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Sample records for high lithium ion

  1. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  2. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  3. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  4. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; ...

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition,more » these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.« less

  5. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; Fang, Youxing; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn; Chi, Miaofang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition, these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.

  6. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  7. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  8. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  9. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  10. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  11. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  12. Prospects for spinel-stabilized, high-capacity lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croy, Jason R.; Park, Joong Sun; Shin, Youngho; Yonemoto, Bryan T.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Long, Brandon R.; Ren, Yang; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report early results on efforts to optimize the electrochemical performance of a cathode composed of a lithium- and manganese-rich "layered-layered-spinel" (LLS) material for lithium-ion battery applications. Pre-pilot scale synthesis leads to improved particle properties compared with lab-scale efforts, resulting in high capacities (∼200 mAh g-1) and good energy densities (>700 Wh kgoxide-1) in tests with lithium-ion cells. Subsequent surface modifications give further improvements in rate capabilities and high-voltage stability. These results bode well for advances in the performance of this class of lithium- and manganese-rich cathode materials.

  13. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable.

  14. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    nitrogen as the cathode material. Cycles were performed at rates of C/10, C/2, C/10, 2C, and C/10 for 10 cycles each. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED...batteries but their mechanical and thermal properties can lead to safety and reliability (e.g. cycle life) challenges in particular for military vehicle...reduce stresses caused by lithium insertion and enhance lithium diffusion thereby improving cycle -life, high rate capacities and resistance to thermal

  15. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  16. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  18. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  19. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Graft copolymer-based lithium-ion battery for high-temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qichao; Osswald, Sebastian; Daniel, Reece; Zhu, Yan; Wesel, Steven; Ortiz, Luis; Sadoway, Donald R.

    The use of conventional lithium-ion batteries in high temperature applications (>50 °C) is currently inhibited by the high reactivity and volatility of liquid electrolytes. Solvent-free, solid-state polymer electrolytes allow for safe and stable operation of lithium-ion batteries, even at elevated temperatures. Recent advances in polymer synthesis have led to the development of novel materials that exhibit solid-like mechanical behavior while providing the ionic conductivities approaching that of liquid electrolytes. Here we report the successful charge and discharge cycling of a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE)-based lithium-ion battery at temperatures up to 120 °C. The GCE consists of poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate-g-poly(dimethyl siloxane) (POEM-g-PDMS) doped with lithium triflate. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we analyze the temperature stability and cycling behavior of GCE-based lithium-ion batteries comprised of a LiFePO 4 cathode, a metallic lithium anode, and an electrolyte consisting of a 20-μm-thick layer of lithium triflate-doped POEM-g-PDMS. Our results demonstrate the great potential of GCE-based Li-ion batteries for high-temperature applications.

  1. Aluminum-doped lithium nickel cobalt oxide electrodes for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Liu, J.; Stoll, M. E.; Henriksen, G.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.

    Non-doped and aluminum-doped LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes from three industrial developers coupled with graphite anodes were made into lithium-ion cells for high-power applications. The powder morphology of the active cathode materials was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical performance of these cells was investigated by hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) testing, accelerated aging, and AC impedance measurement of symmetric cells. Although all of the fresh cells are found to meet and exceed the power requirements set by PNGV, the power capability of those cells with non-doped LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes fades rapidly due to the rise of the cell impedance. Al-doping is found very effective to suppress the cell impedance rise by stabilizing the charge-transfer impedance on the cathode side. The stabilization mechanism may be related to the low average oxidation state of nickel ions in the cathode. The powder morphology also plays a secondary role in determining the impedance stabilization.

  2. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  3. Lithium rich cathode/graphite anode combination for lithium ion cells with high tolerance to near zero volt storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, K. R.; Staub, J. W.; Hladky, M. P.; Landi, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Management of reversible lithium is an advantageous approach to design lithium ion cells that are tolerant to near zero volt (NZV) storage under fixed resistive load towards highly controllable, enhanced user-inactive safety. Presently, the first cycle loss from a high energy density Li-rich HE5050 cathode is used to provide excess reversible lithium when paired with an appropriately capacity matched mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode. Cells utilizing 1.2 M LiPF6 3:7 v/v ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte and a lithium reference were used for 3-electrode testing. After conditioning, a fixed resistive load was applied to 3-electrode cells for 72 or 168-h during which the anode potential and electrode asymptotic potential (EAP) remained less than the copper dissolution potential. After multiple storage cycles (room temperature or 40 °C), the NZV coulombic efficiency (cell reversibility) exceeded 97% and the discharge capacity retention was >98%. Conventional 2-electrode HE5050/MCMB pouch cells stored at NZV or open circuit for 3 days had nearly identical rate capability (up to 5C) and discharge performance stability (for 500 cycles under a 30% depth of discharge low-earth-orbit regime). Thus, lithium ion cells with appropriately capacity matched HE5050/MCMB electrodes have excellent tolerance to prolonged NZV storage, which can lead to enhanced user-inactive safety.

  4. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K Y Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-09-14

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm(-3) has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm(-3) in addition to the conventional unit mA h g(-1) in the battery community.

  5. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  6. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  7. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-04-28

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  8. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  9. Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Oh, Pilgun; Liu, Xien; Lee, Min-Joon; Cho, Woongrae; Chae, Sujong; Kim, Youngsik; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-04-07

    High energy-density lithium-ion batteries are in demand for portable electronic devices and electrical vehicles. Since the energy density of the batteries relies heavily on the cathode material used, major research efforts have been made to develop alternative cathode materials with a higher degree of lithium utilization and specific energy density. In particular, layered, Ni-rich, lithium transition-metal oxides can deliver higher capacity at lower cost than the conventional LiCoO2 . However, for these Ni-rich compounds there are still several problems associated with their cycle life, thermal stability, and safety. Herein the performance enhancement of Ni-rich cathode materials through structure tuning or interface engineering is summarized. The underlying mechanisms and remaining challenges will also be discussed.

  10. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  11. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-04

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  12. High catalytic activity of anatase titanium dioxide for decomposition of electrolyte solution in lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Du, Hongda; Li, Baohua; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-12-01

    It has been indicated that anatase TiO2 is a promising anode material for lithium ion power battery from many previous researches. Whereas, in this work, we find that the anatase TiO2, when used as an anode for lithium ion battery, has high catalytic activity to initiate the decarboxylation reaction of electrolyte solution, resulting in the large generation of sole gaseous component, CO2. The ROLi species and the new phase of flake-like Li2TiF6 material are the main reaction products between anatase TiO2 and LiPF6 based electrolyte solution. This work provides important and urgent information that the surface chemistry of anatase TiO2 used as the anode material of lithium ion battery must be modified to suppress its catalytic activity for the decomposition of solvents.

  13. Development of a high brightness, ohmically generated thin film lithium ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Menge, P.R.; Cuneo, M.E.; Bernard, M.A.; Fowler, W.E.

    1997-12-31

    A pure lithium ion source with low source divergence capable of generating high current density beams ({approx}1,000 A/cm{sup 2}) is required for pursuing the goal of light ion inertial confinement fusion using pulsed power. It is believed that a uniform fully ionized lithium plasma at the anode surface ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) created just before arrival of the main power pulse (5--30 MV, 0.1--1 MA, 40--60 ns) will be superior to flashover or field-threshold lithium sources. One method being pursued at Sandia is the development of an ohmically driven thin film lithium source, often termed EMFAPS. The EMFAPS process consists of an electrical pulse driven through a thin film coated with or bearing lithium in alloy or compound. The high current flowing through a thin film coated with or bearing lithium in alloy or compound. The high current flowing through the film increases its temperature and resistivity until the lithium is driven off as vapor. The resistive voltage drop across the film generates a plasma by a gas discharge. Low impedance, fast risetime pulsers provided by NRL and Pulse Sciences Inc. are being assembled and evaluated as film current drivers for full scale anodes ({approx}70 cm{sup 2}). Smaller scale ({approx}1 cm{sup 2}) tests are underway to optimize film composition, current contact engineering, anode construction, impedance dynamics, and energy disposition. Plasma discharge cleaning, bakeouts, film design and material selection issues are also being characterized to improve ion purity.

  14. Highly lithium-ion conductive battery separators from thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Joo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, So Young; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Sun, Yang-Kook; Guiver, Michael D; Suh, Kyung Do; Lee, Young Moo

    2015-02-07

    High power density lithium ion battery (HLIB) separators were fabricated for the first time from thermally rearranged poly(benzoxazole-co-imide) (TR-PBOI) nanofibrous membranes coated with TR-PBOI nanoparticles, which show distinct thermal and dimensional stabilities as well as excellent cycle retention and rate capability.

  15. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  16. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K. Y. Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-08-01

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm-3 has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm-3 in addition to the conventional unit mA h g-1 in the battery community.Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the

  17. Highly crystalline lithium titanium oxide sheets coated with nitrogen-doped carbon enable high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Baohua; Li, Hongfei; Ma, Jun; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-09-01

    Sheets of Li4Ti5O12 with high crystallinity are coated with nitrogen-doped carbon (NC-LTO) using a controlled process, comprising hydrothermal reaction followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetonitrile (CH3 CN) vapor is used as carbon and nitrogen source to obtain a thin coating layer of nitrogen-doped carbon. The layer enables the NC-LTO material to maintain its sheet structure during the high-temperature CVD process and to achieve high crystallinity. Doping with nitrogen introduces defects into the carbon coating layer, and this increased degree of disorder allows fast transportation of lithium ions in the layer. An electrode of NC-LTO synthesized at 700 °C exhibits greatly improved rate and cycling performance due to a markedly decreased total cell resistance and enhanced Li-ion diffusion coefficient (D(Li)). Specific capacities of 159.2 and 145.8 mA h g(-1) are obtained using the NC-LTO sheets, at charge/discharge rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively. These values are much higher than values for LTO particles did not undergo the acetonitrile CVD treatment. A capacity retention value as high as 94.7% is achieved for the NC-LTO sheets after 400 cycles in a half-cell at 5 C discharge rate.

  18. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  19. Nb2O5 microstructures: a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sainan; Zhou, Jiang; Cai, Zhenyang; Fang, Guozhao; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures by a facile hydrothermal approach with subsequent annealing treatment. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures exhibit superior electrochemical performance with excellent rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability. The electrode delivers high capacity of 131 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1 A g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance suggests the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures may be a promising anode candidate for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  20. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  1. High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Zhonghua; Eberman, Kevin W

    2017-03-21

    A lithium transition metal oxide composition. The composition has the formula Li.sub.a[Li.sub.bNi.sub.cMn.sub.dCo.sub.e]O.sub.2, where a.gtoreq.0.9, b.gtoreq.0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05.ltoreq.c/d.ltoreq.1.4, 0.05.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.0.30, 0.9.ltoreq.(a+b)/M.ltoreq.1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.

  2. Diagnosis of power fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. H.; Hyung, Y. E.; Stoll, M.; Elsen, N.; MacLaren, S.; Twesten, R.; Haasch, R.; Sammann, E.; Petrov, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  3. High-capacity lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, Takahisa; Kanda, Motoya; Aoki, Yoshiyasu; Shiroki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shintaro

    We have developed high-capacity lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber (MCF) as an anode material. The graphitized MCF is a highly graphitized carbon fiber with a radial-like texture in the cross section. This structure contributes to the rapid diffusion of lithium ions inside the carbon fiber. The diffusion coefficient of lithium ions in the graphitized MCF was one order of magnitude larger than those for graphite, resulting in an excellent high-rate performance of the carbon electrode. The graphitized MCF anode showed larger capacity, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the graphite anode. The 863448 size (8.6 mm × 34 mm × 48 mm) prismatic cell with the graphitized MCF anode exhibited a large capacity of > 1000 mAh. At 3 A discharge, the prismatic cell had 95% of its capacity at 0.5 A discharge with a mid-discharge voltage of 3.35 V. The cell maintained > 85% of its initial capacity after 500 cycles and showed high capacity at -20 °C. It has thus been demonstrated that the prismatic cell using the graphitized MCF anode has excellent performance, and is an attractive choice for the power sources of cellular phones and other appliances.

  4. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  5. Interconnected Nanoflake Network Derived from a Natural Resource for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-10-06

    Numerous natural resources have a highly interconnected network with developed porous structure, so enabling directional and fast matrix transport. Such structures are appealing for the design of efficient anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, although they can be challenging to prepare. Inspired by nature, a novel synthesis route from biomass is proposed by using readily available auricularia as retractable support and carbon coating precursor to soak up metal salt solution. Using the swelling properties of the auricularia with the complexation of metal ions, a nitrogen-containing MnO@C nanoflake network has been easily synthesized with fast electrochemical reaction dynamics and a superior lithium storage performance. A subsequent carbonization results in the in situ synthesis of MnO nanoparticles throughout the porous carbon flake network. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, an excellent reversible capacity is achieved of 868 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) over 300 cycles and 668 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) over 500 cycles, indicating a high tolerance to the volume expansion. The approach investigated opens up new avenues for the design of high performance electrodes with highly cross-linked nanoflake structures, which may have great application prospects.

  6. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-06-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  8. Electrochemical Study of Hollow Carbon Nanospheres as High-Rate and Low Temperature Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jonathan David

    The continued advancements in portable electronics have demanded more advanced power sources. To date, lithium ion batteries have been the state-of-the-art for portable devices. One significant drawback of lithium ion batteries is the slow charging times and their performance at low temperatures. In this dissertation, we explore the electrochemical behavior of a new lithium ion, negative electrode active material, hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNS). HCNS are ˜50 nm in diameter hollow spheres with ˜5 - 10 nm graphic walls which have a nominal reversible capacity of ˜220 mAh/g. We assembled and cycled HCNS as a lithium ion anode material and compared it to graphite, currently used as the anode material in most commercial lithium ion batteries. The charging mechanism of HCNS is an intercalation of the lithium ions into the graphitic walls of the spheres, similar to graphite, determined by diffraction and electroanalytical techniques. However, the HCNS electrodes cycled at much higher charge and discharge rates than graphite. Additionally, we demonstrated HCNS cycling at low temperatures (-20 *C) in electrolytes not obtainable by graphite due to material exfoliation during cycling. Although, due to the large surface area of HCNS, the first cycle coulombic losses are very high. This work has resulted in an understanding of a potentially new lithium ion battery anode material with significantly better cycling attributes than the current anode material.

  9. Poly(ethylenglycol)dimethylether-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, PEG500DME-LiTFSI, as high viscosity electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Rebecca; Latini, Alessandro; Panero, Stefania; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report a poly(ethylenglycol)dimethylether-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PEG500DME-LiTFSI) as high viscosity, safe electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. The high molecular weight of the end-capped ether solvent is reflected as low vapor pressure and excellent thermal stability of the electrolyte, as demonstrated by thermogravimetry, this resulting in remarkable safety content. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of the electrolyte demonstrates a Li-transference number of 0.48, a conductivity of the order of 10-3 S cm-1, and a high interphase stability with the lithium metal, the linear sweep voltammetry indicates an electrochemical stability window extending up to 4.8 V vs. Li/Li+. Furthermore, promising electrochemical performances in terms of reversibility, cycling stability and low charge-discharge polarization are observed using the electrolyte in lithium and in lithium ion batteries using lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) as cathode and titanium dioxide (TiO2) as anode. Hence, this electrolyte is a promising candidate for applications in safe, high performance lithium ion batteries.

  10. A multi scale multi-dimensional thermo electrochemical modelling of high capacity lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourani, Abbas; White, Peter; Ivey, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium manganese oxide (LMO) are competitive and complementary to each other as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, especially for use in electric vehicles. A multi scale multi-dimensional physic-based model is proposed in this paper to study the thermal behaviour of the two lithium-ion chemistries. The model consists of two sub models, a one dimensional (1D) electrochemical sub model and a two dimensional (2D) thermo-electric sub model, which are coupled and solved concurrently. The 1D model predicts the heat generation rate (Qh) and voltage (V) of the battery cell through different load cycles. The 2D model of the battery cell accounts for temperature distribution and current distribution across the surface of the battery cell. The two cells are examined experimentally through 90 h load cycles including high/low charge/discharge rates. The experimental results are compared with the model results and they are in good agreement. The presented results in this paper verify the cells temperature behaviour at different operating conditions which will lead to the design of a cost effective thermal management system for the battery pack.

  11. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  12. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2013-12-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp2 hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C6Li7.31 and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g-1/2032 mAh cm-3, much greater than the values of ˜372 mAh g-1/˜818 mAh cm-3, ˜1117 mAh g-1/˜1589 mAh cm-3, and ˜744 mAh g-1 for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  13. Electrode architectures for efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways in high power lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Ankita Shah

    As the demand for clean energy sources increases, large investments have supported R&D programs aimed at developing high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, military, grid storage and space applications. State of the art lithium ion technology cannot meet power demands for these applications due to high internal resistances in the cell. These resistances are mainly comprised of ionic and electronic resistance in the electrode and electrolyte. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of nanoscale lithium ion active materials on the premise that these materials shorten the diffusion length of lithium ions and increase the surface area for electrochemical charge transfer. While, nanomaterials have allowed significant improvements in the power density of the cell, they are not a complete solution for commercial batteries. Due to their large surface area, they introduce new challenges such as a poor electrode packing densities, high electrolyte reactivity, and expensive synthesis procedures. Since greater than 70% of the cost of the electric vehicle is due to the cost of the battery, a cost-efficient battery design is most critical. To address the limitations of nanomaterials, efficient transport pathways must be engineered in the bulk electrode. As a part of nanomanufacturing research being conducted the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing at Northeastern University, the first aim of the proposed work is to develop electrode architectures that enhance electronic and ionic transport pathways in large and small area lithium ion electrodes. These architectures will utilize the unique electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes to create robust electrode scaffolding that improves electrochemical charge transfer. Using extensive physical and electrochemical characterization, the second aim is to investigate the effect of electrode parameters on electrochemical performance and evaluate the performance against standard commercial

  14. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  15. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-22

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known "polysulfide shuttle" effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp(3) boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  16. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates. PMID:26898772

  17. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  18. Lithium Accumulates in Neurogenic Brain Regions as Revealed by High Resolution Ion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zanni, Giulia; Michno, Wojciech; Di Martino, Elena; Tjärnlund-Wolf, Anna; Pettersson, Jean; Mason, Charlotte Elizabeth; Hellspong, Gustaf; Blomgren, Klas; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution. We found that Li accumulated in neurogenic regions and investigated the effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Lithium increased proliferation, as judged by Ki67-immunoreactivity, but did not alter the number of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts at the end of the treatment period. Moreover, ToF-SIMS revealed a steady depletion of sphingomyelin in white matter regions during 28d Li-treatment, particularly in the olfactory bulb. In contrast, cortical levels of cholesterol and choline increased over time in Li-treated mice. This is the first study describing ToF-SIMS imaging for probing the brain-wide accumulation of supplemented Li in situ. The findings demonstrate that this technique is a powerful approach for investigating the distribution and effects of neuroprotective agents in the brain. PMID:28098178

  19. Lithium Accumulates in Neurogenic Brain Regions as Revealed by High Resolution Ion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Giulia; Michno, Wojciech; Di Martino, Elena; Tjärnlund-Wolf, Anna; Pettersson, Jean; Mason, Charlotte Elizabeth; Hellspong, Gustaf; Blomgren, Klas; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2017-01-18

    Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution. We found that Li accumulated in neurogenic regions and investigated the effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Lithium increased proliferation, as judged by Ki67-immunoreactivity, but did not alter the number of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts at the end of the treatment period. Moreover, ToF-SIMS revealed a steady depletion of sphingomyelin in white matter regions during 28d Li-treatment, particularly in the olfactory bulb. In contrast, cortical levels of cholesterol and choline increased over time in Li-treated mice. This is the first study describing ToF-SIMS imaging for probing the brain-wide accumulation of supplemented Li in situ. The findings demonstrate that this technique is a powerful approach for investigating the distribution and effects of neuroprotective agents in the brain.

  20. Synthesis of nickel doped anatase titanate as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yuxuan; Mellott, Nathan P.; Liu, Dawei; Li, Jiangang

    2015-02-01

    Novel Ni-doped titanate derived from protonated layered titanate has been fabricated via a simple ion-exchange process at room temperature. The as-synthesized product was calcined at 400 °C for 3 h to obtain the Ni-TiO2 (anatase). The crystal structure of Ni-TiO2 was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that doped nickel ions had inhibition effects on the crystallization of TiO2 during calcination. The electrochemical properties of Ni-TiO2 and undoped TiO2 were both tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries at room temperature. While the undoped sample exhibited a mediocre performance, having a discharge capacity of 132 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles, the nickel-ion doped sample demonstrated noticeable improvement in both of its discharge capacity and rate capability; with a high capacity value of 226 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles. This improvement of lithium ion storage capability of Ni-TiO2 can be ascribed to the Ni-doping effect on crystallinity and the modification of electrode/electrolyte interface of the TiO2 structure.

  1. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Ravinath Dharmasena, Ruchira; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-01

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li16P16). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g-1, depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ˜453 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  2. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell.

  3. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell. PMID:25626879

  4. Li-rich Li-Si alloy as a lithium-containing negative electrode material towards high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.

  5. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

  6. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  7. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  8. General strategy for designing core-shell nanostructured materials for high-power lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Laifa; Li, Hongsen; Uchaker, Evan; Zhang, Xiaogang; Cao, Guozhong

    2012-11-14

    Because of its extreme safety and outstanding cycle life, Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) has been regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) suffers from poor electronic conductivity. Here, we develop a novel strategy for the fabrication of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)/carbon core-shell electrodes using metal oxyacetyl acetonate as titania and single-source carbon. Importantly, this novel approach is simple and general, with which we have successfully produce nanosized particles of an olivine-type LiMPO(4) (M = Fe, Mn, and Co) core with a uniform carbon shell, one of the leading cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Metal acetylacetonates first decompose with carbon coating the particles, which is followed by a solid state reaction in the limited reaction area inside the carbon shell to produce the LTO/C (LMPO(4)/C) core-shell nanostructure. The optimum design of the core-shell nanostructures permits fast kinetics for both transported Li(+) ions and electrons, enabling high-power performance.

  9. Porous graphitic carbon nanosheets as a high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Wang, Zhiyuan; He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun

    2013-10-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) porous graphitic carbon nanosheets (PGC nanosheets) as a high-rate anode material for lithium storage were synthesized by an easy, low-cost, green, and scalable strategy that involves the preparation of the PGC nanosheets with Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded (indicated with (Fe&Fe3O4)@PGC nanosheets) using glucose as the carbon precursor, iron nitrate as the metal precursor, and a surface of sodium chloride as the template followed by the subsequent elimination of the Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles from the (Fe&Fe3O4)@PGC nanosheets by acid dissolution. The unique 2D integrative features and porous graphitic characteristic of the carbon nanosheets with high porosity, high electronic conductivity, and outstanding mechanical flexibility and stability are very favorable for the fast and steady transfer of electrons and ions. As a consequence, a very high reversible capacity of up to 722 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g after 100 cycles, a high rate capability (535, 380, 200, and 115 mAh/g at 1, 10, 20, and 30 C, respectively, 1 C = 372 mA/g), and a superior cycling performance at an ultrahigh rate (112 mAh/g at 30 C after 570 charge-discharge cycles) are achieved by using these nanosheets as a lithium-ion-battery anode material.

  10. High-power lithium ion microbatteries from interdigitated three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pikul, James H; Gang Zhang, Hui; Cho, Jiung; Braun, Paul V; King, William P

    2013-01-01

    High-performance miniature power sources could enable new microelectronic systems. Here we report lithium ion microbatteries having power densities up to 7.4 mW cm(-2) μm(-1), which equals or exceeds that of the best supercapacitors, and which is 2,000 times higher than that of other microbatteries. Our key insight is that the battery microarchitecture can concurrently optimize ion and electron transport for high-power delivery, realized here as a three-dimensional bicontinuous interdigitated microelectrodes. The battery microarchitecture affords trade-offs between power and energy density that result in a high-performance power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.

  11. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  12. Superior Thermally Stable and Nonflammable Porous Polybenzimidazole Membrane with High Wettability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Shi, Dingqin; Xia, Yonggao; Qiao, Lin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-02-28

    Separators with high security, reliability, and rate capacity are in urgent need for the advancement of high power lithium ion batteries. The currently used porous polyolefin membranes are critically hindered by their low thermal stability and poor electrolyte wettability, which further lead to low rate capacity. Here we present a novel promising porous polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane with super high thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. The rigid structure and functional groups in the PBI chain enable membranes to be stable at temperature as high as 400 °C, and the unique flame resistance of PBI could ensure the high security of a battery as well. In particular, the prepared membrane owns 328% electrolyte uptake, which is more than two times higher than commercial Celgard 2325 separator. The unique combination of high thermal stability, high flame resistance and super high electrolyte wettability enable the PBI porous membranes to be highly promising for high power lithium battery.

  13. Highly Ordered Mesostructured Vanadium Phosphonate toward Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mei, Peng; Pramanik, Malay; Lee, Jaewoo; Ide, Yusuke; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-03-28

    Highly ordered mesostructured vanadium phosphonates (VP) have been synthesized in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a structure-directing agent. Nitrilotris(methylene)triphosphonic acid (NMPA) and (ammonium/sodium) metavanadate (NH4 VO3 /NaVO3 ) have been used for the construction of pore walls. The CTAB templates are removed from the materials by an extraction process without destroying the parent mesostructure. The formation mechanism for the ordered mesoporous structure and its impact on electrochemical application in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are explained by considering the structural and electrochemical stability of the framework. The results demonstrate that the counter cations (NH4(+) /Na(+) ) of the metavanadate precursors have a crucial role in stabilizing the mesoporous structure of the mesoporous VP materials. Mesoporous VP materials with highly ordered structure have great applicability as high-performance electrode materials in LIBs due to the advantages of their large contact area with electrolyte and short transport paths for lithium ions. Mesoporous VP electrodes exhibit high reversible specific capacity with superb cycling stability (100 cycles) and excellent retention of capacity (92 %).

  14. Synergetic Effects of Inorganic Components in Solid Electrolyte Interphase on High Cycle Efficiency of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Lu, Peng; Liu, Zhongyi; Verbrugge, Mark W; Sheldon, Brian W; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Qi, Yue; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2016-03-09

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), a passivation layer formed on electrodes, is critical to battery performance and durability. The inorganic components in SEI, including lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and lithium fluoride (LiF), provide both mechanical and chemical protection, meanwhile control lithium ion transport. Although both Li2CO3 and LiF have relatively low ionic conductivity, we found, surprisingly, that the contact between Li2CO3 and LiF can promote space charge accumulation along their interfaces, which generates a higher ionic carrier concentration and significantly improves lithium ion transport and reduces electron leakage. The synergetic effect of the two inorganic components leads to high current efficiency and long cycle stability.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  16. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  17. Challenges and approaches for high-voltage spinel lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Pieczonka, Nicholas P W; Yang, Li

    2014-07-21

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications, owing to their high energy density. Recent research and development efforts have been devoted to finding the next generation of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries to extend the driving distance of EVs and lower their cost. LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O(4) (LNMO) high-voltage spinel is a promising candidate for a next-generation cathode material based on its high operating voltage (4.75 V vs. Li), potentially low material cost, and excellent rate capability. Over the last decade, much research effort has focused on achieving a fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationship in LNMO materials. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that the most critical barrier for the commercialization of high-voltage spinel Li-ion batteries is electrolyte decomposition and concurrent degradative reactions at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which results in poor cycle life for LNMO/graphite full cells. Despite scattered reports addressing these processes in high-voltage spinel full cells, they have not been consolidated into a systematic review article. With this perspective, emphasis is placed herein on describing the challenges and the various approaches to mitigate electrolyte decomposition and other degradative reactions in high-voltage spinel cathodes in full cells.

  18. Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Patel, Mumukshu; Rangasamy, Baskaran; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Xia, Changlei; Shi, Sheldon; Choi, Wonbong

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered as a potential anode material for next generation Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conductivity, flexibility, surface area, and lithium-ion insertion ability. However, the low mass loading and bulk density of carbon nanomaterials hinder their use in large-scale energy storage because their high specific capacity may not scale up linearly with the thickness of the electrode. To address this issue, a novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture is rationally designed by stacking layers of free-standing CNTs with the increased areal density to 34.9 mg cm-2, which is around three-times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes. Furthermore, a thermal compression process renders the bulk density of the multi-stacked 3D CNTs to be increased by 1.85 g cm-3, which yields an excellent volumetric capacity of 465 mAh cm-3 at 0.5C. Our proposed strategy involving the stacking of 3D CNT based layers and post-thermal compression provides a powerful platform for the utilization of carbon nanomaterials in the advanced LIB technology.

  19. Characterization of large format lithium ion battery exposed to extremely high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuning; Sun, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; He, Xiangming; Lu, Languang; Han, Xuebing; Fang, Mou; Peng, Huei

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides a study on the characterizations of large format lithium ion battery cells exposed to extreme high temperature but without thermal runaway. A unique test is set up: an extended volume-accelerating rate calorimetry (EV-ARC) test is terminated at a specific temperature before thermal runaway happens in the battery. The battery was cooled down after an EV-ARC test with early termination. The performances of the battery before and after the EV-ARC test are investigated in detail. The results show that (a) the melting point of the separator dictates the reusability of the 25 Ah NCM battery after a near-runaway event. The battery cannot be reused after being heated to 140 °C or higher because of the exponential rise in ohmic resistance; (b) a battery can lose up to 20% of its capacity after being heated to 120 °C just one time; (c) if a battery is cycled after a thermal event, its lost capacity may be recovered partially. Furthermore, the fading and recovery mechanisms are analyzed by incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and a prognostic/mechanistic model. Model analysis confirms that the capacity loss at extremely high temperature is caused by the increase of the resistance, the loss of lithium ion (LLI) at the anode and the loss of active material (LAM) at the cathode.

  20. A Tunable 3D Nanostructured Conductive Gel Framework Electrode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Bruck, Andrea M; Zhang, Yiman; Li, Jing; Stach, Eric A; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Yu, Guihua

    2017-03-22

    This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature. This 3D nanostructured gel-based framework represents a powerful platform for various electrochemically active materials to enable the next-generation high-energy batteries.

