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Sample records for high lithium ion

  1. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  2. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  3. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  4. Nanodiamonds: a critical component of anodes for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanpeng; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Liying; Qiu, Dongchao; Ma, Yibo; Pei, Kai; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Kaifeng

    2016-08-18

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have been introduced into a carbonaceous anode for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium storage capacity, cycling performance and stability of the LIBs are increased and this is related to the DNDs' unique characteristics of chemical inertness, a larger surface area, low expansion, and high lithium adsorption capacity. PMID:27488679

  5. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  6. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  7. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  8. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-01

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  9. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  10. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  11. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  12. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  13. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs. PMID:25640923

  14. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  15. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window. PMID:27603692

  16. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  19. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage.

  20. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage. PMID:25664808

  1. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  2. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  3. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  4. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-01

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  5. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  6. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  8. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  9. Structurally tailored graphene nanosheets as lithium ion battery anodes: an insight to yield exceptionally high lithium storage performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xifei; Hu, Yuhai; Liu, Jian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-12-21

    How to tune graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with various morphologies has been a significant challenge for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, three types of GNSs with varying size, edge sites, defects and layer numbers have been successfully achieved. It was demonstrated that controlling GNS morphology and microstructure has important effects on its cyclic performance and rate capability in LIBs. Diminished GNS layer number, decreased size, increased edge sites and increased defects in the GNS anode can be highly beneficial to lithium storage and result in increased electrochemical performance. Interestingly, GNSs treated with a hydrothermal approach delivered a high reversible discharge capacity of 1348 mA h g(-1). This study demonstrates that the controlled design of high performance GNS anodes is an important concept in LIB applications.

  10. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K. Y. Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-08-01

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm-3 has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm-3 in addition to the conventional unit mA h g-1 in the battery community.Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the

  11. Highly crystalline lithium titanium oxide sheets coated with nitrogen-doped carbon enable high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Baohua; Li, Hongfei; Ma, Jun; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-09-01

    Sheets of Li4Ti5O12 with high crystallinity are coated with nitrogen-doped carbon (NC-LTO) using a controlled process, comprising hydrothermal reaction followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetonitrile (CH3 CN) vapor is used as carbon and nitrogen source to obtain a thin coating layer of nitrogen-doped carbon. The layer enables the NC-LTO material to maintain its sheet structure during the high-temperature CVD process and to achieve high crystallinity. Doping with nitrogen introduces defects into the carbon coating layer, and this increased degree of disorder allows fast transportation of lithium ions in the layer. An electrode of NC-LTO synthesized at 700 °C exhibits greatly improved rate and cycling performance due to a markedly decreased total cell resistance and enhanced Li-ion diffusion coefficient (D(Li)). Specific capacities of 159.2 and 145.8 mA h g(-1) are obtained using the NC-LTO sheets, at charge/discharge rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively. These values are much higher than values for LTO particles did not undergo the acetonitrile CVD treatment. A capacity retention value as high as 94.7% is achieved for the NC-LTO sheets after 400 cycles in a half-cell at 5 C discharge rate.

  12. High power layered titanate nano-sheets as pseudocapacitive lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübke, Mechthild; Marchand, Peter; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul; Gruar, Robert; Liu, Zhaolin; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-02-01

    Ultra-thin layered sodium titanate nano-sheets were synthesised using a continuous hydrothermal flow process and the as-prepared materials were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to previous studies on similar materials, the layered titanates herein showed high electrochemical activity at lower potentials. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in the potential range of 0.05-2.1 V vs. Li/Li+, revealed that charge storage occurred from both lithium-ion intercalation as well as pseudocapacitive surface chemical processes. During electrochemical cycling tests, a high specific current of 0.5 A g-1 was applied and the cells achieved a stable specific capacity of ca. 120 mAh g-1 for over 1200 cycles. Even at an applied current of 10 A g-1, the electrode material delivered a stable specific capacity of 38 mAh g-1, which suggests that this material may be suitable for high power applications.

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  14. "Water-in-salt" electrolyte enables high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion chemistries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Olguin, Marco; Ho, Janet; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Kang

    2015-11-20

    Lithium-ion batteries raise safety, environmental, and cost concerns, which mostly arise from their nonaqueous electrolytes. The use of aqueous alternatives is limited by their narrow electrochemical stability window (1.23 volts), which sets an intrinsic limit on the practical voltage and energy output. We report a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte whose window was expanded to ~3.0 volts with the formation of an electrode-electrolyte interphase. A full lithium-ion battery of 2.3 volts using such an aqueous electrolyte was demonstrated to cycle up to 1000 times, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at both low (0.15 coulomb) and high (4.5 coulombs) discharge and charge rates.

  15. Fabricating Genetically Engineered High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Multiple Virus Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Yi, Hyunjung; Kim, Woo-Jae; Kang, Kisuk; Yun, Dong Soo; Strano, Michael S.; Ceder, Gerbrand; Belcher, Angela M.

    2009-05-01

    Development of materials that deliver more energy at high rates is important for high-power applications, including portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles. For lithium-ion (Li+) batteries, reducing material dimensions can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. By manipulating two genes, we equipped viruses with peptide groups having affinity for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on one end and peptides capable of nucleating amorphous iron phosphate(a-FePO4) fused to the viral major coat protein. The virus clone with the greatest affinity toward SWNTs enabled power performance of a-FePO4 comparable to that of crystalline lithium iron phosphate (c-LiFePO4) and showed excellent capacity retention upon cycling at 1C. This environmentally benign low-temperature biological scaffold could facilitate fabrication of electrodes from materials previously excluded because of extremely low electronic conductivity.

  16. Identifying fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Sammann, E.; Haasch, R.; Twesten, R. D.; MacLaren, S.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  17. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  18. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:26609636

  19. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li(+) ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  20. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-06-29

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li(+) ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety.

  1. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  2. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-06-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  4. A multi scale multi-dimensional thermo electrochemical modelling of high capacity lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourani, Abbas; White, Peter; Ivey, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium manganese oxide (LMO) are competitive and complementary to each other as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, especially for use in electric vehicles. A multi scale multi-dimensional physic-based model is proposed in this paper to study the thermal behaviour of the two lithium-ion chemistries. The model consists of two sub models, a one dimensional (1D) electrochemical sub model and a two dimensional (2D) thermo-electric sub model, which are coupled and solved concurrently. The 1D model predicts the heat generation rate (Qh) and voltage (V) of the battery cell through different load cycles. The 2D model of the battery cell accounts for temperature distribution and current distribution across the surface of the battery cell. The two cells are examined experimentally through 90 h load cycles including high/low charge/discharge rates. The experimental results are compared with the model results and they are in good agreement. The presented results in this paper verify the cells temperature behaviour at different operating conditions which will lead to the design of a cost effective thermal management system for the battery pack.

  5. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  6. Electrochemical performance of a graphene nanosheets anode in a high voltage lithium-ion cell.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Oscar; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate the feasibility of a lithium ion battery (LIB) using graphene nanosheets (GNS) as the anode in combination with a LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 (LNMO) high voltage, spinel-structure cathode. The GNS anode is characterized by a reversible capacity of the order of 600 mA h g(-1) and a working voltage of around 0.9 V, while the 4.8-V cathode has a theoretical capacity of 146.7 mA h g(-1). The full GNS/LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cell has an average working voltage of about 3.75 V and a capacity of the order of 100 mA h g(-1). The findings of this paper suggest that the graphene may be proposed as a suitable anode for application in lithium ion batteries.

  7. Electrode architectures for efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways in high power lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Ankita Shah

    As the demand for clean energy sources increases, large investments have supported R&D programs aimed at developing high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, military, grid storage and space applications. State of the art lithium ion technology cannot meet power demands for these applications due to high internal resistances in the cell. These resistances are mainly comprised of ionic and electronic resistance in the electrode and electrolyte. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of nanoscale lithium ion active materials on the premise that these materials shorten the diffusion length of lithium ions and increase the surface area for electrochemical charge transfer. While, nanomaterials have allowed significant improvements in the power density of the cell, they are not a complete solution for commercial batteries. Due to their large surface area, they introduce new challenges such as a poor electrode packing densities, high electrolyte reactivity, and expensive synthesis procedures. Since greater than 70% of the cost of the electric vehicle is due to the cost of the battery, a cost-efficient battery design is most critical. To address the limitations of nanomaterials, efficient transport pathways must be engineered in the bulk electrode. As a part of nanomanufacturing research being conducted the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing at Northeastern University, the first aim of the proposed work is to develop electrode architectures that enhance electronic and ionic transport pathways in large and small area lithium ion electrodes. These architectures will utilize the unique electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes to create robust electrode scaffolding that improves electrochemical charge transfer. Using extensive physical and electrochemical characterization, the second aim is to investigate the effect of electrode parameters on electrochemical performance and evaluate the performance against standard commercial

  8. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates. PMID:26898772

  9. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  10. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-22

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known "polysulfide shuttle" effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp(3) boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  11. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  12. Sandwich electrode designed for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Luo, Xi; Chen, Chengmeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1.We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09049k

  13. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  14. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell.

  15. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles.

  16. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles. PMID:27127906

  17. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell. PMID:25626879

  18. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  19. Porous graphitic carbon nanosheets as a high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Wang, Zhiyuan; He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) porous graphitic carbon nanosheets (PGC nanosheets) as a high-rate anode material for lithium storage were synthesized by an easy, low-cost, green, and scalable strategy that involves the preparation of the PGC nanosheets with Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded (indicated with (Fe&Fe3O4)@PGC nanosheets) using glucose as the carbon precursor, iron nitrate as the metal precursor, and a surface of sodium chloride as the template followed by the subsequent elimination of the Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles from the (Fe&Fe3O4)@PGC nanosheets by acid dissolution. The unique 2D integrative features and porous graphitic characteristic of the carbon nanosheets with high porosity, high electronic conductivity, and outstanding mechanical flexibility and stability are very favorable for the fast and steady transfer of electrons and ions. As a consequence, a very high reversible capacity of up to 722 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g after 100 cycles, a high rate capability (535, 380, 200, and 115 mAh/g at 1, 10, 20, and 30 C, respectively, 1 C = 372 mA/g), and a superior cycling performance at an ultrahigh rate (112 mAh/g at 30 C after 570 charge-discharge cycles) are achieved by using these nanosheets as a lithium-ion-battery anode material.

  20. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  1. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Challenges and approaches for high-voltage spinel lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Pieczonka, Nicholas P W; Yang, Li

    2014-07-21

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications, owing to their high energy density. Recent research and development efforts have been devoted to finding the next generation of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries to extend the driving distance of EVs and lower their cost. LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O(4) (LNMO) high-voltage spinel is a promising candidate for a next-generation cathode material based on its high operating voltage (4.75 V vs. Li), potentially low material cost, and excellent rate capability. Over the last decade, much research effort has focused on achieving a fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationship in LNMO materials. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that the most critical barrier for the commercialization of high-voltage spinel Li-ion batteries is electrolyte decomposition and concurrent degradative reactions at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which results in poor cycle life for LNMO/graphite full cells. Despite scattered reports addressing these processes in high-voltage spinel full cells, they have not been consolidated into a systematic review article. With this perspective, emphasis is placed herein on describing the challenges and the various approaches to mitigate electrolyte decomposition and other degradative reactions in high-voltage spinel cathodes in full cells.

  3. Synergetic Effects of Inorganic Components in Solid Electrolyte Interphase on High Cycle Efficiency of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Lu, Peng; Liu, Zhongyi; Verbrugge, Mark W; Sheldon, Brian W; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Qi, Yue; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2016-03-01

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), a passivation layer formed on electrodes, is critical to battery performance and durability. The inorganic components in SEI, including lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and lithium fluoride (LiF), provide both mechanical and chemical protection, meanwhile control lithium ion transport. Although both Li2CO3 and LiF have relatively low ionic conductivity, we found, surprisingly, that the contact between Li2CO3 and LiF can promote space charge accumulation along their interfaces, which generates a higher ionic carrier concentration and significantly improves lithium ion transport and reduces electron leakage. The synergetic effect of the two inorganic components leads to high current efficiency and long cycle stability.

  4. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2015-12-01

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  7. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  8. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  9. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  10. Bunched akaganeite nanorod arrays: Preparation and high-performance for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Mo, Yudi; Li, Zishan

    2015-11-01

    Significant effort has been made to explore high-performance anode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries. We report a facile hydrothermal route to synthesis self-organized bunched akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorod arrays directly grown on carbon cloth (CC/β-FeOOH NRAs). Interestingly, the single nanorod is assembled by numerous small nanowires. A possible growth mechanism for this unique structure is proposed. Owning to the essential crystal structure of β-FeOOH (body-centered cubic), porous morphology, high surface area and direct growth on current collector, the prepared CC/β-FeOOH NRAs manifest a very high reversible capacity of ≈2840 mAh g-1 (2.21 mAh cm-2), remarkable rate capability 568 mAh g-1 (0.43 mAh cm-2) at 10C, stable cycling performance and greater mechanical strength.

  11. High energy density amorphous silicon anodes for lithium ion batteries deposited by DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmakis, Filippos; Elmasides, Costas; Fanz, Patrik; Hagen, Markus; Georgoulas, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    As more and more applications require high energy density electrochemical storage systems that deliver more than 200 Wh/kg, Lithium-ion batteries with silicon-based anodes provide promising electrochemical properties especially high specific capacity. In this paper, we present micro-grain structured silicon deposited by DC sputtering on special copper foil that serves as current collector. It is demonstrated that high-density silicon anodes are obtained with more than 2000 mAh g-1 and 2.0 mAh cm-2 that can be considered as a commercial value. In addition, irreversible capacity during the first galvanostatic cycle can be lower than 20% for such anodes. Finally, it is found that there exists a clear correlation between the grain-size and the texture of the amorphous silicon to the electrochemical performance of half-cells.

  12. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  13. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  14. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  15. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  16. Four-layer tin-carbon nanotube yolk-shell materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Fengdan; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    All high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, such as those based on tin (Sn) and silicon (Si), suffer from large volume changes during cycling with lithium ions, and their high capacities can be only achieved in the first few cycles. We design and synthesize a unique four-layer yolk-shell tin-carbon (Sn-C) nanotube array to address this problem. The shape and size of the exterior Sn nanotube@carbon core-shell layer, the encapsulated interior Sn nanowire@carbon nanotube core-shell layer, and the filling level of each layer can be all controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions. Such a nanostructure has not been reported for any metal or metal oxide-based material. Owing to the special design of the electrode structure, the four-layer hierarchical structure demonstrates excellent Li-ion storage properties in terms of high capacity, long cycle life, and high rate performance.

  17. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinguang, Jiang; Sen, Li

    2014-11-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW.

  18. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  19. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  20. Fabrication of Nb2O5 Nanosheets for High-rate Lithium Ion Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meinan; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuegang

    2015-01-01

    Nb2O5 nanosheets are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal reaction and followed heating treatment in air. The structural characterization reveals that the thickness of these sheets is around 50 nm and the length of sheets is 500 ~ 800 nm. Such a unique two dimensional structure enables the nanosheet electrode with superior performance during the charge-discharge process, such as high specific capacity (~184 mAh·g−1) and rate capability. Even at a current density of 1 A·g−1, the nanosheet electrode still exhibits a specific capacity of ~90 mAh·g−1. These results suggest the Nb2O5 nanosheet is a promising candidate for high-rate lithium ion storage applications. PMID:25659574

  1. Sb nanoparticles encapsulated into porous carbon matrixes for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Han, Qigang; Zan, Ping; Wu, Yaoming; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2016-11-01

    A novel Sb/C polyhedra composite is successfully fabricated by a galvanic replacement reaction technique using metal organic frameworks as templates. In this composite, the ultrasmall Sb nanoparticles with an average size of 15 nm are homogeneously encapsulated into the carbon matrixes, forming a hierarchical porous structure with nanosized building blocks. Used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this composite exhibits high lithium storage capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycle stability, higher than many reported results. Notably, a discharge capacity of 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 is delivered after 100 repeated cycles. Even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 400.5 mAh g-1 is also maintained after 500 cycles. Such superior cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the designed Sb/C composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Sb nanoparticles and the porous carbon matrixes.

  2. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery. PMID:24488228

  3. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  4. Mesoporous hexagonal Co3O4 for high performance lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dawei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates were successfully prepared by the conversion of hexagonal β-Co(OH)2 nanoplates. TEM, HRTEM and N2 sorption analysis confirmed the facet crystal structure and inner mesoporous architecture. When applied as anode materials for lithium storage in lithium ion batteries, mesoporous Co3O4 nanocrystals delivered a high specific capacity. At 10 C current rate, as-prepared mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates delivered a specific capacity of 1203 mAh/g at first cycle and after 200 cycles it can still maintain a satisfied value (330 mAh/g). From ex-situ TEM, SAED and FESEM observation, it was found that mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates were reduced to Li2O and Co during the discharge process and re-oxidised without losing the mesoporous structure during charge process. Even after 100 cycles, mesoporous Co3O4 crystals still preserved their pristine hexagonal shape and mesoporous nanostructure. PMID:25283174

  5. Simulation of Electrolyte Composition Effects on High Energy Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    K. Gering

    2014-09-01

    An important feature of the DUALFOIL model for simulation of lithium-ion cells [1,2] is rigorous accounting for non-ideal electrolyte properties. Unfortunately, data are available on only a few electrolytes [3,4]. However, K. Gering has developed a model for estimation of electrolyte properties [5] and recently generated complete property sets (density, conductivity, activity coefficient, diffusivity, transport number) as a function of temperature and salt concentration. Here we use these properties in an enhanced version of the DUALFOIL model called DISTNP, available in Battery Design Studio [6], to examine the effect of different electrolytes on cell performance. Specifically, the behavior of a high energy LiCoO2/graphite 18650-size cell is simulated. The ability of Battery Design Studio to si

  6. CNT@TiO2 nanohybrids for high-performance anode of lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), namely, anatase TiO2 nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2). The electrochemical properties of CNTs@TiO2 were thoroughly investigated using various electrochemical techniques, including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic cycling, and rate experiments. It was revealed that compared with pure TiO2 nanoparticles and CNTs alone, the CNT@TiO2 nanohybrids offered superior rate capability and achieved better cycling performance when used as anodes of LIBs. The CNT@TiO2 nanohybrids exhibited a cycling stability with high reversible capacity of about 190 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and an excellent rate capability (up to 100 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1,000 mA g-1). PMID:24267743

  7. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong; Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C.; Ramabadran, Navaneet

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  8. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m‑1·K‑1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m‑3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m‑1·K‑1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g‑1 at a current density of 100 mA·g‑1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  9. Hybrid Cellular Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Dong Jun; Park, Mihyun; Kwon, Soon Gu; Lee, Hyeon Seok; Jin, Aihua; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lee, Ji Eun; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kang, Kisuk; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-09-23

    We report a simple synthetic method of carbon-based hybrid cellular nanosheets that exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance for many key aspects of lithium-ion battery electrodes. The nanosheets consist of close-packed cubic cavity cells partitioned by carbon walls, resembling plant leaf tissue. We loaded carbon cellular nanosheets with SnO2 nanoparticles by vapor deposition method and tested the performance of the resulting SnO2-carbon nanosheets as anode materials. The specific capacity is 914 mAh g(-1) on average with a retention of 97.0% during 300 cycles, and the reversible capacity is decreased by only 20% as the current density is increased from 200 to 3000 mA g(-1). In order to explain the excellent electrochemical performance, the hybrid cellular nanosheets were analyzed with cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the high packing density, large interior surface area, and rigid carbon wall network are responsible for the high specific capacity, lithiation/delithiation reversibility, and cycling stability. Furthermore, the nanosheet structure leads to the high rate capability due to fast Li-ion diffusion in the thickness direction.

  10. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  11. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore » in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  12. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  13. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  14. Hierarchical Carbon with High Nitrogen Doping Level: A Versatile Anode and Cathode Host Material for Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Christian; Breitung, Ben; Schneider, Artur; Wang, Di; von der Lehr, Martin; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Janek, Jürgen; Hahn, Horst; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-04-27

    Nitrogen-rich carbon with both a turbostratic microstructure and meso/macroporosity was prepared by hard templating through pyrolysis of a tricyanomethanide-based ionic liquid in the voids of a silica monolith template. This multifunctional carbon not only is a promising anode candidate for long-life lithium-ion batteries but also shows favorable properties as anode and cathode host material owing to a high nitrogen content (>8% after carbonization at 900 °C). To demonstrate the latter, the hierarchical carbon was melt-infiltrated with sulfur as well as coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of anatase TiO2, both of which led to high-quality nanocomposites. TiO2 ALD increased the specific capacity of the carbon while maintaining high Coulombic efficiency and cycle life: the composite exhibited stable performance in lithium half-cells, with excellent recovery of low rate capacities after thousands of cycles at 5C. Lithium-sulfur batteries using the sulfur/carbon composite also showed good cyclability, with reversible capacities of ∼700 mA·h·g(-1) at C/5 and without obvious decay over several hundred cycles. The present results demonstrate that nitrogen-rich carbon with an interconnected multimodal pore structure is very versatile and can be used as both active and inactive electrode material in high-performance lithium-based batteries. PMID:26867115

  15. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li-Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-06-01

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (∼250 mAh/g) lithium-manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. Despite the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a 'permanent' spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalation (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of 'unfilled' lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. These situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.

  16. Nanostructured hybrid silicon/carbon nanotube heterostructures: reversible high-capacity lithium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kumta, Prashant N

    2010-04-27

    Lithium-ion batteries have witnessed meteoric advancement the last two decades. The anode area has seen unprecedented research activity on Si and Sn, the two anode alternatives to currently used carbon following the initial seminal work by Fuji on tin oxide nanocomposites. Recent reports on silicon nanowires, porous Si, and amorphous Si coatings on graphite nanofibers (GNF) have been very encouraging. High capacity and long cycle life anodes are still, however, elusive and much needed to meet the ever increasing energy storage demands of modern society. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of novel 1D heterostructures comprising vertically aligned multiwall CNTs (VACNTs) containing nanoscale amorphous/nanocrystalline Si droplets deposited directly on VACNTs with clearly defined spacing using a simple two-step liquid injection CVD process. A hallmark of these single reactor derived heterostructures is an interfacial amorphous carbon layer anchoring the nanoscale Si clusters directly to the VACNTs. The defined spacing of nanoscale Si combined with their tethered CNT architecture allow for the silicon to undergo reversible electrochemical alloying and dealloying with Li with minimal loss of contact with the underlying CNTs. The novel heterostructures thus exhibit impressive reversible stable capacities approximately 2050 mAh/g with very good rate capability and an acceptable first cycle irreversible loss approximately 20% comparable to graphitic anodes indicating their promise as high capacity Li-ion anodes. Although warranting further research, particularly with regard to long-term cycling, it can be envisaged that optimization of this simple approach could lead to reversible high capacity next generation Li-ion anodes.

  17. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as

  18. Porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized cobalt ferrite as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Cheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2015-06-01

    Generally, the fast ion/electron transport and structural stability dominate the superiority in lithium-storage applications. In this work, porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized CoFe2O4 particles (p-CNTs@CFO) have been rationally designed and synthesized by the assistance of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the p-CNTs@CFO composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical behavior with high lithium-storage capacity (1077 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (694 mAh g-1 at 3 A g-1). These outstanding electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect of porous p-CNTs and nanosized CFO. Compared to pristine CNTs, the p-CNTs with substantial pores in the tubes possess largely increased specific surface area and rich oxygen-containing functional groups. The porous structure can not only accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes, but also provide bicontinuous electron/ion pathways and large electrode/electrolyte interface, which facilitate the ion diffusion kinetics, improving the rate performance. Moreover, the CFO particles are bonded strongly to the p-CNTs through metal-oxygen bridges, which facilitate the electron fast capture from p-CNTs to CFO, and thus resulting in a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. Overall, the porous p-CNTs provide an efficient way for ion diffusion and continuous electron transport as anode materials.

  19. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N. T.; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li+/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  20. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N T; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li(+)/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  1. Monodisperse mesoporous anatase beads as high performance and safer anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erwin F; Chen, Dehong; Hollenkamp, Anthony F; Cao, Lu; Caruso, Rachel A

    2015-11-14

    To achieve high efficiency lithium ion batteries (LIBs), an effective active material is important. In this regard, monodisperse mesoporous titania beads (MMTBs) featuring well interconnected nanoparticles were synthesised, and their mesoporous properties were tuned to study how these affect the electrochemical performance in LIBs. Two pore diameters of 15 and 25 nm, three bead diameters of 360, 800 and 2100 nm, and various annealing temperatures (from 300 to 650 °C) were investigated. The electrochemical results showed that while the pore size does not significantly influence the electrochemical behaviour, the specific surface area and the nanocrystal size affect the performance. Also, there is an optimum annealing temperature that enhances electron transfer across the titania bead structure. The carbon content employed in the electrode was varied, showing that the bead diameter strongly influences the minimal content of the conductive carbon required to fabricate the electrode. As a general rule, the smaller the bead diameter, the more carbon was required in the electrode. A large energy capacity and high current rate performance were achieved on the MMTBs featuring high surface area, nano-sized anatase crystals and well-sintered connections between the nanocrystals. The high stability of these mesoporous structures was demonstrated by charge/discharge cycling up to 500 cycles. Devices constructed with the MMTBs retained more than 80% of the initial capacity, indicating an excellent performance.

  2. Silicon nano-trees as high areal capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveau, Lucie; Laïk, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre; Gohier, Aurélien; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin

    2016-06-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have attracted attention as a potential candidate for high capacity anode in lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their high specific capacity and their ability to accommodate silicon volume changes upon cycling. However, the silicon amount deposited on these nanostructured electrodes is generally low and leads to low surface capacities. Here, a new structure is proposed to increase the areal density of silicon on the electrode. A second growth of secondary nanowires on a silicon nanowires electrode leads to a "nano-tree" structure with surface capacities between 1.8 and 7.1 mAh cm-2. These high loaded electrodes maintain very good rate capabilities and a rather stable cycling is observed for the intermediate loadings, with a capacity maintained above 2 mAh cm-2 after 100 cycles at C/5. This paper provides evidence of a successful synthesis of high loaded silicon electrodes for practical applications, of which the electrochemical performances outperform those of graphite commercial anodes.

  3. Scalable Clean Exfoliation of High-Quality Few-Layer Black Phosphorus for a Flexible Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Zhou, Guangmin; Liu, Zhibo; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiuliang; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2016-01-20

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets that are clean and of high quality, are efficiently produced by exfoliating bulk BP crystals, which are prepared by a scalable gas-phase catalytic transformation method in water. They are stable enough in water for further processing and applications. As an example, these BP nanosheets are combined with graphene to give high-performance flexible lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Dopamine as a Novel Electrolyte Additive for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoogil; Han, Taeyeong; Cho, Kuk Young; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-08-24

    Dopamine, which can be electrochemically oxidized to polydopamine on cathode surface, was introduced as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The addition of 0.1 wt % dopamine to the electrolyte led to the formation of a polydopamine-containing layer on the cathode, thereby resulting in suppression of the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte during high-voltage operation (up to 4.5 V) of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/artificial graphite cell. The addition of dopamine to the electrolyte improved the capacity retention of the cell from 136 to 147 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at a rate of 1 C and a cutoff voltage of 4.5 V, while the cycle performance and rate capability with a cutoff voltage of 4.3 V were comparable to those of the cell without dopamine. Further evidence of the positive impact of dopamine on high-voltage LIBs was the lower DC-IRs and AC impedances, as well as the retention of the cathode morphology even after operation at 4.5 V. PMID:27509406

  5. Dopamine as a Novel Electrolyte Additive for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoogil; Han, Taeyeong; Cho, Kuk Young; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-08-24

    Dopamine, which can be electrochemically oxidized to polydopamine on cathode surface, was introduced as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The addition of 0.1 wt % dopamine to the electrolyte led to the formation of a polydopamine-containing layer on the cathode, thereby resulting in suppression of the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte during high-voltage operation (up to 4.5 V) of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/artificial graphite cell. The addition of dopamine to the electrolyte improved the capacity retention of the cell from 136 to 147 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at a rate of 1 C and a cutoff voltage of 4.5 V, while the cycle performance and rate capability with a cutoff voltage of 4.3 V were comparable to those of the cell without dopamine. Further evidence of the positive impact of dopamine on high-voltage LIBs was the lower DC-IRs and AC impedances, as well as the retention of the cathode morphology even after operation at 4.5 V.

