ mechanism in the comparison of both diatoms. Larger differences were found in the metabolic characteristics. Both diatoms differed in their biomass composition, with a higher content of lipids in C. meneghiniana but higher amounts of carbohydrates in S. costatum. Finally, the lower degree of reduction in the biomass compensated for the higher respiration rates in S. costatum and resulted in a higher quantum efficiency of biomass production. An indirect correlation between the photoprotective and the metabolic capacity is discussed. PMID:27009723

  17. Predicting Plant Performance Under Simultaneously Changing Environmental Conditions-The Interplay Between Temperature, Light, and Internode Growth.

    PubMed

    Kahlen, Katrin; Chen, Tsu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates, and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system's analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modeling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  18. Volatile metabolites of higher plants cenoses as photosynthesizing LSS component under optimum conditions and temperature stress at different light intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, J.; Tikhomirov, A.; Parshina, O.; Ushakova, S.; Kalacheva, G.

    One of major yet still poorly known functions of the photosynthesizing component in life support system (LSS) is to improve the quality of air through volatile emissions (VE) of plants capable of accumulating in closed volumes, interacting between themselves and having favorable or adverse impact on humans. In all likelihood, the effect of stress changing the functional condition of plants is to be accompanied with alteration in composition and quantity of VE. There are practically no works dealing with effect of such environmental factors as light intensity and elevated air temperature on qualitative and quantitative composition of VE by higher plants' cenoses. Meanwhile experimental modeling and investigation of stability of man-made human life support systems make this problem of very important. The aim of this work is to experimentally evaluate relationship between qualitative and quantitative composition of VE and the functional condition of wheat cenoses as the basic culture of LSS photosynthesizing component under normal conditions and under temperature stress against light of different intensity. Effect of elevated temperature 35 and 45°C (with the light intensity of 70, 150 or 240 W/m2 PAR) on photosynthesis, respiration, qualitative and quantitative composition of VE of wheat (Triticum aestuvi L., variety 232) cenoses was studied in the atmosphere of growth chambers. More than 20 volatile compounds (terpenoids - a pinene, +3 carene, limonene, benzene, a - and trans-caryophylene, a - and ?-terpinene, their derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) were qualitatively and quantitatively estimated by chromatomassspectroscopy (GC-MS). The light intensity of 240 W/m2 PAR at 35° increase, and at 45° - decrease of thermal stability of photosynthesis and respiration. Elevated temperatures resulted in non- uniform variation of the rate and direction of VE synthesis. VE was highest at irradiance 70 W/m 2 and lowest at 240 W/m2 and 35° . During the reparation

  19. Effects of light and prey availability on Arctic freshwater protist communities examined by high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2014-06-01

    Protists in high-latitude lakes are constrained by cold temperatures, low inorganic nutrient supply and low light availability for much of the year due to ice cover and polar darkness. The lengthening ice-free periods in these freshwater ecosystems due to a warming climate results in increased light availability, but the overall impacts on phytoplankton and other protists are unknown. We experimentally investigated protist community responses to changes in light and prey availability in a dilution series in Ward Hunt Lake (latitude 83°05'N), in the Canadian High Arctic. The communities at the end of the experiment were characterized us