  1. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  2. Performance degradation of high-power lithium-ion cells-Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J. L.; Dees, D. W.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.

    The performance of 18650-type high-power lithium-ion cells is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. In this article, we present accelerated aging data acquired on 18650-cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2- or LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2-based positive electrodes, MAG-10 graphite-based negative electrodes, and 1.2-M LiPF 6 in EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) electrolyte. Capacity and impedance data acquired on electrodes harvested from these cells highlight the contributions of the positive and negative electrodes to the degradation of cell performance. We also describe test methodologies used to examine the electrochemical characteristics of the harvested electrodes. Identifying and optimizing cell components responsible for performance degradation should enable the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries that will meet the 15-year cell calendar life goal established by DOEs FreedomCar initiative.

  3. Developments of high-voltage all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzel, J.; Thangadurai, V.; Weppner, W.

    Powders of Li 2MMn 3O 8 (M = Fe, Co) were prepared by glycine nitrate combustion from the corresponding metal nitrates. The reaction products were pressed into pellets with the addition of 20 wt.% excess LiNO 3, which were used as targets for e-beam evaporation. A high-voltage all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery was demonstrated by the sequential deposition of spinel structured Li 2MMn 3O 8 (M = Co, Fe) as positive electrode by e-beam evaporation, LiPON as electrolyte, and metallic Al as negative electrode by sputtering in N 2 and Ar gas mixtures with specific power and gas flow rates. A lithium ion conductivity of ∼10 -6 S cm -1 was observed for the optimized thin-film LiPON electrolyte prepared under the condition of a chamber pressure of 2.6 × 10 -2 mbar and a power of 60-100 W. The chemical diffusion coefficient (D ˜) was found to be in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 for any composition x of Li 2- xMMn 3O 8 (M = Fe, Co) in the range from 0.1 to 1.6 by employing the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). AC impedance studies revealed a charge transfer resistance of 260-290 Ω, a double layer capacity of ∼45-70 μF for an electrode area of 6.7 cm 2.

  4. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  5. Material requirements for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L.; Fouchard, D.; Megahed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lithium-ion (or rocking-chair) batteries with lithiated oxide cathodes and carbon anodes are finding increasing acceptance in many electronic applications including low rates (e.g., memory backup, real time clock, bridge function) and high rates (e.g, laptop computers, cellular phones, camcorders, etc.). This technology offers significant improvements in safety relative to cells using lithium metal anodes, with only a modest reduction in energy density. In general, materials for lithium-ion cells are chosen to minimize the energy density penalties associated with replacing the lithium electrode with an intercalation electrode. In this review paper, the authors describe the properties of the cathode, anode and electrolyte, and discuss requirements for improved materials for advanced lithium-ion systems. Consideration is given to energy density, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability.

  6. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  7. Lithium Germanate (Li2 GeO3 ): A High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Sultana, Irin; Yang, Tianyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Sharma, Neeraj; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Ying

    2016-12-23

    A simple, cost-effective, and easily scalable molten salt method for the preparation of Li2 GeO3 as a new type of high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries is reported. The Li2 GeO3 exhibits a unique porous architecture consisting of micrometer-sized clusters (secondary particles) composed of numerous nanoparticles (primary particles) and can be used directly without further carbon coating which is a common exercise for most electrode materials. The new anode displays superior cycling stability with a retained charge capacity of 725 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) . The electrode also offers excellent rate capability with a capacity recovery of 810 mAh g(-1) (94 % retention) after 35 cycles of ascending steps of current in the range of 25-800 mA g(-1) and finally back to 25 mA g(-1) . This work emphasizes the importance of exploring new electrode materials without carbon coating as carbon-coated materials demonstrate several drawbacks in full devices. Therefore, this study provides a method and a new type of anode with high reversibility and long cycle stability.

  8. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase with High Li-Ion Conductivity, Mechanical Strength, and Flexibility for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Yuen, Pak Yan; Liu, Kai; Xie, Jin; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Cui, Yi

    2017-03-01

    An artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is demonstrated for the efficient and safe operation of a lithium metal anode. Composed of lithium-ion-conducting inorganic nanoparticles within a flexible polymer binder matrix, the rationally designed artificial SEI not only mechanically suppresses lithium dendrite formation but also promotes homogeneous lithium-ion flux, significantly enhancing the efficiency and cycle life of the lithium metal anode.

  9. A High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor Based on 2D Nanosheet Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaohui; Chen, Jingwei; Cui, Mengqi; Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Cui, Peng; Gong, Xuefei; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn2 O4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented. The 2D nanomaterials offer high specific surface areas in favor of a fast ion transport and storage with shortened ion diffusion length, enabling fast charge and discharge. The fabricated LIC delivers a high specific energy of 202.8 Wh kg(-1) at specific power of 180 W kg(-1) , and the specific energy remains 98 Wh kg(-1) even when the specific power achieves as high as 21 kW kg(-1) .

  10. Bunched akaganeite nanorod arrays: Preparation and high-performance for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Mo, Yudi; Li, Zishan

    2015-11-01

    Significant effort has been made to explore high-performance anode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries. We report a facile hydrothermal route to synthesis self-organized bunched akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorod arrays directly grown on carbon cloth (CC/β-FeOOH NRAs). Interestingly, the single nanorod is assembled by numerous small nanowires. A possible growth mechanism for this unique structure is proposed. Owning to the essential crystal structure of β-FeOOH (body-centered cubic), porous morphology, high surface area and direct growth on current collector, the prepared CC/β-FeOOH NRAs manifest a very high reversible capacity of ≈2840 mAh g-1 (2.21 mAh cm-2), remarkable rate capability 568 mAh g-1 (0.43 mAh cm-2) at 10C, stable cycling performance and greater mechanical strength.

  11. Environmental Tests of Lithium-Ion Capacitor for Very High Power In-Orbit Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Finnholm, Johnny; Motohata, Takuya; Masui, Hirokazu; Coronius, Teo; Kestila, Antti; Cho, Mengu

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, super-capacitors have become a practical alternative to chemical batteries as rechargeable energy storage medium. Compared with batteries, some super-capacitors are able to supply high power at high energy-efficiency. Currently, an on-board super-capacitor energy storage system is under in-house development. This subsystem has become an essential device for upcoming ambitious missions such as electrical thrusters and radar imaging missions on micro-satellite platforms. This module utilises new generation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium- ion capacitor cells, but these cells have not yet been tested for space flight. This paper reports the results of environmental evaluations (i.e. including vibration, thermal-cycle in vacuum and radiation) performed in order to qualify the cells for space flight. Additionally, the feasibility of super-capacitor energy storage systems for the high power demanding missions is discussed.

  12. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  13. Characterization of Graphite Lithium-Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Figure 46. Dual Pulse 125 Stored Energy Resistance Welding Power Supply.................75 Figure 47. Thin-Line Model 88F Parallel Gap Welder...problem is lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries, with their high energy density, can provide a means for reducing spacecraft weight and...and discharge rates will be twice what they were in the previous test. This amounts to the same energy in and out of the cell during an orbit. The

  14. Four-layer tin-carbon nanotube yolk-shell materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Fengdan; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    All high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, such as those based on tin (Sn) and silicon (Si), suffer from large volume changes during cycling with lithium ions, and their high capacities can be only achieved in the first few cycles. We design and synthesize a unique four-layer yolk-shell tin-carbon (Sn-C) nanotube array to address this problem. The shape and size of the exterior Sn nanotube@carbon core-shell layer, the encapsulated interior Sn nanowire@carbon nanotube core-shell layer, and the filling level of each layer can be all controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions. Such a nanostructure has not been reported for any metal or metal oxide-based material. Owing to the special design of the electrode structure, the four-layer hierarchical structure demonstrates excellent Li-ion storage properties in terms of high capacity, long cycle life, and high rate performance.

  15. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  16. Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles for high-capacity lithium-ion storage.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles are synthesized by a solvothermal approach. The product is significantly different from porous CoS microspheres prepared in the absence of graphene under similar preparation conditions. The CoS microspheres and CoS/graphene composite are fabricated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The CoS/graphene composite is found to be better suitable as an anode in terms of higher capacity and better cycling performances. The nanocomposite exhibits an unprecedented high reversible capacity of 1056 mA h/g among all cobalt sulfide-based anode materials. Good cycling performances are also observed at both small and high current rates.

  17. Fabrication of Nb2O5 Nanosheets for High-rate Lithium Ion Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meinan; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuegang

    2015-01-01

    Nb2O5 nanosheets are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal reaction and followed heating treatment in air. The structural characterization reveals that the thickness of these sheets is around 50 nm and the length of sheets is 500 ~ 800 nm. Such a unique two dimensional structure enables the nanosheet electrode with superior performance during the charge-discharge process, such as high specific capacity (~184 mAh·g−1) and rate capability. Even at a current density of 1 A·g−1, the nanosheet electrode still exhibits a specific capacity of ~90 mAh·g−1. These results suggest the Nb2O5 nanosheet is a promising candidate for high-rate lithium ion storage applications. PMID:25659574

  18. Phosphorus-doped silicon nanorod anodes for high power lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianzhi; He, Deyan

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-phosphorus-doped silicon anodes were fabricated on CuO nanorods for application in high power lithium-ion batteries. Since the conductivity of lithiated CuO is significantly better than that of CuO, after the first discharge, the voltage cut-off window was then set to the range covering only the discharge–charge range of Si. Thus, the CuO core was in situ lithiated and acts merely as the electronic conductor in the following cycles. The Si anode presented herein exhibited a capacity of 990 mAh/g at the rate of 9 A/g after 100 cycles. The anode also presented a stable rate performance even at a current density as high as 20 A/g. PMID:28243560

  19. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; ...

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  20. Sb nanoparticles encapsulated into porous carbon matrixes for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Han, Qigang; Zan, Ping; Wu, Yaoming; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2016-11-01

    A novel Sb/C polyhedra composite is successfully fabricated by a galvanic replacement reaction technique using metal organic frameworks as templates. In this composite, the ultrasmall Sb nanoparticles with an average size of 15 nm are homogeneously encapsulated into the carbon matrixes, forming a hierarchical porous structure with nanosized building blocks. Used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this composite exhibits high lithium storage capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycle stability, higher than many reported results. Notably, a discharge capacity of 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 is delivered after 100 repeated cycles. Even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 400.5 mAh g-1 is also maintained after 500 cycles. Such superior cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the designed Sb/C composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Sb nanoparticles and the porous carbon matrixes.

  1. Self-assembled organic nanowires for high power density lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao; Huang, Ruiming; Kevorkyants, Ruslan; Pavanello, Michele; He, Huixin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-03-12

    The electroactive organic materials are promising alternatives to inorganic electrode materials for the new generation of green Li-ion batteries due to their sustainability, environmental benignity, and low cost. Croconic acid disodium salt (CADS) was used as Li-ion battery electrode, and CADS organic wires with different diameters were fabricated through a facile synthetic route using antisolvent crystallization method to overcome the challenges of low electronic conductivity of CADS and lithiation induced strain. The CADS nanowire exhibits much better electrochemical performance than its crystal bulk material and microwire counterpart. CADS nanowire with a diameter of 150 nm delivers a reversible capability of 177 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.2 C and retains capacity of 170 mAh g(-1) after 110 charge/discharge cycles. The nanowire structure also remarkably enhances the kinetics of croconic acid disodium salt. The CADS nanowire retains 50% of the 0.1 C capacity even when the current density increases to 6 C. In contrast, the crystal bulk and microwire material completely lose their capacities when the current density merely increases to 2 C. Such a high rate performance of CADS nanowire is attributed to its short ion diffusion pathway and large surface area, which enable fast ion and electron transport in the electrode. The theoretical calculation suggests that lithiation of CADS experiences an ion exchange process. The sodium ions in CADS will be gradually replaced by lithium ions during the lithiation and delithiation of CADS electrode, which is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma test.

  2. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-02-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery.

  3. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery. PMID:24488228

  4. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  5. Lithium Thiophosphate Compounds as Stable High Rate Li-Ion Separators

    SciTech Connect

    Apblett, Christopher A.

    2014-09-01

    Battery separators based upon lithium thiophosphate (LiPS4) have previously been demonstrated at UC Boulder, but the thickness of the separators was too high to be of practical use in a lithium ion battery. The separators are solid phase, which makes them intrinsically less prone to thermal runaway and thereby improves safety. Results of attempting to develop sputtered thin film layers of this material by starting with targets of pure Li, Li2S, and P2S5 are reported. Sputtering rates and film quality and composition are discussed, along with efforts to use Raman spectroscopy to determine quantitative film composition. The latter is a rate limiting step in the investigation of these films, as they are typically thin and require long times to get to sufficient thickness to be analyzed using traditional methods, whereas Raman is particularly well suited to this analysis, if it can be made quantitative. The final results of the film deposition methods are reported, and a path towards new films is discussed. Finally, it should be noted that this program originally began with one graduate student working on the program, but this student ultimately chose to not continue with a PhD. A second student took over in the middle of the effort, and a new program has been proposed with a significantly altered chemistry to take the program in a new direction.

  6. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong; Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C.; Ramabadran, Navaneet

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  7. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2014-11-12

    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.

  8. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Tojo T, Sakurai Y. Synthesis and lithium - ion conductivity for perovskite-type Li3/8Sr7/16Ta3/4Zr1/4O3 solid electrolyte by powder-bed sintering...battery performance is limited by the electrolytic membrane, which needs high Li-ionic conductivity. Lithium lanthanum titanate (Li3xLa(2/3)-xTiO3, or...of the A-site ions and lithium ion conductivity in the perovskite solid solution La0.67-xLi3xTiO3 (x=0.11). Journal of Solid State Ionics. 1999;121

  9. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-03-01

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10

  10. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  11. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-27

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1) with a bulk density of 453 kg·m(-3) at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1)) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA·g(-1), and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  12. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m‑1·K‑1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m‑3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m‑1·K‑1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g‑1 at a current density of 100 mA·g‑1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  13. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; ...

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore » in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  14. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  15. Sandwich-like heat-resistance composite separators with tunable pore structure for high power high safety lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Shen, Tao; Hu, Huasheng; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a new kind of composite separators. A unique feature of the separators is the three-tier structure, i.e. the crosslinked polyethylene glycol (PEG) skin layer being formed on both sides of the nonwoven separators by in-situ polymerization and the large pores in the interior of the nonwoven separators being remained. The surface pore structure and the thickness of the skin layer could be adjusted by controlling the concentration of the coating solution. The skin layer is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance and to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, yielding an excellent cyclability. The remained large pores in the interior of the composite separators could provide an access for the fast transportation of lithium ions, giving rise to a very high ion conductivity. The polyimide (PI) nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability of the composite separators. More notably, the composite separators fabricated from the coating solution with a composition ratio of 20 wt% provide superior cell performances owing to the well-tailored microporous structure, comparing with the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, which show great promise for the application in the high power lithium ion batteries.

  16. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  17. Interaction of cyclic ageing at high-rate and low temperatures and safety in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhammer, Meike; Waldmann, Thomas; Bisle, Gunther; Hogg, Björn-Ingo; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    The differences in the safety behaviour between un-aged and aged high-power 18650 lithium-ion cells were investigated at the cell and material level by Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC) and Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). Commercial cells containing a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/LiyMn2O4 blend cathode, a carbon/graphite anode and a PP/PE/PP trilayer separator were aged by high-rate and low temperature cycling, leading to (i) mechanical deformation of the jelly roll and (ii) lithium plating on the anode. The results show a strong influence of the ageing history on the safety behaviour. While cycling at high current does not have a strong influence on the cell safety, lithium plating leads to a significant increase of heat formation during thermal runaway and thus to a higher hazard of safety.

  18. Lithium iron phosphates as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaojun; Chen, Linfeng; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Olivine-structured lithium iron phosphates are promising cathode materials in the development of high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles. However, the low electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity of lithium iron phosphates hinder their commercialization pace. This work aims to verify the approaches for improving the electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates. In this work, sol-gel method was used to synthesize carbon coated lithium iron phosphates and nickel doped lithium iron phosphates, and their particle sizes were controlled in the nanometer to sub-micrometer range. The crystalline structures of the synthesized lithium iron phosphates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and their morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To study their electrochemical properties, prototype lithium ion batteries were assembled with the synthesized lithium iron phosphates as cathode active materials, and with lithium metal discs as the anodes, and the discharge / charge properties and cycling behaviors of the prototype batteries were tested at different rates. The synthesized lithium iron phosphate materials exhibited high capacity and high cycling stability. It was confirmed that particle size reduction, carbon coating and metal doping are three effective approaches for increasing the conductivity of lithium iron phosphates, and thus improving their electrochemical properties. Experimental results show that by combing the three approaches for improving the electrochemical properties, lithium iron phosphate composites with characteristics favorable for their applications in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles can be developed, including high specific capacity, high rate capacity, flat discharge voltage plateau and high retention ratio.

  19. High-performance ball-milled SiOx anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen

    2017-01-01

    High-performance SiOx was scalable synthesized by means of simple high-energy ball-milling method, and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of SiOx electrode after high-energy ball-milling is improved effectively compared to raw SiOx. That is benefit for the reduced size of SiOx powder. By changing the species of conductive agents, improved cyclic performance and excellent rate capability were achieved. Under galvanostatic mode with current density of 0.3 A/g, SiOx electrode after high-energy ball-milling with optimized conductive agents delivers a reversible capacity of 1416.8 mAh/g with coulombic efficiency as high as 99.8% and capacity retention of 83.6% (1184.8 mAh/g) even after 100 cycles. The approach is simple and can be adopted for large scale production of high performance SiOx anode materials.

  20. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li-Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-06-01

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (∼250 mAh/g) lithium-manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. Despite the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a 'permanent' spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalation (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of 'unfilled' lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. These situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.

  1. Surface Response of Lithium Coatings on High Z Refractory Metal under Deuterium And Helium Ion Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Anton L.

    Lithium has proven to be a very interesting plasma facing component (PFC) material. It has been used as a wall coating in multiple research tokamaks, and at many of these facilities, lithium has improved confinement time by reducing hydrogen recycling from the walls of the reactor. Tungsten is also being considered as a durable PFC for fusion environments. The International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) will use a full tungsten divertor. Many operating tokamaks are using ITER like walls for testing ITER designs. From these tests and from controlled experiments, tungsten has shown some detrimental material changes under low energy deuterium and helium ion irradiation. Some of these material defects are holes, bubbles, voids, and fuzz. Because of the use of lithium in a number of tokamaks and the use of tungsten in many test reactors as well, studies have begun to study the behavior of lithium on the refractory metal tungsten. These studies deposited 100 and 500 nm of lithium on commercial tungsten discs and irradiated them with 100 eV deuterium, 1 keV helium, and deuterium and helium from two separate ion guns. The thicknesses of the lithium layers were determined by the temperature of the evaporator, over time, entered into a model using the Knudsen equation combined with an effusion model. This model was verified using AFM scans and SEM cross section micrographs of lithium layers on silicon substrates. Irradiations were carried out to a medium deuterium fluence of (1-3)x1017 D+/cm2. The surface chemistry of the samples before, after, and during irradiation was characterized using x-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS) in situ. These studies show that lithium on tungsten retains deuterium in a similar manner as does lithium on carbon; however, when helium is a secondary ion during irradiation, it can inhibit the deuterium retention in the lithium. In addition, the lithium is not eroded from the surface of the tungsten at the fluences that were achieved is this

  2. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Nanostructured hybrid silicon/carbon nanotube heterostructures: reversible high-capacity lithium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kumta, Prashant N

    2010-04-27

    Lithium-ion batteries have witnessed meteoric advancement the last two decades. The anode area has seen unprecedented research activity on Si and Sn, the two anode alternatives to currently used carbon following the initial seminal work by Fuji on tin oxide nanocomposites. Recent reports on silicon nanowires, porous Si, and amorphous Si coatings on graphite nanofibers (GNF) have been very encouraging. High capacity and long cycle life anodes are still, however, elusive and much needed to meet the ever increasing energy storage demands of modern society. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of novel 1D heterostructures comprising vertically aligned multiwall CNTs (VACNTs) containing nanoscale amorphous/nanocrystalline Si droplets deposited directly on VACNTs with clearly defined spacing using a simple two-step liquid injection CVD process. A hallmark of these single reactor derived heterostructures is an interfacial amorphous carbon layer anchoring the nanoscale Si clusters directly to the VACNTs. The defined spacing of nanoscale Si combined with their tethered CNT architecture allow for the silicon to undergo reversible electrochemical alloying and dealloying with Li with minimal loss of contact with the underlying CNTs. The novel heterostructures thus exhibit impressive reversible stable capacities approximately 2050 mAh/g with very good rate capability and an acceptable first cycle irreversible loss approximately 20% comparable to graphitic anodes indicating their promise as high capacity Li-ion anodes. Although warranting further research, particularly with regard to long-term cycling, it can be envisaged that optimization of this simple approach could lead to reversible high capacity next generation Li-ion anodes.

  4. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as

  5. Porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized cobalt ferrite as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Cheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2015-06-01

    Generally, the fast ion/electron transport and structural stability dominate the superiority in lithium-storage applications. In this work, porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized CoFe2O4 particles (p-CNTs@CFO) have been rationally designed and synthesized by the assistance of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the p-CNTs@CFO composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical behavior with high lithium-storage capacity (1077 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (694 mAh g-1 at 3 A g-1). These outstanding electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect of porous p-CNTs and nanosized CFO. Compared to pristine CNTs, the p-CNTs with substantial pores in the tubes possess largely increased specific surface area and rich oxygen-containing functional groups. The porous structure can not only accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes, but also provide bicontinuous electron/ion pathways and large electrode/electrolyte interface, which facilitate the ion diffusion kinetics, improving the rate performance. Moreover, the CFO particles are bonded strongly to the p-CNTs through metal-oxygen bridges, which facilitate the electron fast capture from p-CNTs to CFO, and thus resulting in a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. Overall, the porous p-CNTs provide an efficient way for ion diffusion and continuous electron transport as anode materials.

  6. A highly selective bicyclic fluoroionophore for the detection of lithium ions.

    PubMed

    Wanichacheva, Nantanit; Wanichecheva, Nantanit; Benco, John S; Lambert, Christopher R; McGimpsey, W Grant

    2006-01-01

    The macrobicyclic molecule, 21-(9-anthrylmethyl)-4,17,13,16-tetraoxa-1,10,21-triazabicyclo [8.8.5]tricosane-19,23-dione, I, was designed, synthesized and characterized as a fluoroionophore for the selective, optical detection of lithium ions. Compound I is based on a bridged diazacrown structure, which provides a semirigid binding framework. Binding takes place by electrostatic interactions between the oxygen atoms of the crown and the cation and is transduced to fluorescence emission from an attached anthracene fluorophore. In a 75:25 dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran solvent mixture, I acts as an intramolecular electron transfer "off-on" fluorescence switch, exhibiting a greater than 190-fold enhancement in fluorescence emission intensity in the presence of lithium ions. The relative selectivity of I for lithium ions over sodium, potassium and ammonium ions was found to be log K(Li+,Na+) approximately -3.36, log K(Li+,K+) approximately -1.77 and log K(Li+,NH4+) approximately -2.78.

  7. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N T; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li(+)/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  9. Ion chromatographic determination of lithium at trace level concentrations. Application to a tracer experiment in a high-mountain lake.

    PubMed

    Nickus, U; Thies, H

    2001-06-22

    The water residence time of a high-mountain seepage lake in the Austrian Alps was derived from the flushing rate of a tracer substance. A diluted lithium chloride solution was injected into the lake during holomictic conditions in order to favour the homogeneous distribution of the tracer. The exponential decline of the mass of lithium in the lake revealed a water residence time of 1.5 to 3 months for summer and almost no lake water exchange during winter. Lithium concentrations ranged from background values of 0.06 microg l(-1) to about 3 microg l(-1) immediately after the tracer injection. Lake water samples were analyzed with ion-exchange chromatography using a Dionex device with a CS 12A separation column. The method detection limit determined according to the definition of the US Envirinmental Protection Agency amounted to 0.009 microg l(-1).

  10. Graphene Carbon Nanotube Carpets Grown Using Binary Catalysts for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Rodrigo Villegas; Zakhidov, Dante; Sha, Junwei; Kim, Nam Dong; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-28

    Here we show that a versatile binary catalyst solution of Fe3O4/AlOx nanoparticles enables homogeneous growth of single to few-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from three-dimensional carbon-based substrates, moving past existing two-dimensional limited growth methods. The binary catalyst is composed of amorphous AlOx nanoclusters over Fe3O4 crystalline nanoparticles, facilitating the creation of seamless junctions between the CNTs and the underlying carbon platform. The resulting graphene-CNT (GCNT) structure is a high-density CNT carpet ohmically connected to the carbon substrate, an important feature for advanced carbon electronics. As a demonstration of the utility of this approach, we use GCNTs as anodes and cathodes in binder-free lithium-ion capacitors, producing stable devices with high-energy densities (∼120 Wh kg(-1)), high-power density capabilities (∼20,500 W kg(-1) at 29 Wh kg(-1)), and a large operating voltage window (4.3 to 0.01 V).

  11. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  12. Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

  13. Three-dimensional Sn-graphene anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundong; Li, Yi; Chui, Ying-San; Wu, Qi-Hui; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenjun

    2013-11-07

    Tin (Sn) has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high energy density, abundance, and environmentally benign nature. However, the problems of fast capacity fading at prolonged cycling and poor rate capacity hinder its practical use. Herein, we report the development of a novel architecture of Sn nanoparticle-decorated three-dimensional (3D) foothill-like graphene as an anode in LIBs. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the 3D Sn-graphene anode delivered a reversible capacity of 466 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 879 mA g(-1) (1 C) after over 4000 cycles and 794 mA h g(-1) at 293 mA g(-1) (1/3 C) after 400 cycles. The capacity at 1/3 C is over 200% that of conventional graphite anodes, suggesting that the 3D Sn-graphene structure enables a significant improvement in the overall performance of a LIB in aspects of capacity, cycle life, and rate capacity.

  14. Building robust architectures of carbon and metal oxide nanocrystals toward high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Xia; Peng, Yiting; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Ge; Wei, Fei; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-11-27

    Design and fabrication of effective electrode structure is essential but is still a challenge for current lithium-ion battery technology. Herein we report the design and fabrication of a class of high-performance robust nanocomposites based on iron oxide spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An efficient aerosol spray process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, where oxide nanocrystals were assembled into a continuous carbon skeleton and entangled in porous CNT networks. This material architecture offers many critical features that are required for high-performance anodes, including efficient ion transport, high conductivity, and structure durability, therefore enabling an electrode with outstanding lithium storage performance. For example, such an electrode with a thickness of ∼35 μm could deliver a specific capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) (based on total electrode weight) and high recharging rates. This effective strategy can be extended to construct many other composite electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Graphitic Carbon Conformal Coating of Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Shen, Dengke; Zhao, Dongyuan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-10-14

    Rational design and controllable synthesis of TiO2 based materials with unique microstructure, high reactivity, and excellent electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries are crucially desired. In this paper, we developed a versatile route to synthesize hollow TiO2/graphitic carbon (H-TiO2/GC) spheres with superior electrochemical performance. The as-prepared mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres present a high specific surface area (298 m(2) g(-1)), a high pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), a large pore size (∼5 nm), well-defined hollow structure (monodispersed size of 600 nm and inner diameter of ∼400 nm, shell thickness of 100 nm), and small nanocrystals of anatase TiO2 (∼8 nm) conformably encapsulated in ultrathin graphitic carbon layers. As a result, the H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres achieve excellent electrochemical reactivity and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of 137 mAh g(-1) can be achieved up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) (5 C). We believe that the mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres are expected to be applied as a high-performance electrode material for next generation lithium ion batteries.

  16. Porous cellulose diacetate-SiO2 composite coating on polyethylene separator for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenju; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Yang, Haijun; Mao, Xufeng; Chi, Mingming; Sun, Lining; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-08-20

    The developments of high-performance lithium ion battery are eager to the separators with high ionic conductivity and thermal stability. In this work, a new way to adjust the comprehensive properties of inorganic-organic composite separator was investigated. The cellulose diacetate (CDA)-SiO2 composite coating is beneficial for improving the electrolyte wettability and the thermal stability of separators. Interestingly, the pore structure of composite coating can be regulated by the weight ratio of SiO2 precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the coating solution. The electronic performance of lithium ion batteries assembled with modified separators are improved compared with the pristine PE separator. When weight ratio of TEOS in the coating solution was 9.4%, the composite separator shows the best comprehensive performance. Compared with the pristine PE separator, its meltdown temperature and the break-elongation at elevated temperature increased. More importantly, the discharge capacity and the capacity retention improved significantly.

  17. Honeysuckle-derived hierarchical porous nitrogen, sulfur, dual-doped carbon for ultra-high rate lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junke; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zhen; Xi, Xianghui

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, developing functional carbon materials from cheap natural materials is a highly compelling topic. Different from most explored biomass, honeysuckle is inherently rich in nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, and it has many advantages for production on a large scale. Here, hierarchical porous carbon (HPC), derived from waste honeysuckle via an environmentally friendly and economically viable method, has been reported as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The as-fabricated HPC exhibits favorable features for electrochemical energy storage performance such as high specific surface area (830 m2 g-1), hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) pore network and heteroatoms (N and S) doping effects. HPC, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, shows superior cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate capability (370 mAh g-1 at the current density of 20 A g-1). Furthermore, owing to the appropriate heteroatoms doping, a high initial coulombic efficiency of 64.7% can be achieved. A widespread comparison with the literature also showed that the honeysuckle derived porous carbon was one of the most promising carbon-based anodes for high-rate lithium ion batteries.