  6. Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Fan, Xing; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 mAh g-1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 mA g-1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 1326 mAh g-1 was retained after 40 cycles. These improvements were attributed to the uniform and continuous carbon coatings, which increased electronic contact and conduction and buffered large volume changes during lithium ion insertion/extraction.

  7. Direct synthesis of self-assembled ferrite/carbon hybrid nanosheets for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byungchul; Park, Mihyun; Chae, Oh B; Park, Sangjin; Kim, Youngjin; Oh, Seung M; Piao, Yuanzhe; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2012-09-12

    Extensive applications of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to various portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles result in the increasing demand for the development of electrode materials with improved electrochemical performance including high energy, power density, and excellent cyclability, while maintaining low production cost. Here, we present a direct synthesis of ferrite/carbon hybrid nanosheets for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Uniform-sized ferrite nanocrystals and carbon materials were synthesized simultaneously through a single heating procedure using metal-oleate complex as the precursors for both ferrite and carbon. 2-D nanostructures were obtained by using sodium sulfate salt powder as a sacrificial template. The 2-D ferrite/carbon nanocomposites exhibited excellent cycling stability and rate performance derived from 2-D nanostructural characteristics. The synthetic procedure is simple, inexpensive, and scalable for mass production, and the highly ordered 2-D structure of these nanocomposites has great potential for many future applications.

  8. Template-assisted formation of porous vanadium oxide as high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanhui; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Jiwu; Nie, Zhiwei; An, Xinxin; Liang, Shuquan

    2015-11-01

    Similar to carbonaceous materials, porous metal oxides have attracted wide attention in energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages, including high activity and electrolyte accessibility. In this work, we report the novel preparation of porous vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Ketjen black (KB), a porous carbon material, has been employed as hard templates to host precursor species in their porous structures. The porous V2O5 electrode material is prepared after removing the KB carbon framework by calcinating the composites in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5 electrodes exhibit high capacity, good cycling stability and rate capability. An initial discharge capacity of 141.1 mA h g-1 is delivered at a current density of 100 mAg-1, very close to the theoretical capacity of 147 mA h g-1.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  10. High power density nitridated hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanorods as anode for high-performance flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Wu, Zupeng; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Fan, Xiaolei; Long, Bei; Huang, Miao; Liu, Peng; Tong, Yexiang

    2016-03-01

    Flexible lithium ion batteries shows great attention as up-and-coming power source for the development of flexible and wearable electronic devices. However, they lack suitable electrode materials that are capable of withstanding rapid charging/discharging to facilitate high power density lithium ion batteries. In this work, we fabricate three dimensional (3D) nitridated hematite nanorods on a carbon cloth as high-performance anode for flexible lithium ion batteries. Our strategy to modify the surface of Fe2O3 via nitridation is to improve the electrical conductivity of Fe2O3. XPS, Raman spectra and SEM images confirmed the incorporation of nitriated surface. The fabricated device based on the nitridated hematite nanorod anode exhibiting high flexibility and outstanding lithium storage performance with power and energy densities of 24328 W kg-1 and 163 Wh kg-1, respectively at high current density of 10 A g-1. The high power density is due to the nitridation that provide a short lithium ion diffusion length and a high electronic conductivity in the nitridated-hematite nanorods leading to favorable kinetics electrical conductivity and significantly improved its rate capability.

  11. Three-dimensional Sn-graphene anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundong; Li, Yi; Chui, Ying-San; Wu, Qi-Hui; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenjun

    2013-11-01

    Tin (Sn) has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high energy density, abundance, and environmentally benign nature. However, the problems of fast capacity fading at prolonged cycling and poor rate capacity hinder its practical use. Herein, we report the development of a novel architecture of Sn nanoparticle-decorated three-dimensional (3D) foothill-like graphene as an anode in LIBs. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the 3D Sn-graphene anode delivered a reversible capacity of 466 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 879 mA g(-1) (1 C) after over 4000 cycles and 794 mA h g(-1) at 293 mA g(-1) (1/3 C) after 400 cycles. The capacity at 1/3 C is over 200% that of conventional graphite anodes, suggesting that the 3D Sn-graphene structure enables a significant improvement in the overall performance of a LIB in aspects of capacity, cycle life, and rate capacity.

  12. Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Gu, Meng; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-15

    Li-rich, Mn-rich (LMR) layered composite, for example, Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2, has attracted extensive interests because of its highest energy density among all cathode candidates for lithium ion batteries (LIB). However, capacity degradation and voltage fading are the major challenges associated with this series of layered composite, which plagues its practical application. Herein, we demonstrate that anion receptor, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane ((C6F5)3B, TPFPB), substantially enhances the cycling stability and alleviates the voltage degradation of LMR. In the presence of 0.2 M TPFPB, Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 shows capacity retention of 81% after 300 cycles. It is proposed that TPFPB effectively confines the highly active oxygen species released from structural lattice through its strong coordination ability and high oxygen solubility. The electrolyte decomposition caused by the oxygen species attack is therefore largely mitigated, forming reduced amount of byproducts on the cathode surface. Additionally, other salts such as insulating LiF derived from electrolyte decomposition are also soluble in the presence of TPFPB. The collective effects of TPFPB mitigate the accumulation of parasitic reaction products and stabilize the interfacial resistances between cathode and electrolyte during extended cycling, thus significantly improving the cycling performance of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2.

  13. Building robust architectures of carbon and metal oxide nanocrystals toward high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Xia; Peng, Yiting; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Ge; Wei, Fei; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-11-27

    Design and fabrication of effective electrode structure is essential but is still a challenge for current lithium-ion battery technology. Herein we report the design and fabrication of a class of high-performance robust nanocomposites based on iron oxide spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An efficient aerosol spray process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, where oxide nanocrystals were assembled into a continuous carbon skeleton and entangled in porous CNT networks. This material architecture offers many critical features that are required for high-performance anodes, including efficient ion transport, high conductivity, and structure durability, therefore enabling an electrode with outstanding lithium storage performance. For example, such an electrode with a thickness of ∼35 μm could deliver a specific capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) (based on total electrode weight) and high recharging rates. This effective strategy can be extended to construct many other composite electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Graphitic Carbon Conformal Coating of Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Shen, Dengke; Zhao, Dongyuan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-10-14

    Rational design and controllable synthesis of TiO2 based materials with unique microstructure, high reactivity, and excellent electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries are crucially desired. In this paper, we developed a versatile route to synthesize hollow TiO2/graphitic carbon (H-TiO2/GC) spheres with superior electrochemical performance. The as-prepared mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres present a high specific surface area (298 m(2) g(-1)), a high pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), a large pore size (∼5 nm), well-defined hollow structure (monodispersed size of 600 nm and inner diameter of ∼400 nm, shell thickness of 100 nm), and small nanocrystals of anatase TiO2 (∼8 nm) conformably encapsulated in ultrathin graphitic carbon layers. As a result, the H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres achieve excellent electrochemical reactivity and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of 137 mAh g(-1) can be achieved up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) (5 C). We believe that the mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres are expected to be applied as a high-performance electrode material for next generation lithium ion batteries.

  15. Graphitic Carbon Conformal Coating of Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Shen, Dengke; Zhao, Dongyuan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-10-14

    Rational design and controllable synthesis of TiO2 based materials with unique microstructure, high reactivity, and excellent electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries are crucially desired. In this paper, we developed a versatile route to synthesize hollow TiO2/graphitic carbon (H-TiO2/GC) spheres with superior electrochemical performance. The as-prepared mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres present a high specific surface area (298 m(2) g(-1)), a high pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), a large pore size (∼5 nm), well-defined hollow structure (monodispersed size of 600 nm and inner diameter of ∼400 nm, shell thickness of 100 nm), and small nanocrystals of anatase TiO2 (∼8 nm) conformably encapsulated in ultrathin graphitic carbon layers. As a result, the H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres achieve excellent electrochemical reactivity and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of 137 mAh g(-1) can be achieved up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) (5 C). We believe that the mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres are expected to be applied as a high-performance electrode material for next generation lithium ion batteries. PMID:26414170

  16. Porous cellulose diacetate-SiO2 composite coating on polyethylene separator for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenju; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Yang, Haijun; Mao, Xufeng; Chi, Mingming; Sun, Lining; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-08-20

    The developments of high-performance lithium ion battery are eager to the separators with high ionic conductivity and thermal stability. In this work, a new way to adjust the comprehensive properties of inorganic-organic composite separator was investigated. The cellulose diacetate (CDA)-SiO2 composite coating is beneficial for improving the electrolyte wettability and the thermal stability of separators. Interestingly, the pore structure of composite coating can be regulated by the weight ratio of SiO2 precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the coating solution. The electronic performance of lithium ion batteries assembled with modified separators are improved compared with the pristine PE separator. When weight ratio of TEOS in the coating solution was 9.4%, the composite separator shows the best comprehensive performance. Compared with the pristine PE separator, its meltdown temperature and the break-elongation at elevated temperature increased. More importantly, the discharge capacity and the capacity retention improved significantly.

  17. Porous cellulose diacetate-SiO2 composite coating on polyethylene separator for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenju; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Yang, Haijun; Mao, Xufeng; Chi, Mingming; Sun, Lining; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-08-20

    The developments of high-performance lithium ion battery are eager to the separators with high ionic conductivity and thermal stability. In this work, a new way to adjust the comprehensive properties of inorganic-organic composite separator was investigated. The cellulose diacetate (CDA)-SiO2 composite coating is beneficial for improving the electrolyte wettability and the thermal stability of separators. Interestingly, the pore structure of composite coating can be regulated by the weight ratio of SiO2 precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the coating solution. The electronic performance of lithium ion batteries assembled with modified separators are improved compared with the pristine PE separator. When weight ratio of TEOS in the coating solution was 9.4%, the composite separator shows the best comprehensive performance. Compared with the pristine PE separator, its meltdown temperature and the break-elongation at elevated temperature increased. More importantly, the discharge capacity and the capacity retention improved significantly. PMID:27178959

  18. Design of poly(acrylonitrile)-based gel electrolytes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hong; Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Teng, Hsisheng

    2014-11-12

    The use of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a host for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) commonly produces a strong dipole-dipole interaction with the polymer. This study presents a strategy for the application of PAN in GPEs for the production of high performance lithium ion batteries. The resulting gel electrolyte GPE-AVM comprises a poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer blending poly(methyl methacrylate) as a host, which is swelled using a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvent. Vinyl acetate and methacrylate groups segregate the PAN chains in the GPE, which produces high ionic conductivity (3.5 × 10 (-3) S cm(-1) at 30 °C) and a wide electrochemical voltage range (>6.5 V) as well as an excellent Li(+) transference number of 0.6. This study includes GPE-AVM in a full-cell battery comprising a LiFePO4 cathode and graphite anode to promote ion motion, which reduced resistance in the battery by 39% and increased the specific power by 110%, relative to the performance of batteries based on LE. The proposed GPE-based battery has a capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and is able to deliver 67 mAh g(-1) of electricity at 17 C. The proposed GPE-AVM provides a robust interface with the electrodes in full-cell batteries, resulting in 93% capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 17 C and 63% retention after 1000 cycles.

  19. Preparation of a porous Sn@C nanocomposite as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chunru

    2015-07-28

    A porous Sn@C nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple post-calcination process, using stannous octoate as the Sn source and glucose as the C source. The as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  20. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  1. Development of true prismatic lithium-ion cells for high rate and low temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Frank; Gitzendanner, R.; Marsh, C.; Curran, T.

    Lithium-ion cells are presently being considered for use in a wide range of aerospace applications. Cells for these aerospace applications, such as F-16 and JSF aircraft, are required to operate at rates up to 15 C and at temperatures from -40 to 71°C. To address these requirements, a series of experiments has been undertaken to empirically determine those factors that limit performance. The first experiment compares three different electrode weight loadings and two different anode particle sizes. A chemistry identified from this experiment was able to increase room temperature rate capability by >500%. Pulse discharge rates as high as 70 C and continuous discharge rates of 20 C were demonstrated. Furthermore, cell performance of 1 C at -40°C and 4 C at -30°C has been demonstrated. A second experiment evaluated the use of non-solid/electrolyte interface (SEI) forming conductive diluents in the anode. This experiment did not identify any advantages to the conductive diluent at temperatures above -20°C. However, at a discharge rate of 1 C at -40°C, the group with the highest level of diluent offers 300% more capacity than the baseline experimental group with no non-SEI forming diluent.

  2. Novel Germanium/Polypyrrole Composite for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuanwen; Luo, Wenbin; Zhong, Chao; Wexler, David; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Shi, Zhicong; Chen, Guohua; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nano-Germanium/polypyrrole composite has been synthesized by chemical reduction method in aqueous solution. The Ge nanoparticles were directly coated on the surface of the polypyrrole. The morphology and structural properties of samples were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to determine the polypyrrole content. The electrochemical properties of the samples have been investigated and their suitability as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery was examined. The discharge capacity of the Ge nanoparticles calculated in the Ge-polypyrrole composite is 1014 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 0.2 C rate, which is much higher than that of pristine germanium (439 mAh g−1). The composite also demonstrates high specific discharge capacities at different current rates (1318, 1032, 661, and 460 mAh g−1 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 C, respectively). The superior electrochemical performance of Ge-polypyrrole composite could be attributed to the polypyrrole core, which provides an efficient transport pathway for electrons. SEM images of the electrodes have demonstrated that polypyrrole can also act as a conductive binder and alleviate the pulverization of electrode caused by the huge volume changes of the nanosized germanium particles during Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation. PMID:25168783

  3. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  4. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  5. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  6. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  7. Monodisperse mesoporous anatase beads as high performance and safer anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Erwin F.; Chen, Dehong; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Cao, Lu; Caruso, Rachel A.

    2015-10-01

    To achieve high efficiency lithium ion batteries (LIBs), an effective active material is important. In this regard, monodisperse mesoporous titania beads (MMTBs) featuring well interconnected nanoparticles were synthesised, and their mesoporous properties were tuned to study how these affect the electrochemical performance in LIBs. Two pore diameters of 15 and 25 nm, three bead diameters of 360, 800 and 2100 nm, and various annealing temperatures (from 300 to 650 °C) were investigated. The electrochemical results showed that while the pore size does not significantly influence the electrochemical behaviour, the specific surface area and the nanocrystal size affect the performance. Also, there is an optimum annealing temperature that enhances electron transfer across the titania bead structure. The carbon content employed in the electrode was varied, showing that the bead diameter strongly influences the minimal content of the conductive carbon required to fabricate the electrode. As a general rule, the smaller the bead diameter, the more carbon was required in the electrode. A large energy capacity and high current rate performance were achieved on the MMTBs featuring high surface area, nano-sized anatase crystals and well-sintered connections between the nanocrystals. The high stability of these mesoporous structures was demonstrated by charge/discharge cycling up to 500 cycles. Devices constructed with the MMTBs retained more than 80% of the initial capacity, indicating an excellent performance.To achieve high efficiency lithium ion batteries (LIBs), an effective active material is important. In this regard, monodisperse mesoporous titania beads (MMTBs) featuring well interconnected nanoparticles were synthesised, and their mesoporous properties were tuned to study how these affect the electrochemical performance in LIBs. Two pore diameters of 15 and 25 nm, three bead diameters of 360, 800 and 2100 nm, and various annealing temperatures (from 300 to 650

  8. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li–Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-19

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (~250 mAh/g) lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. In spite of the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a ‘permanent’ spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalation (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of ‘unfilled’ lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. Finally, these situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.

  9. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li–Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-19

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (~250 mAh/g) lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. In spite of the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a ‘permanent’ spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalationmore » (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of ‘unfilled’ lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. Finally, these situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.« less

  10. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  11. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-07-01

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  12. Synthesis of one-dimensional copper sulfide nanorods as high-performance anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; He, Xinyi; Shi, Chunmei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yiyong; Wu, Shunqing; Zhu, Zizong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    Nanorod-like CuS and Cu2 S have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach without using any surfactant and template. The electrochemical behavior of CuS and Cu2 S nanorod anodes for lithium-ion batteries reveal that they exhibit stable lithium-ion insertion/extraction reversibility and outstanding rate capability. Both of the electrodes exhibit excellent capacity retentions irrespective of the rate used, even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1) . More than 370 mAh g(-1) can be retained for the CuS electrode and 260 mAh g(-1) for the Cu2 S electrode at the high current rate. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) , the obtained CuS and Cu2 S electrodes show discharge capacities of 472 and 313 mAh g(-1) with retentions of 92% and 96%, respectively. Together with the simplicity of fabrication and good electrochemical properties, CuS and Cu2 S nanorods are promising anode materials for practical use the next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  14. Synthesis of one-dimensional copper sulfide nanorods as high-performance anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; He, Xinyi; Shi, Chunmei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yiyong; Wu, Shunqing; Zhu, Zizong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    Nanorod-like CuS and Cu2 S have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach without using any surfactant and template. The electrochemical behavior of CuS and Cu2 S nanorod anodes for lithium-ion batteries reveal that they exhibit stable lithium-ion insertion/extraction reversibility and outstanding rate capability. Both of the electrodes exhibit excellent capacity retentions irrespective of the rate used, even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1) . More than 370 mAh g(-1) can be retained for the CuS electrode and 260 mAh g(-1) for the Cu2 S electrode at the high current rate. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) , the obtained CuS and Cu2 S electrodes show discharge capacities of 472 and 313 mAh g(-1) with retentions of 92% and 96%, respectively. Together with the simplicity of fabrication and good electrochemical properties, CuS and Cu2 S nanorods are promising anode materials for practical use the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25354020

  15. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-04-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-01-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m−1·K−1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m−3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m−1·K−1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 100 mA·g−1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes. PMID:27671848

  17. Silicon based nano-architectures for high power lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rahul

    Lithium-ion batteries have now become an inseparable part of modern day society as the power source for several portable electronics like cell phones, digital cameras and laptops. Their high energy density compared with other electrochemical battery systems has been their most attractive feature. This has lead to a great interest in developing lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and all-electric vehicles. Eventually such vehicles will help drastically reduce the carbon footprint making the environment cleaner and healthier. In spite of their high energy density, Li-ion batteries are known to have poor power densities. This forms a major limitation in their deployment as a power source on vehicles. Electric vehicles need power sources that can provide both high energy and power densities. This requires the development of anode, cathode and electrolyte materials that would transform the capabilities of existing Li-ion batteries. Among anode materials silicon has received great attention because of its very large theoretical capacity of ˜4200 mAh/g based on the alloy Li22Si5. It should be noted that storage of charge in the anode occurs through the alloying of Li with the host anode material. However, the large specific capacity of silicon also results in a ˜400% volume expansion which could lead to pulverization and delamination reducing the cycle life of the electrode. These failure processes are exacerbated at high rates making it extremely difficult to use silicon for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. The major research thrust supporting this Ph.D. thesis involved exploring silicon based nano-architectures that would provide high energy and power densities over a long cycle life. The key technique used to design different nano-architectures was DC Magnetron sputtering with oblique angle deposition. The main development of this research was a functionally strain graded Carbon-Aluminum-Silicon nanoscoop architecture for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. This

  18. Development of High Conductivity Lithium-Ion Electrolytes for Low Temperature Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has continued interest in developing power sources which are capable of operating at low temperatures (-20 C and below) to enable future missions, such as the Mars Rover and Lander. Thus, under a program sponsored by the Mars Exploration Program, we have been involved in developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance. To accomplish this task, the focus of the research has been upon the development of advanced electrolyte systems with improved low temperature properties. This had led to the identification of a carbonate-based electrolyte, consisting of 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC + DEC + DMC (33:33:34), which has been shown to have excellent performance at -20 C in Li-ion AA-size prototype cells. Other groups are also actively engaged in developing electrolytes which can result in improved low temperature performance of Li-ion cells, including Polystor, Yardney, and Covalent. In addition to developing cells capable of operation at -20 C, there is continued interest in systems which can successfully operate at even lower temperatures (less than -30 C) and at high discharge rates (greater than C/2). Thus, we are currently focusing upon developing advanced electrolytes which are highly conductive at low temperatures and will result in cells capable of operation at -40 C. One approach to improve the low temperature conductivity of ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes involves adding co-solvents which will decrease the viscosity and extend the liquid range. Candidate solvent additives include formates, acetates, cyclic and aliphatic ethers, lactones, as well as other carbonates. Using this approach, we have prepared a number of electrolytes which contain methyl formate (MF), methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl proprionate (EP), and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), some of which have been characterized and reported. Other groups have also reported electrolytes based on mixtures of carbonates and acetates. In the present study, electrolytes which

  19. Monolayer MoS2-Graphene Hybrid Aerogels with Controllable Porosity for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Reversible Capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lianfu; Lin, Binghui; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Xiufeng; Xia, Hui; Li, Liang; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because all redox reactions take place at the surface without lithium-ion diffusion limit. However, the expanded band gap of monolayer MoS2 NSs (∼1.8 eV) compared to their bulk counterparts (∼1.2 eV) and restacking tendency due to the van der Waals forces result in poor electron transfer and loss of the structure advantage. Here, a facile approach is developed to fabricate the MoS2-graphene aerogels comprising controlled three-dimensional (3D) porous architectures constructed by interconnected monolayer MoS2-graphene hybrid NSs. The robust 3D architectures combining with the monolayer feature of the hybrid NSs not only prevent the MoS2 and graphene NSs from restacking, but also enable fast electrode kinetics due to the surface reaction mechanism and highly conductive graphene matrix. As a consequence, the 3D porous monolayer MoS2-graphene composite aerogels exhibit a large reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh g(-1) as well as outstanding cycling stability and rate performance, making them promising as advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-01

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (<80%). The physical origins of such hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  1. High performance nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, U.; Kümpers, J.; Ullrich, M.

    In comparison to pure electric vehicles (EV) the opportunities for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are much better, since range restrictions no longer apply and the interaction of the internal combustion engine and electrical drive bring increased energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. The batteries used in such applications must meet very high standards in terms of performance and service life. Although the battery capacity is smaller than for a purely EV, it needs to be able to generate far higher levels of power. The technical challenges of hybrid applications have led to the development of high-performance batteries. At the forefront of these is the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH). With specific power and energy data in the range from 300 to 900 W/kg, 55 to 37 Wh/kg, respectively (based on cell weight), excellent charge efficiency and energy throughput levels of more than 10,000 times the nominal energy, the NiMH system comes very close to satisfying the needs of the HEV. Parallel developments with the lithium-ion system based on manganese spinel as cathode material show that, with specific power and energy levels above 1000 W/kg, 50 Wh/kg, respectively, this technology will also be able to play an important role in the future. Service life figures in terms of calendar life have been improved tremendously to about three years, but there is still a need for further improvement in order to meet the specifications of car manufacturers. For this reason, an increase of life span is the subject of intensive development work.

  2. Elastic and wearable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery with high electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Chen, Xuli; Zhang, Zhitao; Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-21

    A stretchable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery is produced from two aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube/lithium oxide composite yarns as the anode and cathode without extra current collectors and binders. The two composite yarns can be well paired to obtain a safe battery with superior electrochemical properties, such as energy densities of 27 Wh kg(-1) or 17.7 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 880 W kg(-1) or 0.56 W cm(-3), which are an order of magnitude higher than the densities reported for lithium thin-film batteries. These wire-shaped batteries are flexible and light, and 97 % of their capacity was maintained after 1000 bending cycles. They are also very elastic as they are based on a modified spring structure, and 84 % of the capacity was maintained after stretching for 200 cycles at a strain of 100 %. Furthermore, these novel wire-shaped batteries have been woven into lightweight, flexible, and stretchable battery textiles, which reveals possible large-scale applications.

  3. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning.

  5. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs. PMID:27015357

  6. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  7. General synthesis of vanadium-based mixed metal oxides hollow nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Juan; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-10-01

    Hollow nanostructured mixed metal oxides have recently been intensively investigated as electrode materials for energy storage and conversion due to their remarkable electrochemical properties. Although great efforts have been made, the synthesis of hollow nanostructured vanadium-based mixed metal oxides especially those with one dimensional structure is rarely reported. Vanadium-based mixed metal oxides are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and good rate capability. Here, we develop a facile and general method for the synthesis of one dimensional MxV2O8 (M = Co, Ni, Fe) tubular structure through a simple single-spinneret electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. As a demonstration, Co3V2O8 hollow nanofibers are evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. As expected, benefiting from their unique one dimensional tubular structure, the as-synthesized Co3V2O8 exhibits excellent electrochemical properties for lithium storage. To be specific, it can deliver a high specific capacity of 900 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, and long cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. The present work makes a significant contribution to the design and synthesis of mixed metal oxides with one dimensional tubular structure, as well as their potential applications in electrochemical energy storage.

  8. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  9. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  10. Hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes towards high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yan, Nan; Wang, Fang; Zhong, Hao; Li, Yan; Wang, Yu; Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    The high theoretical capacity and low discharge potential of silicon have attracted much attention on Si-based anodes. Herein, hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes have been prepared via a two-step hard-template process and evaluated as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes exhibited a reversible capacity of 919 mAhg(-1) over 30 cycles. The reasonable property could be attributed to the unique hollow nanostructure with large volume interior and numerous crevices in the shell, which could accommodate the volume change and alleviate the structural strain during Li ions' insertion and extraction, as well as allow rapid access of Li ions during charge/discharge cycling. It is found that the formation of irreversible or reversible lithium silicates in the anodes determines the capacity of a deep-cycle battery, fast transportation of Li ions in hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes is beneficial to the formation of Li2O and Si, contributing to the high reversible capacity.

  11. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  12. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  13. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-05-28

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g(-1) and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg(-1) for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g(-1) for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g(-1). In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides. PMID:25941034

  14. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  15. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  16. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. PMID:27159823

  17. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  18. TiC/NiO Core/Shell Nanoarchitecture with Battery-Capacitive Synchronous Lithium Storage for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Feng, Tong; Gan, Yongping; Fang, Mingyu; Xia, Yang; Liang, Chu; Tao, Xinyong; Zhang, Wenkui

    2015-06-10

    The further development of electrode materials with high capacity and excellent rate capability presents a great challenge for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a battery-capacitive synchronous lithium storage mechanism based on a scrupulous design of TiC/NiO core/shell nanoarchitecture, in which the TiC nanowire core exhibits a typical double-layer capacitive behavior, and the NiO nanosheet shell acts as active materials for Li(+) storage. The as-constructed TiC/NiO (32 wt % NiO) core/shell nanoarchitecture offers high overall capacity and excellent cycling ability, retaining above 507.5 mAh g(-1) throughout 60 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) (much higher than theoretical value of the TiC/NiO composite). Most importantly, the high rate capability is far superior to that of NiO or other metal oxide electrode materials, owing to its double-layer capacitive characteristics of TiC nanowire and intrinsic high electrical conductivity for facile electron transport during Li(+) storage process. Our work offers a promising approach via a rational hybridization of two electrochemical energy storage materials for harvesting high capacity and good rate performance.