  18. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  19. High throughput methodology for synthesis, screening, and optimization of solid state lithium ion electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Beal, Mark S; Hayden, Brian E; Le Gall, Thierry; Lee, Christopher E; Lu, Xiaojuan; Mirsaneh, Mehdi; Mormiche, Claire; Pasero, Denis; Smith, Duncan C A; Weld, Andrew; Yada, Chihiro; Yokoishi, Shoji

    2011-07-11

    A study of the lithium ion conductor Li(3x)La(2/3-x)TiO(3) solid solution and the surrounding composition space was carried out using a high throughput physical vapor deposition system. An optimum total ionic conductivity value of 5.45 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained for the composition Li(0.17)La(0.29)Ti(0.54) (Li(3x)La(2/3-x)TiO(3)x = 0.11). This optimum value was calculated using an artificial neural network model based on the empirical data. Due to the large scale of the data set produced and the complexity of synthesis, informatics tools were required to analyze the data. Partition analysis was carried out to determine the synthetic parameters of importance and their threshold values. Multivariate curve resolution and principal component analysis were applied to the diffraction data set. This analysis enabled the construction of phase distribution diagrams, illustrating both the phases obtained and the compositional zones in which they occur. The synthetic technique presented has significant advantages over other thin film and bulk methodologies, in terms of both the compositional range covered and the nature of the materials produced.

  20. Novel germanium/polypyrrole composite for high power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuanwen; Luo, Wenbin; Zhong, Chao; Wexler, David; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Shi, Zhicong; Chen, Guohua; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2014-08-29

    Nano-Germanium/polypyrrole composite has been synthesized by chemical reduction method in aqueous solution. The Ge nanoparticles were directly coated on the surface of the polypyrrole. The morphology and structural properties of samples were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to determine the polypyrrole content. The electrochemical properties of the samples have been investigated and their suitability as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery was examined. The discharge capacity of the Ge nanoparticles calculated in the Ge-polypyrrole composite is 1014 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at 0.2 C rate, which is much higher than that of pristine germanium (439 mAh g(-1)). The composite also demonstrates high specific discharge capacities at different current rates (1318, 1032, 661, and 460 mAh g(-1) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 C, respectively). The superior electrochemical performance of Ge-polypyrrole composite could be attributed to the polypyrrole core, which provides an efficient transport pathway for electrons. SEM images of the electrodes have demonstrated that polypyrrole can also act as a conductive binder and alleviate the pulverization of electrode caused by the huge volume changes of the nanosized germanium particles during Li(+) intercalation/de-intercalation.

  1. TiO2/graphene sandwich paper as an anisotropic electrode for high rate lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhou, Guangmin; Fang, Ruopian; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-09-07

    We designed an anisotropic electrode, in which Li(+) ion insertion and diffusion are anisotropic, by controlled growth of TiO2 nanosheets parallel to the surface of graphene paper. The anisotropic electrode gives a gravimetric capacity of 112 mA h g(-1) at an ultra-high rate of 100 C (corresponding to 36 s of charge-discharge), 3 times higher than that of a referenced isotropic electrode. The results indicate that such an anisotropic electrode can be useful in the search for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  2. Hollow nanospheres composed of titanium dioxide nanocrystals modified with carbon and gold for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Cao, Xueqin; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Kaiming; Qu, Genlong; Tang, Minghua; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Yonggang; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    Herein, we reported a facile route to fabricate carbon and Au treated TiO2 mesoporous hollow spheres (MHTiO2@C-Au) as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The high porosity of the hollow spheres, together with the inner carbon supporting and superficial Au coating, enhanced the cycling stability and rate performance of the MHTiO2@C-Au electrode significantly. The MHTiO2@C-Au composite exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 186.6 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 1.0C, superior rate performances of around 151.0 mA h g-1 at the current rate of 5.0C. The outstanding electrochemical property is attributed to the overall structural features of the MHTiO2@C-Au, which can not only shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and electrons, but also improve the stability of the hollow structures during the lithium ion insertion and extraction process.

  3. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  4. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  5. High Rate, Long Lifespan LiV3 O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxue; Xu, Fei; Cao, Shunan; Li, Zhengfeng; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang

    2017-03-06

    LiV3 O8 nanorods with controlled size are successfully synthesized using a nonionic triblock surfactant Pluronic-F127 as the structure directing agent. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to characterize the samples. It is observed that the nanorods with a length of 4-8 µm and diameter of 0.5-1.0 µm distribute uniformly. The resultant LiV3 O8 nanorods show much better performance as cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries than normal LiV3 O8 nanoparticles, which is associated with the their unique micro-nano-like structure that can not only facilitate fast lithium ion transport, but also withstand erosion from electrolytes. The high discharge capacity (292.0 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) ), high rate capability (138.4 mAh g(-1) at 6.4 A g(-1) ), and long lifespan (capacity retention of 80.5% after 500 cycles) suggest the potential use of LiV3 O8 nanorods as alternative cathode materials for high-power and long-life lithium ion batteries. In particular, the synthetic strategy may open new routes toward the facile fabrication of nanostructured vanadium-based compounds for energy storage applications.

  6. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  7. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li–Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; ...

    2015-02-19

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (~250 mAh/g) lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. In spite of the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a ‘permanent’ spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalationmore » (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of ‘unfilled’ lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. Finally, these situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.« less

  8. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li–Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-19

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (~250 mAh/g) lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. In spite of the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a ‘permanent’ spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalation (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of ‘unfilled’ lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. Finally, these situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.

  9. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-01-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m−1·K−1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m−3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m−1·K−1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 100 mA·g−1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes. PMID:27671848

  10. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  11. Built-in electric field-assisted surface-amorphized nanocrystals for high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Murowchick, James; Liu, Gao; Chen, Xiaobo

    2013-11-13

    High-power batteries require fast charge/discharge rates and high capacity besides safe operation. TiO2 has been investigated as a safer alternative candidate to the current graphite or incoming silicon anodes due to higher redox potentials in effectively preventing lithium deposition. However, its charge/discharge rates are reluctant to improve due to poor ion diffusion coefficients, and its capacity fades quickly with rate as only thinner surface layers can be effectively used in faster charge/discharge processes. Here, we demonstrate that surface-amorphized TiO2 nanocrystals greatly improve lithium-ion rechargeable battery performance: 20 times rate and 340% capacity improvement over crystalline TiO2 nanocrystals. This improvement is benefited from the built-in electric field within the nanocrystals that induces much lower lithium-ion diffusion resistance and facilitates its transport in both insertion and extraction processes. This concept thus offers an innovative and general approach toward designing battery materials with better performance.

  12. Synthesis of one-dimensional copper sulfide nanorods as high-performance anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; He, Xinyi; Shi, Chunmei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yiyong; Wu, Shunqing; Zhu, Zizong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    Nanorod-like CuS and Cu2 S have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach without using any surfactant and template. The electrochemical behavior of CuS and Cu2 S nanorod anodes for lithium-ion batteries reveal that they exhibit stable lithium-ion insertion/extraction reversibility and outstanding rate capability. Both of the electrodes exhibit excellent capacity retentions irrespective of the rate used, even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1) . More than 370 mAh g(-1) can be retained for the CuS electrode and 260 mAh g(-1) for the Cu2 S electrode at the high current rate. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) , the obtained CuS and Cu2 S electrodes show discharge capacities of 472 and 313 mAh g(-1) with retentions of 92% and 96%, respectively. Together with the simplicity of fabrication and good electrochemical properties, CuS and Cu2 S nanorods are promising anode materials for practical use the next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Origami lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K.; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  14. Silicon based nano-architectures for high power lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rahul

    Lithium-ion batteries have now become an inseparable part of modern day society as the power source for several portable electronics like cell phones, digital cameras and laptops. Their high energy density compared with other electrochemical battery systems has been their most attractive feature. This has lead to a great interest in developing lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and all-electric vehicles. Eventually such vehicles will help drastically reduce the carbon footprint making the environment cleaner and healthier. In spite of their high energy density, Li-ion batteries are known to have poor power densities. This forms a major limitation in their deployment as a power source on vehicles. Electric vehicles need power sources that can provide both high energy and power densities. This requires the development of anode, cathode and electrolyte materials that would transform the capabilities of existing Li-ion batteries. Among anode materials silicon has received great attention because of its very large theoretical capacity of ˜4200 mAh/g based on the alloy Li22Si5. It should be noted that storage of charge in the anode occurs through the alloying of Li with the host anode material. However, the large specific capacity of silicon also results in a ˜400% volume expansion which could lead to pulverization and delamination reducing the cycle life of the electrode. These failure processes are exacerbated at high rates making it extremely difficult to use silicon for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. The major research thrust supporting this Ph.D. thesis involved exploring silicon based nano-architectures that would provide high energy and power densities over a long cycle life. The key technique used to design different nano-architectures was DC Magnetron sputtering with oblique angle deposition. The main development of this research was a functionally strain graded Carbon-Aluminum-Silicon nanoscoop architecture for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. This

  15. Development of High Conductivity Lithium-Ion Electrolytes for Low Temperature Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has continued interest in developing power sources which are capable of operating at low temperatures (-20 C and below) to enable future missions, such as the Mars Rover and Lander. Thus, under a program sponsored by the Mars Exploration Program, we have been involved in developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance. To accomplish this task, the focus of the research has been upon the development of advanced electrolyte systems with improved low temperature properties. This had led to the identification of a carbonate-based electrolyte, consisting of 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC + DEC + DMC (33:33:34), which has been shown to have excellent performance at -20 C in Li-ion AA-size prototype cells. Other groups are also actively engaged in developing electrolytes which can result in improved low temperature performance of Li-ion cells, including Polystor, Yardney, and Covalent. In addition to developing cells capable of operation at -20 C, there is continued interest in systems which can successfully operate at even lower temperatures (less than -30 C) and at high discharge rates (greater than C/2). Thus, we are currently focusing upon developing advanced electrolytes which are highly conductive at low temperatures and will result in cells capable of operation at -40 C. One approach to improve the low temperature conductivity of ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes involves adding co-solvents which will decrease the viscosity and extend the liquid range. Candidate solvent additives include formates, acetates, cyclic and aliphatic ethers, lactones, as well as other carbonates. Using this approach, we have prepared a number of electrolytes which contain methyl formate (MF), methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl proprionate (EP), and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), some of which have been characterized and reported. Other groups have also reported electrolytes based on mixtures of carbonates and acetates. In the present study, electrolytes which

  16. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  17. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-02

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (<80%). The physical origins of such hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  19. Structural optimization of 3D porous electrodes for high-rate performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianchao; Baumgaertel, Andreas C; Wang, Y Morris; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M

    2015-02-24

    Much progress has recently been made in the development of active materials, electrode morphologies and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Well-defined studies on size effects of the three-dimensional (3D) electrode architecture, however, remain to be rare due to the lack of suitable material platforms where the critical length scales (such as pore size and thickness of the active material) can be freely and deterministically adjusted over a wide range without affecting the overall 3D morphology of the electrode. Here, we report on a systematic study on length scale effects on the electrochemical performance of model 3D np-Au/TiO2 core/shell electrodes. Bulk nanoporous gold provides deterministic control over the pore size and is used as a monolithic metallic scaffold and current collector. Extremely uniform and conformal TiO2 films of controlled thickness were deposited on the current collector by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our experiments demonstrate profound performance improvements by matching the Li(+) diffusivity in the electrolyte and the solid state through adjusting pore size and thickness of the active coating which, for 200 μm thick porous electrodes, requires the presence of 100 nm pores. Decreasing the thickness of the TiO2 coating generally improves the power performance of the electrode by reducing the Li(+) diffusion pathway, enhancing the Li(+) solid solubility, and minimizing the voltage drop across the electrode/electrolyte interface. With the use of the optimized electrode morphology, supercapacitor-like power performance with lithium-ion-battery energy densities was realized. Our results provide the much-needed fundamental insight for the rational design of the 3D architecture of lithium ion battery electrodes with improved power performance.

  20. Elastic and wearable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery with high electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Chen, Xuli; Zhang, Zhitao; Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-21

    A stretchable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery is produced from two aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube/lithium oxide composite yarns as the anode and cathode without extra current collectors and binders. The two composite yarns can be well paired to obtain a safe battery with superior electrochemical properties, such as energy densities of 27 Wh kg(-1) or 17.7 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 880 W kg(-1) or 0.56 W cm(-3), which are an order of magnitude higher than the densities reported for lithium thin-film batteries. These wire-shaped batteries are flexible and light, and 97 % of their capacity was maintained after 1000 bending cycles. They are also very elastic as they are based on a modified spring structure, and 84 % of the capacity was maintained after stretching for 200 cycles at a strain of 100 %. Furthermore, these novel wire-shaped batteries have been woven into lightweight, flexible, and stretchable battery textiles, which reveals possible large-scale applications.

  1. Electrospun carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) nanofiber for high rate lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Yang, Mingshan; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun; Xie, Long; Lv, Shaoyi; Zhang, Yunhua

    2013-07-01

    Cellulose derivative CMCAB was synthesized, and nanometer fiber composite material was obtained from lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP)/CMCAB by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified LFP/carbon nanofibers (CNF) nanometer material was obtained by carbonization in 600°C. IR, TG-DSC, SEM and EDS were performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. LFP/CNF composite materials were assembled into lithium-ion battery and tested their performance. Specific capacity was increased from 147.6 mAh g(-1) before modification to 160.8 mAh g(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. After 200 charge-discharge cycles, when discharge rate was increased from 2C to 5C to 10C, modified battery capacity was reduced from 152.4 mAh g(-1) to 127.9 mAh g(-1) to 106 mAh g(-1). When the ratio was reduced from 10C to 5C to 2C, battery capacity can be quickly approximate to the original level. Cellulose materials that were applied to lithium battery can improve battery performance by electrospinning.

  2. Vanadium Nitride Nanowire Supported SnS2 Nanosheets with High Reversible Capacity as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Qiu, Weitao; Jian, Junhua; Huang, Yongchao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Hao; Liang, Chaolun; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang

    2015-10-21

    The vulnerable restacking problem of tin disulfide (SnS2) usually leads to poor initial reversible capacity and poor cyclic stability, which hinders its practical application as lithium ion battery anode (LIB). In this work, we demonstrated an effective strategy to improve the first reversible capacity and lithium storage properties of SnS2 by growing SnS2 nanosheets on porous flexible vanadium nitride (VN) substrates. When evaluating lithium-storage properties, the three-dimensional (3D) porous VN coated SnS2 nanosheets (denoted as CC-VN@SnS2) yield a high reversible capacity of 75% with high specific capacity of about 819 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.65 A g(-1). Remarkable cyclic stability capacity of 791 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles with excellent capacity retention of 97% was also achieved. Furthermore, discharge capacity as high as 349 mAh g(-1) is still retained after 70 cycles even at a elevated current density of 13 A g(-1). The excellent performance was due to the conductive flexible VN substrate support, which provides short Li-ion and electron pathways, accommodates large volume variation, contributes to the capacity, and provides mechanical stability, which allows the electrode to maintain its structural stability.

  3. High-density sodium and lithium ion battery anodes from banana peels.

    PubMed

    Lotfabad, Elmira Memarzadeh; Ding, Jia; Cui, Kai; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Kalisvaart, W Peter; Hazelton, Michael; Mitlin, David

    2014-07-22

    Banana peel pseudographite (BPPG) offers superb dual functionality for sodium ion battery (NIB) and lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. The materials possess low surface areas (19-217 m(2) g(-1)) and a relatively high electrode packing density (0.75 g cm(-3) vs ∼1 g cm(-3) for graphite). Tested against Na, BPPG delivers a gravimetric (and volumetric) capacity of 355 mAh g(-1) (by active material ∼700 mAh cm(-3), by electrode volume ∼270 mAh cm(-3)) after 10 cycles at 50 mA g(-1). A nearly flat ∼200 mAh g(-1) plateau that is below 0.1 V and a minimal charge/discharge voltage hysteresis make BPPG a direct electrochemical analogue to graphite but with Na. A charge capacity of 221 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) is degraded by 7% after 600 cycles, while a capacity of 336 mAh g(-1) at 100 mAg(-1) is degraded by 11% after 300 cycles, in both cases with ∼100% cycling Coulombic efficiency. For LIB applications BPPG offers a gravimetric (volumetric) capacity of 1090 mAh g(-1) (by material ∼2200 mAh cm(-3), by electrode ∼900 mAh cm(-3)) at 50 mA g(-1). The reason that BPPG works so well for both NIBs and LIBs is that it uniquely contains three essential features: (a) dilated intergraphene spacing for Na intercalation at low voltages; (b) highly accessible near-surface nanopores for Li metal filling at low voltages; and (c) substantial defect content in the graphene planes for Li adsorption at higher voltages. The <0.1 V charge storage mechanism is fundamentally different for Na versus for Li. A combination of XRD and XPS demonstrates highly reversible Na intercalation rather than metal underpotential deposition. By contrast, the same analysis proves the presence of metallic Li in the pores, with intercalation being much less pronounced.

  4. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning.

  5. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  6. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  7. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  8. Electrochemical stiffness in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Jones, Elizabeth M. C.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Although lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in portable electronics, increased charge rate and discharge power are required for more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The high-rate exchange of lithium ions required for more power and faster charging generates significant stresses and strains in the electrodes that ultimately lead to performance degradation. To date, electrochemically induced stresses and strains in battery electrodes have been studied only individually. Here, a new technique is developed to probe the chemomechanical response of electrodes by calculating the electrochemical stiffness via coordinated in situ stress and strain measurements. We show that dramatic changes in electrochemical stiffness occur due to the formation of different graphite-lithium intercalation compounds during cycling. Our analysis reveals that stress scales proportionally with the lithiation/delithiation rate and strain scales proportionally with capacity (and inversely with rate). Electrochemical stiffness measurements provide new insights into the origin of rate-dependent chemomechanical degradation and the evaluation of advanced battery electrodes.

  9. High Cycle Life Cathode for High Voltage (5V) Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-16

    lithium cobalt phosphate (LiCoPO4) that provides higher energy density (15% > LiFePO4 demonstrated, up to 40% greater with further R&D). •The invention...standard LiFePO4 • Higher voltage at cell level may reduce number of cells required for application • Easy and inexpensive method to prepare • Offers safety

  10. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  11. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  12. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-05-28

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g(-1) and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg(-1) for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g(-1) for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g(-1). In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides.

  13. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  14. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-05

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  15. Multi-wall carbon nanotube-embedded lithium cobalt phosphate composites with reduced resistance for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Rustomji, Cyrus S.; Cho, Hyung-Man; Chun, Dongwon; Jung, Jae-Young; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Jun Hyun; Jin, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    Lithium cobalt phosphate (LCP) is a high-voltage cathode material used in highenergy- density lithium-ion batteries. With a novel composite synthesis method, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-embedded LCP nanocomposites (LCPCNT composites) are synthesized to enhance the electrical conductance of LCP particles, reducing charge-transfer resistance. The LCP-CNT composites with enhanced electrical conductance approximately doubled cell capacity compared to a cell with a bare LCP cathode. The crystal structure of LCP-CNT composite particles is characterized by X-ray diffraction; the microstructures of the embedded MWCNTs inside LCP particles are confirmed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam procedures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the charge-transfer resistance of the cell with the LCP-CNT composite (1.0 wt. % CNT) cathode decreases to ~80 Ω, much smaller than the ~150 Ω charge-transfer resistance of the bare-LCP cathode cell. Based on battery test and impedance analysis, the main factors affecting the capacity increment are the reduced charge transfer resistance and the uniform distribution of MWCNTs, which is formed during the gelation step of the LCP synthesis procedure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  17. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  18. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  19. Atomic/Molecular Layer Deposition of Lithium Terephthalate Thin Films as High Rate Capability Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Nisula, Mikko; Karppinen, Maarit

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality electrochemically active organic lithium electrode thin films by the currently strongly emerging combined atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique using lithium terephthalate, a recently found anode material for lithium-ion battery (LIB), as a proof-of-the-concept material. Our deposition process for Li-terephthalate is shown to well comply with the basic principles of ALD-type growth including the sequential self-saturated surface reactions, a necessity when aiming at micro-LIB devices with three-dimensional architectures. The as-deposited films are found crystalline across the deposition temperature range of 200-280 °C, which is a trait highly desired for an electrode material but rather unusual for hybrid inorganic-organic thin films. Excellent rate capability is ascertained for the Li-terephthalate films with no conductive additives required. The electrode performance can be further enhanced by depositing a thin protective LiPON solid-state electrolyte layer on top of Li-terephthalate; this yields highly stable structures with capacity retention of over 97% after 200 charge/discharge cycles at 3.2 C.

  20. A new oxyfluorinated titanium phosphate anode for a high-energy lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaohui; Sun, Chunwen; Lyu, Yingchun; Wang, Yuesheng; Kim, Youngsik; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-21

    Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. It has an open framework structure consisting of TiFO5 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. The feasibility of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries was first studied. Na3[Ti2P2O10F] exhibits a reversible capacity of more than 200 mAh g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 20 mA g(-1) (∼0.1 C) and 105 mA g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 400 mA g(-1) (∼2 C) with a lower intercalation voltage. The result of in situ X-ray diffraction test shows the structural evolution during the first discharge/charge cycle. The structure of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was kept during discharge/charge with a slight change of the lattice parameters, which indicates a lithium solid solution behavior.

  1. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  2. 2 D manganese vanadate nanoflakes as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dingrong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Gen; Wang, Xueyun; Gan, Li-Hua; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chun-Ru

    2014-05-01

    Nanometer-sized flakes of MnV2O6 were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. No surfactant, expensive metal salt, or alkali reagent was used. These MnV2O6 nanoflakes present a high discharge capacity of 768 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), good rate capacity, and excellent cycling stability. Further investigation demonstrates that the nanoflake structure and the specific crystal structure make the prepared MnV2O6 a suitable material for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. A High Voltage Olivine Cathode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Brescia, Rosaria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-01-01

    A new olivine composition (i.e., LiFe0.25 Mn0.5 Co0.25 PO4) is proposed as electrode material with increased energy density for application in lithium-ion batteries. The new formulation increases the working voltage and induces different electrochemical behavior with respect to bare olivine materials based on Fe. The study provides deep insight into the features of the Fe(3+) /Fe(2+), Mn(3+)/Mn(2+), and Co(3+)/Co(2+) redox couples within the olivine lattice in terms of electrochemical activity, Li(+) transport properties, and Li-cell behavior. The electrochemical characterization clearly reveals the voltage signatures corresponding to the various metals; however, the Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) process has higher intrinsic polarization with respect to Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Co(3+)/Co(2+). This issue is efficiently mitigated by carbon coating the material, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performances.

  4. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  5. Dodecahedron-Shaped Porous Vanadium Oxide and Carbon Composite for High-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Wei, Weifeng; Su, Yanhui; Hu, Jimei; Cao, Guozhong; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-13

    Carbon-based nanocomposites have been extensively studied in energy storage and conversion systems because of their superior electrochemical performance. However, the majority of metal oxides are grown on the surface of carbonaceous material. Herein, we report a different strategy of constructing V2O5 within the metal organic framework derived carbonaceous dodecahedrons. Vanadium precursor is absorbed into the porous dodecahedron-shaped carbon framework first and then in situ converted into V2O5 within the carbonaceous framework in the annealing process in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5@C composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance, due to the synergistic effect of V2O5 and carbon composite.

  6. Molybdenum disulfide grafted titania nanotube arrays as high capacity retention anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Tauseef; Wang, Li; Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Nosheen, Farhat; Shehzad, Khurram; Hussain, Naveed; Tongxiang, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Titania nanotube arrays (TNAs) were grown by anodic oxidation method, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grafted TNAs have been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal process. The MoS2 grafted TNAs (MoS2/TNAs) when employed as an anode material in lithium ion battery, exhibited excellent areal specific capacity ( 430 µAh cm-2) at current density of 50 µA cm-2, which is 33% higher as compared to the pure anatase TNAs and 55% higher as compared to MoS2. Moreover, the capacity loss per cycle of MoS2/TNAs ( 0.21%) was significantly lower than anatase TNAs ( 1.47%), suggesting an increase of capacity retention.

  7. Conductive Polymer Binder for High-Tap-Density Nanosilicon Material for Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrode Application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Yang; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhu, Chenhui; Zheng, Ziyan; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Bai, Ying; Fu, Yanbao; Lei, Jinglei; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S; Yang, Wanli; Messersmith, Phillip B; Liu, Gao

    2015-12-09

    High-tap-density silicon nanomaterials are highly desirable as anodes for lithium ion batteries, due to their small surface area and minimum first-cycle loss. However, this material poses formidable challenges to polymeric binder design. Binders adhere on to the small surface area to sustain the drastic volume changes during cycling; also the low porosities and small pore size resulting from this material are detrimental to lithium ion transport. This study introduces a new binder, poly(1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PPyMAA), for a high-tap-density nanosilicon electrode cycled in a stable manner with a first cycle efficiency of 82%-a value that is further improved to 87% when combined with graphite material. Incorporating the MAA acid functionalities does not change the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) features or lower the adhesion performance of the PPy homopolymer. Our single-molecule force microscopy measurement of PPyMAA reveals similar adhesion strength between polymer binder and anode surface when compared with conventional polymer such as homopolyacrylic acid (PAA), while being electronically conductive. The combined conductivity and adhesion afforded by the MAA and pyrene copolymer results in good cycling performance for the high-tap-density Si electrode.

  8. Sandwich-Structured Graphene-Fe3O4@Carbon Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Gao, Miaomiao; Yue, Wenbo; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Ren, Yu; Hu, Fengqin

    2015-05-13

    Advanced anode materials for high power and high energy lithium-ion batteries have attracted great interest due to the increasing demand for energy conversion and storage devices. Metal oxides (e.g., Fe3O4) usually possess high theoretical capacities, but poor electrochemical performances owing to their severe volume change and poor electronic conductivity during cycles. In this work, we develop a self-assembly approach for the synthesis of sandwich-structured graphene-Fe3O4@carbon composite, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles with carbon layers are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets. Compared to Fe3O4@carbon and bulk Fe3O4, graphene-Fe3O4@carbon composite shows superior electrochemical performance, including higher reversible capacity, better cycle and rate performances, which may be attributed to the sandwich structure of the composite, the nanosized Fe3O4, and the carbon layers on the surface of Fe3O4. Moreover, compared to the reported graphene-Fe3O4 composite, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and the content of Fe3O4 in this composite can be arbitrarily adjusted for optimal performance. This novel synthesis strategy may be employed in other sandwich-structured nanocomposites design for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices.

  9. Development of high-energy silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ran

    The emerging markets of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) generate a tremendous demand for low-cost lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy and power densities, and long cycling life. The development of such LIBs requires development of low cost, high-energy-density cathode and anode materials. Conventional anode materials in commercial LIBs are primarily synthetic graphite-based materials with a capacity of ˜370 mAh/g. Improvements in anode performance, particularly in anode capacity, are essential to achieving high energy densities in LIBs for EV and HEV applications. This dissertation focuses on development of micro-sized silicon-carbon (Si-C) composites as anode materials for high energy and power densities LIBs. First, a new, low-cost, large-scale approach was developed to prepare a micro-sized Si-C composite with excellent performance as an anode material for LIBs. The composite shows a reversible capacity of 1459 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 1 A/g (97.8% capacity retention) and excellent high rate performance of 700 mAh/g at 12.8 A/g, and also has a high tap density of 0.78 g/cm3. The structure of the composite, micro-sized as a whole, features the interconnected nanoscale size of the Si building blocks and the uniform carbon filling, which enables the maximum utilization of silicon even when the micro-sized particles break into small pieces upon cycling. To understand the effects of key parameters in designing the micro-sized Si-C composites on their electrochemical performance and explore how to optimize them, the influence of Si nanoscale building block size and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si-C composites were investigated. It has been found that the critical Si building block size is 15 nm, which enables a high capacity without compromising the cycling stability, and that carbon coating at higher temperature improves the 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) and the rate capability

  10. Lithium-cyclo-difluoromethane-1,1-bis(sulfonyl)imide as a stabilizing electrolyte additive for improved high voltage applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Murmann, Patrick; Streipert, Benjamin; Kloepsch, Richard; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Sartori, Peter; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2015-04-14

    Lithium-cyclo-difluoromethane-1,1-bis(sulfonyl)imide (LiDMSI) was evaluated as an electrolyte additive in lithium-ion batteries for improved high voltage applications. Cycling the cathode at high potentials leads to the electrochemical oxidation of the salt to form a cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) layer on the cathode surface. With the addition of 2 wt% of LiDMSI to the 1 M LiPF6 in 1 : 1 (by wt) EC : DEC electrolyte, the capacity retention and the Coulombic efficiency in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/Li-half-cells as well as in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite-full-cells were improved. The cycling results point out the less over-potential and resistance at the cathode/electrolyte interface. These improvements are studied by SEM, EIS and XPS techniques.

  11. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  12. Three-dimensional Ni/TiO2 nanowire network for high areal capacity lithium ion microbattery applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Miao; Abdulagatov, Aziz; George, Steven M; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2012-02-08

    The areal capacity of nanowire-based microbatteries can be potentially increased by increasing the length of nanowires. However, agglomeration of high aspect ratio nanowire arrays could greatly degrade the performance of nanowires for lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. In this work, a three-dimensional (3-D) Ni/TiO(2) nanowire network was successfully fabricated using a 3-D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template-assisted electrodeposition of Ni followed by TiO(2) coating using atomic layer deposition. Compared to the straight Ni/TiO(2) nanowire arrays fabricated using conventional PAA templates, the 3-D Ni/TiO(2) nanowire network shows higher areal discharging capacity. The areal capacity increases proportionally with the length of nanowires. With a stable Ni/TiO(2) nanowire network structure, 100% capacity is retained after 600 cycles. This work paves the way to build reliable 3-D nanostructured electrodes for high areal capacity microbatteries.

  13. Three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weimin; Maloney, Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-10-01

    SnO2 is an attractive anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1491 mAh g-1), low cost, and environmental benignity. The main challenges for SnO2 anodes are their low intrinsic conductivity and poor cycling stability associated with their large volume changes during the charge and discharge process. Here, we present a simple chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam electrodes for LIBs. Such a three-dimensional electrode combines multiple advantages, including a continuous electrically conductive network, short pathways for electron transport and ion diffusion, and porous space to allow for the volume expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles. With this anode, superior electrochemical performance is achieved with a high reversible specific capacity of 1171 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. A stable cycling performance as well as an excellent rate capability is also achieved. These outstanding lithium-storage properties suggest the strategy is a reliable approach for fabricating high-performance LIB electrodes.