  19. Study on novel functional materials carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) improve high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Xiang, Pan; Wang, Daxiong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-09-22

    Novel cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized by cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li modified electrode materials by electrospinning was reported. CMC-Li/lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) composite fiber coated with LFP and CMC-Li nanofibers was successfully obtained by electrospinning. Then, CMC-Li/LFP nano-composite fiber was carbonized under nitrogen at a high temperature formed CNF/LFP/Li (CLL) composite nanofibers as cathode material. It can increase the contents of Li+, and improving the diffusion efficiency and specific capacity. The battery with CLL as cathode material retained close to 100% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 168 mAh g(-1), which was nearly the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. The cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were characterizing material performance. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free, excellent stability.

  20. Atomic/Molecular Layer Deposition of Lithium Terephthalate Thin Films as High Rate Capability Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Nisula, Mikko; Karppinen, Maarit

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality electrochemically active organic lithium electrode thin films by the currently strongly emerging combined atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique using lithium terephthalate, a recently found anode material for lithium-ion battery (LIB), as a proof-of-the-concept material. Our deposition process for Li-terephthalate is shown to well comply with the basic principles of ALD-type growth including the sequential self-saturated surface reactions, a necessity when aiming at micro-LIB devices with three-dimensional architectures. The as-deposited films are found crystalline across the deposition temperature range of 200-280 °C, which is a trait highly desired for an electrode material but rather unusual for hybrid inorganic-organic thin films. Excellent rate capability is ascertained for the Li-terephthalate films with no conductive additives required. The electrode performance can be further enhanced by depositing a thin protective LiPON solid-state electrolyte layer on top of Li-terephthalate; this yields highly stable structures with capacity retention of over 97% after 200 charge/discharge cycles at 3.2 C.

  1. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  2. A High Voltage Olivine Cathode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Brescia, Rosaria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-01-01

    A new olivine composition (i.e., LiFe0.25 Mn0.5 Co0.25 PO4) is proposed as electrode material with increased energy density for application in lithium-ion batteries. The new formulation increases the working voltage and induces different electrochemical behavior with respect to bare olivine materials based on Fe. The study provides deep insight into the features of the Fe(3+) /Fe(2+), Mn(3+)/Mn(2+), and Co(3+)/Co(2+) redox couples within the olivine lattice in terms of electrochemical activity, Li(+) transport properties, and Li-cell behavior. The electrochemical characterization clearly reveals the voltage signatures corresponding to the various metals; however, the Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) process has higher intrinsic polarization with respect to Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Co(3+)/Co(2+). This issue is efficiently mitigated by carbon coating the material, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performances.

  3. Dodecahedron-Shaped Porous Vanadium Oxide and Carbon Composite for High-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Wei, Weifeng; Su, Yanhui; Hu, Jimei; Cao, Guozhong; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-13

    Carbon-based nanocomposites have been extensively studied in energy storage and conversion systems because of their superior electrochemical performance. However, the majority of metal oxides are grown on the surface of carbonaceous material. Herein, we report a different strategy of constructing V2O5 within the metal organic framework derived carbonaceous dodecahedrons. Vanadium precursor is absorbed into the porous dodecahedron-shaped carbon framework first and then in situ converted into V2O5 within the carbonaceous framework in the annealing process in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5@C composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance, due to the synergistic effect of V2O5 and carbon composite. PMID:27285481

  4. Dodecahedron-Shaped Porous Vanadium Oxide and Carbon Composite for High-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Wei, Weifeng; Su, Yanhui; Hu, Jimei; Cao, Guozhong; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-13

    Carbon-based nanocomposites have been extensively studied in energy storage and conversion systems because of their superior electrochemical performance. However, the majority of metal oxides are grown on the surface of carbonaceous material. Herein, we report a different strategy of constructing V2O5 within the metal organic framework derived carbonaceous dodecahedrons. Vanadium precursor is absorbed into the porous dodecahedron-shaped carbon framework first and then in situ converted into V2O5 within the carbonaceous framework in the annealing process in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5@C composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance, due to the synergistic effect of V2O5 and carbon composite.

  5. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  6. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead–acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  7. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  8. High-rate lithiation-induced reactivation of mesoporous hollow spheres for long-lived lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongtao; Xin, Guoqing; Hu, Tao; Yu, Mingpeng; Shao, Dali; Sun, Xiang; Lian, Jie

    2014-07-31

    Mechanical and chemical degradations of high-capacity anodes, resulting from lithiation-induced stress accumulation, volume expansion and pulverization, and unstable solid-electrolyte interface formation, represent major mechanisms of capacity fading, limiting the lifetime of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Here we report that the mechanical degradation on cycling can be deliberately controlled to finely tune mesoporous structure of the metal oxide sphere and optimize stable solid-electrolyte interface by high-rate lithiation-induced reactivation. The reactivated Co3O4 hollow sphere exhibits a reversible capacity above its theoretical value (924 mAh g(-1) at 1.12 C), enhanced rate performance and a cycling stability without capacity fading after 7,000 cycles at a high rate of 5.62 C. In contrast to the conventional approach of mitigating mechanical degradation and capacity fading of anodes using nanostructured materials, high-rate lithiation-induced reactivation offers a new perspective in designing high-performance electrodes for long-lived lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  10. Development of high-energy silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ran

    The emerging markets of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) generate a tremendous demand for low-cost lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy and power densities, and long cycling life. The development of such LIBs requires development of low cost, high-energy-density cathode and anode materials. Conventional anode materials in commercial LIBs are primarily synthetic graphite-based materials with a capacity of ˜370 mAh/g. Improvements in anode performance, particularly in anode capacity, are essential to achieving high energy densities in LIBs for EV and HEV applications. This dissertation focuses on development of micro-sized silicon-carbon (Si-C) composites as anode materials for high energy and power densities LIBs. First, a new, low-cost, large-scale approach was developed to prepare a micro-sized Si-C composite with excellent performance as an anode material for LIBs. The composite shows a reversible capacity of 1459 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 1 A/g (97.8% capacity retention) and excellent high rate performance of 700 mAh/g at 12.8 A/g, and also has a high tap density of 0.78 g/cm3. The structure of the composite, micro-sized as a whole, features the interconnected nanoscale size of the Si building blocks and the uniform carbon filling, which enables the maximum utilization of silicon even when the micro-sized particles break into small pieces upon cycling. To understand the effects of key parameters in designing the micro-sized Si-C composites on their electrochemical performance and explore how to optimize them, the influence of Si nanoscale building block size and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si-C composites were investigated. It has been found that the critical Si building block size is 15 nm, which enables a high capacity without compromising the cycling stability, and that carbon coating at higher temperature improves the 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) and the rate capability

  11. Conductive Polymer Binder for High-Tap-Density Nanosilicon Material for Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrode Application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Yang; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhu, Chenhui; Zheng, Ziyan; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Bai, Ying; Fu, Yanbao; Lei, Jinglei; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S; Yang, Wanli; Messersmith, Phillip B; Liu, Gao

    2015-12-01

    High-tap-density silicon nanomaterials are highly desirable as anodes for lithium ion batteries, due to their small surface area and minimum first-cycle loss. However, this material poses formidable challenges to polymeric binder design. Binders adhere on to the small surface area to sustain the drastic volume changes during cycling; also the low porosities and small pore size resulting from this material are detrimental to lithium ion transport. This study introduces a new binder, poly(1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PPyMAA), for a high-tap-density nanosilicon electrode cycled in a stable manner with a first cycle efficiency of 82%-a value that is further improved to 87% when combined with graphite material. Incorporating the MAA acid functionalities does not change the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) features or lower the adhesion performance of the PPy homopolymer. Our single-molecule force microscopy measurement of PPyMAA reveals similar adhesion strength between polymer binder and anode surface when compared with conventional polymer such as homopolyacrylic acid (PAA), while being electronically conductive. The combined conductivity and adhesion afforded by the MAA and pyrene copolymer results in good cycling performance for the high-tap-density Si electrode.

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Storage Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues concerning storage of lithium ion batteries. The presentation outlines tests used to establish a best long term storage for the lithium ion cells. Another objective of the study was to determine the preferred solstice condition for the lithium ion chemistry (polymer and liquid electrolyte). It also compared voltage clamped with trickle charge storage. The tests and results are reviewed

  13. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W H

    1998-04-01

    The motivation for lithium battery development and a discussion of ion conducting polymers as separators begin this review, which includes a short history of polymer electrolyte research, a summary of the major parameters that determine lithium ion transport in polymer matrices, and consequences for solid polymer electrolyte development. Two major strategies for the application of ion conducting polymers as separators in lithium batteries are identified: One is the development of highly conductive materials via the crosslinking of mobile chains to form networks, which are then swollen by lithium salt solutions ("gel electrolytes"). The other is the construction of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with supramolecular architectures, which intrinsically give rise to much enhanced mechanical strength. These materials as yet exhibit relatively common conductivity levels but may be applied as very thin films. Molecular composites based on poly(p-phenylene)- (PPP)-reinforced SPEs are a striking example of this direction. Neither strategy has as yet led to a "breakthrough" with respect to technical application, at least not for electrically powered vehicles. Before being used as separators, the gel electrolytes must be strengthened, while the molecularly reinforced solid polymer electrolytes must demonstrate improved conductivity.

  14. Three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weimin; Maloney, Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-10-14

    SnO2 is an attractive anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1491 mAh g(-1)), low cost, and environmental benignity. The main challenges for SnO2 anodes are their low intrinsic conductivity and poor cycling stability associated with their large volume changes during the charge and discharge process. Here, we present a simple chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam electrodes for LIBs. Such a three-dimensional electrode combines multiple advantages, including a continuous electrically conductive network, short pathways for electron transport and ion diffusion, and porous space to allow for the volume expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles. With this anode, superior electrochemical performance is achieved with a high reversible specific capacity of 1171 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). A stable cycling performance as well as an excellent rate capability is also achieved. These outstanding lithium-storage properties suggest the strategy is a reliable approach for fabricating high-performance LIB electrodes.

  15. Three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weimin; Maloney, Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-10-01

    SnO2 is an attractive anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1491 mAh g-1), low cost, and environmental benignity. The main challenges for SnO2 anodes are their low intrinsic conductivity and poor cycling stability associated with their large volume changes during the charge and discharge process. Here, we present a simple chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam electrodes for LIBs. Such a three-dimensional electrode combines multiple advantages, including a continuous electrically conductive network, short pathways for electron transport and ion diffusion, and porous space to allow for the volume expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles. With this anode, superior electrochemical performance is achieved with a high reversible specific capacity of 1171 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. A stable cycling performance as well as an excellent rate capability is also achieved. These outstanding lithium-storage properties suggest the strategy is a reliable approach for fabricating high-performance LIB electrodes.

  16. Three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weimin; Maloney, Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-10-14

    SnO2 is an attractive anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1491 mAh g(-1)), low cost, and environmental benignity. The main challenges for SnO2 anodes are their low intrinsic conductivity and poor cycling stability associated with their large volume changes during the charge and discharge process. Here, we present a simple chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam electrodes for LIBs. Such a three-dimensional electrode combines multiple advantages, including a continuous electrically conductive network, short pathways for electron transport and ion diffusion, and porous space to allow for the volume expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles. With this anode, superior electrochemical performance is achieved with a high reversible specific capacity of 1171 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). A stable cycling performance as well as an excellent rate capability is also achieved. These outstanding lithium-storage properties suggest the strategy is a reliable approach for fabricating high-performance LIB electrodes. PMID:27587237

  17. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  18. Development and analysis of a lithium carbon monofluoride battery-lithium ion capacitor hybrid system for high pulse-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patricia H.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Waterman, Kyle G.; Myron, L. Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Although Li/CFx and Li/CFxMnO2 have two of the highest energy densities of all commercial lithium primary batteries known to date, they are typically current-limited and therefore are not used in high-power applications. In this work, a Li/CFxMnO2 battery (BA-5790) was hybridized with a 1000 F lithium ion capacitor to allow its use for portable electronic devices requiring 100 W 1-min pulses. An intelligent, power-management board was developed for managing the energy flow between the components. The hybrid architecture was shown to maintain the battery current to a level that minimized energy loss and thermal stress. The performance of the Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was compared to the standard Li/SO2 battery (BA-5590). The hybrid was shown to deliver the same number of 100 W pulse cycles as two BA-5590 batteries, resulting in a weight savings of 30% and a volumetric reduction of 20%. For devices requiring 8 h of operational time or less, a 5-cell Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was found to be a lighter (55%) and smaller (45%) power source than the existing two BA-5590 battery option, and a lighter (42%) and smaller (27%) option than 1½ BA-5790 batteries alone. At higher power requirements (>100 W), further weight and size improvements can be expected.

  19. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  20. Three-dimensional high resolution X-ray imaging and quantification of lithium ion battery mesocarbon microbead anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, F.; Yufit, V.; Kishimoto, M.; Shearing, P. R.; Menkin, S.; Golodnitsky, D.; Gelb, J.; Peled, E.; Brandon, N. P.

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve lithium ion batteries it is important to characterise real electrode geometries and understand how their 3D structure may affect performance. In this study, high resolution synchrotron nano-CT was used to acquire 3D tomography datasets of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) based anodes down to a 16 nm voxel size. A specimen labelling methodology was used to produce anodes that enhance the achievable image contrast, and image processing routines were utilised to successfully segment features of interest from a challenging dataset. The 3D MCMB based anode structure was analysed revealing a heterogeneous and bi-modally distributed microstructure. The microstructure was quantified through calculations of surface area, volume, connectivity and tortuosity factors. In doing so, two different methods, random walk and diffusion based, were used to determine tortuosity factors of both MCMB and pore/electrolyte microstructures. The tortuosity factors (2-7) confirmed the heterogeneity of the anode microstructure for this field of view and demonstrated small MCMB particles interspersed between large MCMB particles cause an increase in tortuosity factors. The anode microstructure was highly connected, which was also caused by the presence of small MCMB particles. The complexity in microstructure suggests inhomogeneous local lithium ion distribution would occur within the anode during operation.

  1. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  2. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  3. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  4. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  5. Facile formation of a Li3PO4 coating layer during the synthesis of a lithium-rich layered oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongho; Lee, Jieun; Lee, Kwan Young; Mun, Junyoung; Lee, Joong Kee; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-05-01

    The facile surface modification of transition-metal hydroxide precursors with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was performed by ball-milling before the calcination process. The prepared precursors were mixed with the required amount of lithium hydroxide and then simply calcined to obtain lithium-phosphate-coated lithium transition metal oxide cathodes during the one-pot calcination process. A thin, homogeneous Li3PO4 coating is firstly formed on the surface of the precursor owing to the abundance of lithium at a lower-temperature range, and subsequent formation of lithium transition metal oxide is achieved at a higher-temperature range during the calcination process. The Li3PO4-coated cathode electrode with the high loading level over 12 mg cm-1 exhibits a discharge capacity of 106 mAh g-1 at 5C at ambient temperature. Furthermore, it delivers 90% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 60 °C.

  6. Lithium/water battery with lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Takashi; Inda, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kousuke; Ye, Rongbin; Baba, Mamoru

    Lithium/water batteries have attracted considerable attention as high power supply devices because they use high energy density lithium metal as an anode and water as a cathode. In this study, we investigate the use of lithium/water batteries that use a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte. A lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics plate has no through-holes and does not exhibit moisture permeation. Such a plate has stable ionic conductivity in water. Lithium/water batteries that used a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte had a long and stable discharge for 50 days at room temperature when the lithium metal was prevented from coming into contact with water. Lithium/seawater batteries using a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte also operated well in the 10-70 °C temperature range.

  7. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  8. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  9. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge-discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and potential applicability of rhombohedral siderite as a high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Yu, Yue; Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxi; Zhao, Chenhao; Liu, Rui; Shen, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Natural siderite is a valuable iron mineral composed of ferrous carbonate (FeCO3), which is commonly found in hydrothermal veins and contains no sulfur or phosphorus. In this paper, micro-sized FeCO3 crystallites are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route, and almost all of them possess a rhombohedral shape similar to that of natural products. When applied as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the synthetic siderite can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of ∼1587 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of 68% at 200 mA g-1, remaining a reversible value of 1018 mAh g-1 over 120 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, after 120 cycles the residual specific capacity (812 mAh g-1) is still higher than the theoretical capacity of FeCO3 (463 mAh g-1). Moreover, a novel reversible conversion mechanism accounts for the excellent electrochemical performances of rhombohedral FeCO3 to a great extent, implying the potential applicability of synthetic siderite as lithium ion battery anodes.

  11. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge-discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  12. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  15. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-05-01

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g-1 for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g-1. In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides.In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100

  16. Template-free synthesis of highly porous V2O5 cuboids with enhanced performance for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Guozhao; Liang, Caiwu; Zhou, Jiang; Tan, Xiaoping; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-01

    Highly porous hierarchical V2O5 cuboids have been synthesized by a template-free PVP-assisted polyxol method and the formation mechanism is studied. The cuboids are assembled from numerous mesoporous nanoplates and the preferred orientation of each single nanoplate exposes the <110> facets, facilitating lithium-ion diffusion by offering a prior channel. This material exhibits a high capacity of 143 mA h g-1, high rate capacity of 10 C and long life cycling performance up to 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance of V2O5 cuboid electrodes is due to its unique porous cuboid morphology and optimized structural stability upon cycling. This research provides an effective route to the construction of complex porous architectures assembled from nanocrystals through a surfactant-assisted synthesis method.

  17. Template-free synthesis of highly porous V2O5 cuboids with enhanced performance for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Guozhao; Liang, Caiwu; Zhou, Jiang; Tan, Xiaoping; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-29

    Highly porous hierarchical V2O5 cuboids have been synthesized by a template-free PVP-assisted polyxol method and the formation mechanism is studied. The cuboids are assembled from numerous mesoporous nanoplates and the preferred orientation of each single nanoplate exposes the 〈110〉 facets, facilitating lithium-ion diffusion by offering a prior channel. This material exhibits a high capacity of 143 mA h g(-1), high rate capacity of 10 C and long life cycling performance up to 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance of V2O5 cuboid electrodes is due to its unique porous cuboid morphology and optimized structural stability upon cycling. This research provides an effective route to the construction of complex porous architectures assembled from nanocrystals through a surfactant-assisted synthesis method. PMID:27320105

  18. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  19. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  20. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  1. On-chip high-power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10000 cycles (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium ion battery anode with over 50x power density and 100x energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip porous silicon supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA/cm2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, but not underlying bulk silicon material. This prevents the degradation and poor cycling performance that is commonly observed from deep storage in bulk silicon materials. As a result, this device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10,000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mAh/cm2, without notable capacity fade. This work demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration of energy storage into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based technology.

  2. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  3. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles.

  4. Nitrogen-Enriched Porous Carbon Coating for Manganese Oxide Nanostructures toward High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangan; Zhang, Cunbao; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-05-01

    Manganese oxides are promising high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) yet suffer from short cycle life and poor rate capability. Herein, we demonstrate a facile in situ interfacial synthesis of core-shell heterostructures comprising nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (pN-C) nanocoating and manganese oxide (MnOx) nanotubes. When MnOx/pN-C serves as an anode material for LIBs, the pN-C coating plays multiple roles in substantially improving the lithium storage performance. In combination with the nanosized structure and nanotubular architecture, the MnOx/pN-C nanocomposites exhibit an impressive reversible capacity of 1068 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), a high-rate delivery of 361 mAh g(-1) at 8 A g(-1), and a stable cycling retention up to 300 cycles. The surface pN-C coating strategy can be extended to design and fabricate various metal oxide nanostructures for high-performance LIBs. PMID:25871883

  5. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  6. Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres as high-power cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Ying; Wang, Bei; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Woo-Seong; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-05-01

    Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal reaction combined with high-temperature calcinations. The morphology of the prepared material was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Porous microspheres with diameters around 1-3 microm were obtained, which consisting of primary LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared LiFePO4 microspheres were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. The carbon coated LiFePO4 microspheres showed lower polarization, higher rate capability, and better cycling stability than that of pristine LiFePO4 microspheres, indicating the potential application as the cathode material for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  7. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  8. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  9. A silicon nanowire-reduced graphene oxide composite as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chundong; Wu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Yang; He, Lifang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-03-21

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, silicon has been emerging as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high specific capacity. However, serious pulverization of bulk silicon during cycling limits its cycle life. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Si nanowire (Si NW)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite fabricated using a solvothermal method followed by a chemical vapor deposition process. In the composite, the uniform-sized [111]-oriented Si NWs are well dispersed on the rGO surface and in between rGO sheets. The flexible rGO enables us to maintain the structural integrity and to provide a continuous conductive network of the electrode, which results in over 100 cycles serving as an anode in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 2300 mA h g(-1). Due to its [111] growth direction and the large contact area with rGO, the Si NWs in the composite show substantially enhanced reaction kinetics compared with other Si NWs or Si particles.

  10. Cross-linked branching nanohybrid polymer electrolyte with monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Mingquan; Xia, Qingbing; Liu, Jiatu; Zhao, Shuai; Chen, Libao; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    Nanohybrid polymer electrolytes (NHPE) with ceramic particles have attracted significant attention owing to their improvement in electrochemical performance. However, particle aggregation and weak nanoparticle/polymer matrix interaction restrict their further application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We demonstrate a facile in-situ polymerization/crystallization method to synthesize a homogeneous TiO2-grafted NHPE with a cross-linked branching structure, comprised of ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and non-polar stearyl methacrylate (SMA). This technique is different from existing methods of blending functionalized ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Highly monodispersed TiO2 nanocrystals enhance the effective interfacial interactions between particles and polymer matrix, which suppress the crystallization of ethylene oxide (EO) groups and facilitate forming continuously interconnected ion-conducting channels. Moreover, an increased dissociation degree of Li salt can also be achieved. The TiO2-grafted NHPE exhibits superior electrochemical properties with an ionic conductivity of 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, a high lithium ion transference number and excellent interfacial compatibility with the lithium electrode. In particular, a lithium-ion battery based on TiO2-grafted NHPE demonstrates good C-rate performance, as well as excellent cycling stability with an initial discharge capacity of 153.5 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 96% after 300 cycles at 1 C (80 °C).

  11. Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers as a Versatile Binder for Various Electrodes of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-In; Kang, Hyojin; Park, Kwang Hyun; Shin, Myoungsoo; Hong, Dongki; Cho, Hye Jin; Kang, Na-Ri; Lee, Jungho; Lee, Sang Myeon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Choon Ki; Park, Hyesung; Choi, Nam-Soon; Park, Soojin; Yang, Changduk

    2016-06-01

    It is known that grafting one polymer onto another polymer backbone is a powerful strategy capable of combining dual benefits from each parent polymer. Thus amphiphilic graft copolymer precursors (poly(vinylidene difluoride)-graft-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PVDF-g-PtBA)) have been developed via atom transfer radical polymerization, and demonstrated its outstanding properties as a promising binder for high-performance lithium-ion battery (LIB) by using in situ pyrolytic transformation of PtBA to poly(acrylic acid) segments. In addition to its superior mechanical properties and accommodation capability of volume expansion, the Si anode with PVDF-g-PtBA exhibits the excellent charge and discharge capacities of 2672 and 2958 mAh g(-1) with the capacity retention of 84% after 50 cycles. More meaningfully, the graft copolymer binder shows good operating characteristics in both LiN0.5 M1.5 O4 cathode and neural graphite anode, respectively. By containing such diverse features, a graft copolymer-loaded LiN0.5 M1.5 O4 /Si-NG full cell has been successfully achieved, which delivers energy density as high as 546 Wh kg(-1) with cycle retention of ≈70% after 50 cycles (1 C). For the first time, this work sheds new light on the unique nature of the graft copolymer binders in LIB application, which will provide a practical solution for volume expansion and low efficiency problems, leading to a high-energy-density lithium-ion chemistry. PMID:27119208

  12. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Malliakas, Christos D; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z; Shkrob, Ilya A; Abraham, Daniel P

    2016-04-28

    Fluorinated carbonates are pursued as liquid electrolyte solvents for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. Here we report aggregation of [Li(+)(FEC)3]n polymer species in fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinize the causes for this behavior. PMID:27040896

  13. Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites as anode electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengbin; Ren, Yanbiao; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-04-01

    Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries.

  14. SnO2@TiO2 double-shell nanotubes for a lithium ion battery anode with excellent high rate cyclability.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Kyu-Young; Kim, Dai-Hong; Kim, Won-Sik; Kim, Hong-Chan; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Honggu; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Kang, Kisuk; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2013-09-21

    SnO2@TiO2 double-shell nanotubes have been facilely synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using electrospun PAN nanofibers as templates. The double-shell nanotubes exhibited excellent high rate cyclability for lithium ion batteries. The retention of hollow structures during cycling was demonstrated.

  15. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  16. Scalable preparation of porous micron-SnO2/C composites as high performance anode material for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Lei, Ming; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Xing; Xu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Huang, Yun; Li, Xing

    2016-03-01

    Nano tin dioxide-carbon (SnO2/C) composites prepared by various carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes, porous carbon, and graphene, have attracted extensive attention in wide fields. However, undesirable concerns of nanoparticles, including in higher surface area, low tap density, and self-agglomeration, greatly restricted their large-scale practical applications. In this study, novel porous micron-SnO2/C (p-SnO2/C) composites are scalable prepared by a simple hydrothermal approach using glucose as a carbon source and Pluronic F127 as a pore forming agent/soft template. The SnO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in micron carbon spheres by assembly with F127/glucose. The continuous three-dimensional porous carbon networks have effectively provided strain relaxation for SnO2 volume expansion/shrinkage during lithium insertion/extraction. In addition, the carbon matrix could largely minimize the direct exposure of SnO2 to the electrolyte, thus ensure formation of stable solid electrolyte interface films. Moreover, the porous structure could also create efficient channels for the fast transport of lithium ions. As a consequence, the p-SnO2/C composites exhibit stable cycle performance, such as a high capacity retention of over 96% for 100 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1 and a long cycle life up to 800 times at a higher current density of 1000 mA g-1.

  17. Fabrication of Binder-Free Pencil-Trace Electrode for Lithium-Ion Battery: Simplicity and High Performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyean-Yeol; Kim, Min-Sik; Bae, Tae-Sung; Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-05-10

    A binder-free and solvent-free pencil-trace electrode with intercalated clay particles (mainly SiO2) is prepared via a simple pencil-drawing process on grinded Cu substrate with rough surface and evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The pencil-trace electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 672 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles, which can be attributed to the unique multilayered graphene particles with lateral size of few micrometers and the formation of LixSi alloys generated by interaction between Li(+) and an active Si produced in the electrochemical reduction of nano-SiO2 in the clay particles between the multilayered graphene particles. The multilayered graphene obtained by this process consists of 1 up to 20 and occasionally up to 50 sheets and thus can not only help accommodating the volume change and alleviating the structural strain during Li ion insertion and extraction but also allow rapid access of Li ions during charge-discharge cycling. Drawing with a pencil on grinded Cu substrate is not only very simple but also cost-effective and highly scalable, easily establishing graphitic circuitry through a solvent-free and binder-free approach.