  14. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  15. Development and analysis of a lithium carbon monofluoride battery-lithium ion capacitor hybrid system for high pulse-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patricia H.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Waterman, Kyle G.; Myron, L. Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Although Li/CFx and Li/CFxMnO2 have two of the highest energy densities of all commercial lithium primary batteries known to date, they are typically current-limited and therefore are not used in high-power applications. In this work, a Li/CFxMnO2 battery (BA-5790) was hybridized with a 1000 F lithium ion capacitor to allow its use for portable electronic devices requiring 100 W 1-min pulses. An intelligent, power-management board was developed for managing the energy flow between the components. The hybrid architecture was shown to maintain the battery current to a level that minimized energy loss and thermal stress. The performance of the Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was compared to the standard Li/SO2 battery (BA-5590). The hybrid was shown to deliver the same number of 100 W pulse cycles as two BA-5590 batteries, resulting in a weight savings of 30% and a volumetric reduction of 20%. For devices requiring 8 h of operational time or less, a 5-cell Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was found to be a lighter (55%) and smaller (45%) power source than the existing two BA-5590 battery option, and a lighter (42%) and smaller (27%) option than 1½ BA-5790 batteries alone. At higher power requirements (>100 W), further weight and size improvements can be expected.

  16. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  17. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  18. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; ...

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  19. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Malliakas, Christos D; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z; Shkrob, Ilya A; Abraham, Daniel P

    2016-04-28

    Fluorinated carbonates are pursued as liquid electrolyte solvents for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. Here we report aggregation of [Li(+)(FEC)3]n polymer species in fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinize the causes for this behavior.

  20. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and potential applicability of rhombohedral siderite as a high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Yu, Yue; Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxi; Zhao, Chenhao; Liu, Rui; Shen, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Natural siderite is a valuable iron mineral composed of ferrous carbonate (FeCO3), which is commonly found in hydrothermal veins and contains no sulfur or phosphorus. In this paper, micro-sized FeCO3 crystallites are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route, and almost all of them possess a rhombohedral shape similar to that of natural products. When applied as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the synthetic siderite can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of ∼1587 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of 68% at 200 mA g-1, remaining a reversible value of 1018 mAh g-1 over 120 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, after 120 cycles the residual specific capacity (812 mAh g-1) is still higher than the theoretical capacity of FeCO3 (463 mAh g-1). Moreover, a novel reversible conversion mechanism accounts for the excellent electrochemical performances of rhombohedral FeCO3 to a great extent, implying the potential applicability of synthetic siderite as lithium ion battery anodes.

  2. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  3. Compatiblitity of hydrophobic ionic liquids with high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes-Mason, Ezekial Robert

    Lithium batteries are widely seen as the best choice for the future of energy storage but significant improvements are still required. One important area for improvement is searching for new cathode materials that incorporate lithium at higher capacities and voltages. This increases the energy and power available from an individual electrochemical cell, which reduces the number of cells required thereby reducing the size of a battery pack. While several high voltage cathode materials have been discovered, research has been hindered due to safety concerns with current standard electrolytes at high voltages. Ionic liquids are a new class of materials that exhibit excellent electrochemical and thermal stability as well as high ionic conductivity. These qualities make them excellent candidates to replace current battery electrolytes but difficulties in purification and the sheer number of possible chemistries have inhibited their study. In this study four hydrophobic ionic liquids based on pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations paired with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions were synthesized using bench top methods. These ionic liquids were successfully incorporated into working half-cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2, a high capacity layered cathode and LiNi0.5Mn 1.5O4, a high voltage spinel type cathode. By comparing the behavior of the ionic liquids a clear relationship between cation size and rate capability was shown. The improved performance and safety at elevated temperatures was also demonstrated showing that ionic liquids are excellent candidates for use as battery electrolytes.

  4. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; ...

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  6. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  7. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-05-01

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g-1 for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g-1. In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides.In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100

  8. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  9. Two-step carbon coating of lithium vanadium phosphate as high-rate cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2012-10-01

    Carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 was firstly prepared at 850 °C via two-step reaction method combined sol-gel and conventional solid-state synthesis by using VPO4/carbon as an intermediate. Two different carbon sources, citric acid and glucose as carbon additives in sequence, ultimately deduced double carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 as a high-rate cathode material. The Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon with 4.39% residual carbon has a splendid electronic conductivity of 4.76×10-2 S cm-1. Even in the voltage window of 2.5-4.8 V, the Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon cathode can retain outstanding rate ability (170.4 mAh g-1 at 1.2 C, 101.9 mAh g-1 at 17 C), and no degradation is found after 120 C current rate. These phenomena show that the two-step carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 can act as a fast charge-discharge cathode material for high-power Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, it's believed that this synthesize method can be easily transplanted to prepare other lithiated vanadium-based phosphates.

  10. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  11. High-performance lithium-ion battery and symmetric supercapacitors based on FeCo₂O₄ nanoflakes electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saad Gomaa; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chih Kai; Hu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2014-12-24

    A successive preparation of FeCo2O4 nanoflakes arrays on nickel foam substrates is achieved by a simple hydrothermal synthesis method. After 170 cycles, a high capacity of 905 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density and very good rate capabilities are obtained for lithium-ion battery because of the 2D porous structures of the nanoflakes arrays. The distinctive structural features provide the battery with excellent electrochemical performance. The symmetric supercapacitor on nonaqueous electrolyte demonstrates high specific capacitance of 433 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and 16.7 F g(-1) at high scan rate of 5 V s(-1) and excellent cyclic performance of 2500 cycles of charge-discharge cycling at 2 A g(-1) current density, revealing excellent long-term cyclability of the electrode even under rapid charge-discharge conditions.

  12. Template-free synthesis of highly porous V2O5 cuboids with enhanced performance for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Guozhao; Liang, Caiwu; Zhou, Jiang; Tan, Xiaoping; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-01

    Highly porous hierarchical V2O5 cuboids have been synthesized by a template-free PVP-assisted polyxol method and the formation mechanism is studied. The cuboids are assembled from numerous mesoporous nanoplates and the preferred orientation of each single nanoplate exposes the <110> facets, facilitating lithium-ion diffusion by offering a prior channel. This material exhibits a high capacity of 143 mA h g-1, high rate capacity of 10 C and long life cycling performance up to 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance of V2O5 cuboid electrodes is due to its unique porous cuboid morphology and optimized structural stability upon cycling. This research provides an effective route to the construction of complex porous architectures assembled from nanocrystals through a surfactant-assisted synthesis method.

  13. CoO/NiSi(x) core-shell nanowire arrays as lithium-ion anodes with high rate capabilities.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Xing; Yang, Yang; Yang, Deren

    2012-02-07

    This paper describes a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and subsequent radio-frequency (RF)-sputtering approach for the synthesis of CoO/NiSi(x) core-shell nanowire (NW) arrays on Ni foams. The metallic core (i.e., NiSi(x)) with high conductivity acts as a nanostructured current collector. The as-synthesized CoO/NiSi(x) core-shell NW arrays have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which deliver high cycle life and enhanced power performance compared to planar CoO electrodes on Ni foams. The high surface-to-volume ratio and improved electronic/ionic conductivity of the nanostructured electrodes may be responsible for the improved performance.

  14. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe3O4/VOx hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li(+). With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g(-1) could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. On-chip high-power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10000 cycles (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium ion battery anode with over 50x power density and 100x energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip porous silicon supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA/cm2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, but not underlying bulk silicon material. This prevents the degradation and poor cycling performance that is commonly observed from deep storage in bulk silicon materials. As a result, this device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10,000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mAh/cm2, without notable capacity fade. This work demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration of energy storage into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based technology.

  16. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles.

  17. Sn⁴⁺ Ion Decorated Highly Conductive Ti3C2 MXene: Promising Lithium-Ion Anodes with Enhanced Volumetric Capacity and Cyclic Performance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianmin; Tao, Xinyong; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Yang; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Liyuan; Gan, Yongping; Liang, Chu; Zhang, Wenkui

    2016-02-23

    Two-dimensional transition metal carbide materials called MXenes show potential application for energy storage due to their remarkable electrical conductivity and low Li(+) diffusion barrier. However, the lower capacity of MXene anodes limits their further application in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, with inspiration from the unique metal ion uptake behavior of highly conductive Ti3C2 MXene, we overcome this impediment by fabricating Sn(4+) ion decorated Ti3C2 nanocomposites (PVP-Sn(IV)@Ti3C2) via a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted liquid-phase immersion process. An amorphous Sn(IV) nanocomplex, about 6-7 nm in lateral size, has been homogeneously anchored on the surface of alk-Ti3C2 matrix by ion-exchange and electrostatic interactions. In addition, XRD and TEM results demonstrate the successful insertion of Sn(4+) into the interlamination of an alkalization-intercalated Ti3C2 (alk-Ti3C2) matrix. Due to the possible "pillar effect" of Sn between layers of alk-Ti3C2 and the synergistic effect between the alk-Ti3C2 matrix and Sn, the nanocomposites exhibit a superior reversible volumetric capacity of 1375 mAh cm(-3) (635 mAh g(-1)) at 216.5 mA cm(-3) (100 mA g(-1)), which is significantly higher than that of a graphite electrode (550 mAh cm(-3)), and show excellent cycling stability after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 6495 mA cm(-3) (3 A g(-1)), these nanocomposites retain a stable specific capacity of 504.5 mAh cm(-3) (233 mAh g(-1)). These results demonstrate that PVP-Sn(IV)@Ti3C2 nanocomposites offer fascinating potential for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  18. MnO nanoparticles interdispersed in 3D porous carbon framework for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengbin; Xing, Yalan; Xu, Huaizhe; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-08-13

    Interdispersed MnO nanoparticles that are anchored and encapsulated in a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon framework (MnO@CF) have been constructed, which display nanosphere architecture with rich porosity, well-defined carbon framework configuration, and excellent structure stability. When evaluated as an anode material, the MnO@CF exhibits relatively high specific capacity of 939 mA h g(-1) at current rate of 0.2 A g(-1) over 200 cycles and excellent rate capability of 560.2 mA h g(-1) at 4 A g(-1). By virtue of its mechanical stability and desirable ionic/electronic conductivity, the specific design can be a promising approach to fabricate high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres as high-power cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Ying; Wang, Bei; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Woo-Seong; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-05-01

    Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal reaction combined with high-temperature calcinations. The morphology of the prepared material was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Porous microspheres with diameters around 1-3 microm were obtained, which consisting of primary LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared LiFePO4 microspheres were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. The carbon coated LiFePO4 microspheres showed lower polarization, higher rate capability, and better cycling stability than that of pristine LiFePO4 microspheres, indicating the potential application as the cathode material for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  20. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  1. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  2. A silicon nanowire-reduced graphene oxide composite as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chundong; Wu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Yang; He, Lifang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-03-21

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, silicon has been emerging as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high specific capacity. However, serious pulverization of bulk silicon during cycling limits its cycle life. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Si nanowire (Si NW)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite fabricated using a solvothermal method followed by a chemical vapor deposition process. In the composite, the uniform-sized [111]-oriented Si NWs are well dispersed on the rGO surface and in between rGO sheets. The flexible rGO enables us to maintain the structural integrity and to provide a continuous conductive network of the electrode, which results in over 100 cycles serving as an anode in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 2300 mA h g(-1). Due to its [111] growth direction and the large contact area with rGO, the Si NWs in the composite show substantially enhanced reaction kinetics compared with other Si NWs or Si particles.

  3. A High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Based on the Core-Shell Heterostructure of Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    electrode for polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells www.rsc.org/MaterialsA Registered Charity Number 207890 A university-industrial...ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This study reports a high-performance hybrid lithium-ion anode material based on coaxially coated Si shell...SUBJECT TERMS high-performance Li-ion battery anodes; nanostructured materials; silicon-carbon hybrid structure; vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

  4. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  5. Cross-linked branching nanohybrid polymer electrolyte with monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Mingquan; Xia, Qingbing; Liu, Jiatu; Zhao, Shuai; Chen, Libao; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    Nanohybrid polymer electrolytes (NHPE) with ceramic particles have attracted significant attention owing to their improvement in electrochemical performance. However, particle aggregation and weak nanoparticle/polymer matrix interaction restrict their further application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We demonstrate a facile in-situ polymerization/crystallization method to synthesize a homogeneous TiO2-grafted NHPE with a cross-linked branching structure, comprised of ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and non-polar stearyl methacrylate (SMA). This technique is different from existing methods of blending functionalized ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Highly monodispersed TiO2 nanocrystals enhance the effective interfacial interactions between particles and polymer matrix, which suppress the crystallization of ethylene oxide (EO) groups and facilitate forming continuously interconnected ion-conducting channels. Moreover, an increased dissociation degree of Li salt can also be achieved. The TiO2-grafted NHPE exhibits superior electrochemical properties with an ionic conductivity of 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, a high lithium ion transference number and excellent interfacial compatibility with the lithium electrode. In particular, a lithium-ion battery based on TiO2-grafted NHPE demonstrates good C-rate performance, as well as excellent cycling stability with an initial discharge capacity of 153.5 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 96% after 300 cycles at 1 C (80 °C).

  6. Perfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates: Novel electrolyte additives for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ye; Casselman, Matthew D.; Li, Yan; Wei, Alexander; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of polyfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates is synthesized and tested as additives in lithium-ion cells containing EC:EMC + LiPF6-based electrolyte. The influence of these compounds is investigated in Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2//graphite cells via a combination of galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Among the four additives studied in this work (4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (TFM-EC), 4-(perfluorobutyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFB-EC), 4-(perfluorohexyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFH-EC), and 4-(perfluorooctyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFO-EC)), small amounts (0.5 wt%) of PFO-EC is found to be most effective in lessening cell performance degradation during extended cycling. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy are used to further characterize the effects of PFO-EC on the positive and negative electrodes. LSV data from the electrolyte, and XPS analyses of electrodes harvested after cycling, suggest that PFO-EC is oxidized on the cathode forming surface films that slow electrode/cell impedance rise. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) plots from graphite//Li cells suggest that PFO-EC is involved in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Raman data from anodes after cycling suggest that structural disordering of graphite is reduced by the addition of PFO-EC, which may explain the improved cell capacity retention.

  7. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  8. Amorphous and Crystalline Vanadium Oxides as High-Energy and High-Power Cathodes for Three-Dimensional Thin-Film Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, Felix; Geryl, Kobe; Rampelberg, Geert; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe

    2017-04-07

    Flexible wearable electronics and on-chip energy storage for wireless sensors drive rechargeable batteries toward thin-film lithium ion batteries. To enable more charge storage on a given surface, higher energy density materials are required, while faster energy storage and release can be obtained by going to thinner films. Vanadium oxides have been examined as cathodes in classical and thin-film lithium ion batteries for decades, but amorphous vanadium oxide thin films have been mostly discarded. Here, we investigate the use of atomic layer deposition, which enables electrode deposition on complex three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures, to obtain both amorphous and crystalline VO2 and V2O5, and we evaluate their thin-film cathode performance. Very high volumetric capacities are found, alongside excellent kinetics and good cycling stability. Better kinetics and higher volumetric capacities were observed for the amorphous vanadium oxides compared to their crystalline counterparts. The conformal deposition of these vanadium oxides on silicon micropillar structures is demonstrated. This study shows the promising potential of these atomic layer deposited vanadium oxides as cathodes for 3D all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion batteries.

  9. Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites as anode electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengbin; Ren, Yanbiao; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-04-07

    Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries.

  10. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  11. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  12. A facile approach to make high performance nano-fiber reinforced composite separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    The separator is a porous membrane located between the negative and the positive electrodes. In this work, a nano-fiber reinforced composite separator was developed. Compared with the commercial polyolefin separator, the composite separator showed superior (a) dimensional stability at elevated temperatures relative to conventional separators and (b) wettability by the liquid electrolyte. After being saturated with a commercial LiPF6-ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte, the composite separator enabled a high effective ionic conductivity (σeff) of 1.25 mS/cm. A stable cycle performance and an improved rate capability have been observed in the coin cells with the composite separator. This initial study shows that this type of composite membranes can be a promising alternative separator for lithium ion batteries.

  13. A Biodegradable Polydopamine-Derived Electrode Material for High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Li, Zong-Jun; Wang, Heng-Guo; Bao, Di; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2016-08-26

    Polydopamine (PDA), which is biodegradable and is derived from naturally occurring products, can be employed as an electrode material, wherein controllable partial oxidization plays a key role in balancing the proportion of redox-active carbonyl groups and the structural stability and conductivity. Unexpectedly, the optimized PDA derivative endows lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) with superior electrochemical performances, including high capacities (1818 mAh g(-1) for LIBs and 500 mAh g(-1) for SIBs) and good stable cyclabilities (93 % capacity retention after 580 cycles for LIBs; 100 % capacity retention after 1024 cycles for SIBs), which are much better than those of their counterparts with conventional binders.

  14. Copper-Doped Titanium Dioxide Bronze Nanowires with Superior High Rate Capability for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongquan; Meng, Yuan; Zhu, Kai; Qiu, Hailong; Ju, Yanming; Gao, Yu; Du, Fei; Zou, Bo; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2016-03-01

    Pristine and Cu-doped TiO2-B nanowires are synthesized by the microwave assisted hydrothermal method. The doped oxide exhibits a highly porous structure with a specific surface area of 160.7 m(2) g(-1). As evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, around 2.0 atom % Cu(2+) cations are introduced into TiO2-B, which leads to not only a slightly expanded lattice network but also, more importantly, a modified electronic structure. The band gap of TiO2-B is reduced from 2.94 to 2.55 eV, resulting in enhanced electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal improved electrochemical kinetic properties of TiO2-B due to the Cu doping. The doped nanowires show a specific capacity of 186.8 mAh g(-1) at the 10 C rate with a capacity retention of 64.3% after 2000 cycles. Remarkably, our material exhibits a specific capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) at the 60 C rate, substantiating its superior high rate capability for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  16. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  17. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; ...

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  18. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  19. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  20. TiO 2(B) as a promising high potential negative electrode for large-size lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Minoru; Oba, Yasuyuki; Niina, Fumiharu; Murota, Yosuke; Ogino, Yasuyuki; Tasaka, Akimasa; Hirota, Ken

    Needle-like TiO 2(B) powder was obtained from K 2Ti 4O 9 precursor by ion exchange to protons, followed by dehydration. The charge and discharge characteristics of the TiO 2(B) powder were investigated as a high potential negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries. It had a high discharge capacity of 200-250 mAh g -1 at around 1.6 V vs. Li/Li +, which was comparable with that of TiO 2(B) nanowires and nanotubes prepared via a hydrothermal reaction in alkaline solution. It showed very good cycleability, and gave a discharge capacity of 170 mAh g -1 even in the 650th cycle. It also had a high rate capability, and gave a discharge capacity of 106 mAh g -1 even at 10 °C. In most of ethylene carbonate-based solutions, the TiO 2(B) powder exhibited good charge and discharge characteristics. However, it showed a poor compatibility with LiBF 4, propylene carbonate, and γ-butyrolactone. The TiO 2(B) powder showed good cycle performance in the presence of a non-flammable additive, trimethyl phosphate, up to 20 vol.%, and a high tolerance to water up to 1000 ppm. It was also found that inexpensive Al foil can be used as a current collector of the TiO 2(B) powder instead of Cu foil without sacrificing the performance.

  1. LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in graphene nanoshells for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Huilong; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-07-11

    LiFePO4 encapsulated in graphene nanoshells (LiFePO4@GNS) nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction between graphene-coated Fe nanoparticles and LiH2PO4. The resulting nanocomposite was demonstrated to be a superior lithium-ion battery cathode with improved cycle and rate performances.

  2. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  3. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  4. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs.

  5. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon-sulfur-graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fathy M; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g(-1) for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g(-1). Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm(-2). The excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  6. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon-sulfur-graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-01

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. The excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  7. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g−1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g−1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm−2. The excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology. PMID:26497228

  8. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; ...

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte tomore » the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.« less

  9. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  10. A Novel Graphene-Polysulfide Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Wei; Xie, Linghai; Du, Zhuzhu; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yunhui; Huang, Wei; Yu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of novel graphene-polysulfide (GPS) anode materials, which consists of conducting graphene network and homogeneously distributed polysulfide in between and chemically bonded with graphene sheets. Such unique architecture not only possesses fast electron transport channels, shortens the Li-ion diffusion length but also provides very efficient Li-ion reservoirs. As a consequence, the GPS materials exhibit an ultrahigh reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior long-term cycling performance in terms of 1600, 550, 380 mAh g−1 after 500, 1300, 1900 cycles with a rate of 1, 5 and 10 A g−1 respectively. This novel and simple strategy is believed to work broadly for other carbon-based materials. Additionally, the competitive cost and low environment impact may promise such materials and technique a promising future for the development of high-performance energy storage devices for diverse applications. PMID:23903017

  11. Facile preparation of carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires as high performance anodes for sodium and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Yang, Jun; Geng, Hongbo; Chao Li, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Uniform carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires were successfully prepared by using an in situ conversion reaction. The length of these nanowires is up to several micrometers and the width is around 30–40 nm. The unique one dimensional structure and the presence of conformal carbon coating of copper telluride greatly accommodate the large volumetric changes during cycling, significantly increase the electrical conductivity and reduce charge transfer resistance. The copper telluride nanowires show promising performance in a lithium ion battery with a discharge capacity of 130.2 mA h g‑1 at a high current density of 6.0 A g‑1 (26.74 C) and a stable cycling performance of 673.3 mA h g‑1 during the 60th cycle at 100 mA g‑1. When evaluated as anode material for a sodium ion battery, the copper telluride nanowires deliver a reversible capacity of 68.1 mA h g‑1 at 1.0 A g‑1 (∼4.46 C) and have a high capacity retention of 177.5 mA h g‑1 during the 500th cycle at 100 mA g‑1.

  12. Facile preparation of carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires as high performance anodes for sodium and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Yang, Jun; Geng, Hongbo; Li, Cheng Chao

    2017-04-07

    Uniform carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires were successfully prepared by using an in situ conversion reaction. The length of these nanowires is up to several micrometers and the width is around 30-40 nm. The unique one dimensional structure and the presence of conformal carbon coating of copper telluride greatly accommodate the large volumetric changes during cycling, significantly increase the electrical conductivity and reduce charge transfer resistance. The copper telluride nanowires show promising performance in a lithium ion battery with a discharge capacity of 130.2 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 6.0 A g(-1) (26.74 C) and a stable cycling performance of 673.3 mA h g(-1) during the 60th cycle at 100 mA g(-1). When evaluated as anode material for a sodium ion battery, the copper telluride nanowires deliver a reversible capacity of 68.1 mA h g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) (∼4.46 C) and have a high capacity retention of 177.5 mA h g(-1) during the 500th cycle at 100 mA g(-1).

  13. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  14. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers.

  15. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  16. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-20

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g(-1), the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  17. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400–2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45–55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15–17 nm) and large diameter (0.2–1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g‑1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98–99.8%).

  18. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400–2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45–55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15–17 nm) and large diameter (0.2–1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g−1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98–99.8%). PMID:28218271

  19. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  20. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  1. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene reinforced polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene separator with high thermal stability for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Tang, Haolin; Wang, Yadong; Lin, Yu; Sun, Meiling; Yin, Zhuangfei; Pan, Mu

    2013-11-01

    PVDF-HFP/ePTFE composite separator with high thermal stability and low thermal shrinkage characteristic has been developed. The PVDF-HFP acts to absorb the electrolyte and shutdown at elevated temperature. The thermally stable ePTFE matrix is adopted to improve the mechanical strength and sustain the insulation after the shutdown. This novel separator presents good ion conductivity (up to 1.29 mS cm-1) and has a low thermal shrinkage of 8.8% at 162 °C. The composite separator shutdown at 162 °C and keep its integrity before 329 °C. Cells based on the composite separator show excellent capacities at high rate discharge and stable cycling performance.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Silicon/Graphite Spherical Composites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Jun; Yang, Kap Seung; Park, Min-Sik

    2016-05-18

    A high-performance Si/carbon/graphite composite in which Si nanoparticles are attached onto the surface of natural graphite by carbonization of coal-tar pitch is proposed for use in lithium-ion batteries. This multicomponent structure is favorable for improving Li(+) storage capability because the amorphous carbon layer encapsulating Si nanoparticles offers sufficient electric conductivity and strong elasticity to facilitate relaxation of strain caused by electrochemical reaction of Si during cycles. The Si/carbon/graphite composite exhibits a specific capacity of 712 mAh g(-1) at a constant current density of 130 mA g(-1), and maintains more than 80% of its initial capacity after 100 cycles. Moreover, it shows a high capacity retention of approximately 88% even at a high current density of 5 C (3250 mA g(-1)). On the basis of electrochemical and structural analyses, we suggest that a rational design of the Si/carbon/graphite composite is mainly responsible for delivering a high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Furthermore, the proposed synthetic route for the Si/carbon/graphite composite is simple and cost-effective for mass production.

  3. High-Rate Charging Induced Intermediate Phases and Structural Changes of Layer-Structured Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; ...

    2016-08-08

    Using fast time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction, charge-rate dependent phase transition processes of layer structured cathode material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries are studied. During first charge, intermediate phases emerge at high rates of 10C, 30C, and 60C, but not at low rates of 0.1C and 1C. These intermediate phases can be continuously observed during relaxation after the charging current is switched off. After half-way charging at high rate, sample studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows Li-rich and Li-poor phases' coexistence with tetrahedral occupation of Li in Li-poor phase. Also, the high rate induced overpotential is thought to be themore » driving force for the formation of this intermediate Li-poor phase. The in situ quick X-ray absorption results show that the oxidation of Ni accelerates with increasing charging rate and the Ni4+ state can be reached at the end of charge with 30C rate. Finally, these results give new insights in the understanding of the layered cathodes during high-rate charging.« less

  4. High-Rate Charging Induced Intermediate Phases and Structural Changes of Layer-Structured Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Bak, Seong-Min; Yu, Xiqian; Liu, Jue; Bai, Jianming; Dooryhee, Eric; Fu, Zheng-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-08

    Using fast time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction, charge-rate dependent phase transition processes of layer structured cathode material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries are studied. During first charge, intermediate phases emerge at high rates of 10C, 30C, and 60C, but not at low rates of 0.1C and 1C. These intermediate phases can be continuously observed during relaxation after the charging current is switched off. After half-way charging at high rate, sample studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows Li-rich and Li-poor phases' coexistence with tetrahedral occupation of Li in Li-poor phase. Also, the high rate induced overpotential is thought to be the driving force for the formation of this intermediate Li-poor phase. The in situ quick X-ray absorption results show that the oxidation of Ni accelerates with increasing charging rate and the Ni4+ state can be reached at the end of charge with 30C rate. Finally, these results give new insights in the understanding of the layered cathodes during high-rate charging.

  5. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 nanoclusters anchored on super-aligned carbon nanotubes as high performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Hengcai; Wu, Yang; Wang, Datao; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information

  6. The effect of lithium ions on the hydrophobic effect: does lithium affect hydrophobicity differently than other ions?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, David L; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2012-04-01

    Ionic species have been shown to significantly perturb the interactions between non-polar solutes in aqueous solution. These perturbations are often analyzed in terms of the interactions existing between hydrophobic surfaces and ions. It has been known for some time, that ions with a high charge density are repelled from hydrophobic surfaces while ions with a low charge density tend to stick to these surfaces. Therefore, from a continuum model standpoint, small monovalent ions promote hydrophobicity by minimizing the exposed hydrophobic surface area, while "sticky" large monovalent ions interact with the hydrophobic surfaces and discourage aggregation. However, the charge-dense lithium ion often exhibits anomalous behaviour different from these predicted trends: instead of enhancing, the addition of lithium ions often seems to weaken the hydrophobic effect and on the contrary help dissolve hydrophobic molecules. This weakening of apparent hydrophobicity is considered to be one of the reasons for the protein denaturing properties of lithium salts. Recent theoretical and experimental results however have shown that lithium cations can interact with a variety of molecular functional groups. This suggests that this apparent lithium-induced lowering of hydrophobicity, that is often reported in the literature may be a result of specific interactions between these molecular functional groups and lithium, rather than weakening the interaction between hydrophobic surfaces. This work examines these possibilities by studying the effect of various cations on the simple hydrophobic interaction existing between methyl and phenyl contact-pairs and demonstrates that the effect of lithium cations on the hydrophobic effect follows the trend predicted by continuum models. In other words, the influence of an ion on the hydrophobic interaction between two non-polar surfaces is a function of the interaction of that ion and each non-polar surface.

  7. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling.

  8. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g(-1) after 330 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) and 1185 mA h g(-1) could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  9. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Gang; Haran, Bala; Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade of Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled using different discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. The capacity losses were estimated after 300 cycles at 2 C and 3 C discharge rates and were found to be 13.2 and 16.9% of the initial capacity, respectively. At 1 C discharge rate the capacity lost was only 9.5%. The cell cycled at high discharge rate (3 C) showed the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of the fresh cells. The rate capability losses were proportional with the increase of discharge rates. Half-cell study and material and charge balances were used to quantify the capacity fade due to the losses of primary active material (Li +), the secondary active material (LiCoO 2/C)) and rate capability losses. It was found that carbon with 10.6% capacity loss after 300 cycles dominates the capacity fade of the whole cell at high discharge rates (3 C). A mechanism is proposed which explains the capacity fade at high discharge rates.

  10. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  11. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; ...

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  12. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  13. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  14. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C.

  15. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-21

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C.

  16. Facile preparation of porous Co3O4 nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries and oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhangpeng; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) porous nanostructures are of great interest due to their high surface area and rich edge sites, which are favorable for a wide variety of applications. In this communication, well-defined porous Co3O4 nanosheets (PCNSs) are successfully fabricated using graphene oxide as sacrificial template. The 2D structure and porous nature effectively provide more exposed active sites for electrochemical reaction and facilitate easier ion transportation across the sheets. As a result, the as-prepared PCNSs exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance, showing high reversible capacity of 1380 mAh g-1 even after 240 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1 and good rate capability (606 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). Moreover, it also shows a good electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction with an overpotential of 368 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M KOH and a small Tafel slope of 59 mV dec-1.

  17. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C. PMID:27649860

  18. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  19. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  20. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  1. Formation of ZnMn2O4 ball-in-ball hollow microspheres as a high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genqiang; Yu, Le; Wu, Hao Bin; Hoster, Harry E; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-09-04

    Novel ZnMn(2)O(4) ball-in-ball hollow microspheres are fabricated by a facile two-step method involving the solution synthesis of ZnMn-glycolate hollow microspheres and subsequent thermal annealing in air. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these ZnMn(2)O(4) ball-in-ball hollow microspheres show significantly enhanced electrochemical performance with high capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability.