  18. Topochemical synthesis of cobalt oxide-based porous nanostructures for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng Chao; Yin, Xiao Ming; Li, Qiu Hong; Chen, Li Bao; Wang, Tai Hong

    2011-02-01

    Two kinds of topochemical conversion routes from cobalt hydroxide precursors to cobalt oxide-based porous nanostructures are presented: pyrolysis in air and hydrothermal treatment by the Kirkendall diffusion effect. These cobalt hydroxide precursors were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal approach with sodium acetate as mineralizer at 200 °C. Detailed proof indicates that the process of cobalt hydroxide precursor growth is dominated by a nucleation, dissolution, renucleation, growth, and exfoliation mechanism. By the topochemical conversion processes several Co(3)O(4) nanostructures, such as cobalt oxide-coated cobalt hydroxide carbonate nanowires, cobalt oxide nanotubes, hollow cobalt oxide spheres, and porous cobalt oxide nanowires, have been synthesized. The obtained Co(3)O(4) nanostructures have also been evaluated as the anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the as-prepared Co(3)O(4) nanostructures exhibited high reversible capacity and good cycle performance due to their porous structure and small size.

  19. In situ growth of carbon nanotube wrapped Si composites as anodes for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbin; Lan, Yang; Zhang, Kailong; Xia, Guoliang; Du, Jin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-03-01

    The composites of carbon nanotube wrapped Si particles (CNTWS) were synthesized in situ by using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. In this process, carbon nanotubes were produced in situ to wrap Si by the catalysis action of nascent Cu* under an acetylene atmosphere at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C, in which nascent Cu* was created by the reaction between Si particles and CuCl synchronously. The weight ratio of Si/C in CNTWS is 0.76/0.24. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CNTWS composites exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 1031.1 mA h g(-1) at 1.8 A g(-1) after 500 cycles, and 868.2 mA h g(-1) at 10.0 A g(-1). The high electrochemical performance of CNTWS composites is associated with the in situ formed carbon nanotubes. PMID:26875542

  20. A facile approach to make high performance nano-fiber reinforced composite separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    The separator is a porous membrane located between the negative and the positive electrodes. In this work, a nano-fiber reinforced composite separator was developed. Compared with the commercial polyolefin separator, the composite separator showed superior (a) dimensional stability at elevated temperatures relative to conventional separators and (b) wettability by the liquid electrolyte. After being saturated with a commercial LiPF6-ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte, the composite separator enabled a high effective ionic conductivity (σeff) of 1.25 mS/cm. A stable cycle performance and an improved rate capability have been observed in the coin cells with the composite separator. This initial study shows that this type of composite membranes can be a promising alternative separator for lithium ion batteries.

  1. A Biodegradable Polydopamine-Derived Electrode Material for High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Li, Zong-Jun; Wang, Heng-Guo; Bao, Di; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2016-08-26

    Polydopamine (PDA), which is biodegradable and is derived from naturally occurring products, can be employed as an electrode material, wherein controllable partial oxidization plays a key role in balancing the proportion of redox-active carbonyl groups and the structural stability and conductivity. Unexpectedly, the optimized PDA derivative endows lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) with superior electrochemical performances, including high capacities (1818 mAh g(-1) for LIBs and 500 mAh g(-1) for SIBs) and good stable cyclabilities (93 % capacity retention after 580 cycles for LIBs; 100 % capacity retention after 1024 cycles for SIBs), which are much better than those of their counterparts with conventional binders.

  2. Copper-Doped Titanium Dioxide Bronze Nanowires with Superior High Rate Capability for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongquan; Meng, Yuan; Zhu, Kai; Qiu, Hailong; Ju, Yanming; Gao, Yu; Du, Fei; Zou, Bo; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2016-03-01

    Pristine and Cu-doped TiO2-B nanowires are synthesized by the microwave assisted hydrothermal method. The doped oxide exhibits a highly porous structure with a specific surface area of 160.7 m(2) g(-1). As evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, around 2.0 atom % Cu(2+) cations are introduced into TiO2-B, which leads to not only a slightly expanded lattice network but also, more importantly, a modified electronic structure. The band gap of TiO2-B is reduced from 2.94 to 2.55 eV, resulting in enhanced electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal improved electrochemical kinetic properties of TiO2-B due to the Cu doping. The doped nanowires show a specific capacity of 186.8 mAh g(-1) at the 10 C rate with a capacity retention of 64.3% after 2000 cycles. Remarkably, our material exhibits a specific capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) at the 60 C rate, substantiating its superior high rate capability for rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:26963224

  3. Copper-Doped Titanium Dioxide Bronze Nanowires with Superior High Rate Capability for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongquan; Meng, Yuan; Zhu, Kai; Qiu, Hailong; Ju, Yanming; Gao, Yu; Du, Fei; Zou, Bo; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2016-03-01

    Pristine and Cu-doped TiO2-B nanowires are synthesized by the microwave assisted hydrothermal method. The doped oxide exhibits a highly porous structure with a specific surface area of 160.7 m(2) g(-1). As evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, around 2.0 atom % Cu(2+) cations are introduced into TiO2-B, which leads to not only a slightly expanded lattice network but also, more importantly, a modified electronic structure. The band gap of TiO2-B is reduced from 2.94 to 2.55 eV, resulting in enhanced electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal improved electrochemical kinetic properties of TiO2-B due to the Cu doping. The doped nanowires show a specific capacity of 186.8 mAh g(-1) at the 10 C rate with a capacity retention of 64.3% after 2000 cycles. Remarkably, our material exhibits a specific capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) at the 60 C rate, substantiating its superior high rate capability for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  4. In situ growth of carbon nanotube wrapped Si composites as anodes for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianbin; Lan, Yang; Zhang, Kailong; Xia, Guoliang; Du, Jin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-02-01

    The composites of carbon nanotube wrapped Si particles (CNTWS) were synthesized in situ by using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. In this process, carbon nanotubes were produced in situ to wrap Si by the catalysis action of nascent Cu* under an acetylene atmosphere at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C, in which nascent Cu* was created by the reaction between Si particles and CuCl synchronously. The weight ratio of Si/C in CNTWS is 0.76/0.24. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CNTWS composites exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 1031.1 mA h g-1 at 1.8 A g-1 after 500 cycles, and 868.2 mA h g-1 at 10.0 A g-1. The high electrochemical performance of CNTWS composites is associated with the in situ formed carbon nanotubes.The composites of carbon nanotube wrapped Si particles (CNTWS) were synthesized in situ by using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. In this process, carbon nanotubes were produced in situ to wrap Si by the catalysis action of nascent Cu* under an acetylene atmosphere at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C, in which nascent Cu* was created by the reaction between Si particles and CuCl synchronously. The weight ratio of Si/C in CNTWS is 0.76/0.24. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CNTWS composites exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 1031.1 mA h g-1 at 1.8 A g-1 after 500 cycles, and 868.2 mA h g-1 at 10.0 A g-1. The high electrochemical performance of CNTWS composites is associated with the in situ formed carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08961a

  5. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  6. Interplay between two-phase and solid solution reactions in high voltage spinel cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Yu, Xiqian; Zheng, Jianming; Zhou, Yungang; Gao, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Bai, Jianming; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-06-06

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are attracting intensive interests worldwide because of their potential applications in transportation electrification and utility grid. The intercalation compounds used in LIBs electrochemically react with Li+ ions via single or multiple phase transitions depending on the nature of the material structure as well as the synthesis and testing conditions. It is generally accepted that for high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, a promising candidate for LIBs, there are two successive two-phase reactions occurring during the delithiation/lithiation processes, as reflected by the two flat plateaus with a small step in between. Here we demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, that through elemental substitution, each of the two-phase transitions has been largely converted into a solid solution reaction during the electrochemical process. The latter favors fast Li+ diffusion due to the reduced number of phase boundaries that Li+ ions have to overcome, as well as the reduced shrinkage of unit cells after charge. This work clearly elaborates one of the critical functions for element doping/substitution that has been widely adopted in the materials synthesis for LIBs, whose fundamental mechanisms are still obscured.

  7. Mussel-inspired adhesive binders for high-performance silicon nanoparticle anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Jangbae; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Sunjin; Jeong, You Kyeong; Hong, Seonki; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Jung-Ki; Lee, Haeshin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-03-20

    Conjugation of mussel-inspired catechol groups to various polymer backbones results in materials suitable as silicon anode binders. The unique wetness-resistant adhesion provided by the catechol groups allows the silicon nanoparticle electrodes to maintain their structure throughout the repeated volume expansion and shrinkage during lithiation cycling, thus facilitating substantially improved specific capacities and cycle lives of lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  9. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  10. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  11. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  12. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  13. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  14. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. PMID:27406922

  15. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  16. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g−1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g−1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm−2. The excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology. PMID:26497228

  17. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  18. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte tomore » the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.« less

  19. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Li2FeSiO4/C composite as a high performance cathode for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengping; Liu, Jiatu; Ji, Ran; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yang, Shuanglei; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-10-01

    Li2MSiO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, et al.) has received great attention because of the theoretical possibility to reversibly deintercalate two Li+ ions from the structure. However, the silicates still suffer from low electronic conductivity, sluggish lithium ion diffusion and structural instability upon deep cycling. In order to solve these problems, a "hard-soft" templating method has been developed to synthesize three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Li2FeSiO4/C composites. The 3DOM Li2FeSiO4/C composites show a high reversible capacity (239 mAh g-1) with ∼1.50 lithium ion insertion/extraction, a capacity retention of nearly 100% after 420 cycles and excellent rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the interconnected carbon framework that improves the electronic conductivity and the 3DOM structure that offers short Li ion diffusion pathways and restrains volumetric changes.

  20. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  1. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  2. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  3. A novel graphene-polysulfide anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ai, Wei; Xie, Linghai; Du, Zhuzhu; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yunhui; Huang, Wei; Yu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of novel graphene-polysulfide (GPS) anode materials, which consists of conducting graphene network and homogeneously distributed polysulfide in between and chemically bonded with graphene sheets. Such unique architecture not only possesses fast electron transport channels, shortens the Li-ion diffusion length but also provides very efficient Li-ion reservoirs. As a consequence, the GPS materials exhibit an ultrahigh reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior long-term cycling performance in terms of 1600, 550, 380 mAh g(-1) after 500, 1300, 1900 cycles with a rate of 1, 5 and 10 A g(-1) respectively. This novel and simple strategy is believed to work broadly for other carbon-based materials. Additionally, the competitive cost and low environment impact may promise such materials and technique a promising future for the development of high-performance energy storage devices for diverse applications. PMID:23903017

  4. Triethylborate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode of lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaisheng; Xing, Lidan; Li, JianHui; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    Triethylborate (TEB) is used as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNCM) upon cycling at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the cyclic stability of LNCM at room and elevated temperature can be improved effectively by TEB. With addition of 10 wt. % TEB into STD electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/EC:EMC:DEC), LNCM achieves a capacity retention of 99.8% after 150 cycles and 94.7% after 120 cycles at room and elevated temperature, respectively, comparing to that of 68.9% and 68.8% of STD electrolyte. In addition, 10 wt. % TEB also improves the rate capability of LNCM at room temperature. Physical and electrochemical characterizations from XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, ICP-MS, LSV, CA, and EIS reveal that the preferential oxidative reaction of TEB generates a thin, uniform and low interfacial resistance film on the LNCM surface. This film not only suppresses the subsequent decomposition of STD electrolyte, but also prevents the dissolution of transition metal ions from LNCM, resulting in improved cyclic stability and rate capability of LNCM.

  5. Could Borophene Be Used as a Promising Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-08-31

    The rapid development of electronic products has inspired scientists to design and explore novel electrode materials with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability, such as two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures of graphene and MoS2. In this study, another 2-D nanosheet, that is a borophene layer, has been predicted to be utilized as a promising anode material for high-performance Li ion battery based on density functional theory calculations. Our study has revealed that Li atom can combine strongly with borophene surface strongly and easily, and exist as a pure Li(+) state. A rather small energy barrier (0.007 eV) of Li diffusion leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity along an uncorrugated direction of borophene, which is estimated to be 10(4) (10(5)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature. A high Li storage capacity of 1239 mA·h/g can be achieved when Li content reaches 0.5. A low average operating voltage of 0.466 V and metallic properties result in that the borophene can be used as a possible anode material. Moreover, the properties of Li adsorption and diffusion on the borophene affected by Ag (111) substrate have been studied. It has been found that the influence of Ag (111) substrate is very weak. Li atom can still bind on the borophene with a strong binding energy of -2.648 eV. A small energy barrier of 0.033 eV can be retained for Li diffusion along the uncorrugated direction, which can give rise to a high Li diffusivity. Besides, the performances of borophene-based Na ion battery have been explored. Our results suggest that an extremely high rate capability could be expected in borophene-based Li ion battery. PMID:27487298

  6. Could Borophene Be Used as a Promising Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-08-31

    The rapid development of electronic products has inspired scientists to design and explore novel electrode materials with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability, such as two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures of graphene and MoS2. In this study, another 2-D nanosheet, that is a borophene layer, has been predicted to be utilized as a promising anode material for high-performance Li ion battery based on density functional theory calculations. Our study has revealed that Li atom can combine strongly with borophene surface strongly and easily, and exist as a pure Li(+) state. A rather small energy barrier (0.007 eV) of Li diffusion leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity along an uncorrugated direction of borophene, which is estimated to be 10(4) (10(5)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature. A high Li storage capacity of 1239 mA·h/g can be achieved when Li content reaches 0.5. A low average operating voltage of 0.466 V and metallic properties result in that the borophene can be used as a possible anode material. Moreover, the properties of Li adsorption and diffusion on the borophene affected by Ag (111) substrate have been studied. It has been found that the influence of Ag (111) substrate is very weak. Li atom can still bind on the borophene with a strong binding energy of -2.648 eV. A small energy barrier of 0.033 eV can be retained for Li diffusion along the uncorrugated direction, which can give rise to a high Li diffusivity. Besides, the performances of borophene-based Na ion battery have been explored. Our results suggest that an extremely high rate capability could be expected in borophene-based Li ion battery.

  7. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  8. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  9. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers. PMID:16852662

  10. Doping-Enhanced Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Shunnian; Wu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    We disclose a distortion-assisted diffusion mechanism in Li3N and Li2.5Co0.5N by first-principles simulations. A B2g soft mode at the Γ point is found in α-Li3N, and a more stable α'-Li3N (P3¯m1) structure, which is 0.71 meV lower in energy, is further derived. The same soft mode is inherited into Li2.5Co0.5N and is enhanced due to Co doping. Consequently, unlike the usual Peierls spin instability along Co-N chains, large lithium-ion displacements on the Li-N plane are induced by a set of soft modes. Such a distortion is expected to offer Li atoms a route to bypass the high diffusion barrier and promote Li-ion conductivity. In addition, we further illustrate abnormal Born effective charges along Co-N chains which result from the competition between the motions of electrons and ion cores. Our results provide future opportunities in both fundamental understanding and structural modifications of Li-ion battery materials.

  11. Hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 mesostructures as high-performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Longmei; Li, He; Lai, Hongwei; Li, Danqin; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with enhanced performance to commercial ones are urgently demanded in portable electric devices. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of a dominant commercial cathode material (LiCoO2) by constructing 3D hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 (h-LNCO). The h-LNCO presents porous spherical-shaped morphology at mesoscale while comprises interconnected primary nanoparticles at nanoscale. Such a unique morphology endows the h-LNCO with porous structure for easy penetration of electrolyte, relatively small size of primary particles with short Li+ ions diffusion length and abundant exposed surface in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation. The synergism of these merits makes the h-LNCO exhibit superior electrochemical properties with high capacity, superior cyclability and rate capability, much better than the solid granular LNCO counterparts and commercial LiCoO2. This strategy of constructing porous hierarchical mesostructures could be extended to other electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  12. Performance and Safety of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report evaluates the performance and safety of Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells when used in batteries. Issues discussed include the cycle life, energy efficiency, tolerance to higher charge voltage, tolerance to extended tapered charge voltage, charge on cycling, specific energy, low temperature discharge, low temperature charge, various charge characteristics, storage characteristics, and more of Li-Ion cells.

  13. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  14. Recent progress in research on high-voltage electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi; Ji, Ya J; Zhang, Zhong R; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-21

    Developing a stable and safe electrolyte that works at voltages as high as 5 V is a formidable challenge in present Li-ion-battery research because such high voltages are beyond the electrochemical stability of the conventional carbonate-based solvents available. In the past few years, extensive efforts have been carried out by the research community toward the exploration of high-voltage electrolytes. In this review, recent progress in the study of several promising high-voltage electrolyte systems, as well as their recipes, electrochemical performance, electrode compatibility, and characterization methods, are summarized and reviewed. These new electrolyte systems include high-voltage film-forming additives and new solvents, such as sulfones, ionic liquids, nitriles, and fluorinated carbonates. It appears to be very difficult to find a good high-voltage (∼5 V) electrolyte with a single-component solvent at the present stage. Using mixed fluorinated-carbonate solvents and additives are two realistic solutions for practical applications in the near term, while sulfones, nitriles, ionic liquids and solid-state electrolyte/polymer electrolytes are promising candidates for the next generation of high-voltage electrolyte systems.

  15. Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis of VS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Superior High-Rate Capability as Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenying; Zhao, Hongbin; Xie, Yanping; Fang, Jianhui; Xu, Jiaqiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-06-17

    In this study, a facile one-pot process for the synthesis of hierarchical VS2/graphene nanosheets (VS2/GNS) composites based on the coincident interaction of VS2 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is developed for the first time. The nanocomposites possess a hierarchical structure of 50 nm VS2 sheets in thickness homogeneously anchored on graphene. The VS2/GNS nanocomposites exhibit an impressive high-rate capability and good cyclic stability as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries, which retain 89.3% of the initial capacity 180.1 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at 20 C, the composites still deliver a high capacity of 114.2 mAh g(-1) corresponding to 62% of the low-rate capacity. Expanded studies show that VS2/GNS, as an anode material, also has a good reversible performance with 528 mAh g(-1) capacity after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance of the composites for reversible Li+ storage should be attributed to the exceptional interaction between VS2 and GNS that enabled fast electron transport between graphene and VS2, facile Li-ion diffusion within the electrode. Moreover, GNS provides a topological and structural template for the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional VS2 nanosheets and acted as buffer matrix to relieve the volume expansion/contraction of VS2 during the electrochemical charge/discharge, facilitating improved cycling stability. The VS2/GNS composites may be promising electrode materials for the next generation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  16. Co3O4 nanocubes homogeneously assembled on few-layer graphene for high energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junming; Wu, Jinsong; Luo, Langli; Chen, Xinqi; Qin, Huibin; Dravid, Vinayak; Mi, Shaobo; Jia, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been synthesized and tested as electrode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis of such nanocomposites, graphene is generally introduced by either thermally or chemically reduced graphite oxide (GO), which has poorer electric conductivity and crystallinity than mechanically exfoliated graphene. Here, we prepare few-layer graphene sheet (FLGS) with high electric conductivity, by sonicating expanded graphite in DMF solvent, and develop a simple one-pot hydrothermal method to fabricate monodispersed and ultrasmall Co3O4 nanocubes (about 4 nm in size) on the FLGS. This composite, consisting of homogeneously assembled and high crystalline Co3O4 nanocubes on the FLGS, has shown higher capacity and much better cycling stability than counterparts synthesized using GO as a precursor. The products in different synthesis stages have been characterized by TEM, FTIR and XPS to investigate the nanocube growth mechanism. We find that Co(OH)2 initially grew homogeneously on the graphene surface, then gradually oxidized to form Co3O4 nanoparticle seeds, and finally converted to Co3O4 nanocubes with caboxylated anion as surfactant. This work explores the mechanism of nanocrystal growth and its impact on electrochemical properties to provide further insights into the development of nanostructured electrode materials for high power energy storage.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Silicon/Graphite Spherical Composites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Jun; Yang, Kap Seung; Park, Min-Sik

    2016-05-18

    A high-performance Si/carbon/graphite composite in which Si nanoparticles are attached onto the surface of natural graphite by carbonization of coal-tar pitch is proposed for use in lithium-ion batteries. This multicomponent structure is favorable for improving Li(+) storage capability because the amorphous carbon layer encapsulating Si nanoparticles offers sufficient electric conductivity and strong elasticity to facilitate relaxation of strain caused by electrochemical reaction of Si during cycles. The Si/carbon/graphite composite exhibits a specific capacity of 712 mAh g(-1) at a constant current density of 130 mA g(-1), and maintains more than 80% of its initial capacity after 100 cycles. Moreover, it shows a high capacity retention of approximately 88% even at a high current density of 5 C (3250 mA g(-1)). On the basis of electrochemical and structural analyses, we suggest that a rational design of the Si/carbon/graphite composite is mainly responsible for delivering a high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Furthermore, the proposed synthetic route for the Si/carbon/graphite composite is simple and cost-effective for mass production. PMID:27112916

  18. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  19. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponent anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with controllable pore size via coaxial electro-spinning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Choi, Sinho; Bok, Taesoo; Park, Soojin

    2015-04-14

    We demonstrate a simple but straightforward process for the synthesis of nanotube-type Si-based multicomponents by combining a coaxial electrospinning technique and subsequent metallothermic reduction reaction. Si-based multicomponent anodes consisting of Si, alumina and titanium silicide show several advantages for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Alumina and titanium silicide, which have high mechanical properties, act as an effective buffer layer for the large volume change of Si, resulting in outstanding volume suppression behavior (volume expansion of only 14%). Moreover, electrically conductive titanium silicide layers located at the inner and outer layers of a Si nanotube exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5% and an extraordinary rate capability. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponents with mechanically and electrically improved components can be used as a promising alternative to conventional graphite anode materials. This synthetic route can be extended to other high capacity lithium-ion battery anode materials. PMID:25772327

  20. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponent anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with controllable pore size via coaxial electro-spinning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Choi, Sinho; Bok, Taesoo; Park, Soojin

    2015-04-14

    We demonstrate a simple but straightforward process for the synthesis of nanotube-type Si-based multicomponents by combining a coaxial electrospinning technique and subsequent metallothermic reduction reaction. Si-based multicomponent anodes consisting of Si, alumina and titanium silicide show several advantages for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Alumina and titanium silicide, which have high mechanical properties, act as an effective buffer layer for the large volume change of Si, resulting in outstanding volume suppression behavior (volume expansion of only 14%). Moreover, electrically conductive titanium silicide layers located at the inner and outer layers of a Si nanotube exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5% and an extraordinary rate capability. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponents with mechanically and electrically improved components can be used as a promising alternative to conventional graphite anode materials. This synthetic route can be extended to other high capacity lithium-ion battery anode materials.

  1. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  2. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 nanoclusters anchored on super-aligned carbon nanotubes as high performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Hengcai; Wu, Yang; Wang, Datao; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information

  3. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponent anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with controllable pore size via coaxial electro-spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Choi, Sinho; Bok, Taesoo; Park, Soojin

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple but straightforward process for the synthesis of nanotube-type Si-based multicomponents by combining a coaxial electrospinning technique and subsequent metallothermic reduction reaction. Si-based multicomponent anodes consisting of Si, alumina and titanium silicide show several advantages for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Alumina and titanium silicide, which have high mechanical properties, act as an effective buffer layer for the large volume change of Si, resulting in outstanding volume suppression behavior (volume expansion of only 14%). Moreover, electrically conductive titanium silicide layers located at the inner and outer layers of a Si nanotube exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5% and an extraordinary rate capability. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponents with mechanically and electrically improved components can be used as a promising alternative to conventional graphite anode materials. This synthetic route can be extended to other high capacity lithium-ion battery anode materials.We demonstrate a simple but straightforward process for the synthesis of nanotube-type Si-based multicomponents by combining a coaxial electrospinning technique and subsequent metallothermic reduction reaction. Si-based multicomponent anodes consisting of Si, alumina and titanium silicide show several advantages for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Alumina and titanium silicide, which have high mechanical properties, act as an effective buffer layer for the large volume change of Si, resulting in outstanding volume suppression behavior (volume expansion of only 14%). Moreover, electrically conductive titanium silicide layers located at the inner and outer layers of a Si nanotube exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5% and an extraordinary rate capability. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponents with mechanically and electrically improved components can be used as a promising alternative to

  4. Growth of Hollow Transition Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) Oxide Nanoparticles on Graphene Sheets through Kirkendall Effect as Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianbo; Qu, Bin; Zhao, Yang; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin; Sun, Chunwen; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Chunling

    2016-01-26

    A general strategy based on the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been developed to grow hollow transition metal (Fe, Co or Ni) oxide nanoparticles on graphene sheets. When applied as lithium-ion battery anodes, these hollow transition metal oxide-based composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities and long-term stabilities at a high current density, superior to most transition metal oxides reported to date.

  5. Phenolic resin-grafted reduced graphene oxide as a highly stable anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Mochen; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Ma, Zhaokun

    2015-02-01

    A novel and effective route for preparing phenol formaldehyde resin grafted reduced graphene oxide (rGO-g-PF) electrode materials with highly enhanced electrochemical properties is reported. In order to prepare rGO-g-PF, hydroxymethyl-terminated PF is initially grafted to graphene oxide (GO) via esterification reaction. Subsequently, the grafted GO is reduced by the carbonization process under an inert gas atmosphere. The covalent linkage, morphology, thermal stability and electrochemical properties of rGO-g-PF are systematically investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. In the constructed architecture, the amorphous carbon shell can inhibit the co-intercalation of solvated lithium ion and avoid partial exfoliation of the graphene layers, thus effectively reducing the irreversible capacity and preserving the structural integrity. Meanwhile, the carbon coating layer leading to a decreased thickness of SEI film can improve the conductivity of electrode materials. As a result, the rGO-g-PF electrode exhibits impressive high cycling stability at various large current densities (376.5 mA h g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) for 250 cycles, 337.8 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and 267.8 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) for 200 cycles), in combination with high rate capability.

  6. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-21

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g(-1). The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials. PMID:24906180

  7. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-21

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g(-1). The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials.

  8. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-24

    Graphene-modified LiFePO{sub 4} composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO{sub 4} primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li{sup +} diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g{sup -1} at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  9. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  10. Silicon core-hollow carbon shell nanocomposites with tunable buffer voids for high capacity anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yi, Ran; Howlett, Giles; Sohn, Hiesang; Wang, Donghai

    2012-10-01

    Silicon core-hollow carbon shell nanocomposites with controllable voids between silicon nanoparticles and hollow carbon shell were easily synthesized by a two-step coating method and exhibited different charge-discharge cyclability as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The best capacity retention can be achieved with a void/Si volume ratio of approx. 3 due to its appropriate volume change tolerance and maintenance of good electrical contacts.

  11. High performance carbon nanotube-Si core-shell wires with a rationally structured core for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Congxiang; Xiao, Qizhen; Wang, Xinghui; Tay, Beng Kang

    2013-02-21

    Core-shell Si nanowires are very promising anode materials. Here, we synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with relatively large diameters and large inter-wire spacing as core wires and demonstrate a CNT-Si core-shell wire composite as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode. Owing to the rationally engineered core structure, the composite shows good capacity retention and rate performance. The excellent performance is superior to most core-shell nanowires previously reported.

  12. Mussel-inspired adhesive binders for high-performance silicon nanoparticle anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Jangbae; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Sunjin; Jeong, You Kyeong; Hong, Seonki; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Jung-Ki; Lee, Haeshin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-03-20

    Conjugation of mussel-inspired catechol groups to various polymer backbones results in materials suitable as silicon anode binders. The unique wetness-resistant adhesion provided by the catechol groups allows the silicon nanoparticle electrodes to maintain their structure throughout the repeated volume expansion and shrinkage during lithiation cycling, thus facilitating substantially improved specific capacities and cycle lives of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:23280515

  13. The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Fang, Chengcheng; Chen, Guohua

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing energy demands for electronic devices and electrical vehicles, anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity, good cyclic and rate performances become one of the focal areas of research. Among the various anode materials, SnO2/graphene nanocomposites have drawn extensive attentions due to their high theoretical specific capacities, low charge potential vs. Li/Li+ and environmental benignity. In this review, the advances, including the synthetic methods and structural optimizations, of the SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for LIBs have been reviewed in detail. By providing an in-depth discussion of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites, we aim to demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites could be significantly enhanced by rational modifications of morphology and crystal structures, chemical compositions and surface features. Though only focusing on SnO2/graphene-based composites, the concepts and strategies should be referential to other metal oxide/graphene composites.

  14. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  15. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C. PMID:27649860

  16. Facile preparation of porous Co3O4 nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries and oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhangpeng; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) porous nanostructures are of great interest due to their high surface area and rich edge sites, which are favorable for a wide variety of applications. In this communication, well-defined porous Co3O4 nanosheets (PCNSs) are successfully fabricated using graphene oxide as sacrificial template. The 2D structure and porous nature effectively provide more exposed active sites for electrochemical reaction and facilitate easier ion transportation across the sheets. As a result, the as-prepared PCNSs exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance, showing high reversible capacity of 1380 mAh g-1 even after 240 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1 and good rate capability (606 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). Moreover, it also shows a good electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction with an overpotential of 368 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M KOH and a small Tafel slope of 59 mV dec-1.

  17. Silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material with low expansion for high capacity and long cycle life lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Inden, Yuki; Endo, Morinobu

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims at developing a silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material for high performance lithium-ion battery (LIB). It is composed of micronized silicon coated with so-called "soft-carbon" dispersed in soft-carbon matrix at nanometer level. This material is characterized with abundant nanosized voids with diameter of ca. 70 nm and hard bulk skeletal structure. It exhibited a long cycle life of 163 charging and discharging cycles with a large capacity of 850 mAh/g and retention rate up to 90% of the initial capacity in a half cell with Li-metal counter electrode. For this new material, the volume expansion ratio was 6.9% at a capacity level of 1100 mAh/g. This electrode capacity is approximately three times larger than that of graphite-based electrode currently used in LIB. Furthermore, this electrode retained 80.9% of its capacity at 250 cycles in a full cell with a LiCoO2 counter electrode. Addition of 5 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte improved the retention up to 81.3% after 300 cycles. These results demonstrate the usefulness and high possibility of this material as the negative electrode of LIB.

  18. Synthesis of two-dimensional transition-metal phosphates with highly ordered mesoporous structures for lithium-ion battery applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Lu, Ziyang; Rui, Xianhong; Huang, Xiao; Li, Hai; Zhu, Jixin; Zhang, Wenyu; Lam, Yeng Ming; Hng, Huey Hoon; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-08-25

    Materials with ordered mesoporous structures have shown great potential in a wide range of applications. In particular, the combination of mesoporosity, low dimensionality, and well-defined morphology in nanostructures may exhibit even more attractive features. However, the synthesis of such structures is still challenging in polar solvents. Herein, we report the preparation of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes of transition-metal phosphates, including FePO4, Mn3(PO4)2, and Co3(PO4)2, with highly ordered mesoporous structures in a nonpolar solvent. The as-obtained nanoflakes with thicknesses of about 3.7 nm are constructed from a single layer of parallel-packed pore channels. These uniquely ordered mesoporous 2D nanostructures may originate from the 2D assembly of cylindrical micelles formed by the amphiphilic precursors in the nonpolar solvent. The 2D mesoporous FePO4 nanoflakes were used as the cathode for a lithium-ion battery, which exhibits excellent stability and high rate capabilities. PMID:24990356

  19. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C. PMID:27649860

  20. Confined Porous Graphene/SnOx Frameworks within Polyaniline-Derived Carbon as Highly Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Tin oxides are promising anode materials for their high theoretical capacities in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, poor stability usually limits the practical application owing to the large volume variation during the cycling process. Herein, a novel carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx framework was designed using a silica template assisted nanocasting method followed by a polyaniline-derived carbon coating process. In this process, silica served as a template to anchor SnOx nanoparticles on porous framework and polyaniline was used as the carbon source for coating on the porous graphene/SnOx framework. The synthesized carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx frameworks demonstrate substantially improved rate capacities and enhanced cycling stability as the anode materials in LIBs, showing a high reversible capacity of 907 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and 555 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1). The remarkably improved electrochemical performance could be assigned to the unique porous architecture, which effectively solves the drawbacks of SnOx including poor electrical conductivity and undesirable volume expansion during cycling process. Consequently, such design concept for promoting SnOx performance could provide a novel stage for improving anode stability in LIBs.

  1. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  2. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  3. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. PMID:26387639

  4. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). PMID:24754908

  5. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  6. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  7. Fe2O3 nanorods/carbon nanofibers composite: Preparation and performance as anode of high rate lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunyu; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan; Li, Bin; Wang, Yaqiong; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan

    2014-04-01

    A novel Fe2O3/carbon composite is prepared using a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Its structure, morphology and performance as anode of lithium ion battery are investigated with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the as-prepared composite is composed of α-Fe2O3 nanorods of about 75 nm in diameter and 1 μm in length, which are enwrapped with soft and curly carbon nanofibers, and exhibits superior charge/discharge performance compared to bare α-Fe2O3 nanorods, especially at high current rate. The discharge capacity is 1069 mAh g-1 at the first cycle and remains 560 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles at 0.2C for the bare nanorods, but improved to 1278 mAh g-1 and 960 mAh g-1 for the composite. At 12C, the discharge capacity is only 798 mAh g-1 initially and becomes 98 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles for the bare nanorods, while 844 mAh g-1 and 292 mAh g-1 for the composite. The improved performance of the composite is attributed to the bondage from carbon nanofibers, which contributes to the improvement in electronic conductivity and structure stability of α-Fe2O3 nanorods.

  8. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  9. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics.

  10. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g−1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g−1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g−1 at 3  A g−1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g−1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g−1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode. PMID:26374601

  11. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  12. Free-standing and flexible LiMnTiO4/carbon nanotube cathodes for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yinhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Le; Zhang, Xinyi; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Meng; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    A flexible, free-standing, and light-weight LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode has been prepared by vacuum filtration method for the first time. The as-prepared flexible LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode possesses a three-dimensional braiding structure in which LiMnTiO4 particles are well embedded in the twining CNT networks. The novel LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrodes show tensile strength of 1.34 MPa and 2.04 MPa, when the percentages of MWCNTs reach to 30% and 50%, respectively. This novel flexible electrode exhibits a superior electrochemical property, especially at rate capability and cycling stability. The LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can deliver capacity of 161 mAh g-1 (86.4% retention) after 50 cycles at 0.5C rate. Since the high conductivity from MWCNT networks, the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can still maintain a capacity of 77 mAh g-1 at 5C rate, which is much higher than that of the conventional electrode fabricated by slurry casting method on Al foil. The features of free-standing, light-weight, and excellent electrochemical performance indicate the potential of using the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT cathode in new-generation flexible lithium ion batteries.

  13. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  14. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g-1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g-1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g-1 at 3  A g-1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g-1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode.

  15. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA.

  16. Facile synthesis of tin dioxide-based high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries assisted by graphene gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuanxin; Sha, Ye; Luo, Shaochuan; Deng, Weijia; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Gi; Zhou, Dongshan

    2015-11-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has four times the theoretical capacity of the prevalent anode material (graphite). The main obstacle hampers SnO2 from practical application is the pulverization problem caused by drastic volume change (∼300%) during lithium-ion insertion or extraction, which would lead to the loss of electrical conductivity, unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and consequently severe capacity fading in the cycling. Here, we anchored the SnO2 nanocrystals into three dimensional graphene gel network to tackle this problem. As a result of the three dimensional (3-D) architecture, the huge volume change during cycling was tolerated by the large free space in this 3-D construction, resulting in a high capacity of 1090 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles. What's more, at a higher current density 5 A g-1, a reversible capacity of about 491 mAh g-1 was achieved with this electrode.

  17. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  18. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  19. Synthesis of high performance LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 from lithium ion battery recovery stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Qina; Gratz, Eric; He, Meinan; Lu, Wenquan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Spent lithium ion batteries that contain valuable metal elements such as Co, Ni, Mn, Cu are being landfilled in many countries and raising resources depletion and human toxicity potentials. Low cost and high efficiency recovery process is highly desired. In this work we confirmed that high performance Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3(OH)2 precursor and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material can be synthesized from leaching solution of a lithium ion battery recovery stream. The precursor was synthesized from a typical co-precipitation process with carefully controlling the reaction parameters. Electrochemical properties including rate capacity and cycle life were tested to evaluate the final product. The results show that the cathode material synthesized from spent lithium ion battery recovery stream is performing a discharge capacity of 158 mAh/g at first cycle of 0.1C and 139 mAh/g at first cycle of 0.5C cycle life test. After 100 and 200 cycles, still over 80% and 65% of capacity is remained, respectively. The materials are also evaluated independently at Argonne National Laboratory.

  20. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  1. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  2. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  3. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  4. Direct Synthesis of Carbon-Doped TiO2-Bronze Nanowires as Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio; Monaco, Simone; Toma, Andrea; Messina, Gabriele C; Alabastri, Alessandro; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Capiglia, Claudio; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2015-11-18

    Carbon-doped TiO2-bronze nanowires were synthesized via a facile doping mechanism and were exploited as active material for Li-ion batteries. We demonstrate that both the wire geometry and the presence of carbon doping contribute to the high electrochemical performance of these materials. Direct carbon doping for example reduces the Li-ion diffusion length and improves the electrical conductivity of the wires, as demonstrated by cycling experiments, which evidenced remarkably higher capacities and superior rate capability over the undoped nanowires. The as-prepared carbon-doped nanowires, evaluated in lithium half-cells, exhibited lithium storage capacity of ∼306 mA h g(-1) (91% of the theoretical capacity) at the current rate of 0.1C as well as excellent discharge capacity of ∼160 mAh g(-1) even at the current rate of 10 C after 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  5. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H.; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A.; King, William P.; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm−2⋅μm−1) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm−2⋅μm−1 peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm2 for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application. PMID:25964360

  6. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A; King, William P; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-26

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm(-2)⋅μm(-1)) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm(-2)⋅μm(-1) peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm(2) for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application. PMID:25964360

  7. Fluorination Induced the Surface Segregation of High Voltage Spinel on Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes for Enhanced Rate Capability in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-02-17

    This study is aimed to explore the effect of fluoride doping and the associated structural transformation on lithium-rich layered cathode materials. The polymeric fluoride source is first adopted for synthesizing lithium intercalated oxide through a newly developed organic precipitation process. A heterostructured spinel/layered composite cathode material is obtained after appreciable fluorination and a superior rate capability is successfully achieved. The fluoride dopant amount and the surface spinel phase are evidenced and systematically examined by various structural spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis. It appears the reversible Ni(2+/4+) redox couple at high voltage regime around 4.8 V because of the formation of spinel LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 phase. The mechanism of "layer to spinel" phase transformation is discussed in detail.

  8. In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2014-10-01

    Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and GeN chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid.

  9. Constructing Highly Oriented Configuration by Few-Layer MoS2: Toward High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanpei; Chowdari, B V R; Wen, Zhaoyin; Jin, Jun; Yang, Jianhua

    2015-12-22

    Constructing three-dimensional (3D) architecture with oriented configurations by two-dimensional nanobuilding blocks is highly challenging but desirable for practical applications. The well-oriented open structure can facilitate storage and efficient transport of ion, electron, and mass for high-performance energy technologies. Using MoS2 as an example, we present a facile and effective hydrothermal method to synthesize 3D radially oriented MoS2 nanospheres. The nanosheets in the MoS2 nanospheres are found to have less than five layers with an expanded (002) plane, which facilitates storage and efficient transport of ion, electron, and mass. When evaluated as anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries, the MoS2 nanospheres show an outstanding performance; namely, a specific capacity as large as 1009.2 mA h g(-1) is delivered at 500 mA g(-1) even after 500 deep charge/discharge cycles. Apart from promising the lithium-ion battery anode, this 3D radially oriented MoS2 nanospheres also show high activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:26549425

  10. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  11. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g−1 at 0.9 A g−1, 128 mA h g−1 at 1.5 A g−1, 91 mA h g−1 at 3 A g−1 and 59 mA h g−1 at 6 A g−1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  12. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  13. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-28

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  14. Scalable synthesis of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles anchored on graphene as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yu Cheng; Ma, Ru Guang; Jun Hu, Ming; Cheng, Hua; Tsang, Chun Kwan; Yang, Qing Dan; Yang Li, Yang; Zapien, Juan Antonio

    2013-05-01

    We report a scalable strategy to synthesize Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this study, ferric citrate is used as precursor to prepare Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles without introducing additional reducing agent; furthermore and show that such Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles can be anchored on graphene sheets which attributed to multifunctional group effect of citrate. Electrochemical characterization of the Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites exhibit large reversible capacity (~1347 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 0.2 C up to 100 cycles, and subsequent capacity of ~619 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 2 C up to 200 cycles), as well as high coulombic efficiency (~97%), excellent rate capability, and good cyclic stability. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles, with a size of ~4–16 nm are densely anchored on thin graphene sheets, resulting in large synergetic effects between Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles and graphene sheets with high electrochemical performance. - Graphical abstract: The reduction of Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ and the deposition of Fe₃O₄ on graphene sheets occur simultaneously using citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. Highlights: • Fe₃O₄/graphene composites are synthesized directly from graphene and C₆H₅FeO₇. • The citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. • The resulting Fe₃O₄ particles (~4–16 nm) are densely anchored on graphene sheets. • The prepared Fe₃O₄/graphene composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance.

  15. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  16. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  17. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-01

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g-1. The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials.Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting

  18. Alkanethiol-passivated ge nanowires as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries: the role of chemical surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang-Wei; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2012-11-27

    We demonstrate that dodecanethiol monolayer passivation can significantly enhance the anode performance of germanium (Ge) nanowires in lithium-ion batteries. The dodecanethiol-passivated Ge nanowires exhibit an excellent electrochemical performance with a reversible specific capacity of 1130 mAh/g at 0.1 C rate after 100 cycles. The functionalized Ge nanowires show high-rate capability having charge and discharge capacities of ∼555 mAh/g at high rates of 11 C. The functionalized Ge nanowires also performed well at 55 °C, showing their thermal stability at high working temperatures. Moreover, full cells using a LiFePO(4) cathode were assembled and the electrodes still have stable capacity retention. An aluminum pouch type lithium cell was also assembled to provide larger current (∼30 mA) for uses on light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and audio devices. Investigation of the role of organic monolayer coating showed that the wires formed a robust nanowire/PVDF network through strong C-F bonding so as to maintain structure integrity during the lithiation/delithiation process. Organic monolayer-coated Ge nanowires represent promising Ge-C anodes with controllable low carbon content (ca. 2-3 wt %) for high capacity, high-rate lithium-ion batteries and are readily compatible with the commercial slurry-coating process for cell fabrication.

  19. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulié, M.; Laucournet, R.; Billy, E.

    2014-02-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Effect of parameters such as type of acid (H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl), acid concentration (1-4 mol L-1), leaching time (3-18 h) and leaching temperature (25-90 °C) with a solid to liquid ratio fixed at 5% (w/v) are investigated to determine the most efficient conditions of dissolution. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. In the nickel and cobalt recovery process, at first the Co(II) in the leaching liquor is selectively oxidized in Co(III) with NaClO reagent to recover Co2O3, 3H2O by a selective precipitation at pH = 3. Then, the nickel hydroxide is precipitated by a base addition at pH = 11. The recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel are respectively 100% and 99.99%.

  20. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  1. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  2. Synthesis of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 Nanorods for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Sun, Bing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-12-15

    The long-standing challenge associated with capacity fading of spinel LiMn2 O4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries is investigated. Single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a template-engaged method. Porous Mn3 O4 nanorods were used as self-sacrificial templates, into which LiOH was infiltrated by a vacuum-assisted impregnation route. When used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods exhibited superior long cycle life owing to the one-dimensional nanorod structure, single-crystallinity, and Li-rich effect. LiMn2 O4 nanorods retained 95.6 % of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles at 3C rate. In particular, the nanorod morphology of the spinel LiMn2 O4 was well-preserved after a long-term cycling, suggesting the ultrahigh structural stability of the single crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods. This result shows the promising applications of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life.

  3. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  4. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  5. Donut-shaped Li4Ti5O12 structures as a high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Anulekha K; Sharma, Chandra S; Rao, Tata N

    2015-01-21

    Lithium titanate (LTO) spinel 3D porous sub-micrometer donuts synthesized by combined sol-gel and electrospraying reveal a wall thickness of 200-250 nm with grain sizes in the range of 60-100 nm. Electrochemical testing of sub-micrometer donuts in half-cell mode exhibited a reversible specific capacity of 141 mAh/g even after 200 cycles of charging and discharging at 1C rate. The LTO structures with nanograins effectively reduce the Li ion diffusion path length, providing easy charge and discharge with good cyclability.

  6. Three-dimensional Carbon Nitride/Graphene Framework as a High-Performance Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Mai, Yiyong; Wang, Xinjing; Wang, Chi; Han, Sheng; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Dongqing; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-20

    A three-dimensional polymeric carbon nitride/graphene framework (CN/GF) was fabricated by the ionic self-assembly of graphene oxide and protonated polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets. As the cathode material in lithium-ion batteries, CN/GF showed an excellent reversible capacity of 184 mA h g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) for 150 cycles and maintained the capacity of 60 mA h g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) .

  7. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  8. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  9. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  10. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-21

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi(+) + e(-)↔ LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.

  11. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  12. Insights into the inner structure of high-nickel agglomerate as high-performance lithium-ion cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Li-Ya; Zuo, Zicheng; Wang, Ru-Na; Ye, Meng; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Heng-Hui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the intrinsic impact of inner structure features on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes is for the first time systematically investigated. Three different spherical Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors are successfully synthesized by controlling pH values and ammonia concentrations. Interestingly, via a further lithiation process, the final cathodes can gradually inherit the structural features, showing distinct particle arrangement and genetic orientation characteristics in the inner structures. Such a hereditary property can be well reined for customizing the grain-orientation, helping the growth of the inert crystal direction, reducing cation mixing and exposing the high active (100) or (010) lattice planes for lithiation/delithiation processes via an intrinsical way. The degree of grain-orientation of the primary particles turns out to be a critical factor in determining the long-term stability and power performances. Due to the reduced cation mixing degree and favorable lithium diffusion pathways, the ordered agglomerates with the grain growth along with [003] direction exhibit superior rate capability and good cycle stability.

  13. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics. PMID:26310518

  14. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  15. Stark spectroscopy of a probe lithium beam excited with two dye lasers as a technique to study a high-power ion-beam diode.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, B A; An, W; Bluhm, H

    2012-03-01

    A non-disturbing measurement of electric field distributions is a subject of special interest in plasma physics and high-voltage devices. In this paper we describe a diagnostic technique for remote sensing of electric fields via injection of a probe beam of lithium atoms and cascade excitation of resonance fluorescence with two broadband dye lasers. The fluorescence spectrum was recorded using a monochromator equipped with an optical multi-channel analyser. The magnitude of the local electric field was retrieved from the Stark-shifted components of the 3d-2p lithium spectral line. The technique was applied to measurements of the electric field in the applied-B-field high-voltage diode of the 1 TW KALIF ion-beam accelerator. PMID:22462900

  16. A high-rate long-life Li4Ti5O12/Li[Ni0.45Co0.1Mn1.45]O4 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Jang, Min Woo; Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Lithium batteries are receiving considerable attention as storage devices in the renewable energy and sustainable road transport fields. However, low-cost, long-life lithium batteries with higher energy densities are required to facilitate practical application. Here we report a lithium-ion battery that can be cycled at rates as high as 10 C has a life exceeding 500 cycles and an operating temperature range extending from -20 to 55 °C. The estimated energy density is 260 W h kg(-1), which is considerably higher than densities delivered by the presently available Li-ion batteries.

  17. Modeling Diffusion Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu Huang, Cheng-Kai

    Advancing lithium-ion battery technology is of paramount importance for satisfying the energy storage needs in the U.S., especially for the application in the electric vehicle industry. To provide a better acceleration for electric vehicles, a fast and repeatable discharging rate is required. However, particle fractures and capacity loss have been reported under high current rate (C-rate) during charging/discharging and after a period of cycling. During charging and discharging, lithium ions extract from and intercalate into electrode materials accompanied with the volume change and phase transition between Li-rich phase and Li-poor phase. It is suggested that the diffusion-induced-stress is one of the main reasons causing capacity loss due to the mechanical degradation of electrode particles. Therefore, there is a fundamental need to provide a mechanistic understanding by considering the structure-mechanics-property interactions in lithium-ion battery materials. Among many cathode materials, the olivine-based lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) with an orthorhombic crystal structure is one of the promising cathode materials for the application in electric vehicles. In this research we first use a multiphysic approach to investigate the stress evolution, especially on the phase boundary during lithiation in single LiFePO4 particles. A diffusion-controlled finite element model accompanied with the experimentally observed phase boundary propagation is developed via a finite element package, ANSYS, in which lithium ion concentration-dependent anisotropic material properties and volume misfits are incorporated. The stress components on the phase boundary are used to explain the Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III fracture propensities in LiFePO4 particles. The elastic strain energy evolution is also discussed to explain why a layer-by-layer lithium insertion mechanism (i.e. first-order phase transformation) is energetically preferred. Another importation issue is how current

  18. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on HOPG as precursor of new carbon-based anode for high-capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angelucci, Marco; Frau, Eleonora; Betti, Maria Grazia; Mura, Francesco; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-06-19

    Iron Oxides nanostructures are very promising systems for new generation of anode material for Lithium-Ion batteries because of their high capacity associated to their surface area. A core-level photoemission study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires deposited on highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) under Li exposure is presented. The Fe-2p, Fe-3p, and Li-1s core-level lineshape evolution upon Li exposure in ultra-high-vacuum conditions clearly brings to light the Fe ion reduction from fully trivalent to prevalently divalent at saturation. Furthermore, the graphite substrate allows allocation of a large amount of Li ions surrounding the iron-oxide nanowires, opening a new scenario towards the use of graphene for improving the ionic charge exchange.

  19. Controllable synthesis of Cu-doped CoO hierarchical structure for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chengcheng; Huang, Yanan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2016-05-01

    We report on the strategy of Cu doping inducing the nanosize effect of CoO and their application as anode for lithium ion batteries. With an increase of Cu-doped amount, the structures and morphologies of CoO have special changes. The 0.05 mol Cu-doped CoO shows straw-like bundle structure assembled by nanorods, and the nanorods consist of ultra small nanoparticles (about 6-8 nm). Meanwhile, it shows an excellent rates performance and cycle life. The capacity of 800 mA h g-1 is obtained at 0.5 C after 80 cycles. The highest discharge capacity is 580 mA h g-1 at 10 C and the discharge capacities are relatively stable for 1000 cycles as an anode for Li-ion battery. Therefore, the controllable Cu-doped CoO composite could be deemed to be a potential candidate as an anode material.

  20. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  1. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design. PMID:27677326

  2. The ion transport mechanism of lithium polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongli

    Lithium polymer electrolytes are of great interest for use in polymer-electrolyte rechargeable batteries. However, the lithium transport mechanism in the polymer electrolyte has not been fully understood, due partly to the lack of a means to characterize a key lithium transport property, the transference number, correctly and efficiently. This research pioneered the use of the electrophoretic nuclear magnetic resonance technique to measure the lithium transference number (TsbLi) of polymer electrolytes. The development of this technique is described. It is shown that the technique is strictly valid regardless of the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte and the measurement protocol is relatively straightforward. As a result, the accuracy of the technique is high compared to existing techniques. The lithium transport mechanism in polymer gel electrolytes are investigated systematically with complementary techniques including vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering), nuclear magnetic resonance, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The characteristic lithium transport behavior as a function of the temperature, the salt concentration, the anion type, and the polymer matrices is established. Perfluoroimide and perfluoromethide lithium salts always lead to a larger lithium transference number compared to conventional lithium salts. In poly(vinylidene fluororide-hexfloropropylene) based gel electrolytes, the perfluoroimide anion, (CFsb3SOsb3)sb2Nsp-, results in a nearly invariant TsbLi over a wide salt concentration range. In contrast, the CFsb3SOsb3sp- anion results in TsbLi decreasing monotonically with increasing salt concentration. In poly(acrylonitrile), which binds with Lisp+, the TsbLi versus LiCFsb3SOsb3 concentration curve is nearly parabolic. A qualitative model is proposed which defines the important molecular interactions underlying the lithium transport behavior and extends the Fuoss and Onsager theory to systems with extensive ion complexation.

  3. On-chip high power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10 000 cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif S.; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms.We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04720f

  4. Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourice, Julien; Bordes, Arnaud; Boulineau, Adrien; Alper, John P.; Franger, Sylvain; Quinsac, Axelle; Habert, Aurélie; Leconte, Yann; De Vito, Eric; Porcher, Willy; Reynaud, Cécile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Haon, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    Core-shell silicon-carbon nanoparticles are attractive candidates as active material to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries while mitigating the detrimental effects of volume expansion upon lithiation. However crystalline silicon suffers from amorphization upon the first charge/discharge cycle and improved stability is expected in starting with amorphous silicon. Here we report the synthesis, in a single-step process, of amorphous silicon nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell (a-Si@C), via a two-stage laser pyrolysis where decomposition of silane and ethylene are conducted in two successive reaction zones. Control of experimental conditions mitigates silicon core crystallization as well as formation of silicon carbide. Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy show a carbon shell about 1 nm in thickness, which prevents detrimental oxidation of the a-Si cores. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the core-shell composite reaches its maximal lithiation during the first sweep, thanks to its amorphous core. After 500 charge/discharge cycles, it retains a capacity of 1250 mAh.g-1 at a C/5 rate and 800 mAh.g-1 at 2C, with an outstanding coulombic efficiency of 99.95%. Moreover, post-mortem observations show an electrode volume expansion of less than 20% and preservation of the nanostructuration.

  5. Nanostructured lithium-aluminum alloy electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, Nicholas S.; Huber, Dale L.

    2010-12-01

    Electrodeposited aluminum films and template-synthesized aluminum nanorods are examined as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-aluminum alloying reaction is observed electrochemically with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in lithium half-cells. The electrodeposition reaction is shown to have high faradaic efficiency, and electrodeposited aluminum films reach theoretical capacity for the formation of LiAl (1 Ah/g). The performance of electrodeposited aluminum films is dependent on film thickness, with thicker films exhibiting better cycling behavior. The same trend is shown for electron-beam deposited aluminum films, suggesting that aluminum film thickness is the major determinant in electrochemical performance regardless of deposition technique. Synthesis of aluminum nanorod arrays on stainless steel substrates is demonstrated using electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates followed by template dissolution. Unlike nanostructures of other lithium-alloying materials, the electrochemical performance of these aluminum nanorod arrays is worse than that of bulk aluminum.

  6. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-01

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries. PMID:26278438

  7. Mesoporous spherical Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Tay, Siok Wei; Liu, Xiaogang; Yu, Aishui

    2014-09-01

    Porous microspherical Li4Ti5O12 aggregates (LTO-PSA) can be successfully prepared by using porous spherical TiO2 as a titanium source and lithium acetate as a lithium source followed by calcinations. The synthesized LTO-PSA possess outstanding morphology, with nanosized, porous, and spherical distributions, that allow good electrochemical performances, including high reversible capacity, good cycling stability, and impressive rate capacity, to be achieved. The specific capacity of the LTO-PSA at 30 C is as high as 141 mA h g(-1), whereas that of normal Li4Ti5O12 powders prepared by a sol-gel method can only achieve 100 mA h g(-1). This improved rate performance can be ascribed to small Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystallites, a three-dimensional mesoporous structure, and enhanced ionic conductivity.