  2. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe2O3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-12-01

    A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe2O3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe2O3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe2O3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe2O3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  3. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  4. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g−1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g−1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g−1 at 3  A g−1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g−1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g−1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode. PMID:26374601

  5. Impact of Selected LiPF6 Hydrolysis Products on the High Voltage Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Korth, Martin; Streipert, Benjamin; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Gallus, Dennis R; Brox, Sebastian; Amereller, Marius; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin

    2016-11-16

    Diverse LiPF6 hydrolysis products evolve during lithium-ion battery cell operation at elevated operation temperatures and high operation voltages. However, their impact on the formation and stability of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is not yet investigated and understood. In this work, literature-known hydrolysis products of LiPF6 dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were synthesized and characterized. The use of DMFP and DEFP as electrolyte additive in 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (1:1, by wt) was investigated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/Li half cells. When charged to a cutoff potential of 4.6 V vs Li/Li(+), the additive containing cells showed improved cycling stability, increased Coulombic efficiencies, and prolonged shelf life. Furthermore, low amounts (1 wt % in this study) of the aforementioned additives did not show any negative effect on the cycling stability of graphite/Li half cells. DMFP and DEFP are susceptible to oxidation and contribute to the formation of an effective cathode/electrolyte interphase as confirmed by means of electrochemical stability window determination, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of pristine and cycled electrodes, and they are supported by computational calculations.

  6. High quality NMP exfoliated graphene nanosheet-SnO2 composite anode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Raman; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2013-03-21

    A graphene nanosheet-SnO(2) (GNS-SnO(2)) composite is prepared using N-methylpyrrolidone as a solvent to exfoliate graphene from graphite bar with the aid of CTAB by single phase co-precipitation method. The synthesized composites has been characterised physically by powder XRD which confirms the formation of the composite tetragonal SnO(2) crystal system with the low intense broad 002 plane for GNS. The sandwiched morphology of GNS-SnO(2) and the formation of nanosized particles (around 20 nm) have been confirmed by SEM and TEM images. The presence of sp(2) carbon in the GNS is clear by the highly intense G than D band in laser Raman spectroscopy analysis; furthermore, a single chemical shift has been observed at 132.14 ppm from solid-state (13)C NMR analysis. The synthesized composite has been electrochemically characterized using charge-discharge and EIS analysis. The capacity retentions at the end of the first 10 cycles is 57% (100 mA g(-1) rate), the second 10 cycles is 77.83% (200 mA g(-1)), and the final 10 cycles (300 mA g(-1)) is 81.5%. Moreover the impedance analysis clearly explains the low resistance pathway for Li(+) insertion after 30 cycles when compared with the initial cycle. This superior characteristic of GNS-SnO(2) composite suggests that it is a promising candidate for lithium ion battery anode.

  7. Nanotube Li₂MoO₄: a novel and high-capacity material as a lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Lyu, Yingchun; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Hong; Hu, Yong-sheng; Wang, ZhaoXiang; Zhao, Yanming; Kuang, Quan; Dong, Youzhong; Liang, Zhiyong; Fan, Qinghua; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-21

    Carbon-coated Li2MoO4 hexagonal hollow nanotubes were fabricated via a facile sol-gel method involving the solution synthesis of Li2MoO4 with subsequent annealing under an inert atmosphere to decompose the organic carbon source. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of Li2MoO4 nanotubes. More significantly, we have found that Li2MoO4 can be used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). When evaluated as an anode material, the carbon-coated Li2MoO4 hollow nanotubes show an excellent electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity (∼550 mA h g(-1)) after 23 cycles, good rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, carbon-free Li2MoO4 sample, fabricated via a solid state reaction, was also prepared for comparison. The Li storage mechanism has been investigated in-detail by advanced XPS, in situ XRD and HRTEM.

  8. Facile synthesis of tin dioxide-based high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries assisted by graphene gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuanxin; Sha, Ye; Luo, Shaochuan; Deng, Weijia; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Gi; Zhou, Dongshan

    2015-11-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has four times the theoretical capacity of the prevalent anode material (graphite). The main obstacle hampers SnO2 from practical application is the pulverization problem caused by drastic volume change (∼300%) during lithium-ion insertion or extraction, which would lead to the loss of electrical conductivity, unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and consequently severe capacity fading in the cycling. Here, we anchored the SnO2 nanocrystals into three dimensional graphene gel network to tackle this problem. As a result of the three dimensional (3-D) architecture, the huge volume change during cycling was tolerated by the large free space in this 3-D construction, resulting in a high capacity of 1090 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles. What's more, at a higher current density 5 A g-1, a reversible capacity of about 491 mAh g-1 was achieved with this electrode.

  9. Free-standing and flexible LiMnTiO4/carbon nanotube cathodes for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yinhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Le; Zhang, Xinyi; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Meng; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    A flexible, free-standing, and light-weight LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode has been prepared by vacuum filtration method for the first time. The as-prepared flexible LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode possesses a three-dimensional braiding structure in which LiMnTiO4 particles are well embedded in the twining CNT networks. The novel LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrodes show tensile strength of 1.34 MPa and 2.04 MPa, when the percentages of MWCNTs reach to 30% and 50%, respectively. This novel flexible electrode exhibits a superior electrochemical property, especially at rate capability and cycling stability. The LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can deliver capacity of 161 mAh g-1 (86.4% retention) after 50 cycles at 0.5C rate. Since the high conductivity from MWCNT networks, the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can still maintain a capacity of 77 mAh g-1 at 5C rate, which is much higher than that of the conventional electrode fabricated by slurry casting method on Al foil. The features of free-standing, light-weight, and excellent electrochemical performance indicate the potential of using the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT cathode in new-generation flexible lithium ion batteries.

  10. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics.

  11. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  12. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  13. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  14. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  15. Direct Synthesis of Carbon-Doped TiO2-Bronze Nanowires as Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio; Monaco, Simone; Toma, Andrea; Messina, Gabriele C; Alabastri, Alessandro; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Capiglia, Claudio; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2015-11-18

    Carbon-doped TiO2-bronze nanowires were synthesized via a facile doping mechanism and were exploited as active material for Li-ion batteries. We demonstrate that both the wire geometry and the presence of carbon doping contribute to the high electrochemical performance of these materials. Direct carbon doping for example reduces the Li-ion diffusion length and improves the electrical conductivity of the wires, as demonstrated by cycling experiments, which evidenced remarkably higher capacities and superior rate capability over the undoped nanowires. The as-prepared carbon-doped nanowires, evaluated in lithium half-cells, exhibited lithium storage capacity of ∼306 mA h g(-1) (91% of the theoretical capacity) at the current rate of 0.1C as well as excellent discharge capacity of ∼160 mAh g(-1) even at the current rate of 10 C after 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  16. Fluorination Induced the Surface Segregation of High Voltage Spinel on Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes for Enhanced Rate Capability in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-02-17

    This study is aimed to explore the effect of fluoride doping and the associated structural transformation on lithium-rich layered cathode materials. The polymeric fluoride source is first adopted for synthesizing lithium intercalated oxide through a newly developed organic precipitation process. A heterostructured spinel/layered composite cathode material is obtained after appreciable fluorination and a superior rate capability is successfully achieved. The fluoride dopant amount and the surface spinel phase are evidenced and systematically examined by various structural spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis. It appears the reversible Ni(2+/4+) redox couple at high voltage regime around 4.8 V because of the formation of spinel LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 phase. The mechanism of "layer to spinel" phase transformation is discussed in detail.

  17. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  18. In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2014-10-01

    Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and GeN chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid.

  19. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H.; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A.; King, William P.; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm−2⋅μm−1) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm−2⋅μm−1 peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm2 for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application. PMID:25964360

  20. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A; King, William P; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-26

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm(-2)⋅μm(-1)) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm(-2)⋅μm(-1) peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm(2) for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application.

  1. Hollow/porous nanostructures derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks towards high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to their high energy density, light weight, and long cycle life, have shown considerable promise for storage devices. The successful utilization of LIBs depends strongly on the preparation of nanomaterials with outstanding lithium storage properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that hollow/porous nanostructured oxides are very attractive candidates for LIBs anodes due to their high storage capacities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs)-templated synthesis of hollow/porous nanostructured oxides and their LIBs applications. By choosing some typical NMOFs as examples, we present a comprehensive summary of synthetic procedures for nanostructured oxides, such as binary, ternary and composite oxides. Hollow/porous structures are readily obtained due to volume loss and release of internally generated gas molecules during the calcination of NMOFs in air. Interestingly, the NMOFs-derived hollow/porous structures possess several special features: pores generated from gas molecules release will connect to each other, which are distinct from ``dead pores'' pore size often appears to be <10 nm; in terms of surface chemistry, the pore surface is hydrophobic. These structural features are believed to be the most critical factors that determine LIBs' performance. Indeed, it has been shown that these NMOFs-derived hollow/porous oxides exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, including high storage capacity, good cycle stability, and so on. For example, a high charge capacity of 1465 mA h g-1 at a rate of 300 mA g-1 was observed after 50 cycles for NMOFs-derived Co3O4 porous nanocages, which corresponds to 94.09% of the initial capacity (1557 mA h g-1), indicating excellent stability. The capacity of NMOFs-derived Co3O4 is higher than that of other Co3O4 nanostructures obtained by a conventional two-step route, including nanosheets (1450 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1

  2. Hollow/porous nanostructures derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks towards high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to their high energy density, light weight, and long cycle life, have shown considerable promise for storage devices. The successful utilization of LIBs depends strongly on the preparation of nanomaterials with outstanding lithium storage properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that hollow/porous nanostructured oxides are very attractive candidates for LIBs anodes due to their high storage capacities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs)-templated synthesis of hollow/porous nanostructured oxides and their LIBs applications. By choosing some typical NMOFs as examples, we present a comprehensive summary of synthetic procedures for nanostructured oxides, such as binary, ternary and composite oxides. Hollow/porous structures are readily obtained due to volume loss and release of internally generated gas molecules during the calcination of NMOFs in air. Interestingly, the NMOFs-derived hollow/porous structures possess several special features: pores generated from gas molecules release will connect to each other, which are distinct from "dead pores"; pore size often appears to be <10 nm; in terms of surface chemistry, the pore surface is hydrophobic. These structural features are believed to be the most critical factors that determine LIBs' performance. Indeed, it has been shown that these NMOFs-derived hollow/porous oxides exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, including high storage capacity, good cycle stability, and so on. For example, a high charge capacity of 1465 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 300 mA g(-1) was observed after 50 cycles for NMOFs-derived Co3O4 porous nanocages, which corresponds to 94.09% of the initial capacity (1557 mA h g(-1)), indicating excellent stability. The capacity of NMOFs-derived Co3O4 is higher than that of other Co3O4 nanostructures obtained by a conventional two-step route, including nanosheets (1450 mA h g(-1) at 50 m

  3. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g−1 at 0.9 A g−1, 128 mA h g−1 at 1.5 A g−1, 91 mA h g−1 at 3 A g−1 and 59 mA h g−1 at 6 A g−1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  4. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  5. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanosheets from Eco-Friendly Eucalyptus Leaves as High Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Kretschmer, Katja; Zhao, Yufei; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chengyin; Sun, Bing; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-03-13

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets were prepared from eucalyptus tree leaves by simply mixing the leaf powders with KHCO3 and subsequent carbonisation. Porous carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 2133 m(2)  g(-1) were obtained and applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. For supercapacitor applications, the porous carbon nanosheet electrode exhibited a supercapacitance of 372 F g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles. In organic electrolyte, the nanosheet electrode showed a specific capacitance of 71 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 Ag(-1) and stable cycling performance. When applied as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared porous carbon nanosheets also demonstrated a high specific capacity of 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , good rate capability, and stable cycling performance. The outstanding electrochemical performances for both supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries are derived from the large specific surface area, porous nanosheet structure and nitrogen doping effects. The strategy developed in this paper provides a novel route to utilise biomass-derived materials for low-cost energy storage systems.

  6. Scalable synthesis of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles anchored on graphene as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yu Cheng; Ma, Ru Guang; Jun Hu, Ming; Cheng, Hua; Tsang, Chun Kwan; Yang, Qing Dan; Yang Li, Yang; Zapien, Juan Antonio

    2013-05-01

    We report a scalable strategy to synthesize Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this study, ferric citrate is used as precursor to prepare Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles without introducing additional reducing agent; furthermore and show that such Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles can be anchored on graphene sheets which attributed to multifunctional group effect of citrate. Electrochemical characterization of the Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites exhibit large reversible capacity (~1347 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 0.2 C up to 100 cycles, and subsequent capacity of ~619 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 2 C up to 200 cycles), as well as high coulombic efficiency (~97%), excellent rate capability, and good cyclic stability. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles, with a size of ~4–16 nm are densely anchored on thin graphene sheets, resulting in large synergetic effects between Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles and graphene sheets with high electrochemical performance. - Graphical abstract: The reduction of Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ and the deposition of Fe₃O₄ on graphene sheets occur simultaneously using citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. Highlights: • Fe₃O₄/graphene composites are synthesized directly from graphene and C₆H₅FeO₇. • The citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. • The resulting Fe₃O₄ particles (~4–16 nm) are densely anchored on graphene sheets. • The prepared Fe₃O₄/graphene composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance.

  7. Alkanethiol-passivated ge nanowires as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries: the role of chemical surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang-Wei; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2012-11-27

    We demonstrate that dodecanethiol monolayer passivation can significantly enhance the anode performance of germanium (Ge) nanowires in lithium-ion batteries. The dodecanethiol-passivated Ge nanowires exhibit an excellent electrochemical performance with a reversible specific capacity of 1130 mAh/g at 0.1 C rate after 100 cycles. The functionalized Ge nanowires show high-rate capability having charge and discharge capacities of ∼555 mAh/g at high rates of 11 C. The functionalized Ge nanowires also performed well at 55 °C, showing their thermal stability at high working temperatures. Moreover, full cells using a LiFePO(4) cathode were assembled and the electrodes still have stable capacity retention. An aluminum pouch type lithium cell was also assembled to provide larger current (∼30 mA) for uses on light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and audio devices. Investigation of the role of organic monolayer coating showed that the wires formed a robust nanowire/PVDF network through strong C-F bonding so as to maintain structure integrity during the lithiation/delithiation process. Organic monolayer-coated Ge nanowires represent promising Ge-C anodes with controllable low carbon content (ca. 2-3 wt %) for high capacity, high-rate lithium-ion batteries and are readily compatible with the commercial slurry-coating process for cell fabrication.

  8. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-01

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g-1. The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials.Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting

  9. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  10. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  11. Lithium Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    ePH^TOELE 1a b |, SOLAR PHOTONS PH3TOL ETROtJS ATTRACTED BACK BY THE SURFACE CHARGE Figure 1. Qualitative illustration of the charging : of a surface by...LITHIUM ION SOURCE FOR SATELLITE CHARGE CONTROL 12 Personal Author(s) Song. Tae Ik 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered Id Date of Report (year, month...if ncvessary and Identify by block number) Field Group Subgroup Lithium Ion Source, Satellite Charge Control 19 Abstract (continue on reverse if

  12. Synthesis of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 Nanorods for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Sun, Bing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-12-15

    The long-standing challenge associated with capacity fading of spinel LiMn2 O4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries is investigated. Single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a template-engaged method. Porous Mn3 O4 nanorods were used as self-sacrificial templates, into which LiOH was infiltrated by a vacuum-assisted impregnation route. When used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods exhibited superior long cycle life owing to the one-dimensional nanorod structure, single-crystallinity, and Li-rich effect. LiMn2 O4 nanorods retained 95.6 % of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles at 3C rate. In particular, the nanorod morphology of the spinel LiMn2 O4 was well-preserved after a long-term cycling, suggesting the ultrahigh structural stability of the single crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods. This result shows the promising applications of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life.

  13. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  14. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  15. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  16. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  17. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  18. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg−1 and 84.6 Wh kg−1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg−1 and 24375 W kg−1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode. PMID:28155853

  19. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg‑1 and 84.6 Wh kg‑1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg‑1 and 24375 W kg‑1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  20. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  1. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin-film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high-power solid-state batteries.

    PubMed

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Clem, Paul G; Doyle, Barney L; Kotula, Paul G; Fenton, Kyle R; Apblett, Christopher A

    2011-12-15

    By utilizing an equilibrium processing strategy that enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, a means to integrate the lithium-stable fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate directly with a thin copper foil current collector appropriate for a solid-state battery is presented. This resulting thin-film electrolyte possesses a room temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 1.5 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) , which has the potential to increase the power of a solid-state battery over current state of the art.

  2. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  3. Carbon-Coated Current Collectors for High-Power Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    Principal Investigators: - e-mail address : nlw001@ntu.edu.tw - Institution : National Taiwan university - Mailing Address : 1, sec. 4, Roosevelt...AUTHOR(S) Nae-Lih Wu 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Taiwan...Current Collectors on Power Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Li-Ion Battery,” J. Power Sources, in press (2011). Presentation: The 219th

  4. Stark spectroscopy of a probe lithium beam excited with two dye lasers as a technique to study a high-power ion-beam diode.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, B A; An, W; Bluhm, H

    2012-03-01

    A non-disturbing measurement of electric field distributions is a subject of special interest in plasma physics and high-voltage devices. In this paper we describe a diagnostic technique for remote sensing of electric fields via injection of a probe beam of lithium atoms and cascade excitation of resonance fluorescence with two broadband dye lasers. The fluorescence spectrum was recorded using a monochromator equipped with an optical multi-channel analyser. The magnitude of the local electric field was retrieved from the Stark-shifted components of the 3d-2p lithium spectral line. The technique was applied to measurements of the electric field in the applied-B-field high-voltage diode of the 1 TW KALIF ion-beam accelerator.

  5. A high-rate long-life Li4Ti5O12/Li[Ni0.45Co0.1Mn1.45]O4 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Jang, Min Woo; Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Lithium batteries are receiving considerable attention as storage devices in the renewable energy and sustainable road transport fields. However, low-cost, long-life lithium batteries with higher energy densities are required to facilitate practical application. Here we report a lithium-ion battery that can be cycled at rates as high as 10 C has a life exceeding 500 cycles and an operating temperature range extending from -20 to 55 °C. The estimated energy density is 260 W h kg(-1), which is considerably higher than densities delivered by the presently available Li-ion batteries.

  6. Insights into the inner structure of high-nickel agglomerate as high-performance lithium-ion cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Li-Ya; Zuo, Zicheng; Wang, Ru-Na; Ye, Meng; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Heng-Hui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the intrinsic impact of inner structure features on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes is for the first time systematically investigated. Three different spherical Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors are successfully synthesized by controlling pH values and ammonia concentrations. Interestingly, via a further lithiation process, the final cathodes can gradually inherit the structural features, showing distinct particle arrangement and genetic orientation characteristics in the inner structures. Such a hereditary property can be well reined for customizing the grain-orientation, helping the growth of the inert crystal direction, reducing cation mixing and exposing the high active (100) or (010) lattice planes for lithiation/delithiation processes via an intrinsical way. The degree of grain-orientation of the primary particles turns out to be a critical factor in determining the long-term stability and power performances. Due to the reduced cation mixing degree and favorable lithium diffusion pathways, the ordered agglomerates with the grain growth along with [003] direction exhibit superior rate capability and good cycle stability.

  7. TiO2(B) nanoribbons as negative electrode material for lithium ion batteries with high rate performance.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Mancini-Le Granvalet, Maryline; Brousse, Thierry; Crosnier, Olivier; Brohan, Luc

    2010-09-20

    Nanosized TiO(2)(B) has been investigated as a possible candidate to replace Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) or graphite as the negative electrode for a Li-ion battery. Nanoribbon precursors, classically synthesized in autogenous conditions at temperatures higher than 170 °C in alkaline medium, have been obtained, under reflux (T ∼ 120 °C, P = 1 bar). After ionic exchange, these nanoribbons exhibit a surface area of 140 m(2) g(-1), larger than those obtained under autogenous conditions or by solid state chemistry. These nanoparticles transform after annealing to isomorphic titanium dioxide. They mainly crystallize as the TiO(2)(B) variety with only 5% of anatase. This quantification of the anatase/TiO(2)(B) ratio was deduced from Raman spectroscopy measurement. TEM analysis highlights the excellent crystallinity of the nanosized TiO(2)(B), crystallizing as 6 nm thin nanoribbons. These characteristics are essential in lithium batteries for a fast lithium ion solid state diffusion into the active material. In lithium batteries, the TiO(2)(B) nanoribbons exhibit a good capacity and an excellent rate capability (reversible capacity of 200 mA h g(-1) at C/3 rate (111 mA g(-1)), 100 mA h g(-1) at 15C rate (5030 mA g(-1)) for a 50% carbon black loaded electrode). The electrode formulation study highlights the importance of the electronic and ionic connection around the active particles. The cycleability of the nano-TiO(2)(B) is another interesting point with a capacity loss of 5% only, over 500 cycles at 3C.

  8. Controllable synthesis of Cu-doped CoO hierarchical structure for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chengcheng; Huang, Yanan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2016-05-01

    We report on the strategy of Cu doping inducing the nanosize effect of CoO and their application as anode for lithium ion batteries. With an increase of Cu-doped amount, the structures and morphologies of CoO have special changes. The 0.05 mol Cu-doped CoO shows straw-like bundle structure assembled by nanorods, and the nanorods consist of ultra small nanoparticles (about 6-8 nm). Meanwhile, it shows an excellent rates performance and cycle life. The capacity of 800 mA h g-1 is obtained at 0.5 C after 80 cycles. The highest discharge capacity is 580 mA h g-1 at 10 C and the discharge capacities are relatively stable for 1000 cycles as an anode for Li-ion battery. Therefore, the controllable Cu-doped CoO composite could be deemed to be a potential candidate as an anode material.

  9. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on HOPG as precursor of new carbon-based anode for high-capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angelucci, Marco; Frau, Eleonora; Betti, Maria Grazia; Mura, Francesco; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-06-19

    Iron Oxides nanostructures are very promising systems for new generation of anode material for Lithium-Ion batteries because of their high capacity associated to their surface area. A core-level photoemission study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires deposited on highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) under Li exposure is presented. The Fe-2p, Fe-3p, and Li-1s core-level lineshape evolution upon Li exposure in ultra-high-vacuum conditions clearly brings to light the Fe ion reduction from fully trivalent to prevalently divalent at saturation. Furthermore, the graphite substrate allows allocation of a large amount of Li ions surrounding the iron-oxide nanowires, opening a new scenario towards the use of graphene for improving the ionic charge exchange.

  10. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design. PMID:27677326

  11. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-09-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design.

  12. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  13. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  14. On-chip high power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10 000 cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif S.; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms.We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04720f

  15. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles supported on Vulcan XC-72: High performance electrode materials for lithium-air and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şener, Tansel; Kayhan, Emine; Sevim, Melike; Metin, Önder

    2015-08-01

    Addressed herein is the preparation and the electrode performance of monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Vulcan XC-72 for the Lithium-air battery (LAB) and Lithium-ion battery (LIB). Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate and iron(III) acetylacetonate in oleylamine and oleic acid in the presence of 1,2-tetradecanediol and benzyl ether. As-prepared CoFe2O4 NPs with a particle size of 11 nm were then supported on Vulcan XC-72 (Vulcan-CoFe2O4) at different theoretical loadings (20, 40 and 60 wt % CoFe2O4 NPs) by using the simple liquid phase self assembly method. CoFe2O4 NPs dispersed on Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The AAS analyses indicated that the Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites with different loadings were included 3.7, 8.1 and 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4 on the metal basis. The electrode performance of Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were evaluated as the anode active material for LIB and cathode active material for LABs by performing the galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The highest discharge capacity for both LAB (7510 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 13380 mAh gCoFe2O4-1 @ 0.1C) and LIB (863 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 9330 mAh gCoFe2O4-1@ 0.1C) was investigated with 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4.

  16. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  17. Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourice, Julien; Bordes, Arnaud; Boulineau, Adrien; Alper, John P.; Franger, Sylvain; Quinsac, Axelle; Habert, Aurélie; Leconte, Yann; De Vito, Eric; Porcher, Willy; Reynaud, Cécile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Haon, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    Core-shell silicon-carbon nanoparticles are attractive candidates as active material to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries while mitigating the detrimental effects of volume expansion upon lithiation. However crystalline silicon suffers from amorphization upon the first charge/discharge cycle and improved stability is expected in starting with amorphous silicon. Here we report the synthesis, in a single-step process, of amorphous silicon nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell (a-Si@C), via a two-stage laser pyrolysis where decomposition of silane and ethylene are conducted in two successive reaction zones. Control of experimental conditions mitigates silicon core crystallization as well as formation of silicon carbide. Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy show a carbon shell about 1 nm in thickness, which prevents detrimental oxidation of the a-Si cores. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the core-shell composite reaches its maximal lithiation during the first sweep, thanks to its amorphous core. After 500 charge/discharge cycles, it retains a capacity of 1250 mAh.g-1 at a C/5 rate and 800 mAh.g-1 at 2C, with an outstanding coulombic efficiency of 99.95%. Moreover, post-mortem observations show an electrode volume expansion of less than 20% and preservation of the nanostructuration.

  18. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene wrapped rice-like ferrous carbonate nanoparticles as anode materials for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai; Li, Lifei

    2014-11-01

    Well dispersed rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles were produced and combined with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a one-pot solvothermal route. SEM characterization shows that rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored on the surface of the graphene nanosheets; the addition of RGO is helpful to form a uniform morphology and reduce the particle size of FeCO3 to nano-grade. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved lithium storage properties with a large reversible capacity of 1345 mA h g-1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1224 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles with a good rate capability compared with pure FeCO3 particles. The superior electrochemical performance of the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite electrode compared to the pure FeCO3 electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodates the volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite could be a suitable candidate for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  19. The role of SEI in lithium and lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Ardel, G.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.; Eshkenazy, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses fundamental processes taking place at the lithium and Li{sub x}C{sub 6} electrode/electrolyte interphases and models for these interphases. The authors deal with both nonaqueous and polymer (dry and gel) electrolytes, graphitized and nongraphitized carbonaceous materials as anodes for Li-ion batteries. Each electrode/electrolyte combination has its own unique features and problems but there are some general phenomena common to all of them. Issues to be reviewed include SEI composition, morphology and formation reactions, graphite surface modifications including chemical bonded SEI and micro channels formation, electrode degradation processes, lithium deposition-dissolution and intercalation-deintercalation mechanisms, rate-determining steps (RDS), electrolyte and electrode parameters and conditions affecting the above mentioned processes. Technology-related issues are emphasized.

  20. Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries with High Specific Energy and Improved Safety for Nasa's Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Smart, Marshall; Soler, Jess; Krause, Charlie; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Materials ( Cathodes, anodes and high voltage and safe electrolyte are required to meet the needs of the future space missions. A. Cathodes: The layered layered composites of of Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 are promising Power capability of the materials, however requires further improvement. Suitable morphology is critical for good performance and high tap (packing) density. Surface coatings help in the interfacial kinetics and stability. B. Electrolytes: Small additions of Flame Retardant Additives improves flammability without affecting performance (Rate and cycle life). 1.0 M in EC+EMC+TPP was shown to have good performance against the high voltage cathode; Performance demonstrated in large capacity prototype MCMB- LiNiCoO2 Cells. Formulations with higher proportions are looking promising. Still requires further validation through abuse tests (e.g., on 18650 cells).

  1. A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous membrane for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Liu, Qiongzhen; Zhou, Zhou; Tao, Yifei; Li, MuFang; Liu, Ke; Wu, Zhihong; Wang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous separator (referred to NFs/PET/NFs) composed of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven sandwiched between two interconnected poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membranes is successfully developed for lithium-ion battery. Systematical investigations including structural characterization, porosity measurement, water contact angle testing, electrolyte uptake, and thermal shrinkage testing demonstrate that the notable feature of this NFs/PET/NFs nanofibrous separator is an electrolyte-philic, highly porous and hierarchically nanoscaled structure, thus resulting in superior electrolyte wettability, lower thermal shrinkage, and higher ion conductivity, in comparison to the commercial Polypropylene (PP) separator. These structural characteristics enable the NFs/PET/NFs separator to offer an excellent cell performance including outstanding C-rate capability, high capacity and excellent cycling performance. This suggests that the NFs/PET/NFs separator is a promising material for practical application in lithium-ion battery due to it low cost production and high performance.

  2. Study of lithium absorption by users of spas treated with lithium ion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, J D; Carter, S P; Fletcher, M J; Reape, M J

    1994-05-01

    This study examines the possible dermal absorption of lithium ion into the blood serum of spa/hot tub bathers. Fifty-three participants (28 males and 25 females) spent 20 minutes per day, 4 days per week for 2 consecutive weeks in one of two assigned spas. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the two spas after matching based on sex, age, and use of oral contraceptives. The test spa contained 40 +/- 5 ppm lithium ion, while the control spa contained no additional lithium ion above the background levels of approximately 0.02 ppm. The exposure in the spa treated with lithium ion (from lithium chloride) simulated the maximum exposure that would be expected in a spa sanitized with lithium hypochlorite. The two spas were maintained at 101 +/- 2 degrees F. Serum lithium ion levels before and after spa use were determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy with a minimum detectable level of lithium ion in serum of 2 micrograms l-1 (ppb). There was no statistically significant difference in serum lithium levels between the control and treatment group at any stage. We conclude that dermal exposure to lithium ion (as would be present after treatment of a spa with lithium hypochlorite) did not result in a detectable increase in the serum lithium ion level.

  3. Evaluation of Saft Ultra High Power Lithium Ion Cells (VL5U)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Engineering Center Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...evaluated Saft Ultra High Power ( UHP ) cells (Saft designation VL5U) to determine their rate capability, low temperature performance, storage, and cycle...Figures Figure 1. Configuration of Saft UHP cell during discharge. The cell was discharged inside an environmental chamber and the exterior temperature

  4. SnO and SnO·CoO nanocomposite as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B. Reddy, M.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The preparation methods are simple, low cost and can be scaled up for large production. • SnO is cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. • SnO shows high reversible capacity (Theoretical reversible capacity: 875 mA h g{sup −1}). • We showed high reversible capacity and columbic efficiency for SnO and SnO based composites. • We addressed the capacity degradation by introducing secondary phase (CoO and CNT etc.) - Abstract: We prepared SnO nanoparticles (SnO–S) and SnO·CoO nanocomposites (SnO·CoO–B) as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by chemical and ball-milling approaches, respectively. They are characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The Li- storage performance are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The SnO–S and SnO·CoO–B showed improved cycling performance due to their finite particle size (i.e. nano-size) and presence of secondary phase (CoO). Better cycling stability is noticed for SnO·CoO–B with the expense of their reversible capacity. Also, addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to SnO–S further improved the cycling performance of SnO–S. When cycled at 60 mA g{sup −1}, the first-cycle reversible capacities of 635, 590 and 460 (±10) mA h g{sup −1} are noticed for SnO–S, SnO@CNT and SnO·CoO–B, respectively. The capacity fading observed are 3.7 and 1.8 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO–S and SnO@CNT, respectively; whereas 1–1.2 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO·CoO–B. All the samples show high coulombic efficiency, 96–98% in the range of 5–50 cycles.

  5. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-09-01

    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm-3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm-2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l-1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  6. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Visualization of lithium ions by annular bright field imaging.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshifumi; Lee, Soyeon; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2016-10-14

    The detection of lithium ions is required for characterization of lithium ion batteries, since the movement of lithium ions in the battery is one of the key ways to improve the performance. Annular bright field (ABF) imaging enables us to visualize individual lithium atomic columns simultaneously with heavy elements. Furthermore, it has been found that the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. These results suggest that movement of lithium ions in the material can be observed by taking consecutive ABF images during operation or in situ ABF observation. Actually, the spinel structure of L2V4O crystals was directly observed to be transformed into the defective NaCl structure at the moment when lithium ions were extracted from the original position during electron beam irradiation. We clarify the features of ABF imaging by comparing it with HAADF imaging in order to understand what information can be obtained by ABF imaging directly.

  8. Development of Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    exceptionally high surface area [11]. SiC Silicon Carbide Nb2C Niobium Carbide TiC Titanium Carbide NbC Niobium Carbide Mo2C Molybdenum Carbide SrC2...its electrochemical performance. Studies were conducted on three titanium carbide (TiC)-based CDC powders, synthesized at 600, 1000, and 1200 °C...were conducted on three titanium carbide (TiC)-based CDC powders, synthesized at 600, 1,000, and 1,200 °C. Custom-made CDC anodes were fabricated

  9. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date.

  10. Human-rated Safety Certification of a High Voltage Robonaut Lithium-ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Yayathi, S.; Johnson, M.; Waligora, T.; Verdeyen, W.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's rigorous certification process is being followed for the R2 high voltage battery program for use of R2 on International Space Station (ISS). Rigorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible off-nominal conditions and review of test data led to design improvements for safety at the virtual cell, cartridge and battery levels. Tests were carried out at all levels to confirm that both hardware and software controls work. Stringent flight acceptance testing of the flight battery will be completed before launch for mission use on ISS.

  11. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Kanesue, T.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.

    2016-02-15

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  12. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  13. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  14. Dual-Functionalized Double Carbon Shells Coated Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangqiang; Shen, Laifa; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-03-15

    To address the challenge of huge volume change and unstable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) of silicon in cycles, causing severe pulverization, this paper proposes a "double-shell" concept. This concept is designed to perform dual functions on encapsulating volume change of silicon and stabilizing SEI layer in cycles using double carbon shells. Double carbon shells coated Si nanoparticles (DCS-Si) are prepared. Inner carbon shell provides finite inner voids to allow large volume changes of Si nanoparticles inside of inner carbon shell, while static outer shell facilitates the formation of stable SEI. Most importantly, intershell spaces are preserved to buffer volume changes and alleviate mechanical stress from inner carbon shell. DCS-Si electrodes display a high rechargeable specific capacity of 1802 mAh g(-1) at a current rate of 0.2 C, superior rate capability and good cycling performance up to 1000 cycles. A full cell of DCS-Si//LiNi0.45 Co0.1 Mn1.45 O4 exhibits an average discharge voltage of 4.2 V, a high energy density of 473.6 Wh kg(-1) , and good cycling performance. Such double-shell concept can be applied to synthesize other electrode materials with large volume changes in cycles by simultaneously enhancing electronic conductivity and controlling SEI growth.

  15. Germanium microflower-on-nanostem as a high-performance lithium ion battery electrode

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwang-Hee; Kwon, S. Joon; Park, Kyung-Soo; Kang, Jin-Gu; Park, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Jae-Chan; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new design of Ge-based electrodes comprising three-dimensional (3-D) spherical microflowers containing crystalline nanorod networks on sturdy 1-D nanostems directly grown on a metallic current collector by facile thermal evaporation. The Ge nanorod networks were observed to self-replicate their tetrahedron structures and form a diamond cubic lattice-like inner network. After etching and subsequent carbon coating, the treated Ge nanostructures provide good electrical conductivity and are resistant to gradual deterioration, resulting in superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, with a charge capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles and a high specific capacity of 1360 mA h g−1 at 1 C and a high-rate capability with reversible capacities of 1080 and 850 mA h g−1 at the rates of 5 and 10 C, respectively. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fast electron transport and good strain accommodation of the carbon-filled Ge microflower-on-nanostem hybrid electrode. PMID:25363317

  16. High-performing mesoporous iron oxalate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ang, Wei An; Gupta, Nutan; Prasanth, Raghavan; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2012-12-01

    Mesoporous iron oxalate (FeC(2)O(4)) with two distinct morphologies, i.e., cocoon and rod, has been synthesized via a simple, scalable chimie douce precipitation method. The solvent plays a key role in determining the morphology and microstructure of iron oxalate, which are studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic characterization of the materials has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and confirmed phase-pure FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O formation. The critical dehydration process of FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O resulted in anhydrous FeC(2)O(4), and its thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) in Li/FeC(2)O(4) cells are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The studies showed that the initial discharge capacities of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons and rods are 1288 and 1326 mA h g(-1), respectively, at 1C rate. Anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons exhibited stable capacity even at high C rates (11C). The electrochemical performance of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) is found to be greatly influenced by the number of accessible reaction sites, morphology, and size effects.

  17. Electrocatalysis paradigm for protection of cathode materials in high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-07-06

    A new mechanistic framework is suggested to account for the protective action of certain electrolyte additives on high-voltage positive electrode (cathode) materials. The mechanism involves inactivation of catalytically active centers on the electrode active materials through fragmentation reactions involving molecules at its surface. The cathode protection additives oxidize before the solvent and serve as sacrificial inhibitors of the catalytic centers. Without the additive, the surface oxidation of the solvent (like solvent oxidation in the bulk) yields H loss radicals and releases the proton that can combine with anions forming corrosive acids. This proton-release reaction is demonstrated experimentally for boronate additives. Specific radical reactions for the latter additives on the electrode surface are suggested. Furthermore, the same approach can be used to rationalize the protective action of other additives and account for various observations regarding their performance.

  18. Sandwich-like mesoporous graphene@magnetite@carbon nanosheets for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yongming; Zhou, Xunfu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Shengsen; Liu, Yingju; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Hongqiang; Li, Qingyu; Fang, Yueping; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Sandwich-like mesoporous GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets with a 2D nanoarchitecture have been successfully synthesized by one-step solvothermal treatment. Such type of 2D nanoarchitecture is made up of a number of Fe3O4 nanoparticles uniformly grown on a graphene sheet and an even amorphous carbon layer covering on their surface. The Li-cycling properties of GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. Results indicate that the GS@Fe3O4@C nanosheets with about 5 wt % of graphene content provides a very high discharge capacity of 913.2 mAh g-1 at a current densities of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and reveals a stable discharge capacity of 483.2 mAh g-1 at a rate of 1600 mA g-1.

  19. Electrocatalysis paradigm for protection of cathode materials in high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-07-06

    A new mechanistic framework is suggested to account for the protective action of certain electrolyte additives on high-voltage positive electrode (cathode) materials. The mechanism involves inactivation of catalytically active centers on the electrode active materials through fragmentation reactions involving molecules at its surface. The cathode protection additives oxidize before the solvent and serve as sacrificial inhibitors of the catalytic centers. Without the additive, the surface oxidation of the solvent (like solvent oxidation in the bulk) yields H loss radicals and releases the proton that can combine with anions forming corrosive acids. This proton-release reaction is demonstrated experimentally for boronate additives.more » Specific radical reactions for the latter additives on the electrode surface are suggested. Furthermore, the same approach can be used to rationalize the protective action of other additives and account for various observations regarding their performance.« less

  20. Thermal Aspects of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Bugga, R.; Smart, M.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development of a thermal model of Li-ion cells in terms of heat generation, thermal mass, and thermal resistance. Intended for incorporation into battery model. The approach was to estimate heat generation: with semi-theoretical model, and then to check accuracy with efficiency measurements. Another objective was to compute thermal mass from component weights and specific heats, and to compute the thermal resistance from component dimensions and conductivities. Two lithium batteries are compared, the Cylindrical lithium battery, and the prismatic lithium cell. It reviews methodology for estimating the heat generation rate. Graphs of the Open-circuit curves of the cells and the heat evolution during discharge are given.

  1. High performance screen-printed electrodes prepared by a green solvent approach for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gören, A.; Mendes, J.; Rodrigues, H. M.; Sousa, R. E.; Oliveira, J.; Hilliou, L.; Costa, C. M.; Silva, M. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-12-01

    New inks based on lithium iron phosphate and graphite for cathode and anode, respectively, were developed for printable lithium-ion batteries using the "green solvent" N,N‧-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, as a binder. The results were compared with the ones from inks developed with the conventionally used solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP. The rheological properties of the PVDF/DMPU binder solution shows a more pronounced shear thinning behavior than the PVDF/NMP solution. Cathode inks prepared with 2.25 mL and 2.50 mL of DMPU for 1 g of electrode mass show an apparent viscosity of 3 Pa s and 2 Pa s for a shear rate of 100 s-1, respectively, being therefore processable by screen-printing or doctor blade techniques. The electrodes prepared with DMPU and processed by screen-printing show a capacity of 52 mAh g-1 at 2C for the cathode and 349 mAh g-1 at C/5 for the anode, after 45 charge-discharge cycles. The electrochemical performance of both electrodes was evaluated in a full-cell and after 9 cycles, the discharge capacity value is 81 mAh g-1, showing a discharge capacity retention of 64%. The new inks presented in this work are thus suitable for the development of printed batteries and represent a step forward towards more environmental friendly processes.

  2. Nitrile functionalized disiloxanes with dissolved LiTFSI as lithium ion electrolytes with high thermal and electrochemical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Hiller, Martin M.; Seidel, Sarah M.; Grünebaum, Mariano; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Liquid disiloxanes functionalized with terminal nitrile groups are introduced as alternative non-volatile solvents for lithium-ion battery electrolytes in combination with LiTFSI as lithium salt. Two series of disiloxanes were investigated differing with respect to the attachment of the nitrile containing side group to silicon, i.e. via a Si-C or a Si-O bond. Total conductivities up to 1 mS cm-1 at 30 °C were measured by impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization was done on half cells using LiFePO4 cathodes by cyclic voltammetry and constant current cycling. Attractive issues and advantages of the investigated LiTFSI containing disiloxanes in comparison to current electrolyte solvents are: a) In spite of the presence of LiTFSI, the aluminum pitting corrosion is suppressed, b) the electrochemical stability window is extended on the cathode side up to 5.6 V vs. Li/Li+, for a LiTFSI concentration of 0.7 mol kg-1, c) the reported nitrile functionalized disiloxanes show excellent thermal stability with a boiling point up to 106 °C (0.1 mbar), a rather low glass transition temperature of -107 °C, while no melting/crystallization was observed.

  3. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (<0.5mm) fraction and to 68% in the fine (0.5-1mm) fraction, and been excluded in the larger pieces (>6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process.

  4. Dominant factors governing the rate capability of a TiO2 nanotube anode for high power lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyungkyu; Song, Taeseup; Lee, Eung-Kwan; Devadoss, Anitha; Jeon, Yeryung; Ha, Jaehwan; Chung, Yong-Chae; Choi, Young-Min; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-09-25

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to low cost and structural stability during Li insertion/extraction. However, its poor rate capability limits its practical use. Although various approaches have been explored to overcome this problem, previous reports have mainly focused on the enhancement of both the electronic conductivity and the kinetic associated with lithium in the composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder. Here, we systematically explore the effect of the contact resistance between a current collector and a composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder on the rate capability of a TiO(2)-based electrode. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes arrays, directly grown on the current collector, with sealed cap and unsealed cap, and conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrodes were prepared for this study. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes array electrode with unsealed cap showed superior performance with six times higher capacity at 10 C rate compared to conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrode with 10 wt % conducting agent. On the basis of the detailed experimental results and associated theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that the reduction of the contact resistance between electrode and current collector plays an important role in improving the electronic conductivity of the overall electrode system.

  5. Three-Dimensional (3D) Bicontinuous Hierarchically Porous Mn2O3 Single Crystals for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Cai, Yi; Li, Yu; Deng, Zhao; Zeng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-10-06

    Bicontinuous hierarchically porous Mn2O3 single crystals (BHP-Mn2O3-SCs) with uniform parallelepiped geometry and tunable sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The monodispersed BHP-Mn2O3-SCs exhibit high specific surface area and three dimensional interconnected bimodal mesoporosity throughout the entire crystal. Such hierarchical interpenetrating porous framework can not only provide a large number of active sites for Li ion insertion, but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for Li ions, leading to a high lithium storage capacity and enhanced rate capability. Furthermore, owing to their specific porosity, these BHP-Mn2O3-SCs as anode materials can accommodate the volume expansion/contraction that occurs with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, resulting in their good cycling performance. Our synthesized BHP-Mn2O3-SCs with a size of ~700 nm display the best electrochemical performance, with a large reversible capacity (845 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles), high coulombic efficiency (>95%), excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability (410 mA h g(-1) at 1 Ag(-1)). These values are among the highest reported for Mn2O3-based bulk solids and nanostructures. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study demonstrates that the BHP-Mn2O3-SCs are suitable for charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  6. Three-Dimensional (3D) Bicontinuous Hierarchically Porous Mn2O3 Single Crystals for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Cai, Yi; Li, Yu; Deng, Zhao; Zeng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Bicontinuous hierarchically porous Mn2O3 single crystals (BHP-Mn2O3-SCs) with uniform parallelepiped geometry and tunable sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The monodispersed BHP-Mn2O3-SCs exhibit high specific surface area and three dimensional interconnected bimodal mesoporosity throughout the entire crystal. Such hierarchical interpenetrating porous framework can not only provide a large number of active sites for Li ion insertion, but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for Li ions, leading to a high lithium storage capacity and enhanced rate capability. Furthermore, owing to their specific porosity, these BHP-Mn2O3-SCs as anode materials can accommodate the volume expansion/contraction that occurs with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, resulting in their good cycling performance. Our synthesized BHP-Mn2O3-SCs with a size of ~700 nm display the best electrochemical performance, with a large reversible capacity (845 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles), high coulombic efficiency (>95%), excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability (410 mA h g-1 at 1 Ag-1). These values are among the highest reported for Mn2O3-based bulk solids and nanostructures. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study demonstrates that the BHP-Mn2O3-SCs are suitable for charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  7. MOF-derived ultrafine MnO nanocrystals embedded in a porous carbon matrix as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fangcai; Xia, Guoliang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-06-07

    Although MnO has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of its high theoretical capacity (755 mA h g(-1)), comparatively low voltage hysteresis (<0.8 V), low cost, and environmental benignity, the application of MnO as a practical electrode material is still hindered by many obstacles, including poor cycling stability and huge volume expansion during the charge/discharge process. Herein, we report a facile and scalable metal-organic framework-derived route for the in situ fabrication of ultrafine MnO nanocrystals encapsulated in a porous carbon matrix, where nanopores increase active sites to store redox ions and enhance ionic diffusivity to encapsulated MnO nanocrystals. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), these MnO@C composites exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1221 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their unique structure with MnO nanocrystals dispersed uniformly inside a porous carbon matrix, which can largely enhance the electrical conductivity and effectively avoid the aggregation of MnO nanocrystals, and relieve the strain caused by the volumetric change during the charge/discharge process. This facile and economical strategy will extend the scope of metal-organic framework-derived synthesis for other materials in energy storage applications.

  8. Low-cost synthesis of hierarchical V2O5 microspheres as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Wan, Zhongming; Zhang, Longfei; Ding, Yuanlei; Zhang, Li; Qu, Qunting; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-08-28

    Hierarchical V2O5 microspheres composed of stacked platelets are fabricated through a facile, low-cost, and energy-saving approach. The preparation procedure involves a room-temperature precipitation of precursor microspheres in aqueous solution and subsequent calcination. Because of this unique structure, V2O5 microspheres manifest a high capacity (266 mA h g(-1)), excellent rate capability (223 mA h g(-1) at a current density 2400 mA g(-1)), and good cycling stability (200 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles) as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Cu doped V2O5 flowers as cathode material for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Chen, Jing; Huang, Xin; Xu, Chen; Liu, Weiling; Yu, Denis Y W; Hng, Huey Hoon; Hoster, Harry E; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-07

    Hierarchical Cu doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) flowers were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach followed by an annealing process. The flower precursors are self-assembled with 1D nanobelts surrounding a central core. The morphological evolution is investigated and a plausible mechanism is proposed. As the cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the Cu doped V2O5 samples exhibit improved electrochemical performance compared to the un-doped ones. Among them Cu0.02V1.98O5 delivered higher reversible specific capacities, better cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities, e.g. 97 mA h g(-1) at 20.0 C.

  10. Gold coating for a high performance Li4Ti5O12 nanorod aggregates anode in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Yuanyuan; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Shixiong; Yang, Xiangjun; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An effective strategy by combination of alcoholysis, solid-state reaction and coating techniques is employed to prepare Au@Li4Ti5O12 nanorod aggregates as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The lithium diffusion coefficient of resulting Au@Li4Ti5O12 is 7.32 × 10-10 cm2 s-1, and its stable reversible capacity is 169 mAh g-1 with the retention of 91.1% after 100 cycles at 5 C. Moreover, it also exhibits excellent rate-capability performance. The superior cycling performance can be attributed to the unique nanorod characteristics, structural stability, and the improved ionic and electronic conduction in the electrode due to the uniform nano coating of Au.

  11. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries.

  12. SnO2@PANI Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays on 3D Graphite Foam: A High-Performance Integrated Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Chengkai; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Hu, Yiran; Guan, Huanqin; Ma, Yurong; Zhang, Jin; Zhou, Henghui; Qi, Limin

    2017-03-22

    The rational design and controllable fabrication of electrode materials with tailored structures and superior performance is highly desirable for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel three-dimensional (3D) graphite foam (GF)@SnO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs)@polyaniline (PANI) hybrid architecture was constructed via solvothermal growth followed by electrochemical deposition. Aligned SnO2 NRAs were uniformly grown on the surface of GF, and a PANI shell with a thickness of ∼40 nm was coated on individual SnO2 nanorods, forming a SnO2@PANI core-shell structure. Benefiting from the synergetic effect of 3D GF with large surface area and high conductivity, SnO2 NRAs offering direct pathways for electrons and lithium ions, and the conductive PANI shell that accommodates the large volume variation of SnO2, the binder-free, integrated GF@SnO2 NRAs@PANI electrode for LIBs exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good electrochemical stability. A high discharge capacity of 540 mAh g(-1) (calculated by the total mass of the electrode) was achieved after 50 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). Moreover, the electrode demonstrated superior rate performance with a discharge capacity of 414 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 3 A g(-1).

  13. Characterization of commercially available lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; White, Ralph E.

    With the aggressive growth of the lithium-ion battery market, several companies have recently offered their version of the lithium-ion battery for consumer purchase. This paper describes the physical design, rate, cycle-lifetime, and self-discharge performance of cells from Sony, Matsushita, A&T, Moli, and Sanyo lithium-ion batteries. The study used a total of 85 lithium-ion cells from these manufacturers. All cells performed as indicated by manufacturers' specifications and the performance and design differences are discussed. The design differences include discussion of gas chrornatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the electrolytes, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of separators, the activation of a positive temperature coefficient (PTC), and a comparison of the basic physical parameters of each cell. Performance characterization shows an excellent high discharge rale performance of the A&T and Matsushita cells, an excellent cycle-lifetime performance for Sony cells, and negligible effects of self-discharge.

  14. Degradation diagnostics for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkl, Christoph R.; Roberts, Matthew R.; McTurk, Euan; Bruce, Peter G.; Howey, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery cells is the result of a complex interplay of a host of different physical and chemical mechanisms. The measurable, physical effects of these degradation mechanisms on the cell can be summarised in terms of three degradation modes, namely loss of lithium inventory, loss of active positive electrode material and loss of active negative electrode material. The different degradation modes are assumed to have unique and measurable effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV) of Li-ion cells and electrodes. The presumptive nature and extent of these effects has so far been based on logical arguments rather than experimental proof. This work presents, for the first time, experimental evidence supporting the widely reported degradation modes by means of tests conducted on coin cells, engineered to include different, known amounts of lithium inventory and active electrode material. Moreover, the general theory behind the effects of degradation modes on the OCV of cells and electrodes is refined and a diagnostic algorithm is devised, which allows the identification and quantification of the nature and extent of each degradation mode in Li-ion cells at any point in their service lives, by fitting the cells' OCV.

  15. Unique 1D Co3O4 crystallized nanofibers with (220) oriented facets as high-performance lithium ion battery anode material

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Li, Zeyu; Tian, Weiqian; Qian, Weiwei; Yang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal and calcination strategy was developed to synthesize the unique 1D oriented Co3O4 crystal nanofibers with (220) facets on the carbon matrix derived from the natural, abundant and low cost wool fibers acting as both carbon precursor and template reagent. The resultant W2@Co3O4 nanocomposite exhibited very high specific capacity and favorable high-rate capability when used as anode material of lithium ion battery. The high reversible Li+ ion storage capacity of 986 mAh g−1 was obtained at 100 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, higher than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g−1). Even at the higher current density of 1 A g−1, the electrode could still deliver a remarkable discharge capacity of 720 mAh g−1 over 150 cycles. PMID:27217201

  16. High-rate layered lithium-rich cathode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized with the assist of carbon spheres templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linjing; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Wu, Borong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of the layered lithium-rich cathode, Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2, have been synthesized via the two-step hydrothermal reactions combined with calcination process, while carbon spheres were used as templates. In the first hydrothermal step, the carbon spheres templates are obtained, and then the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 materials are prepared during the second hydrothermal step with addition of 0, 5, 10, 15 wt% as-prepared carbon spheres. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate the well-ordered layer-structured lithium-rich nanomaterials can be obtained with adding proper amount of carbon spheres templates. The electrochemical test demonstrates that the sample added 10 wt% carbon spheres (LNMO-Cs10) exhibits the best performance among all the samples. It delivers the optimal cycling ability, the least voltage decay, and the maximal discharge capacities of 238.7, 219.3, 204.8 and 182.7 mAh g-1 at 1C, 2C, 5C and 10C rates, respectively. EIS test shows that the LNMO-Cs10 material also has the reduced solid-electrolyte-interface resistance and charge transfer resistance. The excellent cycling ability and rate capability are possibly attributed to the better dispersibility of the nanoparticles with adding adequate amount of carbon spheres templates during materials synthesis. It can both guarantee the good contact between electrode and electrolytes and prevent high aggregation of nanoparticles.

  17. Highly Ordered TiO2 Microcones with High Rate Performance for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Oonhee; Lee, Gibaek; Choi, Jinsub

    2016-06-15

    The perpendicularly oriented anatase TiO2 microcones for Li-ion battery application were synthesized via anodization of a Ti foil in aqueous HF + H3PO4 solution. The TiO2 microcones exhibited a high active surface area with a hollow core depending on applied voltage and reaction time, confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM with EDS mapping. Li insertion/desertion into TiO2 microcones was evaluated for the first time in half-cell configuration in terms of various current density and long-term cyclability. The electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the as-prepared TiO2 microcones as anode material exhibited 3 times higher capacity as compared with TiO2 nanotubular structures, excellent rate performance (0.054 mAhcm(-2) even at 50 C) and reliable capacity retention during 500 cycles, which was attributed to facile diffusion of Li-ions induced in hollow anatase TiO2 microcones structure with multilayered nanofragment.

  18. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  19. Unconventional pore and defect generation in molybdenum disulfide: application in high-rate lithium-ion batteries and the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kan; Kim, Hwan-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Taik; Chang, Gee-Woo; Shi, Xinjian; Kim, Wanjung; Ma, Ming; Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Jae-Man; Song, Min-Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-09-01

    A 2H-MoS2 (H=hexagonal) ultrathin nanomesh with high defect generation and large porosity is demonstrated to improving electrochemical performance, including in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with the aid of a 3D reduced graphene oxide (RGO) scaffold as fast electron and ion channels. The 3D defect-rich MoS2 nanomesh/RGO foam (Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO) can be easily obtained through a one-pot cobalt acetate/graphene oxide (GO) co-assisted hydrothermal reaction, in which GO, cobalt and acetate ions are co-morphology-controlling agents and defect inducers. As an anode material for LIBs, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO has only a 9% capacity decay at a 10 C discharge rate versus 0.2 C with stable cyclability at the optimized composition (5 wt% RGO to MoS2 and 2 mol% Co to Mo), and significantly achieves 810 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 9.46 A g(-1) over at least 150 cycles. Moreover, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO exhibits superior activity for the HER with an overpotential as low as 80 mV and a Tafel slope of about 36 mV per decade. In contrast to the MoS2 nanosheet/RGO (MoS2 Ns/RGO), which is synthesized in the absence of cobalt ions, Dr-MoS2 Nm/RGO provides high interconnectivity for efficient lithium-ion transport, and rich defects as electrochemically active sites. DFT is used to prove the existence of rich defects due to anion replacement to become a Co-Mo-S atomic structure, releasing inert basal planes to active sites.

  20. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  1. Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2014-07-09

    A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC.

  2. Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 Nanowires with High Electronic Conductivity for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Yu, Shu; Lin, Chunfu; Lv, Fan; Wu, Shunqing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Guo, Shaojun

    2017-04-03

    Intercalation-type TiNbxO2+2.5x (x = 2, 5, and 24) anode materials have recently become more interesting for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their large theoretical capacities of 388-402 mAh g(-1). However, the Ti(4+)/Nb(5+) ions in TiNbxO2+2.5x with empty 3d/4d orbitals usually lead to extremely low electronic conductivity of <10(-9) S cm(-1), greatly restricting their practical capacity and rate capability. Herein, we report a class of highly conductive Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 nanowires as an intercalation-type anode material for high-performance LIBs. The as-made Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 nanowires show an open shear ReO3 crystal structure (C2 space group) with 4% tetrahedra and a conducting characteristic with ultrahigh electronic conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) and a large Li(+)-ion diffusion coefficient of 2.19 × 10(-13) cm(2) s(-1). These important characteristics make them deliver outstanding electrochemical properties in term of the largest reversible capacity (344 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C) in all the known niobium- and titanium-based anode materials, safe working potential (∼1.65 V vs Li/Li(+)), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (90.8%), superior rate capability (209 mAh g(-1) at 30 C), and excellent cycling stability, making them among the best for LIBs in niobium- and titanium-based anode materials.

  3. Light-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-04-10

    Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar energy in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-ion materials to investigate light-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium ion battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  4. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  5. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  6. Dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of lithium ions in lithium bismuthate glasses have been studied in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range from 323 to 543 K. The composition dependence of the dc (direct current) conductivity has been explained in terms of the structure of bismuthate glasses. The activation energy has been analyzed in the framework of the Anderson-Stuart model. An additional energy term arising from the Madelung constant of glasses and the polarizability of the bismuth ions has been suggested to explain the discrepancy between the calculated and experimentally obtained values. The relaxation mechanism of these glasses has been explored by employing the modulus and conductivity formalisms and the microscopic parameters obtained from the analysis have been compared. Furthermore, the stretched exponential relaxation parameter and the dc conductivity have been correlated with the decoupling index.

  7. A polyaniline-coated mechanochemically synthesized tin oxide/graphene nanocomposite for high-power and high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fei; Zhao, Bote; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping

    2015-09-01

    Although intensive efforts have been made during the past decades, development of an anode material with high specific capacity and stable cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a cost-effective preparation method still remains challenging. Herein, we report a polyaniline (PANI)-coated mechanochemically synthesized SnO2/graphene (SG) nanocomposite via in situ polymerization. PANI-coated nanocomposites are successfully prepared with different raw material mass ratios (aniline:SG, 0.15:1, 0.2:1, 0.25:1). The nanocomposite with initial aniline:SG mass ratio of 0.2:1 (20%PANI-SG) contains an optimal structure housing genuine PANI nanofibers as conductive bridges and a relatively high surface area of 158.5 m2 g-1; furthermore, it exhibits a stable cycling performance over 100 cycles at high current density (1000 mA g-1) with a specific capacity of more than twice that of the starting SG electrode at the 100th cycle. Additionally, this material achieved an outstanding cycling rate with current densities changing stepwise from 100 to 3000 mA g-1 and back, and exhibited a specific capacity of 467 mA h g-1 even at 2000 mA g-1. In terms of the electrochemical stability, rate capability and cost-effective preparation process, the PANI-SG nanocomposite is a viable anode material for next-generation high-power and high-energy LIBs.

  8. Unveiling TiNb2 O7 as an insertion anode for lithium ion capacitors with high energy and power density.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Jain, Akshay; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Srinivasan, Madapusi P; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-07-01

    This is the first report of the utilization of TiNb2 O7 as an insertion-type anode in a lithium-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitor (Li-HEC) along with an activated carbon (AC) counter electrode derived from a coconut shell. A simple and scalable electrospinning technique is adopted to prepare one-dimensional TiNb2 O7 nanofibers that can be characterized by XRD with Rietveld refinement, SEM, and TEM. The lithium insertion properties of such electrospun TiNb2 O7 are evaluated in the half-cell configuration (Li/TiNb2 O7 ) and it is found that the reversible intercalation of lithium (≈3.45 mol) is feasible with good capacity retention characteristics. The Li-HEC is constructed with an optimized mass loading based on the electrochemical performance of both the TiNb2 O7 anode and AC counter electrode in nonaqueous media. The Li-HEC delivers very high energy and power densities of approximately 43 Wh kg(-1) and 3 kW kg(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the AC/TiNb2 O7 Li-HEC delivers a good cyclability of 3000 cycles with about 84% of the initial value.