  8. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  9. Mesoporous TiO2-B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hansan; Bi, Zhonghe; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Unocic, Raymond R; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2-B microsperes with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for high power lithium ion batteries. This material, combining the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact and compact particle packing in electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge-discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

  10. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene wrapped rice-like ferrous carbonate nanoparticles as anode materials for high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai; Li, Lifei

    2015-01-01

    Well dispersed rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles were produced and combined with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a one-pot solvothermal route. SEM characterization shows that rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored on the surface of the graphene nanosheets; the addition of RGO is helpful to form a uniform morphology and reduce the particle size of FeCO3 to nano-grade. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved lithium storage properties with a large reversible capacity of 1345 mA h g(-1) for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1224 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles with a good rate capability compared with pure FeCO3 particles. The superior electrochemical performance of the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite electrode compared to the pure FeCO3 electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodates the volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite could be a suitable candidate for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized π electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-π type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  12. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  13. Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries with High Specific Energy and Improved Safety for Nasa's Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Smart, Marshall; Soler, Jess; Krause, Charlie; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Materials ( Cathodes, anodes and high voltage and safe electrolyte are required to meet the needs of the future space missions. A. Cathodes: The layered layered composites of of Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 are promising Power capability of the materials, however requires further improvement. Suitable morphology is critical for good performance and high tap (packing) density. Surface coatings help in the interfacial kinetics and stability. B. Electrolytes: Small additions of Flame Retardant Additives improves flammability without affecting performance (Rate and cycle life). 1.0 M in EC+EMC+TPP was shown to have good performance against the high voltage cathode; Performance demonstrated in large capacity prototype MCMB- LiNiCoO2 Cells. Formulations with higher proportions are looking promising. Still requires further validation through abuse tests (e.g., on 18650 cells).

  14. High-strength clad current collector for silicon-based negative electrode in lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Riki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Inoue, Ryouji; Kitta, Mitsunori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    We develop a clad foil current collector with a high tensile strength that endures a large volume change in the active material during the charge and discharge, such as the Si-based materials. The nano-Si negative electrode with the clad current collector retains 76% of the initial capacity after 40 cycles, while the capacity of the nano-Si electrode with a conventional Cu foil drops to less than 70% only after 10 cycles. A full cell with the SiO negative electrode and the LiFePO4 positive electrode retains more than 90% of its capacity at the 10th cycle after 800 cycles. The conventional rolled Cu foil wrinkles during the cycling test. The high-strength clad current foil hardly deforms during the test regardless of the electrode size.

  15. Control of interfacial layers for high-performance porous Si lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Lee, Sungjun; Yoo, Seungmin; Shin, Myoungsoo; Kim, Jieun; Chun, Myungjin; Choi, Nam-Soon; Park, Soojin

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of micrometer-sized porous Si particles via copper-assisted chemical etching process. Subsequently, metal and/or metal silicide layers are introduced on the surface of porous Si particles using a simple chemical reduction process. Macroporous Si and metal/metal silicide-coated Si electrodes exhibit a high initial Coulombic efficiency of ∼90%. Reversible capacity of carbon-coated porous Si gradually decays after 80 cycles, while metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes show significantly improved cycling performance even after 100 cycles with a reversible capacity of >1500 mAh g(-1). We confirm that a stable solid-electrolyte interface layer is formed on metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes during cycling, leading to a highly stable cycling performance. PMID:25153926

  16. Control of interfacial layers for high-performance porous Si lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Lee, Sungjun; Yoo, Seungmin; Shin, Myoungsoo; Kim, Jieun; Chun, Myungjin; Choi, Nam-Soon; Park, Soojin

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of micrometer-sized porous Si particles via copper-assisted chemical etching process. Subsequently, metal and/or metal silicide layers are introduced on the surface of porous Si particles using a simple chemical reduction process. Macroporous Si and metal/metal silicide-coated Si electrodes exhibit a high initial Coulombic efficiency of ∼90%. Reversible capacity of carbon-coated porous Si gradually decays after 80 cycles, while metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes show significantly improved cycling performance even after 100 cycles with a reversible capacity of >1500 mAh g(-1). We confirm that a stable solid-electrolyte interface layer is formed on metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes during cycling, leading to a highly stable cycling performance.

  17. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-09-01

    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm-3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm-2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l-1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  18. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  19. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-09-01

    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm‑3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm‑2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l‑1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  20. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date.

  1. Human-rated Safety Certification of a High Voltage Robonaut Lithium-ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Yayathi, S.; Johnson, M.; Waligora, T.; Verdeyen, W.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's rigorous certification process is being followed for the R2 high voltage battery program for use of R2 on International Space Station (ISS). Rigorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible off-nominal conditions and review of test data led to design improvements for safety at the virtual cell, cartridge and battery levels. Tests were carried out at all levels to confirm that both hardware and software controls work. Stringent flight acceptance testing of the flight battery will be completed before launch for mission use on ISS.

  2. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Germanium microflower-on-nanostem as a high-performance lithium ion battery electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang-Hee; Kwon, S. Joon; Park, Kyung-Soo; Kang, Jin-Gu; Park, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Jae-Chan; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a new design of Ge-based electrodes comprising three-dimensional (3-D) spherical microflowers containing crystalline nanorod networks on sturdy 1-D nanostems directly grown on a metallic current collector by facile thermal evaporation. The Ge nanorod networks were observed to self-replicate their tetrahedron structures and form a diamond cubic lattice-like inner network. After etching and subsequent carbon coating, the treated Ge nanostructures provide good electrical conductivity and are resistant to gradual deterioration, resulting in superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, with a charge capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles and a high specific capacity of 1360 mA h g-1 at 1 C and a high-rate capability with reversible capacities of 1080 and 850 mA h g-1 at the rates of 5 and 10 C, respectively. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fast electron transport and good strain accommodation of the carbon-filled Ge microflower-on-nanostem hybrid electrode.

  4. Germanium microflower-on-nanostem as a high-performance lithium ion battery electrode

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwang-Hee; Kwon, S. Joon; Park, Kyung-Soo; Kang, Jin-Gu; Park, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Jae-Chan; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new design of Ge-based electrodes comprising three-dimensional (3-D) spherical microflowers containing crystalline nanorod networks on sturdy 1-D nanostems directly grown on a metallic current collector by facile thermal evaporation. The Ge nanorod networks were observed to self-replicate their tetrahedron structures and form a diamond cubic lattice-like inner network. After etching and subsequent carbon coating, the treated Ge nanostructures provide good electrical conductivity and are resistant to gradual deterioration, resulting in superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, with a charge capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles and a high specific capacity of 1360 mA h g−1 at 1 C and a high-rate capability with reversible capacities of 1080 and 850 mA h g−1 at the rates of 5 and 10 C, respectively. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fast electron transport and good strain accommodation of the carbon-filled Ge microflower-on-nanostem hybrid electrode. PMID:25363317

  5. Sandwich-like mesoporous graphene@magnetite@carbon nanosheets for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yongming; Zhou, Xunfu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Shengsen; Liu, Yingju; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Hongqiang; Li, Qingyu; Fang, Yueping; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Sandwich-like mesoporous GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets with a 2D nanoarchitecture have been successfully synthesized by one-step solvothermal treatment. Such type of 2D nanoarchitecture is made up of a number of Fe3O4 nanoparticles uniformly grown on a graphene sheet and an even amorphous carbon layer covering on their surface. The Li-cycling properties of GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. Results indicate that the GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets with about 5 wt % of graphene content provides a very high discharge capacity of 913.2 mAh g-1 at a current densities of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and reveals a stable discharge capacity of 483.2 mAh g-1 at a rate of 1600 mA g-1.

  6. High-Capacity and Self-Stabilized Manganese Carbonate Microspheres as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Wang, Shiyao; Wang, Yafei; Meng, Wen; Deng, Bohua; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Liu, Jinping

    2016-09-28

    Manganese carbonate (MnCO3) is an attractive anode material with high capacity based on conversion reaction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its application is mainly hindered by poor cycling performance. Building nanostructures/porous structures and nanocomposites has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to buffer the volume changes and maintain the electrode integrity for long-term cycling. It is widely believed that microsized MnCO3 is not suitable for use as anode material for LIBs because of its poor conductivity and the absence of nanostructure. Herein, different from previous reports, spherical MnCO3 with the mean diameters of 6.9 μm (MnCO3-B), 4.0 μm (MnCO3-M), and 2.6 μm (MnCO3-S) were prepared via controllable precipitation and utilized as anode materials for LIBs. It is interesting that the as-prepared MnCO3 microspheres demonstrate both high capacity and excellent cycling performance comparable to their reported nanosized counterparts. MnCO3-B, MnCO3-M, and MnCO3-S deliver reversible specific capacities of 487.3, 573.9, and 656.8 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, respectively. All the MnCO3 microspheres show capacity retention more than 90% after the initial stage. The advantages of MnCO3 microspheres were investigated via constant-current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that there should be substantial structure transformation from microsized particle to self-stabilized nanostructured matrix for MnCO3 at the initial charge/discharge stage. The evolution of EIS during charge/discharge clearly indicates the formation and stabilization of the nanostructured matrix. The self-stabilized porous matrix maintains the electrode structure to deliver excellent cycling performance, and contributes extra capacity beyond conversion reaction. PMID:27598035

  7. Dominant factors governing the rate capability of a TiO2 nanotube anode for high power lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyungkyu; Song, Taeseup; Lee, Eung-Kwan; Devadoss, Anitha; Jeon, Yeryung; Ha, Jaehwan; Chung, Yong-Chae; Choi, Young-Min; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-09-25

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to low cost and structural stability during Li insertion/extraction. However, its poor rate capability limits its practical use. Although various approaches have been explored to overcome this problem, previous reports have mainly focused on the enhancement of both the electronic conductivity and the kinetic associated with lithium in the composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder. Here, we systematically explore the effect of the contact resistance between a current collector and a composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder on the rate capability of a TiO(2)-based electrode. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes arrays, directly grown on the current collector, with sealed cap and unsealed cap, and conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrodes were prepared for this study. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes array electrode with unsealed cap showed superior performance with six times higher capacity at 10 C rate compared to conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrode with 10 wt % conducting agent. On the basis of the detailed experimental results and associated theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that the reduction of the contact resistance between electrode and current collector plays an important role in improving the electronic conductivity of the overall electrode system.

  8. Nitrile functionalized disiloxanes with dissolved LiTFSI as lithium ion electrolytes with high thermal and electrochemical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Hiller, Martin M.; Seidel, Sarah M.; Grünebaum, Mariano; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Liquid disiloxanes functionalized with terminal nitrile groups are introduced as alternative non-volatile solvents for lithium-ion battery electrolytes in combination with LiTFSI as lithium salt. Two series of disiloxanes were investigated differing with respect to the attachment of the nitrile containing side group to silicon, i.e. via a Si-C or a Si-O bond. Total conductivities up to 1 mS cm-1 at 30 °C were measured by impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization was done on half cells using LiFePO4 cathodes by cyclic voltammetry and constant current cycling. Attractive issues and advantages of the investigated LiTFSI containing disiloxanes in comparison to current electrolyte solvents are: a) In spite of the presence of LiTFSI, the aluminum pitting corrosion is suppressed, b) the electrochemical stability window is extended on the cathode side up to 5.6 V vs. Li/Li+, for a LiTFSI concentration of 0.7 mol kg-1, c) the reported nitrile functionalized disiloxanes show excellent thermal stability with a boiling point up to 106 °C (0.1 mbar), a rather low glass transition temperature of -107 °C, while no melting/crystallization was observed.

  9. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (<0.5mm) fraction and to 68% in the fine (0.5-1mm) fraction, and been excluded in the larger pieces (>6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process.

  10. Orderly packed anodes for high-power lithium-ion batteries with super-long cycle life: rational design of MnCO3/large-area graphene composites.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiren; Yang, Mei; Zhou, Xianlong; Luo, Yuting; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    MnCO3 particles uniformly distributed on large-area graphene form 2D composites whose large-area character enables them to self-assemble face-to-face into orderly packed electrodes. Such regular structures form continuous and efficient transport networks, leading to outstanding lithium storage with high capacity, ultralong cycle life, and excellent rate capability--all characteristics that are required for high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Three-Dimensional (3D) Bicontinuous Hierarchically Porous Mn2O3 Single Crystals for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Cai, Yi; Li, Yu; Deng, Zhao; Zeng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Bicontinuous hierarchically porous Mn2O3 single crystals (BHP-Mn2O3-SCs) with uniform parallelepiped geometry and tunable sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The monodispersed BHP-Mn2O3-SCs exhibit high specific surface area and three dimensional interconnected bimodal mesoporosity throughout the entire crystal. Such hierarchical interpenetrating porous framework can not only provide a large number of active sites for Li ion insertion, but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for Li ions, leading to a high lithium storage capacity and enhanced rate capability. Furthermore, owing to their specific porosity, these BHP-Mn2O3-SCs as anode materials can accommodate the volume expansion/contraction that occurs with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, resulting in their good cycling performance. Our synthesized BHP-Mn2O3-SCs with a size of ~700 nm display the best electrochemical performance, with a large reversible capacity (845 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles), high coulombic efficiency (>95%), excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability (410 mA h g-1 at 1 Ag-1). These values are among the highest reported for Mn2O3-based bulk solids and nanostructures. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study demonstrates that the BHP-Mn2O3-SCs are suitable for charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  12. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  13. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  14. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Palm, K; Stifler, C; Steski, D; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Kanesue, T

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam. PMID:26931962

  15. Fabrication of spinel Li4-xTi5O12 via ion exchange for high-rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chongling; Liu, Hongjiang; Li, Jun; Xue, Xin; Cao, Hui; Wang, Dayang; Shi, Liyi

    2015-06-01

    The present work demonstrates that lithium ions can be stepwise substituted by protons from spinel Li4Ti5O12 crystalline particles though simple ion-exchange in aqueous HCl solution with the aid of heat treatment. This enables us to continuously tune the Li-to-Ti stoichiometric ratios from 0.80 to 0.59, 0.41, 0.21, 0.15, and 0.09, thus transforming Li4Ti5O12 to Li4-xTi5O12 nanocrystals. The resulting nanocrystals maintain the spinel crystal structure when x becomes smaller than 3. Among as-prepared the Li4-xTi5O12 crystalline particles, Li1Ti5O12 shows the highest capacity of 193 mAh g-1 at 1C and 148 mAh g-1 at 20C, lower current impedance (47 Ω), significantly improved rate capability and fairly long cycle life. This excellent electrochemical performance makes spinel Li4-xTi5O12 particles as a promising anode candidate for lithium ion batteries superior.

  16. Anode microstructures from high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cylindrical cells obtained by X-ray nano-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ender, Moses; Joos, Jochen; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Graphite negative electrodes from a high-power and a high-energy cylindrical lithium-ion cell are reconstructed using X-ray nano-tomography. Large volumes and high resolution are required for an in-depth comparison of the design aspects for high-power and high-energy anode. Hence, quite big volumes of 2.37·106 μm3 and 1.27·106 μm3 have to be analyzed to cover the entire thickness of both anode layers. High resolutions of 273 nm and 233 nm voxel size are chosen for assessing volume specific graphite surface area, among other parameters, precisely. A hysteresis segmentation method is adapted for segmentation, featuring a symmetrical growing of both graphite and pore phase. Surface areas are calculated using the marching cube algorithm, particle sizes are calculated based on the Euclidean distance transform (EDT) and tortuosity values are calculated by solving the transport equation using a finite volume scheme in MATLAB. Analysis of these parameters leads to the assumption, that the electrolyte transport is limited by the pore structure of the high-energy graphite anode.

  17. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-08-01

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly

  18. Cu doped V2O5 flowers as cathode material for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Chen, Jing; Huang, Xin; Xu, Chen; Liu, Weiling; Yu, Denis Y W; Hng, Huey Hoon; Hoster, Harry E; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-01

    Hierarchical Cu doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) flowers were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach followed by an annealing process. The flower precursors are self-assembled with 1D nanobelts surrounding a central core. The morphological evolution is investigated and a plausible mechanism is proposed. As the cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the Cu doped V2O5 samples exhibit improved electrochemical performance compared to the un-doped ones. Among them Cu0.02V1.98O5 delivered higher reversible specific capacities, better cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities, e.g. 97 mA h g(-1) at 20.0 C.

  19. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries.

  20. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoflower arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering method. The aligned Ag nanoflower arrays on copper substrate are prepared by a facile displacement reaction in absence of any surfactant at a mild temperature. When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays show better cycling performance and higher capacity than the planar NiO electrodes. The improved performance should be attributed to the core-shell structures that can enhance the conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  1. Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells during constant current cycling. Part I. Cycle performance and electrochemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-24

    Twelve-cm{sup 2} pouch type lithium-ion cells were assembled with graphite anodes, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes and 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC/DEC electrolyte. These pouch cells were cycled at different depths of discharge (100 percent and 70 percent DOD) at room temperature to investigate cycle performance and pulse power capability. The capacity loss and power fade of the cells cycled over 100 percent DOD was significantly faster than the cell cycled over 70 percent DOD. The overall cell impedance increased with cycling, although the ohmic resistance from the electrolyte was almost constant. From electrochemical analysis of each electrode after cycling, structural and/or impedance changes in the cathode are responsible for most of the capacity and power fade, not the consumption of cycleable Li from side-reactions.

  2. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries. PMID:24782265

  3. Low-cost synthesis of hierarchical V2O5 microspheres as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Wan, Zhongming; Zhang, Longfei; Ding, Yuanlei; Zhang, Li; Qu, Qunting; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-08-28

    Hierarchical V2O5 microspheres composed of stacked platelets are fabricated through a facile, low-cost, and energy-saving approach. The preparation procedure involves a room-temperature precipitation of precursor microspheres in aqueous solution and subsequent calcination. Because of this unique structure, V2O5 microspheres manifest a high capacity (266 mA h g(-1)), excellent rate capability (223 mA h g(-1) at a current density 2400 mA g(-1)), and good cycling stability (200 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles) as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibers: tailored nanostructure for the anode of lithium ion batteries with high reversibility and rate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Junhua; Liu, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhengchun; Tan, Hui Ru; Xiong, Shanxin; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-01-01

    A carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibrous mat was successfully prepared via single-spinneret electrospinning followed by carbonization and hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of carbon/SnO2/carbon hybrid nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their electrochemical properties were studied as an anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It is shown that the designed hybrid nanofibrous mat exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including high reversible capacity with high columbic efficiency and impressive rate capacity. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion resistance, which are induced by both the carbon core and deposited carbon skin. Furthermore, the embedded and de-aggregated SnO2 nanoparticles in the carbon phase, which are less than 10 nm in size, provide large numbers of reaction sites for lithium ions and ensure complete alloying with them.A carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibrous mat was successfully prepared via single-spinneret electrospinning followed by carbonization and hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of carbon/SnO2/carbon hybrid nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their electrochemical properties were studied as an anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It is shown that the designed hybrid nanofibrous mat exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including high reversible capacity with high columbic efficiency and impressive rate capacity. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion

  5. Thermal Aspects of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Bugga, R.; Smart, M.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development of a thermal model of Li-ion cells in terms of heat generation, thermal mass, and thermal resistance. Intended for incorporation into battery model. The approach was to estimate heat generation: with semi-theoretical model, and then to check accuracy with efficiency measurements. Another objective was to compute thermal mass from component weights and specific heats, and to compute the thermal resistance from component dimensions and conductivities. Two lithium batteries are compared, the Cylindrical lithium battery, and the prismatic lithium cell. It reviews methodology for estimating the heat generation rate. Graphs of the Open-circuit curves of the cells and the heat evolution during discharge are given.

  6. Highly Ordered TiO2 Microcones with High Rate Performance for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Oonhee; Lee, Gibaek; Choi, Jinsub

    2016-06-15

    The perpendicularly oriented anatase TiO2 microcones for Li-ion battery application were synthesized via anodization of a Ti foil in aqueous HF + H3PO4 solution. The TiO2 microcones exhibited a high active surface area with a hollow core depending on applied voltage and reaction time, confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM with EDS mapping. Li insertion/desertion into TiO2 microcones was evaluated for the first time in half-cell configuration in terms of various current density and long-term cyclability. The electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the as-prepared TiO2 microcones as anode material exhibited 3 times higher capacity as compared with TiO2 nanotubular structures, excellent rate performance (0.054 mAhcm(-2) even at 50 C) and reliable capacity retention during 500 cycles, which was attributed to facile diffusion of Li-ions induced in hollow anatase TiO2 microcones structure with multilayered nanofragment. PMID:27218822

  7. Unique 1D Co3O4 crystallized nanofibers with (220) oriented facets as high-performance lithium ion battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Li, Zeyu; Tian, Weiqian; Qian, Weiwei; Yang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hang

    2016-05-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal and calcination strategy was developed to synthesize the unique 1D oriented Co3O4 crystal nanofibers with (220) facets on the carbon matrix derived from the natural, abundant and low cost wool fibers acting as both carbon precursor and template reagent. The resultant W2@Co3O4 nanocomposite exhibited very high specific capacity and favorable high-rate capability when used as anode material of lithium ion battery. The high reversible Li+ ion storage capacity of 986 mAh g‑1 was obtained at 100 mA g‑1 after 150 cycles, higher than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g‑1). Even at the higher current density of 1 A g‑1, the electrode could still deliver a remarkable discharge capacity of 720 mAh g‑1 over 150 cycles.

  8. Unique 1D Co3O4 crystallized nanofibers with (220) oriented facets as high-performance lithium ion battery anode material

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Li, Zeyu; Tian, Weiqian; Qian, Weiwei; Yang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal and calcination strategy was developed to synthesize the unique 1D oriented Co3O4 crystal nanofibers with (220) facets on the carbon matrix derived from the natural, abundant and low cost wool fibers acting as both carbon precursor and template reagent. The resultant W2@Co3O4 nanocomposite exhibited very high specific capacity and favorable high-rate capability when used as anode material of lithium ion battery. The high reversible Li+ ion storage capacity of 986 mAh g−1 was obtained at 100 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, higher than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g−1). Even at the higher current density of 1 A g−1, the electrode could still deliver a remarkable discharge capacity of 720 mAh g−1 over 150 cycles. PMID:27217201

  9. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  10. Unconventional pore and defect generation in molybdenum disulfide: application in high-rate lithium-ion batteries and the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kan; Kim, Hwan-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Taik; Chang, Gee-Woo; Shi, Xinjian; Kim, Wanjung; Ma, Ming; Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Jae-Man; Song, Min-Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-09-01

    A 2H-MoS2 (H=hexagonal) ultrathin nanomesh with high defect generation and large porosity is demonstrated to improving electrochemical performance, including in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with the aid of a 3D reduced graphene oxide (RGO) scaffold as fast electron and ion channels. The 3D defect-rich MoS2 nanomesh/RGO foam (Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO) can be easily obtained through a one-pot cobalt acetate/graphene oxide (GO) co-assisted hydrothermal reaction, in which GO, cobalt and acetate ions are co-morphology-controlling agents and defect inducers. As an anode material for LIBs, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO has only a 9% capacity decay at a 10 C discharge rate versus 0.2 C with stable cyclability at the optimized composition (5 wt% RGO to MoS2 and 2 mol% Co to Mo), and significantly achieves 810 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 9.46 A g(-1) over at least 150 cycles. Moreover, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO exhibits superior activity for the HER with an overpotential as low as 80 mV and a Tafel slope of about 36 mV per decade. In contrast to the MoS2 nanosheet/RGO (MoS2 Ns/RGO), which is synthesized in the absence of cobalt ions, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO provides high interconnectivity for efficient lithium-ion transport, and rich defects as electrochemically active sites. DFT is used to prove the existence of rich defects due to anion replacement to become a Co-Mo-S atomic structure, releasing inert basal planes to active sites.

  11. High-rate layered lithium-rich cathode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized with the assist of carbon spheres templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linjing; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Wu, Borong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of the layered lithium-rich cathode, Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2, have been synthesized via the two-step hydrothermal reactions combined with calcination process, while carbon spheres were used as templates. In the first hydrothermal step, the carbon spheres templates are obtained, and then the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 materials are prepared during the second hydrothermal step with addition of 0, 5, 10, 15 wt% as-prepared carbon spheres. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate the well-ordered layer-structured lithium-rich nanomaterials can be obtained with adding proper amount of carbon spheres templates. The electrochemical test demonstrates that the sample added 10 wt% carbon spheres (LNMO-Cs10) exhibits the best performance among all the samples. It delivers the optimal cycling ability, the least voltage decay, and the maximal discharge capacities of 238.7, 219.3, 204.8 and 182.7 mAh g-1 at 1C, 2C, 5C and 10C rates, respectively. EIS test shows that the LNMO-Cs10 material also has the reduced solid-electrolyte-interface resistance and charge transfer resistance. The excellent cycling ability and rate capability are possibly attributed to the better dispersibility of the nanoparticles with adding adequate amount of carbon spheres templates during materials synthesis. It can both guarantee the good contact between electrode and electrolytes and prevent high aggregation of nanoparticles.

  12. One-step argon/nitrogen binary plasma jet irradiation of Li4Ti5O12 for stable high-rate lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chun-Kai; Chuang, Shang-I.; Bao, Qi; Liao, Yen-Ting; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure Ar/N2 binary plasma jet irradiation has been introduced into the manufacturing process of lithium ions batteries as a facile, green and scalable post-fabrication treatment approach, which enhanced significantly the high-rate anode performance of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12). Main emission lines in Ar/N2 plasma measured by optical emission spectroscopy reveal that the dominant excited high-energy species in Ar/N2 plasma are N2*, N2+, N∗ and Ar∗. Sufficient oxygen vacancies have been evidenced by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectra. Nitrogen doping has been achieved simultaneously by the surface reaction between pristine Li4Ti5O12 particles and chemically reactive plasma species such as N∗ and N2+. The variety of Li4Ti5O12 particles on the surface of electrodes after different plasma processing time has been examined by grazing incident X-Ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) confirm that the Ar/N2 atmospheric plasma treatment facilitates Li+ ions diffusion and reduces the internal charge-transfer resistance. The as-prepared Li4Ti5O12 anodes exhibit a superior capacity (132 mAh g-1) and excellent stability with almost no capacity decay over 100 cycles under a high C rate (10C).

  13. A polyaniline-coated mechanochemically synthesized tin oxide/graphene nanocomposite for high-power and high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fei; Zhao, Bote; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping

    2015-09-01

    Although intensive efforts have been made during the past decades, development of an anode material with high specific capacity and stable cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a cost-effective preparation method still remains challenging. Herein, we report a polyaniline (PANI)-coated mechanochemically synthesized SnO2/graphene (SG) nanocomposite via in situ polymerization. PANI-coated nanocomposites are successfully prepared with different raw material mass ratios (aniline:SG, 0.15:1, 0.2:1, 0.25:1). The nanocomposite with initial aniline:SG mass ratio of 0.2:1 (20%PANI-SG) contains an optimal structure housing genuine PANI nanofibers as conductive bridges and a relatively high surface area of 158.5 m2 g-1; furthermore, it exhibits a stable cycling performance over 100 cycles at high current density (1000 mA g-1) with a specific capacity of more than twice that of the starting SG electrode at the 100th cycle. Additionally, this material achieved an outstanding cycling rate with current densities changing stepwise from 100 to 3000 mA g-1 and back, and exhibited a specific capacity of 467 mA h g-1 even at 2000 mA g-1. In terms of the electrochemical stability, rate capability and cost-effective preparation process, the PANI-SG nanocomposite is a viable anode material for next-generation high-power and high-energy LIBs.