  9. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-09-21

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g(-1). Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  10. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g-1. Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  11. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi+ + e- <--> LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an

  12. Intercalation Dynamics in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    issues, batteries have become much more complex systems. As an illustration, consider the “ voltaic pile ” invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. This was... voltaic pile , practical lithium-ion batteries are necessarily much more complicated. The electrode materials are present in the form of a fine powder...it is shown that the smaller particles tend to phase separate first , a phenomenon seen in experiments but difficult to explain with any other

  13. Synthesis of Mesoporous Lithium Titanate Thin Films and Monoliths as an Anode Material for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fadime Mert; Kudu, Ömer Ulaş; Yılmaz, Eda; Dag, Ömer

    2016-12-23

    Mesoporous Li4 Ti5 O12 (LTO) thin film is an important anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Mesoporous films could be prepared by self-assembly processes. A molten-salt-assisted self-assembly (MASA) process is used to prepare mesoporous thin films of LTOs. Clear solutions of CTAB, P123, LiNO3 , HNO3 , and Ti(OC4 H9 )4 in ethanol form gel-like meso-ordered films upon either spin or spray coating. In the assembly process, the CTAB/P123 molar ratio of 14 is required to accommodate enough salt species in the mesophase, in which the Li(I) /P123 ratio can be varied between molar ratios of 28 and 72. Calcination of the meso-ordered films produces transparent mesoporous spinel LTO films that are abbreviated as Cxx-yyy-zzz or CAxx-yyy-zzz (C=calcined, CA=calcined-annealed, xx=Li(I) /P123 molar ratio, and yyy=calcination and zzz=annealing temperatures in Celsius) herein. All samples were characterized by using XRD, TEM, N2 -sorption, and Raman techniques and it was found that, at all compositions, the LTO spinel phase formed with or without an anatase phase as an impurity. Electrochemical characterization of the films shows excellent performance at different current rates. The CA40-350-450 sample performs best among all samples tested, yielding an average discharge capacity of (176±1) mA h g(-1) at C/2 and (139±4) mA h g(-1) at 50 C and keeping 92 % of its initial discharge capacity upon 50 cycles at C/2.

  14. Highly porous NiCo2O4 Nanoflakes and nanobelts as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-09-10

    Highly porous NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were synthesized by using a hydrothermal technique, followed by calcination of the NiCo2O4 precursors. The as-synthesized materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods. The NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Owing to the unique porous structural features, the NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts exhibited high specific capacities of 1033 and 1056 mA h g(-1), respectively, and good cycling stability and rate capability. These exceptional electrochemical performances could be ascribed to the remarkable structural feature with a high surface area and void spaces within the surface of nanoflakes and nanobelts, which provide large contact areas between electrolyte and active materials for electrolyte diffusion and cushion the volume variation during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process.

  15. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  16. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; ...

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internalmore » combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.« less

  17. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  18. Biomimetic layer-by-layer Co-mineralization approach towards TiO2/Au nanosheets with high rate performance for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Bo; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-11-07

    We fabricated a sandwich-like branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI)/TiO2/Au/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite through a biomimetic layer-by-layer co-mineralization approach, and the polymer b-PEI was believed to act as both an inducing agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) and a reducing agent for the reduction of HAuCl4 in the synthetic procedure. Upon organic pyrolysis in air at 500 °C, a TiO2/Au nanosheet was formed; and gold nanocrystals were observed uniformly dispersed on TiO2 nanosheet. Moreover, the obtained TiO2/Au nanosheets demonstrated an enhanced lithium storage performance when they are used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), particularly, a high capacity of 205 mA h g(-1) and 189 mA h g(-1) was obtained at 5 C and 10 C rate, respectively, indicating the high rate capability of the material. The greatly improved rate performance might be attributed from both the sheet-like nanostructure and the existence of uniformly dispersed gold nanocrystals, which facilitate electron transfer and lithium ions diffusion in the material. The result suggests that the TiO2 electrode performance can be improved through a design of sheet-like nanocomposites using a bio-inspired route, which is desirable for both "green synthesis" and application for high power LIBs, moreover, such a benign bio-inspired route can be developed into a general pathway to synthesize many other TiO2 based nanocomposites for broad applications in the fields of batteries, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Danmei; Qiao, Yajuan; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jie; Li, Chao; Chen, Changguo; Huo, Qisheng

    2014-11-01

    Stable and homogeneous mica-like vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)-nanostructured thin films are prepared directly by simple anodic deposition from V2O5/H2O2 sol solution, and then dried at ambient temperature and annealed at 500 °C in air for 1 h. The films' crystal- and microstructures, surface morphology and Li-ion intercalation properties were characterized and analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrochemical techniques. When used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode, the films exhibit a large discharge capacity of 596 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1080 mA g-1, as well as excellent cyclic stability and a fading rate of 1% per cycle. Explanations for such significant enhancements in specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performance of mica-like V2O5-nanostructured thin films are demonstrated in this study.

  20. LiMnBO₃ nanobeads as an innovative anode material for high power lithium ion capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2014-07-23

    A novel approach was made to fabricate lithium ion hybrid capacitor (Li-HC) having LiMnBO3 nanobead (LMB-NB) anode and polyaniline nanofiber (PANI) cathode in 1 M LiPF6 organic electrolyte. LMB-NB and PANI nanofibers were synthesized using urea assisted microwave-solvothermal method and chemical polymerization process, respectively. The PANI/LMB-NB cell showed improved electrochemical capacitive behavior as compared to activated carbon (AC)/LMB-NB cell due to the characteristic conductivity and the morphological feature of PANI as well as LMB-NB electrodes. A discharge capacitance (DCcell) of ∼125 F g(-1) was obtained at a current density of 1 A g(-1) between the potential range 0 and 3 V for PANI/LMB-NB cell, while AC/LMB-NB cell delivered only 77 F g(-1) at the same current density. Moreover, PANI/LMB-NB cell exhibited excellent rate performance with the DCcell of about 55 F g(-1) at 2.25 A g(-1) and still retained 94% of the initial value after 30 000 charge-discharge cycles. In addition, maximum energy and power densities of 42 Wh kg(-1) and 5350 W kg(-1), respectively, were achieved from PANI/LMB-NB cell. The obtained DCcell, energy, and power densities along with prolonged cyclic life for PANI/LMB-NB cell are some of the best ever reported values for Li-HC as compared to the cells constructed with various lithium intercalating materials.

  1. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  2. Encapsulating Sn(x)Sb Nanoparticles in Multichannel Graphene-Carbon Fibers As Flexible Anodes to Store Lithium Ions with High Capacities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Yan, Feilong; Wei, Yuehua; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Tianfang

    2015-10-07

    SnxSb intermetallic composites as high theoretical capacities anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) suffer from the quick capacity fading owing to their huge volume change. In this study, flexible mats made up of SnxSb-graphene-carbon porous multichannel nanofibers are fabricated by an electrospinning method and succedent annealing treatment at 700 °C. The flexible mats as binder-free anodes show a specific capacity of 729 mA h/g in the 500th cycle at a current density of 0.1 A/g, which is much higher than those of graphene-carbon nanofibers, pure carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-graphene-carbon nanofibers at the same cycle. The flexible mats could provide a reversible capacity of 381 mA h/g at 2 A/g, also higher than those of nanofibers, graphene-carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-carbon nanofibers. It is found that the suitable nanochannels could accommodate the volume expansion to achieve a high specific capacity. Besides, the graphene serves as both conductive and mechanical-property additives to enhance the rate capacity and flexibility of the mats. The electrospinning technique combined with graphene modification may be an effective method to produce flexible electrodes for fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, and super capacitors.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-01

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Hierarchical Nanotube-Constructed Porous TiO2-B Spheres for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi; Wang, Hong-En; -Zhuan Huang, Shao; Jin, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yong; Li, Yu; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-07-01

    Hierarchically structured porous TiO2-B spheres have been synthesized via a hydrothermal process using amorphous titania/oleylamine composites as a self-sacrificing template. The TiO2-B spheres are constructed by interconnected nanotubes and possess a high specific surface area of 295 m2 g-1. When evaluated as an anode material in lithium-half cells, the as-obtained TiO2-B material exhibits high and reversible lithium storage capacity of 270 mA h g-1 at 1 C (340 mA g-1), excellent rate capability of 221 mA h g-1 at 10 C, and long cycle life with over 70% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C. The superior electrochemical performance of TiO2-B material strongly correlates to the synergetic superiorities with a combination of TiO2-B polymorph, hierarchically porous structure, interconnected nanotubes and spherical morphology. Post-mortem structural analyses reveal some discrete cubic LiTiO2 nanodots formed on the outer surfaces of TiO2-B nanotubes, which might account for the slight capacity loss upon prolonged electrochemical cycling.

  5. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  6. Highly efficient solid-state synthesis of carbon-encapsulated ultrafine MoO2 nanocrystals as high rate lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyang; Shao, Yingfeng; Zhang, Yuliang; Zhang, Fuhua; Zhong, Ning; Li, Wenge

    2016-12-01

    A simple and highly efficient method is developed for the one-step in situ preparation of carbon-encapsulated MoO2 nanocrystals (MoO2@C) with core-shell structure for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode. The synthesis is depending on the solid-state reaction of cyclopentadienylmolybdenum tricarbonyl dimer with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at 200 °C for 30 min. The large amount of heat generated during the explosive reaction cleaves the cyclopentadiene ligands into small carbon fragments, which form carbon shell after oxidative dehydrogenation coating on the MoO2 nanocrystals, resulting in the formation of core-shell structure. The MoO2 nanocrystals have an equiaxial morphology with an ultrafine diameter of 2-8 nm, and the median size is 4.9 nm. Hundreds of MoO2 nanocrystals are encapsulated together by the worm-like carbon shell, which is amorphous and about 3-5 nm in thickness. The content of MoO2 nanocrystals in the nanocomposite is about 69.3 wt.%. The MoO2@C anode shows stable cyclability and retains a high reversible capacity of 443 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1, owing to the effective protection of carbon shell.

  7. Highly porous Fe3O4-Fe nanowires grown on C/TiC nanofiber arrays as the high performance anode of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kui; Yang, Fan; Ye, Ke; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Xue; Yin, Jinling; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2014-07-01

    A facile and green method is developed to fabricate Fe3O4-Fe nanowires with a large amount of nanoholes directly grown on highly conductive nanofiber arrays. By electrodeposition of Fe clusters on C/TiC nanofiber array, followed by in-situ chemical conversion of Fe to FeC2O4-Fe nanowires and the thermal decomposition of FeC2O4-Fe to Fe3O4-Fe, a Fe3O4-Fe nanocomposite electrode with unique architecture is successfully prepared. The electrode is characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Electrochemical properties of the nanowire arrays electrode as the anode of lithium-ion batteries are examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The electrode displayed remarkably high capacity, excellent high rate performance and superior cycling stability. The reversible capacity of the electrode reached 1012 mAh g-1 at 1C and retained to be 500 and 255 mAh g-1 at 10 and 20C, respectively. It can still deliver a specific capacity of 100 mAh g-1 even at 50C (72 s charge-discharge). The electrode also has a satisfactory cycling performance with capacity retention of 93.9% after 100 cycles at 1C. The magnificent performance can be attributed to the distinct configuration resulting from the novel fabrication process.

  8. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    arsenic particles that were synthesized on melt away carbon nanotubes by akalide reduction. The performance of these anodes proved sensitive to electrolyte composition, which was significantly improved by using fluorinated ethylene carbonate. Additionally, further gains in capacity retention can be made by limiting the loading voltage to 0.75 V vs lithium metal. The arsenic and melt away carbon nanotube composite was found to have excellent cycle life and capacity at high mass loading (80% arsenic) when the nanoparticles were directly synthesized on the melt away carbon nanotubes. Gallium arsenide is well known for its semiconducting properties, but its performance as in Li-ion battery anodes is first reported here. Gallium is a metal with a low melting point that has been touted as a possible self-healing material for lithium ion anodes. Alone, gallium proves to be unstable as a lithium ion battery anode, but when synthesized as gallium arsenide nanoparticles and mixed with melt away carbon nanotubes it can charge and discharge in a battery 100 times with approximately twice the capacity of graphite anodes. This first study of gallium arsenide shows dramatic cycle life improvements by using nanoscale rather that micron size gallium arsenide.

  9. Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanowire arrays constructed with stacked nanocrystals for high-rate lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lin; Wang, Lichuan; Dai, Sirui; Cao, Minglei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2017-03-01

    This work reports on nanoparticle-stacked Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanowire arrays (SLTO) as anode for lithium and sodium ion battery (NIB). Our finding shows that the pseudocapacitive effect partly contributes to the performance for the NIBs based on the SLTO electrode due to a large size volume of Na+ ions. More importantly, the SLTO nanowires constituting of the nanoparticles efficiently shorten ion diffusion length, thereafter accelerate ion insertion/extraction reaction and improve the rate capability. For the SLTO electrode, a specific capacity of 199.7 mAh g-1 can be achieved in the LIBs at a current rate of 0.75 C (voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V) and a specific capacity of 94.2 mAh g-1 is obtained in the NIBs at a high current rate of 15 C (voltage range of 0.5-2.5 V). Most importantly, the sodium ion full battery based on SLTO as anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials shows stable cycling performance with tiny capacity degradation (90.1 mAh g-1) after 200 cycles at a current rate of 4 C (voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V), simultaneously possessing a high energy density of 136.5 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 312 W kg-1.

  10. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  11. Lithium-ion cell technology demonstration for future NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Dalton, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to their attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including planetary orbiters, rovers and landers. For example, under the Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01 lithium-ion batteries were developed by Lithion (each being 28 V, 25 Ah, 8-cells. and 9 kg) and fully qualified prior to mission cancellation. In addition to the requirement of being able to supply at least 90 cycles on the surface of Mars, the battery demonstrated operational capability (both charge and discharge) over a large temperature range (-2O'C to +4OoC), with tolerance to non-operational excursions to -30nd 50Currently, JPL is implementing lithium-ion technology on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), which will be coupled with a solar array. This mission has similar performance requirements to that of the 2001 Lander in that high energy density and a wide operating temperature range are necessitated. In addition to planetary rover and lander applications, we are also engaged in determining the viability of using lithium-ion technology for orbiter applications that require exceptionally long life (>20,000 cydes at partial depth of discharge). To assess the viabili of lithium-ion cells for these applications, a number of performance characterization tests have been performed (at the cell and battery level) on state-of-art prototype lihium- ion cells, induding: assessing the cycle life performance (at varying DODs), life characteristics at extreme temperatures (< -10nd >+4OoC), rate capability as a function of temperature (-30' to 4OoC), pulse capability, self-discharge and storage characteristics, as well as, mission profile capability. This paper will describe the current and

  12. High capacity retention Si/silicide nanocomposite anode materials fabricated by high-energy mechanical milling for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyoung Kyu; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Yang, Yun Mo; Kim, Jae Hyuk; Moon, Sung Whan; Cho, Jong Soo; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of different kinds of nanocomposite materials is a promising approach to alleviate the severe volume changes of Silicon anode materials for lithium-ion secondary batteries. In the present study, a novel nanocomposite Si80Fe16Cr4 was synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling without noticeable contamination. The nano-indentation results revealed that the elastic recoverable energy range of the synthesized nanocomposite is 3.43 times higher than that of Si. The proposed nanocomposite milled for 8 and 10 h recorded a noteworthy reversible capacity of 841 and 812 mAh g-1 even at 100th cycle, with excellent capacity retention. Remarkably, the nanocomposite exhibited a very low initial cycle (1st cycle) capacity loss ∼14%. The crystal separation of the less active silicide phases was determined after the extended cycling, which is advantageous for accommodating the stress produced by the volume changes of the active Si. The primary factors attributed to the excellent electrochemical performance were the size reduction of Si particles to nanometer scale, the formation of the highly elastic matrix, and separation of silicide phases after extended cycling.

  13. High-performance characteristics of silicon inverse opal synthesized by the simple magnesium reduction as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jae-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Ketack; Lee, Sung-Man; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2015-12-01

    Inverse silicon opal (ISi) and carbon-coated inverse Si opal (C-ISi) structures are prepared from the simple thermal reduction method using magnesium and investigated as the anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The ISi and C-ISi samples comprise continuously arranged inverse opal structures, constructed by Si nanoparticles. The macroporous structures in ∼1 μm range are favourable for lithium-ion transport and more importantly for absorbing volumetric change in the silicon nanoparticles. Moreover, the carbon coating on the inverse Si opal improves the electrical conductivity and acts as a mechanical buffer for the volume change. C-ISi sample shows a high capacity of 1550 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle with very stable cycle retention, whereas the ISi and pristine Si samples show 1146.4 mAh g-1 and approximately zero, respectively, at the 100th cycle with rapid capacity fading. Surprisingly, the volumetric expansion of C-ISi electrode after 100th cycles is only 16.1%, which is as low as that for commercial graphite electrodes.

  14. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li+ due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries.Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle

  15. Controllable synthesis of SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxiu; Li, Wei; Wang, Fei; Xia, Yongyao; Asiri, Abdullah M; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-03-21

    In this work, we report a facile synthesis of uniform SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The yolk-shell structured SnO2@C nanospheres were fabricated through a two-step sol-gel coating process by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as precursors, where the silica interlayer not only acts as a template to produce the void space, but also promotes the coating of the RF layer. The synthesis is easy to operate and allows tailoring the carbon shell thickness and void space size. The resultant SnO2@C yolk-shell nanospheres possess a hollow highly crystalline SnO2 core (280-380 nm), tailored carbon shell thickness (15-25 nm) and a large void space size (100-160 nm), a high surface area (∼205 m(2) g(-1)), a large pore volume (∼0.25 cm(3) g(-1)), as well as a high SnO2 content (77 wt%). When evaluated as an anode of LIBs, the materials manifest superior electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capability (2190 mA h g(-1) in initial discharge capacity; >950 mA h g(-1) in the first 10 cycles), a good cycling performance and an excellent rate capability.

  16. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g-1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g-1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g-1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g-1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g-1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  17. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  18. Precise Perforation and Scalable Production of Si Particles from Low-Grade Sources for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Linqi; Jin, Yan; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bin; Hu, Xiaozhen; Lu, Zhenda; Zhu, Jia

    2016-11-09

    Alloy anodes, particularly silicon, have been intensively pursued as one of the most promising anode materials for the next generation lithium-ion battery primarily because of high specific capacity (>4000 mAh/g) and elemental abundance. In the past decade, various nanostructures with porosity or void space designs have been demonstrated to be effective to accommodate large volume expansion (∼300%) and to provide stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) during electrochemical cycling. However, how to produce these building blocks with precise morphology control at large scale and low cost remains a challenge. In addition, most of nanostructured silicon suffers from poor Coulombic efficiency due to a large surface area and Li ion trapping at the surface coating. Here we demonstrate a unique nanoperforation process, combining modified ball milling, annealing, and acid treating, to produce porous Si with precise and continuous porosity control (from 17% to 70%), directly from low cost metallurgical silicon source (99% purity, ∼ $1/kg). The produced porous Si coated with graphene by simple ball milling can deliver a reversible specific capacity of 1250 mAh/g over 1000 cycles at the rate of 1C, with Coulombic efficiency of first cycle over 89.5%. The porous networks also provide efficient ion and electron pathways and therefore enable excellent rate performance of 880 mAh/g at the rate of 5C. Being able to produce particles with precise porosity control through scalable processes from low-grade materials, it is expected that this nanoperforation may play a role in the next generation lithium ion battery anodes, as well as many other potential applications such as optoelectronics and thermoelectrics.

  19. Electrospun porous carbon nanofiber@MoS2 core/sheath fiber membranes as highly flexible and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Fan, Wei; Lai, Feili; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-06-01

    Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high

  20. FeS2@C nanowires derived from organic-inorganic hybrid nanowires for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Chunli; Huang, Gang; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous FeS2@C nanowires as a high cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on a large-scale from an organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire precursor. The FeS2@C nanowires not only provide a continuous and fast electron transport pathway, favorable diffusion kinetics, but also provide the protection buffer the volume expansion and effectively prevent the polysulfides from dissolving in the electrolyte during cycling. Attributing to the synergistic advantages of both 1D porous nanostructure and the encapsulation of thin amorphous carbon layers, the FeS2@C nanowires exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance with a high specific capacity of 889 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 521 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a discharge energy density of 1225 Wh kg-1 is obtained at 2 A g-1 and remains as high as 637 Wh kg-1 after 1000 cycles, which is even higher than the LiCoO2 cathode. The results demonstrate that the potential for applications in LIBs with high power density and long cycling life.

  1. A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride nanocomposite as novel and high-capacity cathode material for lithium/sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yongqiang; Wang, Xianyou; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Miaoling; Yang, Xiukang; Shu, Hongbo

    2015-06-01

    A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride (abbreviated as FeF3·xH2O/G) nanocomposite is successfully designed and synthesized for the first time by a sol-gel method. It found that the FeF3·xH2O nanoparticles distribute randomly on the surface of the graphene, stacking together to form a nanocomposite with high specific surface and abundant mesporous structure. The FeF3·xH2O was consisted of FeF3·3H2O and FeF2.5·0.5H2O with pyrochlore phase structure and FeF3·0.33H2O with hexagonal-tungsten-bronze-type structure (HTB). The FeF3·xH2O/G was used as cathode materials of rechargeable lithium/sodium batteries, respectively. It has been found that it can deliver a large reversible capacity exceeding 200 mAh g-1 and excellent cyclic performance with a residual capacity of 183 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C and 149 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 1C, especially, an outstanding rate performance exceeding 130 mAh g-1 at 5C in the voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V for Li-ion batteries. Moreover, when FeF3·xH2O/G is used as cathode material of Na-ion batteries, it exhibits also a high reversible capacity of 101 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles in the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V at 0.1C. Therefore, FeF3·xH2O/G will a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium/sodium ion batteries.

  2. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  3. A novel strategy to prepare Ge@C/rGO hybrids as high-rate anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangrun; Wen, Zhaoyin; Jin, Jun; Hong, Xiaoheng; Zhang, Sanpei; Rui, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Germanium is considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high-capacity. However, owing to the huge volume variation during cycling, the batteries based on germanium anodes usually show poor cyclability and inferior rate capability. Herein, we demonstrated a novel strategy to uniformly anchor the core-shell structured germanium@carbon (Ge@C) on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by the strong adhesion of dopamine. In the resulting Ge@C/rGO hybrid, the amorphous carbon layer and rGO nanosheets can effectively reduce the agglomeration of germanium and provide buffer matrix for the volume change in electrochemical lithium reactions. When used as anode materials for LIBs, Ge@C/rGO hybrids deliver a reversible capacity of 1074.4 mA h g-1 at 2C after 600 cycles (with capacity retention of 96.5%) and high rate capability of 436 mA h g-1 at 20C after 200 cycles. The encouraging electrochemical performance clearly demonstrates that Ge@C/rGO hybrids could be a potential anode material with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability for LIBs.

  4. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  5. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  6. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  7. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  8. Close-packed poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticle arrays-coated polyethylene separators for high-power lithium-ion polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Hoon; Park, Woong; Kim, Jong Hun; Ryoo, Dongjo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Jeong, Yeon Uk; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Sang-Young

    In an endeavor to improve the discharge C-rate performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries targeting high-power applications, we develop a novel gel polymer electrolyte-coated separator, which is based on introduction of close-packed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticle arrays onto a polyethylene (PE) separator. In contrast to a conventional PMMA dense coating layer, a noticeable feature of the PMMA nanoparticle array coating layer is its highly ordered nanoporous structure, i.e. well-connected interstitial voids formed between the close-packed PMMA nanoparticles. This unique morphology allows for not only favorable liquid electrolyte wettability but also facile ionic conduction of the PMMA nanoparticle arrays-coated separator, both of which play crucial roles in improving the discharge C-rate performance of cells assembled with the separator.

  9. Preparation, structure study and electrochemistry of layered H2V3O8 materials: High capacity lithium-ion battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Bhowmik, Arghya; Pan, Jaysree; Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-10-01

    The present study explores H2V3O8 as high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB's). Despite having high discharge capacity, H2V3O8 material suffers from poor electrochemical stability for prolonged cycle life. Ultra-long H2V3O8 nanobelts with ordered crystallographic patterns are synthesized via a hydrothermal process to mitigate this problem. The growth of the crystal is facile along [001] direction, and the most common surface is (001) as suggested by Wulff construction study. Electrochemical performance of H2V3O8 cathode is tested against Li/Li+ at various current rates. At 50 mA g-1current rate, it delivers a discharge capacity of 308 mAh g-1, whereas, at 3000 mA g-1, an initial discharge capacity of 144 mAh g-1 is observed and stabilized at 100 mAh g-1 till 500 cycles. Further, the density functional theory (DFT) based simulations study of both the pristine and lithiated phase of H2V3O8 cathode materials is undertaken. DFT study reveals the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl unit in the framework of the host. In correlation, the magnetic property of vanadium atoms is examined in detail with through partial density of states (PDOS) calculation during three stage lithiation processes and evaluating various potential steps involved in lithium insertion.

  10. Sucrose-assisted loading of LiFePO4 nanoparticles on graphene for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongmin; Wen, Zhenhai; Feng, Hongbin; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-26

    A simple approach for loading LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles on graphene (G) that could assemble amorphous LiFePO4 nanoparticles into a stable, crystalline, graphene-modified layered materials (G-S-LFP, S=sucrose) by using graphene as building block and sucrose as a linker has yet to be developed. On the basis of differential scanning calorimetric and transmission electron microscopy analysis of the samples from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the "linker" process of LFP and graphene with sucrose as the linker. The electrochemical properties of the samples as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries were studied by cyclic voltammogrametry and galvanostatic methods. Results showed that G-S-LFP displayed superior lithium-storage capability with current density changes randomly form 0.5 to 10 C. The significant improvement for rate and cycle performance could be attributed to the high conductivity of the graphene host, the high crystallinity, and the layered structure.

  11. A PSPICE macromodel for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.

    1997-12-01

    Battery models for simulation are useful for estimating operating life, stability, transient response, and related characteristics in circuits and systems. This paper presents a parametric PSPICE macromodel for simulating Lithium-Ion batteries. Comparisons of the simulation with experimental data from 1.25 Ah Lithium-Ion cells are then made.

  12. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  14. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  16. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  17. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2017-04-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  18. Li2ZrO3-coated Li4Ti5O12 with nanoscale interface for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Zr doped sample of Li4Ti4.99Zr0.01O12 (LZTO) and Li2ZrO3 (LZO) coated Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) are prepared by a solid-state method. The lattice structure of LTO is remained after doping element of Zr and coating layer of LZO. The crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the material are investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge-discharge tests, respectively. Zr-doping and LZO coating play the positive role in improving the diffusion ability of lithium cations. LZTO and LZO-LTO show much improved specific capacity and rate capability compared with pristine sample of LTO. LZO-LTO has the smallest voltage differential (ΔV) of the redox peaks because the coating of Li2ZrO3 is helpful for the diffusion ability of lithium ions during charge/discharge processes. LZTO and LZO-LTO as electrode deliver the initial capacities of 164.8, 168.1 mAh g-1, respectively, which are much higher than 150.2 mAh g-1 of intrinsic sample of LTO. Even at the current density of 2 A g-1, LTZO and LZO-LTO offer capacity of 96 and 106 mAh g-1, which are much higher than 33 mAh g-1 of LTO. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the improved diffusion ability of lithium. During the whole discharge process, the lowest value of LTO is 5.97 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 that is much lower than 7.80 × 10-16 cm2 s-1 in LZTO and 1.85 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 in LZO-LTO, respectively.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  20. High conducting oxide--sulfide composite lithium superionic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Dudney, Nancy J.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Rondinone, Adam Justin

    2017-01-17

    A solid electrolyte for a lithium-sulfur battery includes particles of a lithium ion conducting oxide composition embedded within a lithium ion conducting sulfide composition. The lithium ion conducting oxide composition can be Li.sub.7La.sub.3Zr.sub.2O.sub.12 (LLZO). The lithium ion conducting sulfide composition can be .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 (LPS). A lithium ion battery and a method of making a solid electrolyte for a lithium ion battery are also disclosed.

  1. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  2. Scalable synthesis of hierarchical hollow Li4Ti5O12 microspheres assembled by zigzag-like nanosheets for high rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kunxu; Gao, Hanyang; Hu, Guoxin; Liu, Mengjing; Wang, Haochen

    2017-02-01

    Electrochemical performance, abundance and cost are three crucial criteria to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of Li4Ti5O12 as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, hierarchical hollow Li4Ti5O12 microspheres (HLTOMs) assembled by zigzag-like nanosheets are synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of scalable lithium peroxotitanate complex solution using low-cost commercial H2TiO3 particles as titanium sources, followed by a calcination treatment. Precursor solution concentration, Li/Ti ratio, hydrothermal temperature and duration are found correlative and should be optimized to obtain pure Li4Ti5O12 products. A high yield of HLTOMs up to 120 g L-1 was achieved. Due to the unique morphology, the HLTOMs deliver an outstanding rate capability of 139, 125 and 108 mA h g-1 at 10, 20 and 30 C, respectively, and exhibit 94% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 30C indicating excellent stability. These values are much superior to those of commercial Li4Ti5O12 particles (CLTOPs), showing HLTOMs are promising anode materials for LIBs.

  3. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g−1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance. PMID:27181691

  4. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g‑1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g‑1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g‑1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g‑1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance.

  5. Porous Co3O4/CuO composite assembled from nanosheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2015-04-24

    Upon dealloying a carefully designed CoCuAl ternary alloy in NaOH solution at room temperature, a Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite with an interconnected porous microstructure assembled by a secondary structure of nanosheets was successfully fabricated. By using the dealloying strategy, the target metals directly grew to form uniform bimetallic oxide nanocomposites. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure and the synergistic effect of both active electrode materials, the Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced electrochemical performance with higher capacities and better cycling stability compared to anodes of pure Co3 O4 . Moreover, it performs excellently in terms of cycle reversibility, Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability, at both low or high current rates. With the advantages of unique performance and ease of preparation, the as-made Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite demonstrates promising application potential as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Facile synthesis of hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanospheres as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries via galvanic replacement reaction and in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Anni; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Dou, Peng; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2015-08-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated hollow Sn-Co nanospheres (Sn-Co@PMMA) with superior electrochemical performance had been synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method followed by an in situ emulsion polymerization route. The properties were investigated in detail and results show that the hollow Sn-Co nanospheres were evenly coated with PMMA. Benefiting from the protection of the PMMA layers, the hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanocomposite is capable of retaining a high capacity of 590 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with a coulomb efficiency above 98%, revealing better electrochemical properties compared with hollow Sn-Co anodes. The PMMA coating could help accommodate the mechanical strain caused by volume expansion and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed on the electrode. Such a facile process could be further extended to other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional porous nitrogen-doped graphene for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Naiqing; Fan, Lishuang; Sun, Kening

    2016-11-01

    A composite consisting of Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional (3D) porous nitrogen-doped graphene is reported. Due to the 3D porous structure, the composite has large specific surface area of 112 m2 g-1, which can increase the contact area between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the 3D porous conductive framework can not only facilitate the fast electron transport and Li+ diffusion but also enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite. As expected, the composite shows an outstanding rate capability of 273 mAh g-1 at 10000 mA g-1 and a capacity of 417 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Therefore, the composite is a promising candidate as an anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries.

  8. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4‑δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4‑δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  9. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  10. Methacrylate based gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isken, P.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.; Lex-Balducci, A.

    2013-03-01

    A methacrylate based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared and electrochemically investigated. The polymer was synthesized as a statistical co-polymer of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) and benzyl methacrylate (BnMA) by free radical polymerization. The ethylene glycol side chain of OEGMA should be able to interact with the liquid electrolyte, thus keeping it inside the GPE, whereas BnMA was used to enhance the mechanical stability of the GPE. Such a polymer was able to retain liquid electrolyte up to 400% of its own weight, while the mechanical stability of the GPE was still high enough to be used as separator in lithium-ion batteries. The GPE displayed a conductivity of 1.8 mS cm-1 at 25 °C and an electrochemical stability window comparable to that of a standard liquid electrolyte. When used in lithium-ion batteries, such a GPE allowed a performance comparable to that obtained using conventional liquid electrolytes. Therefore the reported electrolyte was identified as a promising candidate as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Tissue-like Silicon Nanowires-Based Three-Dimensional Anodes for High-Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peled, Emanuel; Patolsky, Fernando; Golodnitsky, Diana; Freedman, Kathrin; Davidi, Guy; Schneier, Dan

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report on the scalable synthesis and characterization of novel architecture three-dimensional (3D) high-capacity amorphous silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based anodes with focus on studying their electrochemical degradation mechanisms. We achieved an unprecedented combination of remarkable performance characteristics, high loadings of 3-15 mAh/cm(2), a very low irreversible capacity (10% for the 3-4 mAh/cm(2) anodes), current efficiency greater than 99.5%, cycle stability (both in half cells and a LiFePO4 battery), a total capacity of 457 mAh/cm(2) over 204 cycles and fast charge-discharge rates (up to 2.7C at 20 mA/cm(2)). These SiNWs-based binder-free 3D anodes have been cycled for over 200 cycles, exhibiting a stable cycle life. Notably, it was found that the growth of the continuous SEI layer thickness, and its concomitant increase in resistivity, represents the major reason for the observed capacity loss of the SiNWs-based anodes. Importantly, these NWs-based anodes of novel architecture meet the requirements of lithium batteries for future portable, and electric-vehicle, applications.

  13. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  14. Enhanced Performance of "Flower-like" Li4Ti5O12 Motifs as Anode Materials for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yiman; Scofield, Megan E; Yue, Shiyu; McBean, Coray; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2015-10-12

    "Flower-like" motifs of Li4Ti5O12 were synthesized by using a facile and large-scale hydrothermal process involving unique Ti foil precursors followed by a short, relatively low-temperature calcination in air. Moreover, a detailed time-dependent growth mechanism and a reasonable reaction scheme were proposed to clearly illustrate and highlight the structural evolution and subsequent formation of this material. Specifically, the resulting "flower-like" Li4Ti5O12 microspheres consisting of thin nanosheets provide for an enhanced surface area and a reduced lithium-ion diffusion distance. The high surface areas of the exposed roughened, thin petal-like component nanosheets are beneficial for the interaction of the electrolyte with Li4Ti5O12 , which thereby ultimately provides for improved high-rate performance and favorable charge/discharge dynamics. Electrochemical studies of the as-prepared nanostructured Li4Ti5O12 clearly revealed their promising potential as an enhanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries, as they present both excellent rate capabilities (delivering 148, 141, 137, 123, and 60 mAh g(-1) under discharge rates of 0.2, 10, 20, 50, and 100 C, at cycles of 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70, respectively) and stable cycling performance (exhibiting a capacity retention of ≈97 % from cycles 10-100, under a discharge rate of 0.2 C, and an impressive capacity retention of ≈87 % by using a more rigorous discharge rate of 20 C from cycles 101-300).

  15. High-Loading Nano-SnO2 Encapsulated in situ in Three-Dimensional Rigid Porous Carbon for Superior Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hairong; Zhao, Jianqing; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen; Yamauchi, Yusuke; He, Jianping

    2016-03-24

    Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) have been encapsulated in situ in a three-dimensional ordered space structure. Within this composite, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) acts as a carbon framework showing a desirable ordered mesoporous structure with an average pore size (≈6 nm) and a high surface area (470.3 m(2) g(-1)), and the SnO2 NPs (≈10 nm) are highly loaded (up to 80 wt %) and homogeneously distributed within the OMC matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a SnO2 @OMC composite material can deliver an initial charge capacity of 943 mAh g(-1) and retain 68.9 % of the initial capacity after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), even exhibit a capacity of 503 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 160 mA g(-1). In situ encapsulation of the SnO2 NPs within an OMC framework contributes to a higher capacity and a better cycling stability and rate capability in comparison with bare OMC and OMC ex situ loaded with SnO2 particles (SnO2/OMC). The significantly improved electrochemical performance of the SnO2@OMC composite can be attributed to the multifunctional OMC matrix, which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration, accelerate charge transfer, and lithium-ion diffusion, and act as a favorable buffer to release reaction strains for lithiation/delithiation of the SnO2 NPs.

  16. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  17. Monodispersed Li4Ti5O12 with Controlled Morphology as High Power Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunchao; Fu, Guoyi; Watson, Mark; ...

    2016-05-31

    Monodispersed Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanoparticles with controlled microstructure were successfully synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and hydrothermal method followed by a post-annealing process. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that particles with a size of 30-40 nm were precisely controlled throughout the synthesis process. The electrochemical tests of the as-prepared LTO electrodes in a half-cell proved its high rate performance and outstanding cyclability which benefits from the preserved well-controlled nanoparticle size and morphology. LTO electrodes were also tested in a full cell configuration in pairing with LiFePO4 cathodes, which demonstrated a capacity of 147.3 mAh g-1. In addition, we havemore » also demonstrated that LTO materials prepared using lithium salts separated from geothermal brine solutions had good cyclability. These demonstrations provide a promising way for making low-cost, large-scale LTO electrode materials for energy storage applications.« less

  18. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm−2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm−2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  19. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  20. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  1. Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Lijiang; Hu, Zhe; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Li2S has a high theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh g-1, but it suffers from limited rate and cycling performance. Herein we reported in-situ synthesis of thermally exfoliated graphene-Li2S (in-situ TG-Li2S) nanocomposite and its application as a superior cathode material alternative to sulfur. Li2S nanoparticles with the size of ~8.5 nm homogeneously anchored in graphene nanosheets were prepared via chemical reduction of pre-sublimed sulfur by lithium triethylborohydride (LiEt3BH). The in-situ TG-Li2S nanocomposite exhibited an initial capacity of 1119 mAh g-1 Li2S (1609 mAh g-1 S) with a negligible charged potential barrier in the first cycle. The discharge capacity retained 791 mAh g-1 Li2S (1137 mAh g-1 S) after 100 cycles at 0.1C and exceeded 560 mAh g-1 Li2S (805 mAh g-1 S) at a high rate of 2C. Moreover, coupling the composite with Si thin film anode, a Li2S/Si full cell was produced, delivering a high specific capacity of ~900 mAh g-1 Li2S (1294 mAh g-1 S). The outstanding electrode performance of in-situ TG-Li2S composite was attributed to the well dispersed small Li2S nanoparticles and highly conductive graphene nanosheets, which provided merits of facile ionic and electronic transport, efficient utilization of the active material, and flexible accommodation of volume change.

  2. Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Lijiang; Hu, Zhe; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Li2S has a high theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh g−1, but it suffers from limited rate and cycling performance. Herein we reported in-situ synthesis of thermally exfoliated graphene−Li2S (in-situ TG−Li2S) nanocomposite and its application as a superior cathode material alternative to sulfur. Li2S nanoparticles with the size of ~8.5 nm homogeneously anchored in graphene nanosheets were prepared via chemical reduction of pre-sublimed sulfur by lithium triethylborohydride (LiEt3BH). The in-situ TG−Li2S nanocomposite exhibited an initial capacity of 1119 mAh g−1 Li2S (1609 mAh g−1 S) with a negligible charged potential barrier in the first cycle. The discharge capacity retained 791 mAh g−1 Li2S (1137 mAh g−1 S) after 100 cycles at 0.1C and exceeded 560 mAh g−1 Li2S (805 mAh g−1 S) at a high rate of 2C. Moreover, coupling the composite with Si thin film anode, a Li2S/Si full cell was produced, delivering a high specific capacity of ~900 mAh g−1 Li2S (1294 mAh g−1 S). The outstanding electrode performance of in-situ TG−Li2S composite was attributed to the well dispersed small Li2S nanoparticles and highly conductive graphene nanosheets, which provided merits of facile ionic and electronic transport, efficient utilization of the active material, and flexible accommodation of volume change. PMID:25253198

  3. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  4. Evaluation of TIAX High Energy CAM-7/Graphite Lithium-Ion Batteries at High and Low Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    List 13 iv List of Figures Fig. 1 Calculated specific energy (left) and energy density (right) of fixed volume 18650 cell designs with 5 mA·h...temperature (25 °C) differential capacity of 18650 cells with standard-loading electrodes. Cycles 1–100 every 10 cycles shown...cycles 1–20) and low temperature (–20 °C, cycles 21–23) rate cycling of high energy 18650 cells

  5. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  6. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-21

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  7. Facile synthesis of sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite as a stable and high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Hu, Xianluo; Qie, Long; Jiang, Yan; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Qiao, Yun; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-21

    Traditional metal anode materials in lithium-ion batteries are plagued by instability upon discharge-charge cycling. We report that a unique sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite has been synthesized on a large scale through a simple ion-exchange reaction, whereby Zn2GeO4 nanorods with lengths of 600 nm and widths of 40 nm are homogeneously sandwiched into the graphene oxide matrix. Compared with bare Zn2GeO4 nanorods, a dramatic improvement in the electrochemical performance of the resulting nanocomposite has been achieved. In the voltage window of 0.001-3 V, the electrode of the Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite delivers a specific capacity as high as 1150 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) after 100 discharge-charge cycles. Even at a high current density of 3.2 A g(-1), a capacity of 522 mA h g(-1) can be retained. The unusual electrochemical performance including highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capability arise from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Zn2GeO4 and graphene oxide.

  8. High areal capacity hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion battery with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency for large-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Yifei; Yao, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs) featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Li-intercalation cathode are safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. Here we report for the first time the excellent stability of a high areal capacity MLIB cell and dendrite-free deposition behavior of Mg under high current density (2 mA cm(-2)). The hybrid cell showed no capacity loss for 100 cycles with Coulombic efficiency as high as 99.9%, whereas the control cell with a Li-metal anode only retained 30% of its original capacity with Coulombic efficiency well below 90%. The use of TiS2 as a cathode enabled the highest specific capacity and one of the best rate performances among reported MLIBs. Postmortem analysis of the cycled cells revealed dendrite-free Mg deposition on a Mg anode surface, while mossy Li dendrites were observed covering the Li surface and penetrated into separators in the Li cell. The energy density of a MLIB could be further improved by developing electrolytes with higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window, leading to new opportunities for its application in large-scale energy storage.

  9. Stable, high voltage Li0.85Ni0.46Cu0.1Mn1.49O4 spinel cathode in a lithium-ion battery using a conversion-type CuO anode.

    PubMed

    Verrelli, Roberta; Scrosati, Bruno; Sun, Yang-Kook; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-04-09

    We report in this work a copper-doped Li0.85Ni0.46Cu0.1Mn1.49O4 spinel-structured compound prepared by an easy, two-steps coprecipitation and solid state process and used in a lithium-ion battery in combination with a CuO-based anode. We show that the spinel-type cathode adopts unique morphology, characterized by well-developed, crystalline and aggregated microparticles, that considerably reduces the occurrence of side reactions. This cathode material can operate in a lithium cell at voltages as high as 5.3 V without sign of electrolyte decomposition, delivering a capacity of about 100 mA h g(-1) with high retention and high Coulombic efficiency over prolonged cycling. The combination of the Li0.85Ni0.46Cu0.1Mn1.49O4 cathode with a conversion-type, CuO-MCMB anode results in a new type of lithium ion battery characterized by a voltage value of 3.4 V, a stable capacity of 100 mA h g(-1) and a high Coulombic efficiency (exceeding 95%). Expected low cost, safety, and environmental compatibility are additional advantages of the lithium-ion cell reported here.

  10. Iron phosphates as cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijun

    High performance lithium ion batteries are essential to meeting the requirements of both portable electronic equipment for personal use and large-scale applications like hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. Iron-based materials combined with phosphate groups are promising cathode candidates, with their rich structural chemistry and the relatively high Fe3+/Fe2+ redox potential vs. Li/Li+. This study investigated primarily two iron phosphate frameworks: the olivine-type all-ferrous LiFePO4 and the all-ferric lipscombite. Both were synthesized at low temperatures using a hydrothermal or solvothermal method. The structure and morphology were evaluated by XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM and electrochemical studies. The olivine-type LiFePO4 contains isolated chains of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra, forming a 1-D tunnel structure through which lithium can be intercalated/deintercalated. Pure ordered LiFePO4 was achieved at an optimized synthesis condition by adding hydrazine at a pH of 6. It was found that the pH significantly affects the morphology. The reversible capacity was less than ideal, mainly due to the relatively large particle size. Lithium ion diffusivity was determined to be around 10-14 cm 2 s-1. The all-ferric lipscombite structure Fe3+4/3-z/3⊘2/ 3+z/3 (PO4)(OH)1-z (H2O)z ( z = 0 or 0.46, O = vacancy) contains interconnecting chains of face-sharing FeO6 octahedra, with about 2/3 (Fe-2/3-T) and 60% (Fe-60%) iron occupancy with a "stacking-log-like" structure. Lithium can diffuse within one tunnel as well as possibly jump between tunnels through vacancies in the FeO6 octahedra, making pseudo 3-D diffusion paths. On metal substitution, high valence ions increased the capacity when compared to its parent compound. Lithium ion-exchanged compounds significantly improve the capacity in Fe-2/3-T while minimally doing so in Fe-60%.

  11. Collective capture of released lithium ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Wu, C. S.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhou, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capture of newly ionized lithium ions in the solar wind by means of electromagnetic instabilities is investigated through linear analysis and computer simulation. Three instabilities, driven by a lithium velocity ring perpendicular to and drifting along the magnetic field, are considered. The capture time of the lithium by the solar wind is roughly 10 linear growth times, regardless of whether resonant or nonresonant modes dominate initially. Possible implications of the results for the Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission are discussed.

  12. Self-assembly of hierarchical MoSx/CNT nanocomposites (2high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yumeng; Wang, Ye; Wong, Jen It; Tan, Alex Yuan Sheng; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Li, Lain-Jong; Lu, Yi-Chun; Yang, Hui Ying

    2013-01-01

    Two dimension (2D) layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has emerged as a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, 2D MoSx (2 ≤ x ≤ 3) nanosheet-coated 1D multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites with hierarchical architecture were synthesized via a high-throughput solvent thermal method under low temperature at 200°C. The unique hierarchical nanostructures with MWNTs backbone and nanosheets of MoSx have significantly promoted the electrode performance in LIBs. Every single MoSx nanosheet interconnect to MWNTs centers with maximized exposed electrochemical active sites, which significantly enhance ion diffusion efficiency and accommodate volume expansion during the electrochemical reaction. A remarkably high specific capacity (i.e., > 1000 mAh/g) was achieved at the current density of 50 mA g−1, which is much higher than theoretical numbers for either MWNTs or MoS2 along (~372 and ~670 mAh/g, respectively). We anticipate 2D nanosheets/1D MWNTs nanocomposites will be promising materials in new generation practical LIBs. PMID:23835645

  13. Layer-by-layer assembly synthesis of ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiazheng; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue; Yang, Deren

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was deposited on ZnO nanoarrays through layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanowire arrays show improved performance as anode for Li-ion battery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved performance was attributed to the combining advantages of each ingredient. -- Abstract: A layer-by-layer approach has been developed to synthesize ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays on copper substrate. ZnO nanowire arrays have been first prepared on copper substrate through seed-assisted method, and then, the surface of ZnO nanowires have been modified by the polyelectrolyte. After oxidation-reduction reaction, SnO{sub 2} layer has been deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays have been applied as anode for lithium-ion batteries, which show high reversible capacity and good cycling stability compared to pure ZnO nanowire arrays and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. It is believed that the improved performance may be attributed to the high capacity of SnO{sub 2} and the good cycling stability of the array structure on current collector.

  14. Self-assembly of hierarchical MoSx/CNT nanocomposites (2high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yumeng; Wang, Ye; Wong, Jen It; Tan, Alex Yuan Sheng; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Li, Lain-Jong; Lu, Yi-Chun; Yang, Hui Ying

    2013-01-01

    Two dimension (2D) layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has emerged as a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, 2D MoSx (2 ≤ x ≤ 3) nanosheet-coated 1D multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites with hierarchical architecture were synthesized via a high-throughput solvent thermal method under low temperature at 200°C. The unique hierarchical nanostructures with MWNTs backbone and nanosheets of MoSx have significantly promoted the electrode performance in LIBs. Every single MoSx nanosheet interconnect to MWNTs centers with maximized exposed electrochemical active sites, which significantly enhance ion diffusion efficiency and accommodate volume expansion during the electrochemical reaction. A remarkably high specific capacity (i.e., > 1000 mAh/g) was achieved at the current density of 50 mA g(-1), which is much higher than theoretical numbers for either MWNTs or MoS2 along (~372 and ~670 mAh/g, respectively). We anticipate 2D nanosheets/1D MWNTs nanocomposites will be promising materials in new generation practical LIBs.

  15. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications.

  16. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  18. Three-Dimensional Conductive Gel Network as an Effective Binder for High-Performance Si Electrodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohui; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Sun, Yanli; Zheng, Jiao; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2015-07-29

    Silicon (Si) has been widely investigated as a candidate for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its extremely high specific capacity. The binders play a key role in fabricating high-performance Si electrodes which usually suffer from the huge volume expansion associated with the alloying and dealloying processes. Here we develop a facile route to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) conductive interpenetrated gel network as a novel binder for high-performance Si anodes through chemically cross-linking of acrylic acid monomer followed by the in situ polymerization of aniline. The excellent electrical conductivity, strong mechanical adhesion and high electrolyte uptake render the conductive gel network a potential binder for high-performance Si anodes. The resultant Si anodes exhibit excellent cycling stability, high Coulombic efficiency and superior rate capability, revealing better electrochemical properties compared to the Si anodes with conventional binders. The 3D conductive gel binder could not only accommodate the volume expansion and maintain electric connectivity, but also assist in the formation of stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. Such a strategy sheds light on the design of polymer binders in LIBs, especially for high-capacity electrode materials with huge volume changes during long-term cycling.

  19. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  20. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  1. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  2. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  3. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Anodes Being Evaluated for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Tom; VanderWal, Randy L.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is evaluating the use of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for thin-film lithium-ion (Li) batteries. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, in contrast to carbon black, directed structured nanotubes and nanofibers offer a superior intercalation media for Li-ion batteries. Carbon lamellas in carbon blacks are circumferentially oriented and block much of the particle interior, rendering much of the matrix useless as intercalation material. Nanofibers, on the other hand, can be grown so as to provide 100-percent accessibility of the entire carbon structure to intercalation. These tubes can be visualized as "rolled-up" sheets of carbon hexagons (see the following figure). One tube is approximately 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair. In addition, the high accessibility of the structure confers a high mobility to ion-exchange processes, a fundamental for the batteries to respond dynamically because of intercalation.

  5. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  6. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0...P. G. & Goodenough , J. B. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from LiMn2O4. Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 461 (1983). 9. Recham, N., Chotard, J. N., Dupont

  7. Emphasis on High Power Lithium Ion Technology for Pulse-Load Operations: Terrestrial Developments Potential Benefits to Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusalba, Florence; Chami, Marianne; Rey, Marlene; Moreau, Gilles; Reynier, Yvan; Azais, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Currently Li-ion batteries are preferred to supply space missions owing to their large energy density. However, these batteries are designed for standard missions without high-power pulsed payloads, therefore for low C-rates profiles, and do not answer the needs of high- power space applications. More enhanced power sources compatible with extended thermal environment are therefore needed for some space applications like next generation launchers or radar satellites. It is believed that synergy between terrestrial and space sectors could foster the avoidance of multiple financing for the development of similar technologies and systems, as well as dual-use of facilities, providing some real applications for synergy. CEA experienced terrestrial requirements for Hybrid Electric Vehicle applications, start & stop, e-buses and other larger vehicles. In this frame, materials especially designed for high power needs, new cells conception and recently hybrid supercapacitors developments at CEA are discussed as potential solutions for space high power feature.

  8. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  10. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  11. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  12. Template-free synthesis of homogeneous yolk-shell TiO2 hierarchical microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Kui; Lou, Xiangdong; Cai, Bibo

    2014-09-01

    The homogeneous yolk-shell TiO2 hierarchical microspheres (TiO2 HYSHMs) consisting of small nanoparticles have been fabricated through a facile template-free solvothermal reaction followed by calcination. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the microspheres have porous shell (∼100 nm in thickness) composed of small nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm. The interspace between the yolk and shell is ∼150 nm. The BET specific surface area and pore volume of the sample are 151.1 m2 g-1 and 0.23 cm3 g-1, respectively. Ostwald ripening processes are proposed to explain the growth mechanism of the TiO2 HYSHMs based on a series of time-dependent experiments. As the anode materials for the lithium ion batteries, TiO2 HYSHMs exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 267.6 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C and retain 191 mAh g-1 even after 40 cycles, indicating good electrochemical performance. These good electrochemical performances could be attributed to the short Li-ion and electron pathways, and enough elastic buffer space to accommodate large volume variation of the special yolk-shell hierarchical structure.

  13. Nitrogen-doped graphene by all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea as a high-power lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Xingang; Tan, Jiang; Wang, Qingfu; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuhong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGNS) are prepared by a novel mechanochemical method via all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea. The ball-milling process does not only successfully exfoliate the graphite into multi-layer (<10 layers) graphene nanosheets, but at the same time, enables the N element to be doped onto the graphene. Urea, acting as a new solid doping and assist-grinding agents, has the advantages of low cost and good water solubility that can simplify the fabrication process. The as-prepared NGNS are investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The doping nitrogens are around 3.15% and dominated (>94%) by pyrindic-N and pyrrolic-N which facilitates the NGNS with enhanced electronic conductivity and Li-ion storage capability. For the first time, we demonstrate that the all-solid-state prepared NGNS exhibits, especially at high currents, enhanced cycling stability and rate capability as Lithium ion battery (LIB) anode active material when compared to pristine graphite and undoped graphene in half-cell configuration. The method presented in this article may provide a simple, clean, economical and scalable strategy for preparation of NGNS as a feasible and promising anode material for LIBs.

  14. Low-cost carbon-coated Si-Cu3Si-Al2O3 nanocomposite anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-coated Si-Cu3Si-Al2O3 nanocomposites have been synthesized via a facile mechanochemical reaction and employed as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Combined X-ray and microscopic studies show that the nanocomposites are composed of agglomerated nanostructured particles with uniform distribution of crystalline silicon, Cu3Si, and amorphous Al2O3. Electrochemical characterization reveals that the in situ incorporation of both the conductive Cu3Si and electrochemically stable Al2O3 phases results in a dramatic improvement of cyclability and rate capability, while the specific capacity decreases with increasing amount of Cu3Si. By controlling the Cu3Si content, the composite with a high tap density of ∼1.2 g cm-3 delivers a high reversible capacity of 841 mA h g-1, excellent cyclability, and good rate performance up to 3.2 A g-1 in half cells. Full-cell test coupled with a commercial spinel cathode also displays a high average operating voltage of >3.5 V, a relatively good capacity retention of ∼77.2% after 50 cycles with a high initial efficiency of ∼86.3%. The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the presence of the conductive Cu3Si buffer phase that mitigates structural degradation and offers high conductivity.

  15. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  16. Electroanalytical Evaluation of Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Daniel Jacob

    Efficient solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage have been studied widely for decades. However, as materials development and process engineering for these devices have advanced through the years, some of the traditional characterization techniques have gradually fallen short of providing quantitative information that is necessary for further significant advancements in these fields. In this work a modern electroanalytical framework for characterization of silicon solar cells and lithium ion batteries is presented. Electroanalytical characterization of lithium ion battery electrodes is achieved through a strategic combination of the D.C. techniques of slow scan cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, Ragone Analysis with the A.C. technique of impedance spectroscopy (IS) coupled with complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) analysis of impedance spectra. Primarily this investigation focuses on characterization of intercalating composite electrodes where the active material is either lithium manganese oxide (cathode,LiMn2O4) or lithium titanate (anode, Li4Ti5O12). Aspects of high power limitations are studied in detail to elucidate physical parameters that control electrode performance under rapid charge/discharge conditions. Electroanalytical evaluation of the p-n junction silicon solar cell with a back surface field (BSF) is accomplished through the use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and IS combined with CNLS analysis. Although LSV has been previously used for characterization of silicon solar cells the use of impedance techniques is relatively new. Temperature and voltage dependence of the series resistance (Rs), diode quality factor (m), minority carrier lifetime and BSF electrical parameters obtained through IS are examined. The temperature dependence of results obtained from LSV such as the open circuit potential (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency are also explored. Finally, a parative

  17. Amorphous Ultrathin SnO2 Films by Atomic Layer Deposition on Graphene Network as Highly Stable Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Sun, Xiang; George, Steven M; Zhou, Changgong; Lian, Jie; Zhou, Yun

    2015-12-23

    Amorphous SnO2 (a-SnO2) thin films were conformally coated onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (G) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The electrochemical characteristics of the a-SnO2/G nanocomposites were then determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge curves. Because the SnO2 ALD films were ultrathin and amorphous, the impact of the large volume expansion of SnO2 upon cycling was greatly reduced. With as few as five formation cycles best reported in the literature, a-SnO2/G nanocomposites reached stable capacities of 800 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and 450 mAh g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1). The capacity from a-SnO2 is higher than the bulk theoretical values. The extra capacity is attributed to additional interfacial charge storage resulting from the high surface area of the a-SnO2/G nanocomposites. These results demonstrate that metal oxide ALD on high surface area conducting carbon substrates can be used to fabricate high power and high capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Growth of Hierarchal Mesoporous NiO Nanosheets on Carbon Cloth as Binder-free Anodes for High-performance Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hu; Shi, Tielin; Hu, Hao; Jiang, Shulan; Xi, Shuang; Tang, Zirong

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous NiO nanosheets were directly grown on three-dimensional (3D) carbon cloth substrate, which can be used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). These mesoporous nanosheets were interconnected with each other and forming a network with interval voids, which give rise to large surface area and efficient buffering of the volume change. The integrated hierarchical electrode maintains all the advantageous features of directly building two-dimensional (2D) nanostructues on 3D conductive substrate, such as short diffusion length, strain relaxation and fast electron transport. As the LIB anode, it presents a high reversible capacity of 892.6 mAh g−1 after 120 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1 and 758.1 mAh g−1 at a high charging rate of 700 mA g−1 after 150 cycles. As demonstrated in this work, the hierarchical NiO nanosheets/carbon cloth also shows high flexibility, which can be directly used as the anode to build flexible LIBs. The introduced facile and low-cost method to prepare NiO nanosheets on flexible and conductive carbon cloth substrate is promising for the fabrication of high performance energy storage devices, especially for next-generation wearable electronic devices. PMID:25491432

  19. Carbon-Free Porous Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers as Advanced Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Huan; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-11-23

    In this work, carbon-free, porous, and micro/nanostructural Zn2GeO4 nanofibers (p-ZGONFs) have been prepared via a dissolution-recrystallization-assisted electrospinning technology. The successful electrospinning to fabricate the uniform p-ZGONFs mainly benefits from the preparation of completely dissolved solution, which avoids the sedimentation of common Ge-containing solid-state precursors. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-prepared p-ZGONFs exhibit superior Li-storage properties in terms of high initial reversible capacity of 1075.6 mA h g(-1), outstanding cycling stability (no capacity decay after 130 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1)), and excellent high-rate capabilities (e.g., still delivering a capacity of 384.7 mA h g(-1) at a very high current density of 10 A g(-1)) when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). All these Li-storage properties are much better than those of Zn2GeO4 nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal process. The much enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to its distinctive structural characteristics including the carbon-free composition, plentiful pores, and macro/nanostructures. Carbon-free composition promises its high theoretical Li-storage capacity, and plentiful pores cannot only accommodate the volumetric variations during the successive lithiation/delithiation but can also serve as the electrolyte reservoirs to facilitate Li interaction with electrode materials.

  20. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589