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  15. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  16. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion. PMID:24615890

  17. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-09-21

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g(-1). Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  18. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g-1. Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  19. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi+ + e- <--> LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an

  20. Biomimetic layer-by-layer Co-mineralization approach towards TiO2/Au nanosheets with high rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Bo; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-10-01

    We fabricated a sandwich-like branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI)/TiO2/Au/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite through a biomimetic layer-by-layer co-mineralization approach, and the polymer b-PEI was believed to act as both an inducing agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) and a reducing agent for the reduction of HAuCl4 in the synthetic procedure. Upon organic pyrolysis in air at 500 °C, a TiO2/Au nanosheet was formed; and gold nanocrystals were observed uniformly dispersed on TiO2 nanosheet. Moreover, the obtained TiO2/Au nanosheets demonstrated an enhanced lithium storage performance when they are used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), particularly, a high capacity of 205 mA h g-1 and 189 mA h g-1 was obtained at 5 C and 10 C rate, respectively, indicating the high rate capability of the material. The greatly improved rate performance might be attributed from both the sheet-like nanostructure and the existence of uniformly dispersed gold nanocrystals, which facilitate electron transfer and lithium ions diffusion in the material. The result suggests that the TiO2 electrode performance can be improved through a design of sheet-like nanocomposites using a bio-inspired route, which is desirable for both ``green synthesis'' and application for high power LIBs, moreover, such a benign bio-inspired route can be developed into a general pathway to synthesize many other TiO2 based nanocomposites for broad applications in the fields of batteries, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells.We fabricated a sandwich-like branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI)/TiO2/Au/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite through a biomimetic layer-by-layer co-mineralization approach, and the polymer b-PEI was believed to act as both an inducing agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) and a reducing agent for the reduction of HAuCl4 in the synthetic procedure. Upon organic

  1. Anodic oxidation of sulfide ions in molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C.L.; Gilbert, J.B. II . Applied Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The study of sulfur and sulfide oxidation in molten salt systems is of current interest in high energy battery, and metallurgical applications. Cyclic voltammetry experiments have been performed on lithium sulfide in a lithium fluoride electrolyte at 1,161 K using a graphite working electrode and a platinum quasi-reference electrode. Two distinct oxidation mechanisms are observed for the sulfide ions. The first oxidation produces sulfur and at a higher potential a disulfide species is proposed to have formed. Both oxidations appear to be reversible and diffusion controlled.

  2. Focused ion beam milling of microchannels in lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Manoj; Maurya, Devendra K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for focused ion beam (FIB) milling of microchannels in lithium niobate in this paper. We investigate two different cuts of lithium niobate, Y- and Z-cuts, and observe that the experimental material removal rate in the FIB for both Y-cut and Z-cut samples was 0.3 μm3/nC, roughly two times greater than the material removal rate previously reported in the literature but in good agreement with the value we obtain from stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) simulations. Further, we investigate the FIB milling rate and resultant cross-sectional profile of microchannels at various ion beam currents and find that the milling rate decreases as a function of ion dose and correspondingly, the cross-sectional profiles change from rectangular to V-shaped. This indicates that material redeposition plays an important role at high ion dose or equivalently, high aspect ratio. We find that the experimental material removal rate decreases as a function of aspect ratio of the milled structures, in good agreement with our simulation results at low aspect ratio and in good agreement with the material removal rates previously reported in the literature at high aspect ratios. Our results show that it is indeed easier than previously assumed to fabricate nanochannels with low aspect ratio directly on lithium niobate using the FIB milling technique. PMID:22662086

  3. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  4. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internalmore » combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.« less

  5. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  6. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells. PMID:27420388

  7. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  9. Biomimetic layer-by-layer Co-mineralization approach towards TiO2/Au nanosheets with high rate performance for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Bo; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-11-01

    We fabricated a sandwich-like branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI)/TiO2/Au/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite through a biomimetic layer-by-layer co-mineralization approach, and the polymer b-PEI was believed to act as both an inducing agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) and a reducing agent for the reduction of HAuCl4 in the synthetic procedure. Upon organic pyrolysis in air at 500 °C, a TiO2/Au nanosheet was formed; and gold nanocrystals were observed uniformly dispersed on TiO2 nanosheet. Moreover, the obtained TiO2/Au nanosheets demonstrated an enhanced lithium storage performance when they are used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), particularly, a high capacity of 205 mA h g(-1) and 189 mA h g(-1) was obtained at 5 C and 10 C rate, respectively, indicating the high rate capability of the material. The greatly improved rate performance might be attributed from both the sheet-like nanostructure and the existence of uniformly dispersed gold nanocrystals, which facilitate electron transfer and lithium ions diffusion in the material. The result suggests that the TiO2 electrode performance can be improved through a design of sheet-like nanocomposites using a bio-inspired route, which is desirable for both "green synthesis" and application for high power LIBs, moreover, such a benign bio-inspired route can be developed into a general pathway to synthesize many other TiO2 based nanocomposites for broad applications in the fields of batteries, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Danmei; Qiao, Yajuan; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jie; Li, Chao; Chen, Changguo; Huo, Qisheng

    2014-11-01

    Stable and homogeneous mica-like vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)-nanostructured thin films are prepared directly by simple anodic deposition from V2O5/H2O2 sol solution, and then dried at ambient temperature and annealed at 500 °C in air for 1 h. The films' crystal- and microstructures, surface morphology and Li-ion intercalation properties were characterized and analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrochemical techniques. When used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode, the films exhibit a large discharge capacity of 596 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1080 mA g-1, as well as excellent cyclic stability and a fading rate of 1% per cycle. Explanations for such significant enhancements in specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performance of mica-like V2O5-nanostructured thin films are demonstrated in this study.

  11. Controllable synthesis of Cu-doped CoO hierarchical structure for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chengcheng; Huang, Yanan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2016-05-01

    We report on the strategy of Cu doping inducing the nanosize effect of CoO and their application as anode for lithium ion batteries. With an increase of Cu-doped amount, the structures and morphologies of CoO have special changes. The 0.05 mol Cu-doped CoO shows straw-like bundle structure assembled by nanorods, and the nanorods consist of ultra small nanoparticles (about 6-8 nm). Meanwhile, it shows an excellent rates performance and cycle life. The capacity of 800 mA h g-1 is obtained at 0.5 C after 80 cycles. The highest discharge capacity is 580 mA h g-1 at 10 C and the discharge capacities are relatively stable for 1000 cycles as an anode for Li-ion battery. Therefore, the controllable Cu-doped CoO composite could be deemed to be a potential candidate as an anode material.

  12. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  13. Highly porous Fe3O4-Fe nanowires grown on C/TiC nanofiber arrays as the high performance anode of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kui; Yang, Fan; Ye, Ke; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Xue; Yin, Jinling; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2014-07-01

    A facile and green method is developed to fabricate Fe3O4-Fe nanowires with a large amount of nanoholes directly grown on highly conductive nanofiber arrays. By electrodeposition of Fe clusters on C/TiC nanofiber array, followed by in-situ chemical conversion of Fe to FeC2O4-Fe nanowires and the thermal decomposition of FeC2O4-Fe to Fe3O4-Fe, a Fe3O4-Fe nanocomposite electrode with unique architecture is successfully prepared. The electrode is characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Electrochemical properties of the nanowire arrays electrode as the anode of lithium-ion batteries are examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The electrode displayed remarkably high capacity, excellent high rate performance and superior cycling stability. The reversible capacity of the electrode reached 1012 mAh g-1 at 1C and retained to be 500 and 255 mAh g-1 at 10 and 20C, respectively. It can still deliver a specific capacity of 100 mAh g-1 even at 50C (72 s charge-discharge). The electrode also has a satisfactory cycling performance with capacity retention of 93.9% after 100 cycles at 1C. The magnificent performance can be attributed to the distinct configuration resulting from the novel fabrication process.

  14. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  15. KOH etched graphite for fast chargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Yuge, Ryota; Nakahara, Kentaro; Tamura, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Shigeyuki

    2015-06-01

    Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, although it has limited power performance at high charging rates (Li-ion input). Alternative materials such as silicon and tin alloys, however, have an even more inferior rate capability. We describe here a multi-channel structure with a graphite surface etched with pores that can greatly increase the number of sites for Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation and reduce the Li-ion diffusion distance for fast chargeable Li-ion batteries by etching the graphite surface with pores. As a result, the multi-channel structure graphite anode shows better charging and discharging rate capability, cyclability, and higher coulombic efficiency than pristine graphite materials. The multi-channel anode material is proposed for use in fast chargeable Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  16. Self-Assembled Sandwich-like Vanadium Oxide/Graphene Mesoporous Composite as High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchao; Huang, Yudai; Jia, Dianzeng; Pang, Wei Kong; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Yaping; Tang, Xincun; Cao, Yali

    2015-12-21

    Sandwich-like V2O5/graphene mesoporous composite has been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach. The crystalline structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared materials have been investigated in detail. The results demonstrate that the 30-50 nm V2O5 particles are homogeneously anchored on conducting graphene sheets, which allow the V2O5 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene layers. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1006 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1) after 300 cycles. It also exhibits excellent rate performance with a discharge capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 3.0 A g(-1), which is superior to the performance of the vanadium-based materials reported previously. The electrochemical properties demonstrate that the sandwich-like V2O5/graphene mesoporous composite could be a promising candidate material for high-capacity anode in lithium ion batteries.

  17. Coating of α-MoO3 on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by electrodeposition as a high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Xiaojiang; Wang, Ruilin; Mi, Rui; Li, Shaomin; Cui, Yanhua; Deng, Yafeng; Mei, Jun; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, α-MoO3 nanoparticles are grown on the surface of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) via a facile electrodeposition method. The morphology of as-prepared nanocomposite shows that the interconnected α-MoO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed on the surface of N-CNTs. When investigated as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the nanocomposite reveals a high reversible discharge capacity of 250 mA h g-1 at a current density of 30 mA g-1, simultaneously with good cycling performance and excellent rate capability compared with pristine MoO3 powder. Kinetics of this process is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to understand the difference in electrochemical performance and the interface properties between the α-MoO3/N-CNTs nanocomposite and pristine MoO3 powder electrode. The correlation between the unique structural features of α-MoO3/N-CNTs nanocomposite and its excellent electrochemical performance is also discussed. The excellent performance makes the as-prepared α-MoO3/N-CNTs nanocomposite a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  18. Brannerite-Type Vanadium-Molybdenum Oxide LiVMoO₆ as a Promising Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Capacity and Rate Capability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Wang, Chunzhong; Hu, Fang; Bie, Xiaofei; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Du, Fei

    2015-07-29

    Brannerite-type vanadium-molybdenum oxide LiVMoO6 is prepared by a facile liquid-phase method, and its electrochemical properties as anode of lithium-ion batteries are comprehensively studied by means of galvanostatic charge-discharge profiles, rate performance, and cyclic voltammetry. In the working voltage between 3.0 and 0.01 V, LiVMoO6 delivers a high reversible capacity of more than 900 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 100 mA g(-1) and a superior rate capability with discharge capacity of ca. 584 and 285 mAh g(-1) under the high current densities of 2 and 5 A g(-1), respectively. Moreover, ex situ X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are utilized to examine the phase evolution and valence changes during the first lithiated process. A small amount of inserted Li(+) induces a decomposition of LiVMoO6 into Li2Mo2O7 and V2O5, which play the host during further lithiated processes. When being discharged to 0.01 V, most V(5+) change into V(3+)/V(2+), suggesting intercalation/deintercalation processes, whereas Mo(6+) are reduced into a metallic state on the basis of the conversion reaction. The insights obtained from this study will benefit the design of novel anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Encapsulating Sn(x)Sb Nanoparticles in Multichannel Graphene-Carbon Fibers As Flexible Anodes to Store Lithium Ions with High Capacities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Yan, Feilong; Wei, Yuehua; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Tianfang

    2015-10-01

    SnxSb intermetallic composites as high theoretical capacities anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) suffer from the quick capacity fading owing to their huge volume change. In this study, flexible mats made up of SnxSb-graphene-carbon porous multichannel nanofibers are fabricated by an electrospinning method and succedent annealing treatment at 700 °C. The flexible mats as binder-free anodes show a specific capacity of 729 mA h/g in the 500th cycle at a current density of 0.1 A/g, which is much higher than those of graphene-carbon nanofibers, pure carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-graphene-carbon nanofibers at the same cycle. The flexible mats could provide a reversible capacity of 381 mA h/g at 2 A/g, also higher than those of nanofibers, graphene-carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-carbon nanofibers. It is found that the suitable nanochannels could accommodate the volume expansion to achieve a high specific capacity. Besides, the graphene serves as both conductive and mechanical-property additives to enhance the rate capacity and flexibility of the mats. The electrospinning technique combined with graphene modification may be an effective method to produce flexible electrodes for fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, and super capacitors.

  20. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  1. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material. PMID:26726470

  2. A mechanically robust and highly ion-conductive polymer-blend coating for high-power and long-life lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chou, Jackey; Winter, Martin; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically robust and ion-conductive polymeric coating containing two polymers, polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether and poly(allyl amine), with four tailored functional groups is developed for graphite and graphite-Si composite anodes. The coating, acting as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase, leads to remarkable enhancement in capacity reversibility and cycling stability, as well as a high-rate performance of the studied anodes.

  3. Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous

    2009-11-01

    We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources, β-spodumene and β-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

  4. Core-shell carbon-coated CuO nanocomposites: a highly stable electrode material for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tao; Wu, Xi-Lin; Zhang, Shouwei; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2015-03-01

    Herein we present a simple method for fabricating core-shell mesostructured CuO@C nanocomposites by utilizing humic acid (HA) as a biomass carbon source. The electrochemical performances of CuO@C nanocomposites were evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. CuO@C exhibits an excellent capacitance of 207.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) within a potential window of 0-0.46 V in 6 M KOH solution. Significantly, CuO electrode materials achieve remarkable capacitance retentions of approximately 205.8 F g(-1) after 1000 cycles of charge/discharge testing. The CuO@C was further applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and a high initial capacity of 1143.7 mA h g(-1) was achieved at a current density of 0.1 C. This work provides a facile and general approach to synthesize carbon-based materials for application in large-scale energy-storage systems. PMID:25663599

  5. High-performance characteristics of silicon inverse opal synthesized by the simple magnesium reduction as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jae-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Ketack; Lee, Sung-Man; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2015-12-01

    Inverse silicon opal (ISi) and carbon-coated inverse Si opal (C-ISi) structures are prepared from the simple thermal reduction method using magnesium and investigated as the anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The ISi and C-ISi samples comprise continuously arranged inverse opal structures, constructed by Si nanoparticles. The macroporous structures in ∼1 μm range are favourable for lithium-ion transport and more importantly for absorbing volumetric change in the silicon nanoparticles. Moreover, the carbon coating on the inverse Si opal improves the electrical conductivity and acts as a mechanical buffer for the volume change. C-ISi sample shows a high capacity of 1550 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle with very stable cycle retention, whereas the ISi and pristine Si samples show 1146.4 mAh g-1 and approximately zero, respectively, at the 100th cycle with rapid capacity fading. Surprisingly, the volumetric expansion of C-ISi electrode after 100th cycles is only 16.1%, which is as low as that for commercial graphite electrodes.

  6. Hierarchical MoO2/Mo2C/C Hybrid Nanowires as High-Rate and Long-Life Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichun; Li, Xiang; Ouyang, Yunpeng; Gao, Qingsheng; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Min

    2016-08-10

    Hierarchical MoO2/Mo2C/C hybrid nanowires (MoO2/Mo2C/C HNWs) have been fabricated through facile calcination of Mo3O10(C6H5NH3)2·2H2O nanowires which serve as both precursors and self-templates. In the MoO2/Mo2C/C HNWs, nanoparticles dispersed in the nanowires are beneficial for Li(+) transportation due to the decreased diffusion paths. Moreover, hybridization with Mo2C and carbon facilitates the electron transfer and increases the structural stability without sacrifice of capacity. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the MoO2/Mo2C/C HNWs exhibit a reversible capacity of 950 mA h g(-1) after 320 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Even when cycled at 2000 mA g(-1), they maintained a reversible capacity of 602 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles. By incorporation of Mo2C and C with MoO2, the MoO2/Mo2C/C HNWs show high-rate capability and long cycle life and can be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. PMID:27400758

  7. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  8. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li+ due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries.Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle

  9. Controllable synthesis of SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxiu; Li, Wei; Wang, Fei; Xia, Yongyao; Asiri, Abdullah M; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-03-21

    In this work, we report a facile synthesis of uniform SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The yolk-shell structured SnO2@C nanospheres were fabricated through a two-step sol-gel coating process by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as precursors, where the silica interlayer not only acts as a template to produce the void space, but also promotes the coating of the RF layer. The synthesis is easy to operate and allows tailoring the carbon shell thickness and void space size. The resultant SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres possess a hollow highly crystalline SnO2 core (280-380 nm), tailored carbon shell thickness (15-25 nm) and a large void space size (100-160 nm), a high surface area (∼205 m(2) g(-1)), a large pore volume (∼0.25 cm(3) g(-1)), as well as a high SnO2 content (77 wt%). When evaluated as an anode of LIBs, the materials manifest superior electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capability (2190 mA h g(-1) in initial discharge capacity; >950 mA h g(-1) in the first 10 cycles), a good cycling performance and an excellent rate capability.

  10. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g−1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g−1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g−1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g−1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g−1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage. PMID:25761938

  11. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g-1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g-1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g-1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g-1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g-1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  12. Tunable core-shell single-walled carbon nanotube-Cu2S networked nanocomposites as high-performance cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo; Riha, Shannon C.; Libera, Joseph A.; Wu, Qingliu; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanoscale copper(I) sulfide (n-Cu2S) was deposited over networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). This synthetic route provides a high degree of control for tuning the materials properties. The resulting core-shell SWCNT-n-Cu2S composite structure ensures an intimate contact between the two components while maintaining a high porosity for efficient transport of charges. Indeed, electrochemical testing demonstrates that these nanocomposites are promising as cathodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibiting excellent stability over 200 discharge-charge cycles with a sustainable, high capacity of 260 mAh g-1 (92% of the theoretical value in terms of Cu2S) and >99% Coulombic efficiency. This work establishes a general strategy for developing high-performance nanoscale electrode materials.

  13. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an anode material with capacity rise and high rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Guo, Zaiping; Chen, Zhixin; Liu, Huakun

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanosized porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder was successfully synthesized via the molten salt method. Electrochemical measurement results demonstrated that the electrode properties of the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could offers excellent cycling performance and high rate capability. The capacity of the product shows two different trends during cycling which are rarely reported in the literature, a decrease in capacity in the first 100 cycles and an increase afterwards up to 600 cycles, with the lowest and highest capacity around 970 and 1972 mAh/g, respectively. Research highlights: {yields} Nanosized {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. {yields} The nanosized {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows excellent electrochemical performance and exhibits the feature of capacity increase upon cycling. {yields} The porous rhombohedral structures of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could provides the short Li{sup +} diffusion length, decreases the traverse time for electrons and Li{sup +} ions, and reduces the volume expansion to some extent. {yields} The cubic structure of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been modified to a needle-like structure after prolonged cycling. -- Abstract: We report a simple molten salt method to prepare nanosize {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as its electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The structure and morphology were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a rhombohedral phase of hematite with crystal size in the range of 20-40 nm. The electrochemical measurements were performed using the as-prepared powders as the active material for a lithium-ion cell. The nanosized {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows excellent cycling performance and rate capability. It also exhibits the feature of capacity increase upon cycling. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the {alpha

  14. Synthesis of single crystalline spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires for a lithium ion battery with high power density.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Eiji; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2009-03-01

    How to improve the specific power density of the rechargeable lithium ion battery has recently become one of the most attractive topics of both scientific and industrial interests. The spinel LiMn2O4 is the most promising candidate as a cathode material because of its low cost and nontoxicity compared with commercial LiCoO2. Moreover, nanostructured electrodes have been widely investigated to satisfy such industrial needs. However, the high-temperature sintering process, which is necessary for high-performance cathode materials based on high-quality crystals, leads the large grain size and aggregation of the nanoparticles which gives poor lithium ion battery performance. So there is still a challenge to synthesize a high-quality single-crystal nanostructured electrode. Among all of the nanostructures, a single crystalline nanowire is the most attractive morphology because the nonwoven fabric morphology constructed by the single crystalline nanowire suppresses the aggregation and grain growth at high temperature, and the potential barrier among the nanosize grains can be ignored. However, the reported single crystalline nanowire is almost the metal oxide with an anisotropic crystal structure because the cubic crystal structure such as LiMn2O4 cannot easily grow in the one-dimentional direction. Here we synthesized high-quality single crystalline cubic spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires based on a novel reaction method using Na0.44MnO2 nanowires as a self-template. These single crystalline spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires show high thermal stability because the nanowire structure is maintained after heating to 800 degrees C for 12 h and excellent performance at high rate charge-discharge, such as 20 A/g, with both a relative flat charge-discharge plateau and excellent cycle stability.

  15. Electrospun porous carbon nanofiber@MoS2 core/sheath fiber membranes as highly flexible and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Fan, Wei; Lai, Feili; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-06-01

    Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high

  16. FeS2@C nanowires derived from organic-inorganic hybrid nanowires for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Chunli; Huang, Gang; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous FeS2@C nanowires as a high cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on a large-scale from an organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire precursor. The FeS2@C nanowires not only provide a continuous and fast electron transport pathway, favorable diffusion kinetics, but also provide the protection buffer the volume expansion and effectively prevent the polysulfides from dissolving in the electrolyte during cycling. Attributing to the synergistic advantages of both 1D porous nanostructure and the encapsulation of thin amorphous carbon layers, the FeS2@C nanowires exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance with a high specific capacity of 889 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 521 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a discharge energy density of 1225 Wh kg-1 is obtained at 2 A g-1 and remains as high as 637 Wh kg-1 after 1000 cycles, which is even higher than the LiCoO2 cathode. The results demonstrate that the potential for applications in LIBs with high power density and long cycling life.

  17. SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hongyu; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Luo, Jun; Shi, Yingying; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesized SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures exhibit large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes. - Highlights: • Synthesis of SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures. • Simple solution-phase approach. • Morphology feature of SnS{sub 2}. • Enhanced performance as Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures are directly synthesized via a simple solution-phase approach. The as-prepared SnS{sub 2}/MWCNTs structures are investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries as compared with SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes. It has been found that the composite structure exhibit excellent lithium storage performance with a large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS{sub 2} nanoflakes. The first discharge and charge capacities have been found to be 1416 and 518 mA h g{sup −1} for SnS{sub 2}/MWCNTs composite electrodes at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} between 5 mV and 1.15 V versus Li/Li{sup +}. A stable reversible capacity of ∼510 mA h g{sup −1} is obtained for 50 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance may be attributed to the flake-morphology feature of SnS{sub 2} and the addition of MWCNTs that can hinder the agglomeration of the active materials and improve the conductivity of the composite electrode simultaneously.

  18. MOF-derived ultrafine MnO nanocrystals embedded in a porous carbon matrix as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fangcai; Xia, Guoliang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-05-01

    Although MnO has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of its high theoretical capacity (755 mA h g-1), comparatively low voltage hysteresis (<0.8 V), low cost, and environmental benignity, the application of MnO as a practical electrode material is still hindered by many obstacles, including poor cycling stability and huge volume expansion during the charge/discharge process. Herein, we report a facile and scalable metal-organic framework-derived route for the in situ fabrication of ultrafine MnO nanocrystals encapsulated in a porous carbon matrix, where nanopores increase active sites to store redox ions and enhance ionic diffusivity to encapsulated MnO nanocrystals. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), these MnO@C composites exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1221 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their unique structure with MnO nanocrystals dispersed uniformly inside a porous carbon matrix, which can largely enhance the electrical conductivity and effectively avoid the aggregation of MnO nanocrystals, and relieve the strain caused by the volumetric change during the charge/discharge process. This facile and economical strategy will extend the scope of metal-organic framework-derived synthesis for other materials in energy storage applications.Although MnO has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of its high theoretical capacity (755 mA h g-1), comparatively low voltage hysteresis (<0.8 V), low cost, and environmental benignity, the application of MnO as a practical electrode material is still hindered by many obstacles, including poor cycling stability and huge volume expansion during the charge/discharge process. Herein, we report a facile and scalable metal-organic framework-derived route for the in situ fabrication of ultrafine

  19. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Kevin A; Chen, Lei; McClelland, Jabez J

    2014-07-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500eV to 5keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process.

  20. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  1. Rutile-TiO2 nanocoating for a high-rate Li4Ti5O12 anode of a lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qing; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo; Li, Hong; He, Xiao-Qing; Tsukimoto, Susumu; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Well-defined Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) nanosheets terminated with rutile-TiO(2) at the edges were synthesized by a facile solution-based method and revealed directly at atomic resolution by an advanced spherical aberration imaging technique. The rutile-TiO(2) terminated Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) nanosheets show much improved rate capability and specific capacity compared with pure Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) nanosheets when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The results here give clear evidence of the utility of rutile-TiO(2) as a carbon-free coating layer to improve the kinetics of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) toward fast lithium insertion/extraction. The carbon-free nanocoating of rutile-TiO(2) is highly effective in improving the electrochemical properties of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), promising advanced batteries with high volumetric energy density, high surface stability, and long cycle life compared with the commonly used carbon nanocoating in electrode materials.

  2. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively. PMID:26961230

  3. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  4. NiSi(x)/a-Si Nanowires with Interfacial a-Ge as Anodes for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang; Chen, Huixin; Li, Xin; Lai, Shumei; Xu, Yihong; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-13

    Conductive metal nanowire is a promising current collector for the Si-based anode material in high-rate lithium-ion batteries. However, to harness this remarkable potential for high power density energy storage, one has to address the interfacial potential barrier that hinders the electron injection from the metal side. Herein, we present that, solely by inserting ultrathin amorphous germanium (a-Ge) (∼5 nm) at the interface of NiSix/amorphous Si (a-Si), the rate capacity was substantially enhanced, 477 mAh g(-1) even at a high rate of 40 A g(-1). In addition, batteries containing the NiSix/Ge+Si anodes cycled over 1000 times at 10 A g(-1) while the capacity retaining more than 877 mAh g(-1), which is among the highest reported. The excellent electrochemical performance is directly correlated with the significantly improved electrical conductivity and mechanical stability throughout the entire electrode. The potential barrier between the NiSix and a-Si was modulated by a-Ge, which constructs an electron highway. Besides, the a-Ge interlayer enhances the interfacial adhesion by reducing void fraction and the inhomogeneous strain of the Li-Ge and Li-Si stacking structure was accommodated through the bending and twist of relatively thin NiSix, thus ensures a more stable high-rate cycling performance. Our work shows an effective way to fabricate metal/a-Si nanowires for high-rate lithium-ion battery anodes.

  5. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  6. Stark spectroscopy of a probe lithium beam excited with two dye lasers as a technique to study a high-power ion-beam diode

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, B. A.; An, W.; Bluhm, H.

    2012-03-15

    A non-disturbing measurement of electric field distributions is a subject of special interest in plasma physics and high-voltage devices. In this paper we describe a diagnostic technique for remote sensing of electric fields via injection of a probe beam of lithium atoms and cascade excitation of resonance fluorescence with two broadband dye lasers. The fluorescence spectrum was recorded using a monochromator equipped with an optical multi-channel analyser. The magnitude of the local electric field was retrieved from the Stark-shifted components of the 3d-2plithium spectral line. The technique was applied to measurements of the electric field in the applied-B-field high-voltage diode of the 1 TW KALIF ion-beam accelerator.

  7. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-08-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li(+) due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries. PMID:27222212

  8. Preparation, structure study and electrochemistry of layered H2V3O8 materials: High capacity lithium-ion battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Bhowmik, Arghya; Pan, Jaysree; Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-10-01

    The present study explores H2V3O8 as high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB's). Despite having high discharge capacity, H2V3O8 material suffers from poor electrochemical stability for prolonged cycle life. Ultra-long H2V3O8 nanobelts with ordered crystallographic patterns are synthesized via a hydrothermal process to mitigate this problem. The growth of the crystal is facile along [001] direction, and the most common surface is (001) as suggested by Wulff construction study. Electrochemical performance of H2V3O8 cathode is tested against Li/Li+ at various current rates. At 50 mA g-1current rate, it delivers a discharge capacity of 308 mAh g-1, whereas, at 3000 mA g-1, an initial discharge capacity of 144 mAh g-1 is observed and stabilized at 100 mAh g-1 till 500 cycles. Further, the density functional theory (DFT) based simulations study of both the pristine and lithiated phase of H2V3O8 cathode materials is undertaken. DFT study reveals the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl unit in the framework of the host. In correlation, the magnetic property of vanadium atoms is examined in detail with through partial density of states (PDOS) calculation during three stage lithiation processes and evaluating various potential steps involved in lithium insertion.

  9. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-08-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li(+) due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries.

  10. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  11. Binding of ether and carbonyl oxygens to lithium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Blint, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The electrolyte for a lithium battery is a lithium salt (e.g. lithium Perchlorate) dissolved in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvents. The conductivity in these electrolytes is ionic and needs to be as high as possible to efficiently remove energy from the battery. The diffusion coefficient of the solvated ion in liquid electrolytes is inversely dependent on the radius of the salvation sphere. Consequently conductivity will increase with a decrease in the size of the salvation shell. The size of the salvation shell is determined by the size and coordination number of the solvent molecules. The types of organic solvents in electrolytes used in lithium battery applications are usually differentiated based on their perceived solvation properties. These solvents are often small, oxygen containing organic molecules which move with the Li{sup +} ions. This paper calculates the binding energies of some of these solvents to Li{sup +} using molecular quantum mechanics (MQM) techniques. The binding energies of the various solvents to Li{sup +} may determine which solvents will be preferentially bound to the ion. In liquid organic electrolytes, then, it will be the identity of the solvent and the coordination number which most affect the conductivity; the binding energies determine both of these properties. Carbonyl oxygens which occur in formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate have different Li{sup +} bonding properties than do the ether oxygens which occur in water, dimethyl ether and diethyl ether. Polymer solvents for the lithium salts such as the polyethers have chains which are too long to move with the binding energies then serve as the basis for a different Li{sup +} transport. Dimethyl ether and diethyl ether serve both as solvents and models for the polyethers.

  12. Carbon-encapsulated LiMn2O4 spheres prepared using a polymer microgel reactor for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglai; Li, Zhaohui; Yu, Shishun; Xiao, Qizhen; Lei, Gangtie; Ding, Yanhuai

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated LiMn2O4 (LMO@C) spheres were prepared using polymer microgel reactor, in which Mn2+ ions are hydrolyzed in situ to form Mn(OH)2, and followed by annealing at a high temperature. The LMO@C spheres are constructed with the spinel LiMn2O4 nanospheres that embedded in a porous carbon matrix uniformly. Owing to possessing three-dimensional (3D) electron-conductive and 3D ion-conductive networks, the LMO@C spheres exhibit high rate capability. They can deliver the specific capacities of 142, 137, 126, 107, and 91 mAh g-1 at the rates of 0.1C, 1C, 5C, 10C, and 20C (1C = 148 mA g-1), respectively. Owing to carbon encapsulation, the LMO@C spheres can retain 80% of the initial capacity at 1C rate after 1000 cycles at 25 °C, displaying stable cycling performance. The results suggest that the LMO@C spheres are promising cathode materials for high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  14. Carbon inverse opal entrapped with electrode active nanoparticles as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Jing; Lu, Ziyang; Yu, Hong; Yan, Qingyu; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing ion and electron transport kinetics together with improving cycle life are important issues to be considered when developing high-performance Li ion batteries. Here we demonstrate a three dimensional ordered macroporous conductive electrode concept by entrapping electrode active nanoparticles in an interpenetrating macroporous carbon inverse opal. The electrodes are featured with simultaneously enhanced ion and electron transport kinetics as well as geometrically constrained active nanoparticles. The electrode can deliver up to 94.17% of theoretical capacity over 1000 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g(-1), and exhibits good rate capability in the high current density range of 1.0-10.0 A g(-1). We hope that our findings will help pave the way for tailored design of many other sophisticated electrode materials in electrochemistry. PMID:23897089

  15. Carbon inverse opal entrapped with electrode active nanoparticles as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Jing; Lu, Ziyang; Yu, Hong; Yan, Qingyu; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing ion and electron transport kinetics together with improving cycle life are important issues to be considered when developing high-performance Li ion batteries. Here we demonstrate a three dimensional ordered macroporous conductive electrode concept by entrapping electrode active nanoparticles in an interpenetrating macroporous carbon inverse opal. The electrodes are featured with simultaneously enhanced ion and electron transport kinetics as well as geometrically constrained active nanoparticles. The electrode can deliver up to 94.17% of theoretical capacity over 1000 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g−1, and exhibits good rate capability in the high current density range of 1.0–10.0 A g−1. We hope that our findings will help pave the way for tailored design of many other sophisticated electrode materials in electrochemistry. PMID:23897089

  16. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  17. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  18. Germanium anode with excellent lithium storage performance in a germanium/lithium-cobalt oxide lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuwan; Yang, Zhibo; Fu, Yujun; Qiao, Li; Li, Dan; Yue, Hongwei; He, Deyan

    2015-02-24

    Germanium is a highly promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries as a consequence of its large theoretical specific capacity, good electrical conductivity, and fast lithium ion diffusivity. In this work, Co3O4 nanowire array fabricated on nickel foam was designed as a nanostructured current collector for Ge anode. By limiting the voltage cutoff window in an appropriate range, the obtained Ge anode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance in half- and full-cells, which can be mainly attributed to the designed nanostructured current collector with good conductivity, enough buffering space for the volume change, and shortened ionic transport length. More importantly, the assembled Ge/LiCoO2 full-cell shows a high energy density of 475 Wh/kg and a high power density of 6587 W/kg. A high capacity of 1184 mA h g(-1) for Ge anode was maintained at a current density of 5000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles.

  19. Li2ZrO3-coated Li4Ti5O12 with nanoscale interface for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Zr doped sample of Li4Ti4.99Zr0.01O12 (LZTO) and Li2ZrO3 (LZO) coated Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) are prepared by a solid-state method. The lattice structure of LTO is remained after doping element of Zr and coating layer of LZO. The crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the material are investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge-discharge tests, respectively. Zr-doping and LZO coating play the positive role in improving the diffusion ability of lithium cations. LZTO and LZO-LTO show much improved specific capacity and rate capability compared with pristine sample of LTO. LZO-LTO has the smallest voltage differential (ΔV) of the redox peaks because the coating of Li2ZrO3 is helpful for the diffusion ability of lithium ions during charge/discharge processes. LZTO and LZO-LTO as electrode deliver the initial capacities of 164.8, 168.1 mAh g-1, respectively, which are much higher than 150.2 mAh g-1 of intrinsic sample of LTO. Even at the current density of 2 A g-1, LTZO and LZO-LTO offer capacity of 96 and 106 mAh g-1, which are much higher than 33 mAh g-1 of LTO. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the improved diffusion ability of lithium. During the whole discharge process, the lowest value of LTO is 5.97 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 that is much lower than 7.80 × 10-16 cm2 s-1 in LZTO and 1.85 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 in LZO-LTO, respectively.

  20. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  1. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  2. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  3. Fabrication of CNT@void@SnO2@C with tube-in-tube nanostructure as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-01

    Tin dioxide/carbon composites is an important class of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus have attracted extensive attention. Herein, a tube-in-tube nanostructure, denoted as CNT@void@SnO2@C, has been fabricated by a facile and novel strategy. The possible formation mechanism is also discussed and determined by TEM, XRD and XPS characterizations. As a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the CNT@void@SnO2@C exhibits superior lithium storage properties, delivering a reversible capacity of 702.5 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 even after 350 cycles. The excellent performances should be benefited from the peculiar tube-in-tube nanostructure, in which SnO2 located between CNT and outermost carbon coating layers can sure the structural integrity and high conductivity during long-term cycling, and one-dimensional void space formed between the inner CNT and outer SnO2@C nanotubes, in particular, can provide larger free space for alleviating the huge volume variation of SnO2 and accommodating the stress formed during repeated discharge/charge process.

  4. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g−1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance. PMID:27181691

  5. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g-1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance.

  6. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire ã-MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing ã-MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the ã-MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the ã-MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into ã-MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the ã-MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating

  7. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  8. Porous Co3O4/CuO composite assembled from nanosheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2015-04-24

    Upon dealloying a carefully designed CoCuAl ternary alloy in NaOH solution at room temperature, a Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite with an interconnected porous microstructure assembled by a secondary structure of nanosheets was successfully fabricated. By using the dealloying strategy, the target metals directly grew to form uniform bimetallic oxide nanocomposites. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure and the synergistic effect of both active electrode materials, the Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced electrochemical performance with higher capacities and better cycling stability compared to anodes of pure Co3 O4 . Moreover, it performs excellently in terms of cycle reversibility, Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability, at both low or high current rates. With the advantages of unique performance and ease of preparation, the as-made Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite demonstrates promising application potential as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn(3+) from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF. PMID:27553901

  10. Encapsulation of MnO Nanocrystals in Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Hu, Xianluo; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Sun, Yongming; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    A novel and controllable approach is developed for the synthesis of MnO nanocrystals embedded in carbon nanofibers (MnO/CNFs) through an electrospinning process. The as-formed MnO/CNFs have a porous structure with diameters of 100–200 nm and lengths up to several millimeters. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resulting MnO/CNFs exhibit superior electrochemical performances with high specific capacity, good cyclability, and excellent rate capability. The unique porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) can not only improve the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also alleviate the impact of the large volume effect of MnO during the electrochemical cycling. It is expected that the present synthetic strategy can be extended to synthesize other nanostructured oxides encapsulated in carbon nanofibers for extensive energy transfer and storage applications. PMID:24598639

  11. Porous Co3O4/CuO composite assembled from nanosheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2015-04-24

    Upon dealloying a carefully designed CoCuAl ternary alloy in NaOH solution at room temperature, a Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite with an interconnected porous microstructure assembled by a secondary structure of nanosheets was successfully fabricated. By using the dealloying strategy, the target metals directly grew to form uniform bimetallic oxide nanocomposites. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure and the synergistic effect of both active electrode materials, the Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced electrochemical performance with higher capacities and better cycling stability compared to anodes of pure Co3 O4 . Moreover, it performs excellently in terms of cycle reversibility, Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability, at both low or high current rates. With the advantages of unique performance and ease of preparation, the as-made Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite demonstrates promising application potential as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25828049

  12. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4‑δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4‑δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  13. Facile synthesis of hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanospheres as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries via galvanic replacement reaction and in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Anni; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Dou, Peng; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2015-08-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated hollow Sn-Co nanospheres (Sn-Co@PMMA) with superior electrochemical performance had been synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method followed by an in situ emulsion polymerization route. The properties were investigated in detail and results show that the hollow Sn-Co nanospheres were evenly coated with PMMA. Benefiting from the protection of the PMMA layers, the hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanocomposite is capable of retaining a high capacity of 590 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with a coulomb efficiency above 98%, revealing better electrochemical properties compared with hollow Sn-Co anodes. The PMMA coating could help accommodate the mechanical strain caused by volume expansion and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed on the electrode. Such a facile process could be further extended to other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn(3+) from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  15. Tissue-like Silicon Nanowires-Based Three-Dimensional Anodes for High-Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peled, Emanuel; Patolsky, Fernando; Golodnitsky, Diana; Freedman, Kathrin; Davidi, Guy; Schneier, Dan

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report on the scalable synthesis and characterization of novel architecture three-dimensional (3D) high-capacity amorphous silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based anodes with focus on studying their electrochemical degradation mechanisms. We achieved an unprecedented combination of remarkable performance characteristics, high loadings of 3-15 mAh/cm(2), a very low irreversible capacity (10% for the 3-4 mAh/cm(2) anodes), current efficiency greater than 99.5%, cycle stability (both in half cells and a LiFePO4 battery), a total capacity of 457 mAh/cm(2) over 204 cycles and fast charge-discharge rates (up to 2.7C at 20 mA/cm(2)). These SiNWs-based binder-free 3D anodes have been cycled for over 200 cycles, exhibiting a stable cycle life. Notably, it was found that the growth of the continuous SEI layer thickness, and its concomitant increase in resistivity, represents the major reason for the observed capacity loss of the SiNWs-based anodes. Importantly, these NWs-based anodes of novel architecture meet the requirements of lithium batteries for future portable, and electric-vehicle, applications.

  16. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  17. Enhanced Performance of "Flower-like" Li4Ti5O12 Motifs as Anode Materials for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yiman; Scofield, Megan E; Yue, Shiyu; McBean, Coray; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2015-10-12

    "Flower-like" motifs of Li4Ti5O12 were synthesized by using a facile and large-scale hydrothermal process involving unique Ti foil precursors followed by a short, relatively low-temperature calcination in air. Moreover, a detailed time-dependent growth mechanism and a reasonable reaction scheme were proposed to clearly illustrate and highlight the structural evolution and subsequent formation of this material. Specifically, the resulting "flower-like" Li4Ti5O12 microspheres consisting of thin nanosheets provide for an enhanced surface area and a reduced lithium-ion diffusion distance. The high surface areas of the exposed roughened, thin petal-like component nanosheets are beneficial for the interaction of the electrolyte with Li4Ti5O12 , which thereby ultimately provides for improved high-rate performance and favorable charge/discharge dynamics. Electrochemical studies of the as-prepared nanostructured Li4Ti5O12 clearly revealed their promising potential as an enhanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries, as they present both excellent rate capabilities (delivering 148, 141, 137, 123, and 60 mAh g(-1) under discharge rates of 0.2, 10, 20, 50, and 100 C, at cycles of 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70, respectively) and stable cycling performance (exhibiting a capacity retention of ≈97 % from cycles 10-100, under a discharge rate of 0.2 C, and an impressive capacity retention of ≈87 % by using a more rigorous discharge rate of 20 C from cycles 101-300).

  18. High-Loading Nano-SnO2 Encapsulated in situ in Three-Dimensional Rigid Porous Carbon for Superior Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hairong; Zhao, Jianqing; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen; Yamauchi, Yusuke; He, Jianping

    2016-03-24

    Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) have been encapsulated in situ in a three-dimensional ordered space structure. Within this composite, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) acts as a carbon framework showing a desirable ordered mesoporous structure with an average pore size (≈6 nm) and a high surface area (470.3 m(2) g(-1)), and the SnO2 NPs (≈10 nm) are highly loaded (up to 80 wt %) and homogeneously distributed within the OMC matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a SnO2 @OMC composite material can deliver an initial charge capacity of 943 mAh g(-1) and retain 68.9 % of the initial capacity after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), even exhibit a capacity of 503 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 160 mA g(-1). In situ encapsulation of the SnO2 NPs within an OMC framework contributes to a higher capacity and a better cycling stability and rate capability in comparison with bare OMC and OMC ex situ loaded with SnO2 particles (SnO2/OMC). The significantly improved electrochemical performance of the SnO2@OMC composite can be attributed to the multifunctional OMC matrix, which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration, accelerate charge transfer, and lithium-ion diffusion, and act as a favorable buffer to release reaction strains for lithiation/delithiation of the SnO2 NPs.

  19. Integrated Solid/Nanoporous Copper/Oxide Hybrid Bulk Electrodes for High-performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications. PMID:24096928

  20. Integrated solid/nanoporous copper/oxide hybrid bulk electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g(-1) for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications. PMID:24096928

  1. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  2. Monodispersed Li4Ti5O12 with Controlled Morphology as High Power Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunchao; Fu, Guoyi; Watson, Mark; Harrison, Stephen; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-05-31

    Monodispersed Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanoparticles with controlled microstructure were successfully synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and hydrothermal method followed by a post-annealing process. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that particles with a size of 30-40 nm were precisely controlled throughout the synthesis process. The electrochemical tests of the as-prepared LTO electrodes in a half-cell proved its high rate performance and outstanding cyclability which benefits from the preserved well-controlled nanoparticle size and morphology. LTO electrodes were also tested in a full cell configuration in pairing with LiFePO4 cathodes, which demonstrated a capacity of 147.3 mAh g-1. In addition, we havemore » also demonstrated that LTO materials prepared using lithium salts separated from geothermal brine solutions had good cyclability. These demonstrations provide a promising way for making low-cost, large-scale LTO electrode materials for energy storage applications.« less

  3. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  4. Carbon-decorated Li₄Ti₅O₁₂/rutile TiO₂ mesoporous microspheres with nanostructures as high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Liu, Rujun; Hu, Hao; Li, Guojian; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Li4Ti5O12/rutile TiO2 (LTO-RT) composites with Li/Ti molar ratios of 3:5, 4:5 and 4.5:5 have been successfully synthesized with TiO2 microspheres as a precursor. Furthermore, C-coated LTO-RT mesoporous microspheres with a molar ratio of 4:5 (C/4-5-LTO-RT) have been prepared based on the LTO-RT composite through a hydrothermal method and high temperature calcination. After various characterizations, it is found that carbon plays a pivotal role in retaining the porous nanostructure of the original as-prepared TiO2 precursor in the overall process. Substantially, C/4-5-LTO-RT still shows a high specific surface area of 63.70 m(2) g(-1) even after high temperature treatment at 800 °C. Since the porous nanostructure offers open and direct channels for the diffusion of Li ions and electrons and carbon decoration also efficiently improves the electrical conductivity, the sample of C/4-5-LTO-RT shows an enhanced electrochemical performance. In addition, the presence of nanosized rutile TiO2 in C/4-5-LTO-RT has an important contribution to the high electrochemical performance, as does the fast lithium ion diffusion along the [001] direction.

  5. Bacteria Absorption-Based Mn2P2O7-Carbon@Reduced Graphene Oxides for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Jingyi; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Zhi; Fan, Ling; Zhu, Jian; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M; Lu, Bingan

    2016-05-24

    The development of freestanding flexible electrodes with high capacity and long cycle-life is a central issue for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we use bacteria absorption of metallic Mn(2+) ions to in situ synthesize natural micro-yolk-shell-structure Mn2P2O7-carbon, followed by the use of vacuum filtration to obtain Mn2P2O7-carbon@reduced graphene oxides (RGO) papers for LIBs anodes. The Mn2P2O7 particles are completely encapsulated within the carbon film, which was obtained by carbonizing the bacterial wall. The resulting carbon microstructure reduces the electrode-electrolyte contact area, yielding high Coulombic efficiency. In addition, the yolk-shell structure with its internal void spaces is ideal for sustaining volume expansion of Mn2P2O7 during charge/discharge processes, and the carbon shells act as an ideal barrier, limiting most solid-electrolyte interphase formation on the surface of the carbon films (instead of forming on individual particles). Notably, the RGO films have high conductivity and robust mechanical flexibility. As a result of our combined strategies delineated in this article, our binder-free flexible anodes exhibit high capacities, long cycle-life, and excellent rate performance.

  6. Template-free bottom-up synthesis of yolk-shell vanadium oxide as high performance cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hongchang; Cheng, Peng; Yang, Hongbin; Lu, Jinlin; Guo, Chun Xian; Ning, Guiling; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-02-21

    A template-free strategy is exploited to bottom-up synthesize yolk-shell vanadium oxide through a two-step spontaneous assembly of hydrolytically formed subunits in a one-pot process. The unique structured vanadium pentoxide exhibits excellent cathode performance for lithium ion batteries.

  7. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm(-2) for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm(-2) for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  8. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm−2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm−2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  9. Novel layered Li3V2(PO4)3/rGO&C sheets as high-rate and long-life lithium ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiulong; Xu, Yanan; Li, Qidong; Tan, Shuangshuang; Ren, Wenhao; An, Qinyou; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-07-01

    Novel layered Li3V2(PO4)3/rGO&C sheets are synthesized by novel interfacial modified assembly, freeze-drying and confined annealing processes. The uniform LVP layers are alternated with rGO&C layers to form the composite layered structure, providing effective electron and ion transport. As a lithium-ion battery cathode, the composite displays excellent electrochemical performance. PMID:27334928

  10. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  11. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  12. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  13. Facile synthesis of sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite as a stable and high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Hu, Xianluo; Qie, Long; Jiang, Yan; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Qiao, Yun; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-21

    Traditional metal anode materials in lithium-ion batteries are plagued by instability upon discharge-charge cycling. We report that a unique sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite has been synthesized on a large scale through a simple ion-exchange reaction, whereby Zn2GeO4 nanorods with lengths of 600 nm and widths of 40 nm are homogeneously sandwiched into the graphene oxide matrix. Compared with bare Zn2GeO4 nanorods, a dramatic improvement in the electrochemical performance of the resulting nanocomposite has been achieved. In the voltage window of 0.001-3 V, the electrode of the Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite delivers a specific capacity as high as 1150 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) after 100 discharge-charge cycles. Even at a high current density of 3.2 A g(-1), a capacity of 522 mA h g(-1) can be retained. The unusual electrochemical performance including highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capability arise from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Zn2GeO4 and graphene oxide.

  14. Amorphous Fe2O3 nanoshells coated on carbonized bacterial cellulose nanofibers as a flexible anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Lin, Zixia; Zheng, Mingbo; Wang, Tianhe; Yang, Jiazhi; Yuan, Fanshu; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lin; Sun, Dongping

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) carbonaceous aerogel derived from biomass bacterial cellulose (BC) is introduced as a flexible framework for iron oxides in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The 3D carbonized BC (CBC) with highly interconnected nanofibrous structure exhibits good electrical conductivity and mechanical stability. The amorphous Fe2O3 is tightly coated on the nanofibers of CBC through a simple in situ thermal decomposition method. The obtained amorphous Fe2O3 anode (denoted as A-Fe2O3@CBC) exhibits stable cycling performance and high rate capability when assembled into a half-cell, which is supposed to benefit from the well-dispersed Fe2O3 nanoshells and the hierarchical pores in A-Fe2O3@CBC composite. The rational design of the nanostructure could improve the transportation of electrons/ions and effectively alleviate volume changes of Fe2O3 during the electrochemical cycling. Meanwhile, the amorphous nature of the Fe2O3 in anode provides an enhanced capacitive-like lithium storage and flexible structure of the active materials, resulting in much higher specific capacity and longer cycle life when compared with its crystalline counterpart. This work provides a promising approach to design and construct the flexible metal oxide anode materials based on 3D carbonaceous aerogel for high-performance LIBs.

  15. High areal capacity hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion battery with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency for large-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Yifei; Yao, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs) featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Li-intercalation cathode are safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. Here we report for the first time the excellent stability of a high areal capacity MLIB cell and dendrite-free deposition behavior of Mg under high current density (2 mA cm(-2)). The hybrid cell showed no capacity loss for 100 cycles with Coulombic efficiency as high as 99.9%, whereas the control cell with a Li-metal anode only retained 30% of its original capacity with Coulombic efficiency well below 90%. The use of TiS2 as a cathode enabled the highest specific capacity and one of the best rate performances among reported MLIBs. Postmortem analysis of the cycled cells revealed dendrite-free Mg deposition on a Mg anode surface, while mossy Li dendrites were observed covering the Li surface and penetrated into separators in the Li cell. The energy density of a MLIB could be further improved by developing electrolytes with higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window, leading to new opportunities for its application in large-scale energy storage.

  16. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  17. NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays grown on flexible nitrogen-doped carbon foams as three-dimensional binder-free integrated anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Songmei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei

    2016-02-14

    Binary metal sulfides, especially NiCo2S4, hold great promise as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries because of their excellent electronic conductivity and high capacity compared to mono-metal sulfides and oxides. Here, NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays are successfully grown on flexible nitrogen-doped carbon foam (NDCF) substrates with robust adhesion via a facile surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route and the subsequent sulfurization treatment. The obtained NiCo2S4/NDCF composites show unique three-dimensional architectures, in which NiCo2S4 nanotubes of ∼5 μm in length and 100 nm in width are uniformly grown on the NDCF skeletons to form arrays. When used directly as integrated anodes for lithium-ion batteries without any conductive additives and binders, the NiCo2S4/NDCF composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1721 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1), enhanced cycling performance with the capacity maintained at 1182 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, and a remarkable rate capability. The excellent lithium storage performances of the composites could be attributed to the unique material composition, a rationally designed hollow nanostructure and an integrated smart architecture, which offer fast electron transport and ion diffusion, enhanced material/-electrolyte contact area and facile accommodation of strains during the lithium insertion and extraction process.

  18. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles. PMID:26061529

  19. Impedance model of lithium ion polymer battery considering temperature effects based on electrochemical principle: Part I for high frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Meng; Choe, Song-Yul

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of impedance is one of well-known methods to experimentally characterize electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries. The measured impedance responses are generally fitted to an equivalent circuit model that is composed of linear and nonlinear electric components that mimic behaviors of different layers of a battery. However, the parameters do not provide quantitative statements on charge dynamics considering material properties. Therefore, electrochemical models are widely employed to study the charge dynamics, but have not included high frequency responses predominantly determined by double layers. Thus, we have developed models for the double layer and bulk that are integrated into the electrochemical model for a pouch type Li-ion battery. The integrated model is validated against the frequency response obtained from EIS equipment at different temperatures as well as the time response. The results show that the proposed model is capable of representing the responses at charging and discharging in time and frequency domain.

  20. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O(12-x)/C submicrospheres with comprehensively improved electrochemical performances for high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunfu; Lai, Man On; Zhou, Henghui; Lu, Li

    2014-12-01

    To comprehensively improve the performance of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), a synergistic method combining compositing, crystal structure modification and hierarchical particle structuring is employed in this work. Monodispersed/multidispersed mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-x/C submicrospheres were fabricated using monodispersed/multidispersed TiO2 submicrospheres, lithium hydroxide and sucrose as precursors. The Li4Ti5O12-x/C submicrospheres have a well-crystallized spinel structure, no blockages of Li(+) ion transport pathways, 2.69-3.03% O(2-) vacancy contents (vs. all 32e sites in the spinel structure), and 12.9-14.6% Ti(3+) ion contents (vs. all titanium ions). Thus, the electronic conductivity and Li(+) ion diffusion coefficient of particles can be significantly improved, and the working potential is 4.4-4.7 mV lower than that of LTO. Furthermore, these submicrospheres contain 1.06-1.44 wt% carbon as carbon coatings (2-3 nm in thickness) and carbon nanoparticles (∼20 nm in size), resulting in smaller primary particle sizes (<100 nm), large specific surface areas (12-15 m(2) g(-1)), proper pore sizes (∼4 nm) and enhanced electrical conduction between particles. In addition, the submicrospherical morphology allows large tap densities (1.41-1.71 g cm(-3)). As a result of this desirable structure, these mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-x/C submicrospheres exhibit comprehensively improved electrochemical performances. The optimized sample, with an ideally graded sphere-size distribution ranging from 100 nm to 600 nm, shows the largest tap density of 1.71 g cm(-3), high first cycle Coulombic efficiency of 95.0% and 4.5 mV lower working potential. At 10 C, its capacity is as high as 119 mA h g(-1) with capacity retention of 95.9% over 100 cycles. PMID:25322079